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CIS 10-0377 ASHCA/NIOSH Conference - Be safe, be profitable: Protecting workers in agriculture
This full issue includes the papers presented at a conference on protecting workers in agriculture, held on January 27-28 2010 in Dallas-Fort Worth, USA. Contents: global view of issues affecting United States production agriculture; perspectives of hired workers; overview of safety and health in the United States; preventing heat-related illness; respiratory issues; minimizing worker injuries in livestock handling; overcoming language barriers; safe tractor operations; aging agricultural workers; safety performance metrics; minimizing exposures to pesticides; pre-harvest food safety; musculoskeletal disorders; preventing injuries to reduce cost; zoonotic influenza and its implications for agricultural workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 3rd quarter 2010, Vol.15, No.3, p.17-329 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 10-0294 Brasseur G.
Winery work - Efforts targeted towards strenuousness
Travaux viticoles - La pénibilité est un combat nouveau [in French]
This article presents the efforts undertaken by a champagne producer with respect to the prevention of strenuous work. Topics addressed: warming-up before work; manual or electrical picking shears; training on the prevention of upper-extremity MSDs; awareness programme on vibration problems aimed at tractor drivers.
Travail et sécurité, June 2010, No.707, p.42-44. Illus.

CIS 09-1359 Aybek A., Kamer H.A., Arslan S.
Personal noise exposure of operators of agricultural tractors
There are approximately one million agricultural tractors in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to determine noise exposures of tractor drivers under various work tasks and conditions. Variance analyses highlighted the type of operation, type of cabins, and operation-cabin interactions that were statistically significant for noise levels. It is recommended that hearing protection devices should be used when tractors are operated without cabins.
Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2010, Vol.41, No.2, p.274-281. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 12-0295
BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Influences on safe/unsafe practices
Agriculture has the highest fatal accident rate of any other sector and this rate continues to rise, which is of particular concern in a sector where the workforce is declining year on year. In order to understand more about the influences on safe and unsafe farming practices, this survey was commissioned to explore the source and strength of these influences, by means of workshops with two distinct farmer groups (self-employed and farm employers/employees). With a better understanding of these influences HSE will be able to design interventions appropriate to the target group that will have maximum impact across the sector. The results of this study also provide a benchmark against which the sector team can compare their own observations of the critical influences.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. 256p. Illus. 21 ref.
Influences_on_safe/unsafe_practices_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0294
BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Patterns of non-fatal accidents in agriculture and the food supply chain
This study provides a detailed insight into the pattern of non-fatal accidents across agriculture and the food supply chain in order to identify high risk areas. A multi-faceted agriculture and food accident dataset was defined, developed and extracted from the main RIDDOR (see CIS 95-1930 ) accident database. The dataset includes facilities which enable isolated analysis of the industry codes that the HSE use to define agriculture and food in order that high risk areas can be directly linked to published agriculture accident statistics. The most common kind of major injury accident was a slip, trip or fall on the same level and handling/sprains accounted for the majority of over 3-day injury accidents across the agriculture and food industry sectors. In agriculture, mixed farming was the highest risk industry and farm worker the highest risk occupation. The bread and pastry industry accounts for the majority of injuries across all food and drink industries. Across both agriculture and the food industry sectors, work processes, on-site transfers and general handling appear as principal risks.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009. xii, 226p. Illus. 29 ref.
Patterns_of_non-fatal_accidents_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0047
BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Understanding and influencing farmers' attitudes
This study has examined farmers' attitudes, and the underlying influences, to identify how these might be changed to help improve safety in the sector. An initial literature review showed that people's perceptions of risk are influenced by social, cultural and group processes but no studies look specifically at perceptions of risk and attitudes to safety among farmers. The main study examined the influences on farmers' attitudes based on interviews with 35 farmers either at their farm or at livestock markets in the South West and South East of England. The sample covered farmers on small and large farms. The study found that overall the farmers had positive attitudes and behaviours with respect to safety. However, negative attitudes and behaviours emerged in specific areas. Examples of good practice that emerged from the interviews with the farmers are included.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, x, 110p. Illus. 85 ref.
Understanding_and_influencing_farmers'_attitudes_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0046
BOMEL Limited, Health and Safety Executive
Engaging arboriculture clients: Safety and Health Awareness Days (SHADs)
This research was aimed at adapting and deploying a cultural barometer to assist the HSE agriculture team in assessing the impact of an arboriculture client Safety and Health Awareness Day (SHAD) event. The study took a measure of SHAD attendee's views prior to their attendance at an arboriculture client SHAD and also took the same pre-intervention measure from a matched control group, who did not attend the event. The study gathered insight into how arboriculture clients contract services, the nature of the contracts, their attitudes to employing competent contractors, the existing measures they have in place for contracting services and their intention to introduce improvement measures. It was recommended that in order to assess the impact of the arboriculture SHAD, a post-intervention measure be taken with both the target and control groups, using the same cultural barometer.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, 48p. Illus. 1 ref.
Engaging_arboriculture_clients_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 12-0292 Scarlett A.J.
Health and Safety Executive
In-service assessment of agricultural trailer and trailed appliance braking system condition and performance: The Agricultural Trailer Braking Study
A study was conducted to quantify the service and parking brake performance of a representative range of agricultural trailers and trailed appliances in front-line service on United Kingdom farms to highlight possible inadequacies in trailer braking system specification and maintenance levels, particularly when used with tractors at speeds above 20 mph. 90% of test vehicles failed to meet statutory service brake performance requirements for vehicles travelling no faster than 20 mph, and 40% of parking brakes were inoperative. Following maintenance, 40% achieved/exceeded the statutory requirement and a further 20% approached the required performance level. Nonetheless, 40% of these modern and supposedly serviceable vehicles still failed to demonstrate adequate performance. Implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2009, xii, 102p. Illus. 16 ref.
In-service_assessment_of_agricultural_trailer_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]

