Agriculture - 1,538 entries found
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Cobb N., Sullivan P.S., Etzel R.A.
Pilot study of health complaints associated with commercial processing of mushroom compost in southeastern Pennsylvania
In response to complaints from local residents, health effects near a large repository for spent mushroom compost were investigated. A questionnaire survey indicated that people living close to the site were more likely than those living further away to report headache, tiredness, eye irritation and sore throat. Local physicians did not report any distinct illness among site neighbours or mushroom workers and objective morbidity was low. There was no evidence of a major health hazard associated with this site.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.13-25. 18 ref.
Agricultural chemicals (I: Insecticides; II: Herbicides; III: Miscellaneous agricultural chemicals; IV: Fungicides)
Four-volume manual of basic data on agricultural chemicals, with information on those available commercially, as well as on many still undergoing experimental investigation. The chemicals are listed in groups of related compounds. For each substance, the following information is provided: names (common/trade names as well as the chemical name); structural and chemical formula; origin (the company that has done most of the development work on the substance or preparation; year of patenting or placing on the market); toxicity (LD50, usually in mg/kg in white rats, lowest value found in the literature); formulation; phytotoxicity; uses (EPA listing in the US); recommended usage rates (lower and upper limits, on a per-acre or per-ha basis, with concentrations given per 100 gallons (380L) of water); important diseases/pests controlled or prevented; application (general guidance only); precautions; related mixtures or compounds. In annex: information on sprayer calibration; useful formulae for spraying; conversion tables for units of measure; addresses of manufacturers. Contents of the volumes: I - insecticides; II - herbicides; III - fumigants, growth regulators, seed safeners, repellents, fish and bird toxicants, pheromones, rodenticides, etc.; IV - fungicides.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 1993 (Vols. II and IV), 1994 (Vol.I), 1995 (Vol.III). 4vols. (xxii, 278p. + xxi, 308p. + xx, 209p. + xvi, 226p.). Illus. Indexes.
Myers J.R., Hard D.L.
Work-related fatalities in the agricultural production and services sectors, 1980-1989
Between 1980 and 1989, 6,727 work-related deaths in the agricultural production and agricultural services sectors were reported to the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Agricultural production had the higher rate (22.9 deaths per year per 100,000 workers), due largely to machinery and motor vehicles. When the workers were categorized by age, sex, race and geographical location, substantial differences among the groups were observed. Males 16-24 years of age showed the largest decrease in annual fatality rates, dropping from 20.6 to 7.2 deaths per 100,000 workers over the ten-year period.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.51-63. Illus. 26 ref.
Carvalheiro M.F., Peterson Y., Rubenowitz E., Rylander R.
Bronchial reactivity and work-related symptoms in farmers
Work-related respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity were studied in 76 never-smoking farmers and in a control group not exposed to organic dusts. The farmers were divided into those working with vegetables or grain crops, with animals but not swine, and with swine. The extent of symptoms was evaluated with a specific organic dust questionnaire. Bronchial reactivity was assessed with the methacholine challenge test. An increased incidence of organic dust toxic syndrome, mucous membrane irritation (MMI) and chronic bronchitis (CB) was found among farmers working with swine or other animals. Pulmonary function baseline values were normal. Bronchial reactivity was increased and related to subjective symptoms of MMI and CB. There was also a relation between fatigue at work and bronchial reactivity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 21 ref.
Susitaival P., Husman L., Hollmén A., Horsmanheimo M., Husman K., Hannuksela M.
Hand eczema in Finnish farmers. A questionnaire-based clinical study
In a questionnaire survey of 2005 Finnish farmers, 172 (8.6%) reported hand or forearm dermatoses. Skin tests revealed that the majority of the dermatoses were eczema and most were considered to be work-related. Cow allergy was found in 41 farmers. Immediate allergy to cow epithelium was encountered in 28 of these and delayed contact allergy to cow dander was found in 27. Results suggest that in addition to skin prick tests using commercial cow epithelium extract, patch tests using fresh cow dander should also be carried out, and both immediate and delayed responses should be read.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 1995, Vol.32, No.3, p.150-155. 29 ref.
Barker L.D., eds.
