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Agriculture - 1,538 entries found

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1996

CIS 97-1945 Zhong Y., Rafnsson V.
Cancer incidence among Icelandic pesticide users
This cohort study examined cancer risk among 2,449 licensed pesticide users in Iceland. Included were also students from a horticultural college, gardeners, and vegetable farmers. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancer sites was 0.80. Among females there was a significant increase in the incidence of cancer of lymphatic and haematopoietic tissues. The overall incidence of rectal cancer was three times the expected value.
International Journal of Epidemiology, Dec. 1996, Vol.25, No.6, p.1117-1124. 38 ref.

CIS 97-1899 Folsom A.R., et al.
Cancer incidence among women living on farms: Findings from the Iowa Women's Health Study
This cohort study, based on a questionnaire survey of 37,148 women living on farms, analyzed site-specific cancer incidence among them. Overall cancer risk was lower than among non-farm residents. One striking finding was the elevated risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in farm residents. Although the aetiology of this disease is unknown, literature data on exposure to herbicides and pesticides do suggest a possible relationship to the disease among women as well as among men.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.11, p.1171-1176. 24 ref.

CIS 97-2040 Gerberich S. G., Robertson L. S., Gibson R. W., Renier C.
An epidemiological study of roadway fatalities related to farm vehicles: United States, 1988 to 1993
The investigation concerned the circumstances of the on-road, non-truck, farm-vehicle crash fatalities in the USA from 1988 to 1993. During that period, 444 farm-vehicle occupants together with 238 occupants of other vehicles or pedestrians were killed. Due particularly to the high proportion (21%) of overturns associated with these crashes, there is a need to further investigate the design characteristics of farm vehicles, especially factors related to their visibility and perception of their speed by other drivers or pedestrians.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.38, No.11, p.1135-1140. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 97-1710 Palmer K.T.
Musculoskeletal problems in the tomato growing industry: "Tomato Trainer's Shoulder?"
The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was investigated among 56 tomato trainers whose work involved highly repetitive shoulder muscle contractions and work at shoulder level. Compared to a control group of other glasshouse workers, the tomato trainers showed a high 12-month and 7-day period prevalence of shoulder complaints. Other upper limb and upper trunk complaints were also more common among these workers, highlighting an area of ergonomic concern.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.46, No.6, p.428-431. 10 ref.

CIS 97-998 Nordstrom D.L., et al.
Fall-related occupational injuries on farms
Risk factors for fall-related farm injuries were assessed in a population-based, case-control study carried out in a defined geographical region of Wisconsin, USA. Results are based on 45 interviewed fall-related injuries and 152 matched controls. The annual risk of farm fall injury was 7.5 per 1,000 person-years. Three factors were significantly associated with risk: risk of injury increased 2% per hour worked; residents of farms with some non-resident workers had a fall injury rate 2.5 times greater than residents of other farms; and residents of farms with some registered cows had one-third the risk of residents of other farms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1996, Vol.29, No.5, p.509-515. 22 ref.

CIS 97-989 Acoustics - Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Measurement of noise at the operator's position - Survey method
Acoustique - Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers - Mesurage du bruit au poste de l'opérateur - Méthode de contrôle [in French]
This international standard specifies a method for the measurement of the noise at the position of the operator(s) of a tractor or machine used in agriculture and forestry. Contents: scope; normative references; measurements requirements; measurement equipment; acoustical environment; weather conditions and background noise; condition of tractor or machine; operators; microphone location; noise measurement procedure; test report. Annexes: agricultural and forestry tractors; self-propelled agricultural machines; pedestrian-controlled agricultural machines; forestry forwarders and skidders; specimen report form.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1996. iv, 11p.

CIS 97-1004
Health and Safety Executive
Preventing access to effluent storage and similar areas on farms
This revised data sheet provides advice on acceptable standards of fencing to deter access by unauthorized persons into areas used for storing slurry, other effluent or water on farms, and on how to prevent vehicles entering slurry storage areas at scraping points. Guidance is given on the construction and maintenance of fences, gates, covers for underground stores, and scraping ramps. Replaces CIS 94-1753.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1996. 2p.