CIS 11-0687 Aparicio S.
Ministerio de trabajo, empleo y seguridad social
Tobacco, labour market and growing in the province of Jujuy
Tabaco, mercado de trabajo y cultura en Jujuy [in Spanish]
The objective of this project was to identify the socioeconomic and practical aspects of tobacco growing facilitating or obstructing health and environmental protection in tobacco plantations in the province of Jujuy, Argentina. Contents: tobacco growing in Argentina and its importance in the province of Jujuy; tobacco producers; tobacco workers; use of agrochemicals; health system and occupational diseases due to pesticides; findings of a survey on the tobacco sector and the prevention of hazards; conclusions and proposed actions.
Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo (SRT), Bartolomé Mitre 751, C1036AAM Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Argentina, 2009. 135p. Illus. 85 ref. pdf document.
Tabaco.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 11-0719 Gregory D.E., Pal P., Carman A., Milosavljevic S., Callaghan J.P.
An examination of shoulder postures and moments of force among different skill levels in the wool harvesting industry
Sheep shearing employs workers of varying skill levels that differ in both quality and number of sheared fleeces. As it was unknown how skill affected parameters such as joint posture and loading, the current study comparatively examined 140 workers representing four skill levels during shearing competitions. Three-dimensional upper limb postures and peak and cumulative shoulder moments were calculated for each worker. Results indicated that elite shearers, in general, used different shoulder postures to perform the shearing tasks and were thus exposed to different shoulder moments as compared to the lower skill levels. It is plausible that these adopted postures allow the higher class workers to perform their job with higher quality and greater speed as compared to the lower ranked workers. Postural-based training may help improve technique in lower ranked workers and enable these workers to achieve higher ranked status.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2009, Vol.15, No.4, p.409-418. Illus. 18 ref.
An_examination.pdf [in English]

CIS 11-0101 Park S.K., Kang D., Beane-Freeman L., Blair A., Hoppin J.A., Sandler D.P., Lynch C.F., Knott C., Gwak J., Alavanja M.
Cancer incidence among paraquat exposed applicators in the agricultural health study - Prospective cohort study
Paraquat, a nonselective herbicide that is extremely toxic after acute exposure, was once widely used in North America and is still used in some countries, including the United States. Although there is little firm evidence that paraquat is a carcinogen, previous studies have suggested a potential relationship with some cancers. This prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the association between lifetime paraquat exposure and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators. The lifetime ever-use of paraquat was evaluated in 56,224 subjects at baseline and exposure-response relationship was evaluated in 24,667 subjects who provided detailed information on total life-time paraquat exposure in a second questionnaire. Findings are discussed. Overall, there is some suggestion of a possible link between paraquat exposure and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk in humans, but the inconsistency in exposure level trend suggests that this could be a chance finding.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.274-281. 42 ref.

CIS 11-0100 Orozco F.A., Cole D.C., Forbes G., Kroschel J., Wanigaratne S., Arica D.
Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct - Highly hazardous pesticides in central Andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health
The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. This study draws on survey data, farmer focus groups and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly- and moderately-hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.255-268. Illus. 60 ref.