Agricultural safety and health for engineers - An ASAE instructional module
The objective of this manual is to introduce safety and health topics to trainers delivering machinery and systems courses. Contents: agricultural accident statistics; agricultural hazards; human factors; hazard analysis; engineering for hazard control and injury prevention.
American Society of Agricultural Engineers, 2950 Niles Road, St.Joseph, Michigan 49085-9695, USA, 1994. 101p. Illus. 10 ref.
Agricultural_safety_and_health_for_engineers_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in English]
Order of 12 July 1994 establishing the format of the record of companies or establishments with more than ten workers as specified in Article 42 of Decree No.82-397 of 11 May 1982 amended with respect to the organization and function of occupational medical services in agriculture [France]
Arrêté du 12 juil. 1994 fixant le modèle de fiche d'entreprise ou d'établissement de plus de dix salariés prévu à l'article 42 du Décret n°82-397 du 11 mai 1982 modifié relatif à l'organisation et au fonctionnement des services médicaux du travail en agriculture [France] [in French]
Order made in application of Decree No.82-397 of 11 May 1982 amended (CIS 99-1058). Topics: agriculture; France; health service records; law; plant health services; risk factors; safety service records.
Dictionnaire Permanent Sécurité et Conditions de Travail, Agriculture, Feuillets 40, 25 janv. 1995, p.342-343.
Order of 10 May 1994 establishing in the agricultural establishments mentioned in Article L.231-1 of the Labour Code the list of dangerous work activities requiring a written safety and health plan in application of Article R.237-8 of the Code [France]
Arrêté du 10 mai 1994 fixant dans les établissements agricoles visés à l'article L.231-1 du code du travail la liste des travaux dangereux pour lesquels il est établi par écrit un plan de prévention en application de l'article R.237-8 dudit code [France] [in French]
Topics: agricultural equipment; agricultural operations; agriculture; biological hazards; chemical hazards; dangerous work; fire hazards; France; law; physical hazards; safety planning.
Dictionnaire Permanent Sécurité et Conditions de Travail, Agriculture, Feuillets 40, 25 Jan. 1995, p.342.
Plantations - Occupational safety and health: A workbook for trade union courses
Manual for Indian workers following trade union courses. Contents: role of legislation in ensuring safety at the workplace; tripartism; inspection; general hazards of work on plantations; pesticides; welfare facilities; how to obtain improvements. In appendices: checklist for safety, health, welfare and the environment at the workplace; recommendations of tripartite workshops on occupational safety and health; memorandum of settlement on safety of workers engaged in the spraying of insecticides in West Bengal.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. 108p. Illus. 5 ref.
Mounted antivibration drivers' cabs
Schwingungsdämpfende Aufhängung von Fahrzeugkabinen [in German]
An active hydraulic vibration damping system is presented. It comprises hydraulic cylinders which counteract the vibrations. Field tests with a forestry tractor equipped with a hydraulic damping system confirmed that an 80% reduction of the vibration exposure of drivers is feasible. With this vibration damping system installed, the average driving speed in forests increased by 10%.
A F Z - Allgemeine Forst Zeitschrift, Oct. 1994, Vol.49, No.21, p.1156-1159. Illus.
de Cock J., Westveer K., Heederik D., Te Velde E., Van Kooij R.
Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in the Netherlands
This explorative study investigates the relation between exposure of the fruit grower to pesticides and fecundability (probability of pregnancy) in a population of fruit growers. The analysis was based on self-reported data and included 91 pregnancies during 1978-1990 of 43 couples. Cox' proportional hazards model was used to analyze time to pregnancy after correction for gravidity and consultation with a physician for fertility problems. Application of pesticides solely by the owner was associated with a long time to pregnancy, resulting in a fecundability ratio of 0.46. Similarly a low spraying velocity resulted in a fecundability ratio of 0.47 and was associated with the use of older spraying techniques and tractors without a cabin. The effect of high exposure was mainly apparent if the couple had intended to become pregnant in the period from March-November (fecundability ratio 0.42). In the high exposure group 28% of the pregnancies had been preceded by consulting a physician because of fertility problems, compared with 8% in the low exposure group. These findings indicate that an adverse effect of exposure to pesticides on fecundability is likely.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.693-699. Illus. 29 ref.
Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.
Bobick T.G., Myers J.R.