CIS 97-498 Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 16 and 17 November 1995
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'Ouest - Séances des 16 et 17 novembre 1995 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 16-17 November 1995 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: risk of encephalopathy due to prions when performing autopsies; skin diseases in fish farming; skin diseases in hairdressing; carpal-tunnel syndrome in hairdressing; skin allergies in the rubber industry; prevention of eye injuries due to laser radiation in the aircraft industry; skin burns due to handling of vitamin K3; hospital hygiene in medical students; biological risk control in laboratory work; personnel in establishments for retired people; immune-allergic pulmonary pathology due to shiitake (mushroom from East-Asia).
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 1996, Vol.57, No.5, p.384-398.

CIS 97-511 Pickett W., Chipman M.L., Brison R.J., Holness D.L.
Medications as risk factors for farm injury
In a questionnaire survey of 136 people with a farm injury and 581 controls without injury, significant increases in risk of injury were associated with regular use of stomach remedies or laxatives by males, and regular use of heart or circulatory medications by men over the age of 45. The identified associations remained after adjustment for age, co-morbidity, farm acreage, education, income, alcohol consumption and tobacco use. Possible explanations for the associations are discussed.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, July 1996, Vol.28, No.4, p.453-462. 37 ref.

CIS 97-510 Layde P.M., Stueland D.T., Nordstrom D.L.
Representativeness of trauma center registries for farm injury surveillance
Farm injury data for 1986-1991 from a major trauma centre in Central Wisconsin, USA were evaluated. The pattern of farm injuries seen in residents of an established, geographically defined, population-based surveillance area was compared with that of a nonpopulation-based mix of patients from outside the area. The two sets of data suggested similar patterns with respect to seasonality, circumstances of injury, and source of injury. There were significant differences with respect to body part injured, severity of injury, and selected aspects of acute medical care. While useful for many purposes, trauma centre-based injury surveillance data should be interpreted cautiously.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 1996, Vol.28, No.5, p.581-586. 22 ref.

CIS 97-122 Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics Society of Western France - Meetings of 24 and 25 November 1994
Société de médecine du travail, d'hygiène industrielle et d'ergonomie de l'ouest - Séances des 24 et 25 novembre 1994 [in French]
Main subjects dealt with in papers presented at the 24-25 Nov 1994 meeting of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Hygiene and Ergonomics of Western France: lipoatrophy of lower extremities due to repetitive strain injuries; health hazards of cleaning staff: musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, skin diseases, in particular occupational dermatitis, and carpal-tunnel syndrome; asthma due to bisulfites in a laundry; use of pesticides in banana plantations.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1996, Vol.57, No.3, p.219-231.

CIS 97-137 Sivaram B.
Productivity improvement and labour relations in the tea industry in South Asia
This study examines recent experience in productivity improvement schemes in South Asia tea plantations, with particular reference to labour productivity. Socio-economic factors discussed include: enhancing worker health and welfare; controlling common illnesses; plucking productivity and characteristics of good pluckers; health status of women tea workers.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. vi, 41p. 13 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/proschem/ [in English]

CIS 97-142 Guidelines for the provision of safety, health and accommodation in agriculture
This booklet provides guidance on compliance with the requirements of the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (CIS 93-701) and Regulations 1995 as they relate to agricultural places of work. Contents: safety and health generally (duties of employers and others, safety of children and young persons, agrochemicals, animal handling, hazard identification and control, health monitoring, occupational diseases, noise, prevention of falls, confined spaces, training, protective equipment); machinery safety; general facilities and amenities for agricultural workers.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1996. 58p. 62 ref.
http://www.osh.govt.nz/order/catalogue/pdf/agricu-g.pdf [in English]

CIS 97-136 Wage workers in agriculture: Conditions of employment and work
Les ouvriers agricoles: conditions d'emploi et de travail [in French]
This ILO report on agriculture worldwide identifies the two major occupational hazards as the use of machinery and cutting tools (in particular, tractors and harvesters) and agrochemicals. Safety and health regulations are applied sporadically, and despite international standards, the incidence of agricultural hazards in most countries is poorly documented. ILO data on fatal occupational injuries suggest that agriculture is a high-risk activity. In many countries, labour inspection in agriculture does not appear to be given priority. Recommendations for improvements are put forward.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1996. iv, 97p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 17.50.

CIS 97-144 Barrett J.A.
Biotechnology and the production of resistant crops
Issues surrounding the development of resistant crops are discussed. The concerns about engineered forms of resistance are those to do with the trait itself (its source and function), the host plant, and the environment into which it is to be introduced, and those arising from the use and exploitation of the engineered crop, including social and economic factors. Current guidelines in developed countries are outlined and potential problems in assessing scale-dependent hazards are discussed.
Science of the Total Environment, Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl.1, p.S106-S111. 9 ref.