CIS 11-0125 Romeo L., Dalle Molle K., Zanoni G., Peretti A., Marangi G., Conrado L.G.L., Aragón A., Perbellini L.
Respiratory health effects and immunological response to thermoactinomyces among sugar cane workers in Nicaragua
Specific sensitization and respiratory effects associated with the inhalation of sugar cane dust were evaluated in a group of 51 Nicaraguan workers exposed to bagasse. A questionnaire interview, lung function test, serum precipitin tests for Thermoactinomyces sacchari and T. vulgaris, and IgE tests for specific environmental allergens were performed for each worker. Twenty-one workers reported at least one respiratory symptom and 16 reported possible symptoms of bagassosis. Six workers demonstrated acute symptoms, one had chronic symptoms, and nine had the reacutized form of the disease. A higher proportion of precipitin response to T. sacchari and T. vulgaris was found in workers reporting symptoms suggestive of acute bagassosis. A possible restrictive ventilatory pattern was observed in eight subjects and a mild airway obstruction in one subject. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.15, No.3, p.249-254. 29 ref.

CIS 10-0833 Mancini F., Jiggins J.L., O'Malley M.
Reducing the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning by educating farmers on integrated pest management in South India
Sixty-five farmers reported on pesticide use and the signs and symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning when using two different plant protection strategies: in 2003 using chemical controls and in 2004 using an approach to Integrated Pest Management (IPM) based on an ecological analysis of the field conditions. Exposure to organophosphates was confirmed as a serious risk factor for occupational poisoning. The adoption of IPM reduced the use of pesticides and halved the incidence of acute pesticide poisoning. Overall, the pesticide use spectrum shifted towards lower WHO Hazard Classes. A reduction of adverse health effects was attained through a reduction in exposure to toxic pesticides and behavioural changes. Given that other strategies to reduce the rate of acute poisoning have proven ineffective, interventions aiming to minimize pesticide poisoning in India and in other developing countries with similar rural conditions should focus on restricting the use of highly toxic compounds and educating farmers on IPM.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2009, Vol. 15, No.2, p.143-151. Illus. 36 ref.
Reducing_the_incidence.pdf [in English]

CIS 10-0784 Lagoma Lorén L.
Occupational zoonoses: Risks of exposure to biological agents in cattle rearing
Zoonosis laborales: riesgos de exposición a agentes biológicos en ganadería [in Spanish]
This article on occupational zoonoses defines these diseases and lists the hazardous occupations. It then discusses more specifically the livestock rearing sector and the preventive actions to be implemented against diseases caused by biological agents of animal origin. Contents: risks and examples of zoonoses; identification of the infectious agent; hazard evaluation; risk control; other preventive measures.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.42-47. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 10-0810 González Través C., Almodóvar Molina A., Zimmermann Verdejo M., de la Orden M.V, Díaz Aramburu C.
Conditions of work and health of self-employed workers in greenhouses
Condiciones de trabajo y salud de trabajadores autónomos en invernaderos [in Spanish]
During the last ten years, there has been a substantial increase in he number of greenhouses in Spain, causing changes in the traditional conditions of work in the agricultural sector. New hazards specific to this work environment have become apparent, which need to be identified and included in occupational safety and health plans. This article presents the findings of an comparative analysis of the conditions of workers in greenhouses and in other agricultural sectors.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, Dec. 2009, No.55, p.26-33. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 10-0691 Grillet J.P., Abadia G., Dupupet J.L., Gagey M.
Occupational pathology in farm settings
Pathologie en milieu professionnel agricole [in French]
In France, farming activities represent several hundred types of jobs and close to a million workers, mostly temporary or seasonal workers. This article reviews the main occupational hazards and related prevention measures for the nine work situations retained on the basis of their specific nature or number of workers involved. Emphasis is on risks related to crop protection chemicals, biological hazards and machinery-related hazards.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 4th Quarter 2009, No.165, 10p. 27 ref.

CIS 10-0540 Lee S.G., Pisanello D., Tkaczuk M., Edwards J.
Chemical glove performance: a case study on malathion use in Mediterranean fruit fly control
This study examined the work practices of 27 workers with respect to their use of PVC gloves when applying the pesticide malathion during a fruit fly outbreak in fruit orchards in Southern Australia. Laboratory tests on new and used gloves sections at different pesticide concentrations and temperatures were conducted. There was marked effect from temperature, as well as measurable reductions in glove thickness with use, which correlated with reduced malathion breakthrough times and increased permeation rates. There was evidence of poor work practices leading to glove contamination, which may be related to increased skin symptoms compared to a control group of 91 males of similar background but without routine chemical exposure.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.129-135. 28 ref.

CIS 10-0539 Killey J., Temperley J., Fragar L.
In Australia, can a user know whether a pesticide is a hazardous substance?
This article describes the practical difficulties faced by a team of researchers in determining whether a selection of pesticides used in crop protection are hazardous substances according to Australian OSH regulations. Issues included miss-spelt product names, inconsistent product names, unclear labels and data sheets, and the lack of sufficient information on the constituents of blends and formulations, leading to false positives and false negatives. Implications are discussed and recommendations for improvement are proposed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.123-128. 13 ref.