Agriculture-related sprain and strain injuries, 1985-1987
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has expanded its research programme investigating agricultural injuries. Data from the Supplementary Data System (SDS), maintained by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, US Department of Labor, indicate that injuries to the back and lower extremities of agricultural workers are quite common. Injury data from SDS were examined for agricultural employees for the years 1985-1987 from the 21 states that consistently provided records for each year. During this 3-year period, a total of 71,098 injuries were reported to SDS for the agricultural Industry Groups included in this study. Of these, 26,450 (37.2%) were classified as sprains and strains. Analysis of the data indicate that workers in industries within the major groupings of crop production and agricultural services have an increased potential for sustaining a sprain or strain injury.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1994, Vol.14, No.5, p.223-232. 17 ref.
Report of activities 1994
Jahresbericht 1994 [in German]
Among the information provided by the Austrian health insurance fund of the agricultural sector, statistics are given on the number of accidents and diseases in relation with the most frequent causes of accidents in agriculture: number of reported accidents and diseases by province (Land), number of fatal accidents. Breakdown is provided by accident cause (falls, machinery, animals, mechanical hazards), by job carried out when the accident occurred, and by sex of the victim. Compensation figures by Land.
Sozialversicherungsanstalt der Bauern, Ghegastrasse 1, Postfach 313, 1031 Wien, Austria, 1994. approx. 300p. Illus.
Education and motivation for safety and health protection in agriculture - Illustrated by concrete examples
Formation et sensibilisation à la santé et à la sécurité dans l'agriculture - Exemples concrets [in French]
Proceedings of a conference held in Angers, France, 12-14 October 1994. Papers include: promoting awareness of risks in agriculture among school children; tasks of female farm workers; safety of children on farms; role of trade unions and employers' organizations; responsibilities of social security institutions; special hazards at fruit-growing enterprises (seasonal workers).
ISSA-Section Agriculture, Bundesverband der landwirtschaftlichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Weissensteinstrasse 72, 34131 Kassel, Germany, 1994. 159p. Illus.
A computerized system for analysing working postures in agriculture
This paper presents a computerized programme for analyzing work postures in agriculture. The system contains two types of routines for studies of observation, Working Posture Analysing System (WOPALAS) and a simple video film technique for Registration and Analysis of working postures and movements (VIRA). Furthermore, the system consists of programmes for moment calculations and routines for registration of problems in the locomotive organs. The computerized system provides several advantages compared with traditional manual systems. It is less demanding for the operator and the analyses are more accurate. The system rapidly provides the results of an analysis. The system can be advantageously used in ergonomic research and teaching as well as by company health service centres.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 1994, Vol.13, No.4, p.307-315. Illus. 13 ref.
Semenciw R.M., Morrison H.I., Morison D., Mao Y.
Leukemia mortality and farming in the prairie provinces of Canada
The purpose of the study was to examine the risk of fatal leukaemia according to various farming practices in a large cohort of Canadian farm operators. The mortality experience (1971-1987) of male farmers in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. The census records of 156,242 male farmers identified on the 1971 Census of Agriculture and the corresponding Census of Population were linked to mortality records through 1987. A statistically significant test for trend (p=0.03) was observed between leukaemia mortality and the number of chickens and/or turkeys owned (relative risk for ≥130 chickens and/or turkeys=1.32, 95% confidence interval=0.99, 1.77). No association was observed between leukaemia mortality and either insecticide or herbicide use.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.208-211. 24 ref.
Ciesielski S., Esposito D., Protiva J., Piehl M.
The incidence of tuberculosis among North Carolina migrant farmworkers, 1991
All locatable subjects (n=94) for whom tuberculosis prevalence had been determined in an earlier study were tested with purified protein derivative (PPD) and control antigens, sputum sampling and chest x-rays. Of the 46 who had been tuberculin negative (confirmed with control antigens) three years earlier, two had developed active tuberculosis in the interim and 14 (30%) were tuberculin positive. All had been engaged continuously in migrant farmwork. Lack of access to health care, an institutional feature of migrant farmwork, was significantly associated with primary infection.
American Journal of Public Health, Nov. 1994, Vol.84, No.11, p.1836-1838. 15 ref.
Brouwer D.H., Brouwer E.J., van Hemmen J.J.