CIS 96-2101 Kordysh E., Goldsmith J.R.
Some communicable diseases and reproductive disorders in selected Negev kibbutzim: Occupational and other environmental factors
Significant positive correlation was found between work with animals and the frequency of spontaneous abortions as well as acute upper respiratory tract infections. Women with field or orchard work history had more frequent ectopic pregnancies; such work increased also the incidence of jaundice.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1996, Vol.1, No.2, p.155-159. 13 ref.

CIS 96-2309 Erlam A.R., Johnson A.J., Wiley K.N.
Occupational asthma in greenhouse tomato growing
An employee in a commercial tomato growing greenhouse developed asthma of increasing severity over a period of eight years. Occupational asthma was diagnosed. Initial allergy testing was negative, but further investigation of the workplace gave rise to suspicion of arthropod allergy. Immunological testing confirmed sensitization to red spider mite.
Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.46, No.2, p.163-164. 9 ref.

CIS 96-2190 Gadon M.
Pesticide poisonings in the lawn care and tree service industries
28 cases of suspected or confirmed pesticide poisonings among lawn care and tree service workers reported to the New York State Pesticide Poisoning Registry from 1990 to 1993 are reviewed. The most common classes of pesticide applied were organophosphates (71%) and herbicides (43%). Approximately 70% of the affected workers experienced some symptoms around the time of exposure, in particular, neuromuscular symptoms. 19 of the 24 workers tested had significant depression of serum cholinesterase activity. Data suggest that exposure was not completely controlled by use of protective measures, possibly because of inadequate training or poor compliance with training procedures.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.38, No.8, p.794-799. 12 ref.

CIS 96-2205 Hoekstra E.J., Kiefer M., Tepper A.
Monitoring of exposure to benomyl in nursery workers
Urinary levels of the metabolite methyl-5-hydroxy-2-benzimidazole carbamate (5-HBC) were measured in 10 workers exposed to the fungicide benomyl at 5 nurseries. Environmental exposures were evaluated from gloves, body patches, and air samples were collected with area and personal monitors. The median concentration of 5-HBC for the exposed workers was 23.8µmol per mole of creatinine; no 5-HBC was detected in 9 unexposed controls. Weighing, mixing and application activities involved the highest exposures. Dermal contact appeared to be the primary route of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1996, Vol.38, No.8, p.775-781. 18 ref.

CIS 96-2177 Koch P.
Occupational allergic contact dermatitis and airborne contact dermatitis from 5 fungicides in a vineyard worker - Cross-reactions between fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group?
In February 1995, a case of a vineyard worker with occupational contact dermatitis due to sensitization to mancozeb and perhaps metiram was reported. Patch testing showed strong allergic reactions to two of the commercially available preparations used. Further patch tests showed allergic reactions to mancozeb (0.5 and 1% pet.), a weak reaction to metiram (1% pet.), as well as to four other fungicides of the dithiocarbamate group (maneb, nabam, propineb and zineb), which had never been used in the vineyard.
Contact Dermatitis, May 1996, Vol.34, No.5, p.324-329. 36 ref.

CIS 96-2301
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling the risk of steel-framed farm buildings collapsing during erection
This data sheet describes the hazards associated with the erection of steel-framed farm structures and provides guidance on compliance with current legislation. Advice is given on: appointment of a competent person to plan and oversee the work; appropriate site procedures; and preferred systems of erection to ensure temporary stability of the structure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 2p. Illus.

CIS 96-2175 McKnight R.H., Koetke C.A., Donnelly C.
Familial clusters of green tobacco sickness
Three case studies are presented of clusters of three to five members of an immediate or extended family who became ill after working together on tobacco farms in Kentucky, USA. Symptoms included vomiting, nausea, weakness, dizziness, pallor, headache and diaphoresis. Factors contributing to the clustering of green tobacco sickness in this area include the predominance of family-based work crews, manual harvesting methods involving considerable dermal contact with the tobacco plants, and the high nicotine content of the tobacco.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.2, p.51-59. 26 ref.

CIS 96-2264 Glaser A.N.
The global effects of volcanic eruptions on human health and agriculture: A review
Effects of volcanic hazards are reviewed by first considering the direct human health effects of each of the physical phenomena produced by volcanoes and then by considering their broader secondary consequences. Hazards include: production of tephra (rock fragments, dust and ash), volcanic gas, volcanic blasts and atmospheric shock waves, lahars or mudflows, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, lava flows, floods and earthquakes. Agricultural workers are especially vulnerable to the effects of eruptions, in particular exposure to airborne and deposited volcanic ash and dust.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1996, Vol.3, No.2, p.31-43. 46 ref.