CIS 10-0498 Makin J., Dobbinson S., Doyle C.
Victorian farmers' and other rural outdoor workers' skin cancer prevention - knowledge and practices
Farmers and other rural outdoor workers are a high-risk group for skin cancer. This study aimed to describe the skin cancer prevention knowledge and practices of farmers and other rural outdoor workers in two regions of the State of Victoria. Data were collected by means of questionnaires from 366 farmers and 140 other rural outdoor workers. Most respondents believed that they were at risk of developing skin cancer and had high levels of knowledge regarding the issue. However their prevention practices were less than optimal, particularly in terms of the low percentages reporting regular use of sunscreens or wear of long-sleeved shirts (21% and 20% respectively). Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.115-121. 28 ref.

CIS 10-0591 Firth H., Herbison P., McGee R.
Stress and health among New Zealand farmers
This study examined the relationship between farming stressors and health outcomes among a random sample of New Zealand farmers. Farming stressors, physical health, psychological disturbance, coping strategies, work-family responsibilities and demographic information were assessed by means of questionnaires from a cross-sectional sample of 1208 farmers. One fifth of the respondents had positive scores for psychological disturbance. There was a clear trend between increasing farming stressor scores and the risk of psychological disturbance, with an adjusted odds ratio of 5.15 for those in the highest quartile. Several remedial actions are proposed.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, 2009, Vol.25, No.2, p.89-97. 44 ref.

CIS 10-0538 Laird I.
Inhalable and respirable dust exposure during farming operations in New Zealand agriculture
This study measured personal total inhalable and respirable dust concentrations during various farming operations in New Zealand, including ground preparation, cultivating, planting and harvesting. The highest inhalable dust concentrations were measured while machine harvesting dry crops such as oats, wheat and barley without a tractor cabin, exceeding the New Zealand workplace exposure standard of 4mg/m@3h. Lower levels were measured during ground preparation and planting operations. Respirable dust concentrations were generally low, with the highest concentrations being measured when harvesting dry crops. Cabins provided a three- to seven-fold reduction in dust levels during farming operations.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2009. Vol.25, No.5, p.385-391. 31 ref.

CIS 10-0460 Rodríguez C.A.
The ILO conventions on occupational safety and health: An opportunity to improve working conditions and work environments
Los convenios de la OIT sobre seguridad y salud en el trabajo: una oportunidad para mejorar las condiciones y el medio ambiente de trabajo [in Spanish]
The purpose of this publication is to explain and promote ILO international labour standards for occupational safety and health in Latin America. It examines various ILO conventions on different subjects of interest. The history of each convention is reviewed, its contents discussed, and the situation concerning its application in various Latin American countries is examined. A CD-ROM which contains the publication in PDF format, as well as the texts of the conventions and of all the documents cited, is included.
Publications of the International Training Centre of the ILO, Viale Maestri del Lavoro, 10, 10127 Torino, Italy, 2009. 337p. + CD-ROM .
Los_convenios_de_la_OIT.pdf [in Spanish]

CIS 10-0359 Satora L., Goszcz H., Gomółka E., Biedroń W.
Diplopia in green tobacco sickness
This paper examines the first reported case of green tobacco sickness (GTS) in Poland. A 25-year-old man who worked in a tobacco field for 14 hours with no protective measures experienced symptoms of GTS, and additionally, diplopia, after leaving the field. Upon hospital admission, diplopia was no longer observed. Diplopia was most probably caused by disturbances to the cholinergic neuromuscular transmission, secondary to nicotine. These neurological disturbances, the first of their kind observed in the course of GTS, deserve special attention. The case shows a potential adverse health effect related to tobacco harvest, as most Polish tobacco plantations are not mechanized. Polish farmers should be obligated to protect their workers with protective clothing, shoes, gloves and masks. Recommendations for tobacco harvester health are proposed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.66-69. 5 ref.

CIS 10-0440 Kotowski S.E., Davis K.G., Waters T.R.
Investigation of select ergonomic interventions for farm youth. Part 1: Shovels; Part 2: Wheelbarrows
The objective of this study was to investigate alternative shovel and wheelbarrow designs as an intervention for youth working to transfer material on the farm with respect to trunk motion and perceived exertion. A lumbar motion monitor was used to capture three-dimensional trunk kinematics during a simulated shoveling and wheelbarrow tasks. Ratings of perceived exertion and comfort of use were also assessed. Results indicated that shovel add-on handles decreased sagittal flexion but increased twisting compared to ordinary shovels. For wheelbarrows, a reduction in the sagittal trunk flexion and velocity was achieved by adding a push bar to the handles, in combination with three-wheels, or utilizing adjustable handles. However, these alterations had little impact on the predicted low back disorder risk levels. Additionally, the youths' perceptions of risk and exertion levels were greater for these alternative shovels and wheelbarrows than for the regular designs. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.33-43. Illus. 26 ref. (Part 1); p.44-57. Illus. 12 ref. (Part 2).