Estimation of long-term exposure to pesticides
An exposure index was developed to estimate long-term dermal and inhalation exposure of bulb farmers to pesticides. The proposed index consists of generic levels of exposure specific to the method of application and is further determined by farm-related parameters such as acreage and number of pesticide applications. Ranking of 127 bulb farmers according to calculated lifetime dermal exposure correlated only moderately to ranking based on duration of exposure. The proposed index could provide a useful estimate of long-term exposure to a mixture of pesticides in epidemiological investigations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.573-588. 26 ref.
Susitaival P., Husman L., Horsmanheimo M., Notkola V., Husman K.
Prevalence of hand dermatoses among Finnish farmers
A questionnaire survey was carried out in a 5% sample of the Finnish farming population between the ages of 18 and 64 years (n=10,847, 91% response rate) to assess the prevalence and risk factors of hand dermatosis. The one-year prevalence of self-reported hand and forearm dermatoses was 16% among women and 7% among men. The highest one-year prevalence of hand eczema was found for women on farms with more than nine dairy cows (20%). Atopy, female sex, and, among the women, age under 35 years, were the most important risk factors for the occurrence of hand dermatosis. Work-related risk factors were handling disinfectants daily, handling silage preservatives, milking cows and machine servicing. The results may be useful for the prevention of hand dermatoses in farming since they direct attention to actual occupational hazards, and may also aid vocational guidance for the atopic population.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.206-212. Illus. 33 ref.
Lin S., Marshall E.G., Davidson G.K.
Potential parental exposure to pesticides and limb reduction defects
The effects of the potential pesticide exposure of parents on the risk of limb reduction defects in their offspring was studied in a case-control study utilizing New York State Congenital Malformation Register data. Persons with limb reduction defects and controls were compared in terms of parental occupations and counties of residence. Parental occupations and industries reported on birth certificates were qualitatively rated by industrial hygienists to estimate potential pesticide exposures. Residential exposures were estimated from agricultural census data according to county of residence. Neither parental exposure to pesticides nor farming occupation had an effect on the risk of total limb reduction defects. Those persons with limb reduction defects who had additional defects showed weak but consistent elevated risks in relation to parental occupational pesticide exposure. Cases of limb reduction defect with additional malformations appear to be associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure. In appendix: detailed data on potential pesticide exposure based on hygienists' assessments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.166-179. 40 ref.
Pest control in agriculture - Occupational safety and health aspects
Betichut vegihut taasukatit behadbarat mezikim bechaklaut [in Hebrew]
The use of synthetic pesticides in agriculture, and in particular in glasshouses and in aerial spraying, constitutes a major occupational hazard. Solutions such as the wearing of full respiratory, head and body protective equipment could be very effective, but are rather impractical because of the relatively high cost and the reluctance of workers to use such equipment, particularly in warm, humid climates. A new approach based on the use of alternative, less-hazardous pesticides was studied. The neem tree provides a number of active natural pesticides. One of these is azadirachtin, a terpenoid which disrupts the metamorphosis of insect larvae, inhibits molting, and thus eliminates insects by stopping their growth. It also acts as a repellent which protects plants by keeping insects away. Toxicity tests show a negligible effect on humans, warm-blooded animals, bees and most other species useful to people; the substance is non-mutagenic, with no adverse immune response, and is non-irritant to skin or eyes. Tests in Israeli glasshouses have shown its efficiency in the protection of plants of many types.
Betichut, Feb. 1994, No.228, p.5-7. Illus.
Ueda A., Aoyama K., Manda F., Ueda T., Kawahara Y.
Delayed-type allergenicity of triforine (Saprol)
In a study of chrysanthemum growers exposed to triforine (1,4-bis (2,2,2-trichloro-1-formamidoethyl) piperazine), the highest rate of positive patch test reaction was seen to triforine among the seven pesticides and chrysanthemum extracts tested. A higher prevalence of work-related skin symptoms was seen in subjects with a positive patch test reaction to triforine than in those with negative reactions to all allergens tested. The study indicates that delayed-type allergy may be induced among chrysanthemum growers by triforine and other pesticides, as well as by chrysanthemum itself.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.140-145. 21 ref.