CIS 96-1634 TRAC-SAFE: A community-based program for reducing injuries and deaths due to tractor overturns - Facilitator's manual
This document contains basic information about tractor overturns and methods for preventing them. It is aimed primarily at instructors wishing to develop and implement an educational programme for reducing injuries and deaths caused by tractor overturns. Contents: introduction to instructional programme planning; tractor overturns (statistics, causes, solutions - emphasis on ROPS: "rollover protective structures"); proposals for community action. In appendices: audiovisual aids, publicity, participant sign-up forms and worksheets, evaluation forms, support services and references.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1996. vi, 82p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 96-700
Health and Safety Commission
The proposed removal of outdated agricultural health and safety legislation
This consultation document invites views on the repeal/revocation of certain agricultural provisions identified during the Health and Safety Commission's review of regulations as being redundant. The legislation concerns threshers and balers, ladders, field machinery, safeguarding of workplaces and poisonous substances. The provisions to be revoked are described along with measures for the maintenance of health and safety standards by the use of more modern legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 24p.

1995

CIS 99-1063 Decree No.95-978 of 24 Aug. 1995 concerning agricultural workers' accommodation [France]
Décret n°95-978 du 24 août 1995 relatif à l'hébergement des travailleurs agricoles [France] [in French]
Decree followed by the Order of 1 July 1996 (see CIS 99-1066). Topics: accommodation; agriculture; foreign workers; France; housekeeping; law; sanitary facilities; welfare facilities.
Dictionnaire Permanent Sécurité et Conditions de Travail, Agriculture, Feuillets 49, 25 Mar. 1997, p.343-344A.

CIS 98-751 Lander F., Rønne M.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and hematological effects in pesticide-exposed greenhouse sprayers
Topics: blood cytology; chromosome changes; crop protection; cross-sectional study; cytotoxic effects; Denmark; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; haematological effects; horticulture; pesticides; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.283-288. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 97-1351 Schubert H.J.
Allergy to Asteraceae (Compositae) in the horticultural region of Erfurt
Allergie auf Asteraceae (Compositae) im Gartenbaugebiet Erfurt [in German]
All cases of skin diseases caused by contact with plants recorded in Erfurt, Germany, between 1973 and 1992 were re-evaluated. Included in the evaluation were all 86 cases of occupational dermatoses among horticulturists in Erfurt during that period. Of all plants involved in skin allergies, chrysanthemums cause the highest number of skin allergies. Horticulturists were affected most. It is assumed that a high exposure to allergens occurs when cuttings are taken for propagation of the chrysanthemums and when the plants are disbudded to obtain large flowers. The allergens are contained in the leaf and stem cells of the chrysanthemums and are lipid soluble so that they can easily penetrate into the skin.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, Nov.-Dec.1995, Vol.43, No.6, p.257-261. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 97-600
Health and Safety Executive
Farmer's lung
This leaflet explains how dust from hay, straw, grain and other farm products can cause farmer's lung and other diseases (mushroom worker's lung, harvest worker's lung, poultry breeder's lung). Protective measures include: not creating more dust than is necessary when working; ensuring that machinery contains dust as far as possible; ventilation; good housekeeping; protective clothing; wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Includes guidance on legal requirements, health checks, and selection and use of RPE.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1995. 8p. 7 ref.

CIS 97-112 Amadori D., Nanni O., Falcini F., Saragoni A., Tison V., Callea A., Scarpi E., Ricci M., Riva N., Buiatti E.
Chronic lymphocytic leukaemias and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by histological type in farming-animal breeding workers: A population case-control study based on job titles
A population based case-control study was conducted in an agricultural area in Italy in order to evaluate the association between farming and animal breeding and the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL). Occupational histories and other data were collected by personal interview on 164 NHLs, 23 CLLs, diagnosed in 1988-90, and 977 controls. The article only reports the results of the analysis relative to the coding of job titles through the modified International Labour Office (ILO) classification. Estimates of odds ratios for occupational variables were calculated after adjustment for sex, age, altitude of municipality, first degree familiarity and previous Herpes zoster infection. Subjects working in agriculture associated with animal breeding are at high risk of NHL/CLLs, particularly CLLs and low grade NHLs. This finding could be related to the use of chemicals in agriculture or to exposure to animal-transmitted diseases or specific chemicals used in animal breeding.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.374-379. 38 ref.