CIS 10-0358 Chapman L.J., Taveira A.D., Karsh B.T., Josefsson K.G., Newenhouse A.C., Meyer R.H.
Work exposures, injuries, and musculoskeletal discomfort among children and adolescents in dairy farming
The objective of this study was to investigate work performed by children and adolescents on dairy farm operations. Mail questionnaires were addressed to a community-based, age- and operation size-stratified sample of 240 individuals aged six to eighteen who worked on dairy operations in Wisconsin. Data were collected in 1999. The 197 children and adolescents reported averaging 567 hours of dairy farm work in the last year (10.9 hours/week) and completed over 1/3 of all calf feeding, 1/5 of the milking, 1/5 of cow feeding and 1/10 of tractor operation hours on their farm during the weeks they worked. Some of these young workers reported accomplishing duties also judged by some experts as hazardous work, including nearly half of the 9- to 11-year-olds driving tractors. Six nonfatal injuries were reported that required stopping work (14.6 per 100 full time equivalents per year), including those that required medical attention. Musculoskeletal discomfort and disability reports were unremarkable compared to existing studies of general and working populations. Wisconsin dairy farm youth appeared to be working no more hours per week than their peers in other studies of agricultural populations. However the exposures of very young workers to hazardous tractor driving and tower silo tasks suggest that there is an urgent need for improved and validated interventions to reduce these exposures.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1st quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.1, p.9-21. 51 ref.

CIS 10-0238 Kawakami T., Khai T.T., Kogi K.
Developing the WIND training programme in Asia
This report documents and analyses the course of the development of the WIND training programme in Vietnam and also the efforts of other countries in Asia. It pays particular attention to the usefulness of participatory training methodologies and how much the WIND programme has respected and supported the self-help initiative of local farmers. It will give an insight into participatory approaches for those who plan to apply the WIND programme and also for those who are interested in achieving local developments in a participatory manner. Contents: what is the WIND training programme; learning from the real working lives of local farmers and sugarcane processing workers in the Mekong Delta in Vietnam; birth of the WIND programme; developing the WIND farmer volunteer system; national policy support for the WIND training programme; WIND training programme in Cambodia, Mongolia and Thailand; factors in the success of the WIND training in Vietnam; recommendations for future developments of the WIND programme.
ILO Subregional Office for East Asia, United Nations Building, Rajdamnern Nok Avenue, P.O. Box 2-349, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 2009. 117p. Illus. 32 ref. [in English]

CIS 10-0219 Heutelbeck A.R.R., Hallier E.
Prevention of cattle allergy in agriculture: Experience with work clothing impermeable to allergens
Aktuelles zur Prävention der berufsbedingten Rinderallergie in der Landwirtschaft: Erfahrungen mit allergendichter Arbeitskleidung [in German]
This study evaluates the first experience with allergen impermeable work clothing worn by 24 farmers with allergic respiratory disorders due to cattle. The results show that protective clothes that are impermeable to occupational allergens may be a suitable complement to traditional work clothing and may lead to an improvement of the symptoms. Skin symptoms such as itching or erythema also lessened when wearing impermeable clothes.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Apr. 2009, Vol.59, No.4, p.98-104. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 09-1272 Kirkhorn S.R.
New paths: Health and safety in western agriculture
Collection of articles presented at a conference on current research and priorities in agricultural health in western United States held in Cle Elum, United States, 11-13 November 2008. Topics covered challenges of working with culturally-diverse populations, the biomonitoring of pesticides, dairy ergonomics, agricultural aerosols and the impact of new technology on agricultural worker safety.
Journal of Agromedicine, 4th Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.4, p.387-420. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 09-1376 Heutelbeck A.R.R, Junghans C., Esselmann H., Hallier E., Schulz T.G.
Exposure to allergens of different cattle breeds and their relevance in occupational allergy
Cattle are an important source of allergens in the working area of farmers. Asthma caused by cow allergens is a significant occupational health problem. The aim of this study was to investigate commercial cow allergen extracts and to compare them with extracts supplied by 42 farmers with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis caused by cattle contact. The commercial extracts investigated in this study showed only minor differences in protein pattern. Serum immunoblotting resulted in distinct bands for all symptomatic farmers, even in the 13 farmers with a negative result in commercial allergen extracts. It is concluded that test results with commercial extracts should be supplemented by skin tests using extracts of the hair of the farmers' own cattle.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2009, Vol.82, No.9, p.1123-1131. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1321 Jurewicz J., Hanke W., Sobala W., Ligocka D.
Assessment of the dermal exposure to azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in selected Polish greenhouses after restricted entry intervals expired -The role of the protective gloves
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of skin contamination by azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in a greenhouse in Poland after the expiry of restricted entry following the spraying of this fungicide. Exposure samples were assessed on the day after spraying of azoxystrobin and six days later. Dermal exposure was measured by using patches on the outside of clothing and cotton gloves worn under the regular protective gloves. It was found that women not directly engaged in the process of spraying nonetheless experienced a dermal exposure to azoxystrobin. Protective gloves constituted a source of secondary exposure rather than protecting employees' hands. More efficient protective gloves are needed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.261-267. 17 ref.