Aprea C., Sciarra G., Sartorelli P., Ceccarelli F., Maiorano M., Savelli G.
Assessment of omethoate and fenitrothion absorption in greenhouse workers using personal protective equipment in confined areas
Valutazione dell'assorbimento di ometoato e fenitrothion durante lavorazioni eseguite con l'uso di mezzi personali di protezione in ambienti confinati [in Italian]
Sprayers and workers engaged in manual operations in a greenhouse were monitored for exposure to omethoate and fenitrothion. Urinary dialkylphosphates (dimethylthiophosphate and dimethylphosphate) were used as the biological indicators of exposure to the two chemicals. Residues of fenitrothion on foliage were measured as well as levels of fenitrothion and omethoate in air samples collected in the breathing zone (personal sampling) and in the workplace near the entrance and the end of the greenhouse (static sampling). Skin exposure was estimated from pads placed on the thorax under overalls and from hand washing liquid at the end of the workshift. Sprayers wore respiratory and skin protection during the workshift. Workers engaged in manual operations did not wear respiratory protection. Re-entry to the greenhouse was permitted 48h after spraying. Levels of omethoate and fenitrothion in air samples, on pads and on the hands, during manual operation on ornamental plants, were very low. Urine analysis showed no significant difference between levels of urinary dialkylphosphates in the control group and exposed workers. Cholinesterase activity (acetyl and butyryl) showed no significant reduction at the end of the workshift compared with baseline values.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.242-248. Illus. 10 ref.
A farm safety surcharge on food: An agricultural safety policy proposal
Development of a new federal agricultural safety programme is proposed with funding coming from a value added surcharge on the farm value of food. While costs to consumers would be negligible, the surcharge would generate sufficient funds to expand federal agricultural safety efforts. Key elements for any new federal agricultural safety programmes are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.4, p.65-75. 25 ref.
FARMEDIC: A systematic approach to train rural EMS, fire, and rescue personnel at the grassroots level
Hazards associated with farming and rural life in the USA are reviewed along with problems caused by the lack of an adequately trained emergency response service. National efforts to reduce farm deaths are described including the development of a National Training Center at the New York State University of Technology. The FARMEDIC programme aims to reduce risk through education and awareness and to provide training to the emergency rescue system, in particular, to volunteer emergency service providers.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol 1, No.4, p.57-64. 4 ref.
An educator's perspective on childhood agricultural injury
Educational interventions that address the problem of childhood agricultural injury are discussed. These include: educational programme availability (programmes designed for children, parents and health care providers); programme evaluation; child development considerations in educational programme preparation and delivery; educational needs of parents, health care professionals and other adult audiences; the need for a community systems approach in educational programming.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vo.1, No.4, p.31-46. 34 ref.
Equipment engineering issues associated with childhood agricultural injuries
Three areas of children's interaction with agricultural equipment and the resulting demands on equipment engineers are considered: operation of tractors by children; extra riders on tractors; and children around operating machinery. Issues discussed include consideration of the desires of the farmer-consumer (acceptance of features that discourage or limit operation by children, the demand for safety features to accommodate children, inconvenience to adult operators caused by these features), child development considerations, and the efficacy of the safety features themselves and their net impact on the injury situation.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.4, p.19-29. 33 ref.
Stallones L., Gunderson P.
Epidemiological perspectives on childhood agricultural injuries within the United States
Epidemiological studies on agricultural injuries among children are reviewed. Techniques and limitations of the studies are described and results summarized. Tractors and farm equipment accounted for the most severe injuries experienced by farm children. Resident farm children were at greatest risk of fatal injury; boys were more likely to be killed than girls and weekday late afternoons and Saturday accounted for most events. Nonfatal injuries occurred from interaction with tractors, farm machinery, livestock and farm structures. Death rates varied across the nation. Recommendations for future studies are made.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.4, p.3-18. 36 ref.
James P., St. Clair M.B.
Case report - Agrichemicals complicating emergency helicopter transport of a farm worker
An incident is described in which a farm worker suffered a truck accident and required helicopter transport to hospital while covered with agricultural chemicals. Once airborne, the stench of chemicals in the enclosed space of the helicopter posed a hazard to both crew and patient. The case highlights several aspects to be assessed in such situations including availability of protective clothing, options for patient decontamination prior to airlift and consideration of ground transportation as an alternative.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.2, p.21-27. 13 ref.