CIS 96-1714 The green professions
Det grønne område [in Danish]
A systematic summary of publications and documentation regarding working environment factors and the state of workers' health in Danish agriculture, gardening, forestry and other related industries. This area is characterized by work outdoors with possibilities of independence,autonomy and cooperation. The main working environment problems are accidents, noise and strain injuries. Other problems are skin diseases and respiratory diseases. Mortality is low in this area. During the period 1989-93, the area had the highest number of reported fatal accidents, of which 84% occurred in agriculture. Fatal accidents are four times more common in this area than the average for all industries. 92% of all accidents in the area occurred in agriculture, gardening and forestry. During the period 1989-93, 19% of the reported accidents were serious, causing death, amputation, fractures or injuries to large portions of the body.
Arbejdstilsynet, At-Salg, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1995. 73p. Price: DKK 100.00 + tax.

CIS 96-1464 Eddington I., Moore D., Rooney P., Pensiero D.
Noise induced hearing loss amongst Australian farmers
Hearing thresholds were measured in a group of 25 farmers and in a matched group of office workers. Measurements were carried out using manual pure tone audiometric clinical procedures. Farmers aged 35 years or more had significantly more hearing loss than office workers. Use of firearms and holding of second jobs by farmers were associated with even greater hearing loss. Further research into the nature and extent of the problem is required.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1995, Vol.11, No.1, p.37-42. 3 ref.

CIS 96-1332 Susitaival P., Hannuksela M.
The 12-year prognosis of hand dermatosis in 896 Finnish farmers
896 Finnish farmers (309 men and 587 women), representing 77% of those reporting hand or forearm dermatosis in a questionnaire survey in 1979, were asked again about their dermatosis and current work in 1991. More than 50% of the study population had left farming since 1979. In 1991, 26% of men and 21% of women had a current dermatosis on the hands or forearms, and altogether, 44% of men and 39% of women reported a hand dermatosis within the preceding 12 months. Significant determinants of persistent hand dermatosis, in a logistic regression model, were continuation of farm work, history of skin atopy, symptoms of metal allergy, and age under 45 years. Handling cattle, e.g. milking, was considered an exacerbating factor of the dermatosis by 37% of those who had milked cattle at some time in their lives. In this group, 75% of hand dermatoses had healed in those who had ceased milking work. The results indicate that ceasing or changing work improves the prognosis of hand dermatosis in farming.
Contact Dermatitis, 1995, No.32, p.233-237. 28 ref.

CIS 96-863 Bruynzeel D.P., Tafelkruijer J., Wilks M.F.
Contact dermatitis due to a new fungicide used in the tulip bulb industry
An outbreak of contact dermatitis in a tulip bulb processing company is described. Shortly after the introduction of a new pesticide, the fungicide fluazinam, employees started to complain of dermatitis of the arms and the face. Eight employees were investigated and showed positive patch tests to fluazinam. The dermatitis disappeared quickly when they stopped work, but returned as soon as they restarted. Subsequent investigations showed that the fungicide had not been used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Fluazinam was shown to be a strong sensitizer under these circumstances.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1995, Vol.33, No.1, p.8-11. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 96-663 Chapman L.J., Schuler R.T., Wilkinson T.L., Skjolaas C.A.
Farm-work hazard prevention efforts by school-based agricultural education instructors
A questionnaire survey of high school agricultural education instructors in Wisconsin, USA, revealed that nearly all devoted some time to health and safety related activities. Only a minority of instructors agreed that modifying the work to eliminate hazards should be emphasized over training people to work safely round hazards. Instructors faced problems of time pressures, lack of student interest, and need for materials and other resources. It was concluded that safety education alone is unlikely to reduce injuries unless unsafe conditions are modified; instructors need to emphasize teaching of skills in hazard recognition, identification and control.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.565-577. 42 ref.