CIS 09-1327 Crépy M.N.
Occupational skin diseases from crop protection products
Dermatoses professionnelles aux produits phytosanitaires [in French]
Occupational skin diseases caused by crop protection products consist primarily of irritation contact dermatitis, which may be sometimes severe, and more rarely of allergic contact dermatitis. By far the most exposed occupations are farm workers using crop protection products or working on treated crops. Many pesticides approved in France are toxic to the skin. Diagnosis is based on anamnesis, clinical examinations and skin tests with products used at work in cases of suspected allergy.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2009, No.119, p.347-364. Illus. 77 ref.$File/TA83.pdf [in French]

CIS 09-1326 Lee K., Park E.K., Stoecklin-Marois M., Koivunen M.E., Gee S.J., Hammock B.D., Beckett L.A., Schenker M.B.
Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rica farms
This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica. 24h urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were also measured for a subset of the participants. Paraquat levels were non-detectable or very low among workers not handling paraquat. For handlers, 83.3%, 47.1% and 63.9% of the samples were below detection limits before, during and after spray days, respectively. Other findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2009, Vol.82, No.4, p.455-462. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1271 Day L., Voaklander D., Sim M., Wolfe R., Langley J., Dosman J., Hagel L., Ozanne-Smith J.
Risk factors for work-related injury among male farmers
To identify risk factors for serious farm work related injury among men, a case-control study was conducted in the state of Victoria, Australia. Eligible cases were 252 men aged ≥16 years injured while working on a farm, while two controls per case were randomly selected among the general population. Risk factors were calculated using logistic regression analyses. The most common external causes of injury were machinery (26%), falls (19%), transport (18%), animals (17%) and being struck by an object (11%). Increased injury risk was observed for being an employee/contractor (odds ratio 1.8), not having attended farm training courses (1.5), absence of roll-over protective structures on tractors (2.5), absence of personal protective equipment for chemical use (4.7) and a low average annual farm income.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2009, Vol.66, No.5, p.312-318. 35 ref.

CIS 09-1118 López L., Blanco L., Aragón A., Partanen T.
Insecticide residues on hands: Assessment and modeling with video observations of determinants of exposure - A study among subsistence farmers in Nicaragua
This investigation quantitatively assessed hand residues of chlorpyrifos and methamidophos among 28 farmers in Nicaragua. Hand residues were estimated by standardized wipe sampling for both hands, analyzed with solvent extraction and gas chromatography. Determinants of exposure related to work practices were assessed for each subject from videotapes. Logistic regression analyses estimated the associations between hand residues, application volume, pesticide type and work practices. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Mar. 2009, Vol.6, No.3, p.157-164. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 09-1080 Nieto López E., Marco Gutiérrez J.L.
Occupational accidents in the food industry
Siniestralidad laboral en el sector agroalimentario [in Spanish]
This article analyses trends in accident frequencies in the Spanish food industry between 1996 and 2006, together with the causes of accidents and risk factors by length of service and enterprise size. Spain has the highest rate of accidents in this industry among all EU countries. Safety efforts undertaken so far have therefore proven to be insufficient and need to be continued.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2009, No.53, p.20-25. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 09-1163 Langley R., Morris T.
That horse bit me: Zoonotic infections of equines to consider after exposure through the bite or the oral/nasal secretions
Injuries from horses are responsible for over 100,000 emergency room visits each year in the United States. Although various types of traumatic injuries related to direct contact with horses are generally well described, roughly 3% to 4.5% of all reported injuries are due to bites. Besides injuries, the bite may also cause the transmission of a microbial agent that can lead to a zoonotic infection. This review focuses on those zoonoses that have been reported in the literature, including those that may in theory be transmitted from equine to human by direct inoculation or exposure to oral or nasal secretions from horses and other equine species.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.370-381. 68 ref.