Mamansari D.U., Salokhe V.M., Intaranont K.
Anthropometric evaluation of agricultural laborers in selected parts of Thailand
Forty-four physical dimensions of 50 men and 50 women agricultural labourers in Thailand were measured. The average body dimensions, standard deviation and 5th, 10th, 50th, 90th and 95th percentiles were determined. Differences in the dimensions within different age groups are discussed and the data are compared with those from some Asian and Western countries. The data may be used in the design of agricultural machinery and equipment for Asian countries.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1994, Vol.23, No.1, p.59-72. 22 ref.
Morrison H.I., Semenciw R.M., Wilkins K., Mao Y., Wigle D.T.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and agricultural practices in the prairie provinces of Canada
The aim of this study was to provide an update of a cohort study (1971-1985) that previously reported a significant risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male Saskatchewan farm operators (see CIS 92-1589) according to fuel-oil expenditures and herbicide spraying for farms less than 100 acres (2570 hectares) by including two additional Canadian prairie provinces, two additional years of follow-up, and data from the 1981 Census of Agriculture. The addition of a further two years of follow-up resulted in lower risk estimates associated with herbicide spraying for Saskatchewan. A significantly increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma according to acres sprayed with herbicides was observed for the three provinces combined when the herbicide spraying data from the 1991 Census of Agriculture was used. Although the current results are not entirely consistent with the original Saskatchewan analysis, they support the overall finding of an association between herbicides and risk of fatal non-Hodking's lymphoma.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1994, Vol.20, No.1, p.42-47. 28 ref.
Avory G., Coggon D.
Determinants of safe behaviour in farmers when working with pesticides
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.5, p.236-238. 8 ref. ###
Health and Safety Executive
Staying healthy. A guide for workers in farming, forestry and horticulture
This guide describes the potential health hazards associated with farming, forestry and horticulture and provides guidance on causes, warning signs and preventive measures. Contents: chemical hazards from fertilizers or feed additives; respiratory problems caused by dust, vapours, fumes, etc; infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi, moulds and parasites; manual handling; mental health; noise; skin problems; suffocation in confined spaces; upper limb disorders; vibration.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 23p. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working on glasshouse roofs
This guidance note describes the hazards associated with working on glasshouse roofs and outlines precautions needed before accessing and working on such roofs, the type of supervision and information required and selection of staff. Advice is also given on appropriate clothing and responsibilities towards contractors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 2p.
Greaves I.A., Olson D.K., Shutske J., Kochevar L.
An agricultural safety and health information needs assessment for rural service providers
A survey was carried out to identify the information needs of veterinarians, farm implement dealers, physicians and others responsible for the prevention and control of agricultural injury and illness. Overall, respondents showed greatest interest in receiving information on lung and breathing problems, farm machinery injury, safe handling of agrochemicals and poisoning. The most valuable information in the past two years had been received from the Cooperative Extension Service, professional magazines and educational conferences.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.3, p.43-58. 11 ref.
Lambert M.I., Cheevers E.J., Coopoo Y.
Relationship between energy expenditure and productivity of sugar cane cutters and stackers
Two groups of cutters and stackers from a sugar estate in South Africa wore heart rate monitors for a working day during which time all food and fluids ingested were recorded and the tonnage of cane cut or stacked was calculated. Energy expenditure was calculated from treadmill exercise tests. There was no difference in mean productivity of the cutters and stackers; both groups expended similar amounts of energy during the working day and ingested similar amounts of energy. The best predictor of productivity was the length of the working day followed by the energy expended.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.44, No.4, p.190-194. Illus. 14 ref.
Actual medical and ergonomic problems in agriculture in the Ukraine
Medical and ergonomic problems in the Ukraine agricultural sector are reviewed. Epidemiologic studies have revealed an increase in cardiovascular diseases, particularly among operators of agricultural machines and workers in contact with pesticides. Complications of pregnancy have been identified among women working in greenhouses and in sugar-beet growing. There is a need for an improvement in the hygiene and ergonomic standards of agricultural machinery design and for improvements in pesticide management.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1994, Vol.7, No.1, p.3-11. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This leaflet (revision of CIS 89-1168) gives basic practical advice on the safe use of rifles and shotguns. Contents: legal responsibilities; training and supervision; safety checks before using a gun; procedure for passing a gun to a companion; safe use of a gun; safety at organized events; guns in vehicles; hearing protection.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, May 1994. 12p. Illus.
NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing organic dust toxic syndrome
This report describes the risks in agricultural workers of developing organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) following exposures to heavy concentrations of organic dusts contaminated with microorganisms. Current OSHA regulations are outlined along with health effects of organic dust and case studies highlighting examples of ODTS. Guidance is given on precautions to minimize the risk of exposure to organic dusts.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Apr. 1994. 11p. Illus. 38 ref.
Zejda J.E., Barber E., Dosman J.A., Olenchock S.A., McDuffie H.H., Rhodes C., Hurst T.
Respiratory health status in swine producers relates to endotoxin exposure in the presence of low dust levels
The respiratory health status of 54 male swine producers was assessed through questionnaires and spirographic measurements. The producers were between 25 and 48 years old and had worked an average 10.7 years in the industry, with an average of 4.7 h/day in the swine barns. Atmospheric contaminants were measured including carbon dioxide, ammonia, total dust, respirable dust, and airborne endotoxin. Endotoxin related to forced vital capacity and endotoxin times h/day was related to forced vital capacity and to forced respiratory volume in 1 second. Respiratory symptoms and lung function did not relate to categories of low, medium and high exposure to respirable dust. However, categories of endotoxin exposure related to respiratory symptoms. Thus, respiratory health status relates to endotoxin level but not to dust level at low dust levels. Control measures should aim to reduce the levels of endotoxins as well as those of dust.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.49-56. Illus. 31 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing access to effluent storage and similar areas on farms
This information sheet provides advice on acceptable standards of fencing to deter access by children into areas used for storing slurry, other effluent or water on farms along with details of how to prevent vehicles entering slurry storage areas at scraping points. Guidance is given on the construction and maintenance of fences and gates, covers for below ground stores and scraping ramps.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Feb. 1994. 2p.
Accidents due to walking, running, carrying, pushing and pulling in agriculture and their prevention
Unfallgefährdung und -verhütung beim Gehen, Laufen, Tragen, Schieben und Ziehen im landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb [in German]
Data on farm accidents involving walking, running, carrying, pushing and drawing were analyzed in order to locate accident clusters, to determine causal factors and to find starting points for safety measures. Women had more accidents than men. The risk was highest for the youngest and oldest age groups and increased with volume of work per worker and thus with farm size. Accumulations of accidents were found when walking on snow or ice and on paved surfaces; slip resistance was frequently inadequate. Preventive measures are suggested including good work organization to avoid extreme efforts, hurry and stress and recommended maximum loads for materials handling.
Safety Science, Jan. 1994, Vol.17, No.2, p.117-143. Illus. 21 ref.
Kawakami T., Khai T.T., Toi L.M., Sakai K.
Workload of rice reapers in the Mekhon delta area in Vietnam
The workload of rice reapers was studied in a village in Vietnam with a view to finding ergonomic improvement measures. Interviews with 97 agricultural workers revealed that low-back pain was the most frequent complaint related to agricultural work (42.3%), followed by joint pains and animal and insect bites. Field study showed that forward bending posture accounted for 65% of the time spent reaping rice, and that fatigue symptoms and subsidiary activities increased while working. Results suggest the need to improve workload of rice reapers in the area through such work organization as insertion of short breaks.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Oct. 1993, Vol.69, No.10 (Part II of 2 Parts), p.21-29. Illus. 7 ref.
Decree No.93-605 of 27 March 1993 instituting health and safety commissions in public establishments for technical education and occupational training in agriculture [France]
Décret n°93-605 du 27 mars 1993 instituant une commission d'hygiène et de sécurité dans les établissements publics d'enseignement technique et de formation professionnelle agricoles [France] [in French]
Topics: agriculture; educational institutions; France; law; safety and health committees; vocational training.
Dictionnaire Permanent Sécurité et Conditions de Travail, Agriculture, Feuillets 49, 25 Mar. 1997, p.339-340.
Benvenuti F., Spagnoli G.