CIS 09-1153 Sheldon K.J., Deboy G., Field W.E., Albright J.L.
Bull-related incidents: Their prevalence and nature
Bulls continue to contribute to an unacceptable number of serious injuries and deaths. The objective of this literature survey was to gain a better perspective of bull-related incidents. Analysis of the literature and data indicates that: the risk of injury associated with hours of exposure to bulls is higher than that of working around cows; the risk of a bull-related fatality, based upon the hours of exposure, appears to be higher than other known hazards, such as tractor operation; victims generally appeared to have had considerable experience with handling bulls; bulls raised from calves on-site appeared more aggressive; most of the incidents involved the victim being inside the bull holding area. Recommendations are presented for reducing the potential of bull attacks on humans.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.357-369. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-1162 Kersting A.L., Medeiros L.C., LeJeune J.T.
Zoonoses and the physicians' role in educating farming patients
The purpose of this study was to characterize physicians' knowledge of zoonoses and their perceived role in zoonoses education among their farming patients in Northeast Ohio. In 2006, 92 practicing physicians participated in a self-administered anonymous questionnaire. The survey demonstrated that over 50% of physicians were either mostly uncomfortable or strongly uncomfortable with their knowledge of zoonoses and in their ability to diagnose zoonoses and make recommendations on how to prevent zoonotic infections. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, July-Sep. 2009, Vol.14, No.3, p.306-311. 12 ref.

CIS 09-1034 Tomenson J.A., Matthews G.A.
Causes and types of health effects during the use of crop protection chemicals: Data from a survey of over 6,300 smallholder applicators in 24 different countries
This study looks in detail at the causes and types of health incidents reported by 6,300 mainly smallholder agrochemical users in 24 countries during 2005 and 2006. The investigation was based on a questionnaire survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices, as well as on health problems experienced while using agrochemicals. In the 12 months prior to interview, 1.2% of users reported an agrochemical-related incident that required hospital treatment, 5.8% reported an incident requiring at least trained medical treatment but not hospitalisation and 19.8% reported only minor symptoms. In most countries, the incidence of serious health effects was low. However, there was a high incidence of minor symptoms in a few countries, especially in Africa.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2009, Vol.82, No.8, p.935-949. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 09-1117 Strong L.L., Thompson B., Koepsell T.D., Meischke H., Coronado G.D.
Reducing the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure: Behavioral outcomes from the Para Niños Saludables study
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the effectiveness of community interventions in promoting behaviours to reduce exposure of farmworkers' families to pesticides. Farmworker households in Washington State were divided into 11 intervention and 12 comparison communities to examine differences over time in reported pesticide safety practices. Pesticide safety practices improved in both intervention and comparison communities over time, but there were several further modest improvements in certain behaviors among the intervention community of farmworkers. Further research is needed to identify successful strategies for reducing the exposure of farmworkers' families to pesticides taken home.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2009, Vol.51, No.8, p.922-933. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 09-1033 Everts R., Lloyd A., Meech R., Speers D.
Chronic fatigue syndrome complicating leptospirosis
A link between acute leptospirosis and subsequent chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has been alluded to by several sources but not specifically reported or discussed in the scientific medical literature. This study discusses 12 cases of occupationally acquired acute leptospirosis, complicated by CFS. The apparent link between these two diseases deserves further epidemiological investigation, because if confirmed, it has implications for both prevention and compensation of occupationally acquired leptospirosis.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2009, Vol.25, No.3, p.209-212. 22 ref.

CIS 09-795 Chiu B.C., Blair A.
Pesticides, chromosomal aberrations, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
An excessive incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) has been reported among farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. Some pesticides exhibit immunotoxic and genotoxic activities. Individuals exposed to pesticides have also been found to have an increased prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities. Two recent epidemiologic studies reported that the association between pesticide exposures and risk of NHL was largely limited to NHL cases with the chromosomal translocation t(14;18). This review summarizes the findings of various epidemiologic studies, speculates on implications, and suggests the research needed to clarify the role of pesticides in NHL.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.250-255. 20 ref.

CIS 09-811 Kisby G.E., Muniz J.F., Scherer J., Lasarev M.R., Koshy M., Kow Y.W., McCauley L.
Oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure and oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples of pesticide applicators and farm workers working in the fruit orchards of Oregon were analysed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and was serum analysed for lipid peroxides. Cellular DNA damage was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Compared to unexposed populations, urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farm workers and applicators, with 8-OH-dG levels being 8.5 and 2.3 times higher, respectively and malondialdehyde levels 4.9 and 24 times higher, respectively. DNA damage and oxidative DNA repair were also significantly greater in lymphocytes of applicators and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.206-214. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 09-930 Douphrate D.I., Rosecrance J.C., Reynolds S.J., Stallones L., Gilkey D.P.
Tractor-related injuries: An analysis of workers' compensation data
Tractor-related injury claims data from Colorado workers' compensation records were analyzed for 1992-2004. Descriptive analyses of the costs, characteristics, and contributing factors were conducted. A total of 642 claims were identified as being tractor-related, of which 60% involved sprains and contusions. A total of 21% of tractor-related claims were associated with the worker mounting or dismounting a tractor, and an additional 10% were associated with the worker falling, jumping, or slipping off a tractor. Among all claims associated with tractor mounting or dismounting, 35% involved the ankle and 15% involved the knee. The median medical claim cost was USD 319, and the median medical plus indemnity claim cost was USD 335. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.198-205. 20 ref.

CIS 09-845 Fisher R.M., Berg R.L., Marlenga B.
Children's exposures to farm worksite hazards on management-intensive grazing operations
A growing trend among dairy farmers in the United States is the adoption of management-intensive grazing (MIG) as a new technique for dairy management that encompasses environmental protection and decreases the reliance on tractors and farm machinery. The purpose of this study was to explore how the use of MIG affected children's exposure to farm worksite hazards. Questionnaires were sent to Wisconsin agricultural support professionals knowledgeable about dairy operations in their counties. Survey results suggest that children on MIG operations do in fact have decreased exposure to farm machinery. However, there was an increase in children's overall worksite exposure, in view of their increased exposure to all-terrain vehicles and animals. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.192-197. 5 ref.

CIS 09-844 Brower M.A., Earle-Richardson G.B., May J.J., Jenkins P.L.
Occupational injury and treatment patterns of migrant and seasonal farmworkers
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of migrant farm workers using migrant health centers (MHCs) versus other sources of occupational health care. It was carried out by means of a survey of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in two sites: the Finger Lakes Region of New York and the apple, broccoli, and blueberry regions of Maine. Researchers also conducted MHC and hospital emergency service reviews in these regions. Proportions of occupational morbidity by treatment location were calculated from the survey. Findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.172-178. 20 ref.

CIS 09-929 Cole H.P., McKnight R.H., Donovan T.A.
Epidemiology, surveillance and prevention of farm tractor overturn fatalities
Census data concerning fatal occupational injuries identify six states of the United States that have the highest rates of agricultural tractor overturn deaths. Demographic, economic, geological and geographic data that characterize farms in these states were examined. These data suggest that a majority of farms in these states are small acreage livestock operations, located on terrain with steep slopes, with low prevalence of tractors equipped with rollover protective structures and operators who work at off-farm jobs over 200 days per year.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.164-171. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-843 Whelan S., Ruane D.J., McNamara J., Kinsella A., McNamara A.
Disability on Irish farms - A real concern
A survey conducted in 2007 found that almost 5.9% (over 6000) of Irish farm operators reported disability, primarily caused through disease. Arthritis (31.4%), back problems (17%), and heart and circulatory problems (12.5%) were most frequently reported. Family farm income was lower on disability-experiencing farms relative to non-disability farms. Many farm operators (approximately 20%) ceased off-farm employment following disability, further precipitating family farm income decline. The current provision of support to farm operators experiencing disability is perceived largely insufficient. Lack of awareness and issues surrounding eligibility were the primary reasons cited for failing to avail of currently-available support services.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.157-163. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 09-809 Blair A., Freeman l.B.
Epidemiologic studies in agricultural populations: Observations and future directions
This article reviews epidemiologic studies of cancer among agricultural populations to identify possible associations and to provide a focus for future investigations. Meta-analyses of mortality surveys of farmers find excesses of several cancers, including connective tissue, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma and cancers of the skin, stomach, and brain, and deficits for total mortality, heart disease, total cancer, and cancers of the esophagus, colon, lung, and bladder. Exposures to pesticides do not fully explain the various cancer and other disease patterns observed among farmers. Other findings are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.125-131. 22 ref.

CIS 09-841 Brumby S., Smith A.
"Train the trainer" model: Implications for health professionals and farm family health in Australia
This article presents the Sustainable Farm Families Train the Trainer (SFFTTT) model, a 5-day programme designed to enhance practice among health professionals working with farm families in Australia. This innovative model of addressing farmer health requires health professionals to understand the context of the farm family and encourages them to value the experience and existing knowledge of farmers and their families. Over 120 rural nurses have been trained since 2005. These trainers then successfully delivered programmes to 1000 farm families, with high participant completion, positive evaluation, and improved health indicators. In this article, rural health professionals report changes in how they approach health education, clinical practice, and promotion with farm families and farm workers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2nd Quarter 2009, Vol.14, No.2, p.112-118. Illus. 18 ref.

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