Pesticide exposure risks in greenhouse operations
Definizione dei rischi di esposizione ad antiparassitari nelle lavorazioni e nell'impiego degli stessi nelle coltivazioni in serra [in Italian]
This study describes the risks of pesticide use in greenhouse agricultural operations. Crop diseases and the chemicals used for their management are reviewed. The TLVs of the most common products are given. Risks of exposure and prevention criteria are discussed, including the re-entry times after pesticide application that are required to avoid hazards to workers. Types of greenhouses in the Italian Lazio region are described. The use of personal protection equipment is recommended together with the adoption of biological solutions in order to reduce exposure to pesticides. Relevant Italian legislation is discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.V, No.1, p.129-152. Illus. 13 ref.
Guidelines for the safe formulation and packing of pesticides
These guidelines, prepared by the international agrochemicals industry association, are aimed at all those involved in the formulation and packing of crop protection products. Contents: hazards of pesticides (health hazards, fire and explosion hazards, hazards due to combustible dusts and flammable liquids, hazards to the environment, product hazard data, hazard classification); organization and management (responsibilities, documentation, training, OSH, quality control etc.); location and buildings (include. tank farms for bulk storage); formulation and packing facilities (formulation of liquids, solids; packing facilities, materials and equipment); occupational health, hygiene and personal safety (housekeeping, PPE, laundry facilities, medical supervision, fire and explosion prevention, emergency planning); environmental protection (avoidance and minimization of risk, treatment and disposal of contaminated air and water, treatment and disposal of contaminated waste). In annex: check list; definitions (glossary).
International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1993. 107p. Illus. 21 ref.
Intaranont K., Vanwonterghem K.
Study of the exposure limits in constraining climatic conditions for strenuous tasks: An ergonomic approach
Final report of a 1990-93 research project sponsored by Directorate General XII-G of the Commission of the European Communities and implemented by Chulalongkorn University, Thailand, and CERGO International, Belgium. Anthropometric and work capacity data were collected in an air-conditioned laboratory, after which physiological and environmental measurements were made under real working conditions in five industries (steel, ceramics, agriculture, glass and building construction). Thai workers, both men and women, showed higher heart rates at a given level of oxygen consumption than published values for Europeans. As this is a criterion used to relate wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT) readings to the risk of fatigue and heat stress, a set of curves relating WBGT to workload for various work-rest schedules was developed to fit the Thai situation. The field observations revealed ergonomic problems other than those related to temperature (e.g., repetitive work in ceramics packing).
Chulalongkorn University, Laboratory for Ergonomics Research, Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok 10330, Thailand, Jan. 1994. ix, 183p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Rogan A., O'Neill D.
Ergonomics aspects of crop production in tropical developing countries - A literature review
A literature review was carried out to determine the extent to which ergonomics factors limit manual crop production operations in developing countries. Most of the literature reviewed reported studies of land preparation and weeding tasks. The potential practical application of much of the material reviewed was limited. However, there was evidence that the application of ergonomics principles has the potential to relieve at least some of the drudgery associated with agricultural tasks carried out by resource-poor farmers in the tropics. Recommendations for future research are made.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.371-386. 66 ref.
Manual of risk prevention in agriculture
Manual de prevención de riesgos en la agricultura [in Spanish]
The various hazards associated with agricultural work are covered through the use of humorous illustrations and accompanying simple text.
Consejo de Salud Ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, . 36p. Illus. ###
Garnier R., Prince C., Reygagne A., Azoyan P., Dally S., Efthymiou M.L.
Contact dermatitis from dazomet: Seven cases
Dermite de contact au dazomet: 7 cas [in French]
Dazomet is used as a soil disinfectant which acts by hydrolytic release of methylisothiocyanate. In spite of its resulting high toxicity, cases of contact dermatitis and/or systemic poisoning have rarely been published. Seven cases of contact dermatitis from dazomet are reported here. Lesions were observed on hands and forearms (5 cases), feet and legs (6 cases), face (1 case), trunk (1 case) and buttocks (1 case); in all cases but one they were bullous. No case of systemic poisoning was identified in this series, but biological tests were performed in only two patients. Contact dermatitis from dazomet generally results from mishandling and can be easily prevented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.649-651. 5 ref.
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