CIS 96-662 Nordstrom D.L., Layde P.M., Olson K.A., Stueland D., Brand L., Follen M.A.
Incidence of farm-work-related acute injury in a defined population
Data on 510 farm-work-related injuries in an area of central Wisconsin during a two-year period were analyzed. One farm resident in every 31 was treated annually for such an injury; eight per cent of these cases were hospitalized. Cases are tabulated by cause of injury. Animals were the most frequent source of injury, followed by machinery and falls; severity of injury did not appear to vary by source of injury. 38% of cases occurred in nonfarm residents. Injury risk was 2.5 times greater among dairy farm residents than among nondairy farm residents.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.551-564. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 96-510
Health and Safety Executive
Farmwise: Your guide to health and safety
Ffermio diogel: Eich canllaw i iechyd a diogelwch [in Welsh]
Translation into Welsh of a training booklet originally published in English in 1993 (see CIS 93-1246). It describes in straightforward terms the principles of health and safety on the farm. Contents: compliance with the law; safe use of machines; transport and handling of materials; farm forestry operations; safe use of electricity; guarding against fire and explosion; maintenance work; protective clothing and equipment; child safety; avoiding health problems; livestock hazards; safe use of chemicals; dangers of noise; exposure to dust and fumes; risk assessment; caring for the working environment; accidents and emergencies; legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iii, 36p. Illus. 45 ref. Price: GBP 3.50.

CIS 96-1089 Ellis B.A., Mills J.N., Childs J.E.
Rodent-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses of importance to agricultural workers
The aetiology, epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and prevention of rodent-borne haemorrhagic fever viruses are discussed. The family Arenaviridae includes Lassa virus, which causes Lassa fever in West Africa, and four South American viruses, Junín, Machupo, Guanarito and Sabiá. At least three members of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae, cause haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Europe and Asia. Sin Nombre virus is responsible for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome that has resulted in about 100 cases since its discovery in southwestern USA in 1993. Agricultural workers are particularly at risk because of the increased likelihood of exposure to rodents in rural environments.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.4, p.7-44. 178 ref.

CIS 96-859 de Cock J., Heederik D., Hoek F., Boleij J., Kromhout H.
Urinary excretion of tetrahydropht[h]alimide in fruit growers with dermal exposure to captan
Uptake of captan by pesticide applicators was measured by urinary monitoring of its metabolite, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Respiratory and dermal exposures were estimated by personal air sampling and skin patches. Dermal exposure showed a clear relation to THPI in urine when exposure was estimated from skin pads on the ankles and neck. No relation was found for total dermal exposure or for respiratory exposure. Protection of the skin by using a cabin on the tractor and wearing rubber boots resulted in a lower uptake of captan. Results indicate that the skin is the major route of absorption and that there is an apparent contribution of specific body areas.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.245-256. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-660 Zagórski J.
International conference: Agricultural medicine and rural health
Proceedings of an international conference on agricultural medicine and rural health held in Kraków, Poland, 7-8 September 1995. Papers related to agricultural operations include: evaluation of occupational exposure to noise among operators of tractors and self-propelled machines; exposure of rural inhabitants employed outside private farming to hazardous and noxious factors in the working environment; occupational risk caused by application of pesticides; contact allergy to pesticides; honey-bee venom allergy. Abstracts only: toxic substances in the rural environment; legal regulations concerning nitrates and nitrites in Poland.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.95-206. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-701 Cole B., Foley G.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries. Issue No.9 - Agriculture and services to agriculture industries
This report highlights potential safety and health problem areas in agriculture and services to agriculture industries in Australia. Statistics on occupational injuries and diseases are based on workers' compensation data for the year 1992-93 and are analyzed by agricultural sector, jurisdiction, occupation, age group and sex, and by the nature, bodily location, mechanism and agency of the injury or disease and by the time of accident. Time lost and costs are also analyzed. Safety and health performance was significantly poorer than in Australian industry in general; most occurrences were among agricultural labourers and sheep-shearers.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Dec. 1995. viii, 38p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 96-196 Zhao W., Hetzel G.H., Woeste F.E.
Defining farm safety research priorities by a cost-risk approach
Based on a risk analysis of farm-related injury data, priority areas for farm safety research and education were identified. Risk was identified as the Expected Injury Cost (EIC) index per farm worker per year. The expected costs of farm-related injuries were correlated with risk factors of employment status, gender and age of farm worker, hours of exposure, type of agricultural operation, and common hazards on the farm. Since the EIC index combines the probability of injuries with the severity of injuries, it provides a scientific basis for defining agricultural safety research and educational priorities.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.1, p.7-19. 13 ref.

CIS 96-371 Manninen P., Riihimäki H., Heliövaara M.
Incidence and risk factors of low-back pain in middle-aged farmers
Middle-aged farmers who did not report any low-back or neck-shoulder pain during the previous year in a 1979 questionnaire were included in a follow-up study in 1992 (363 farmers). In 1992, the one-year prevalence rates of unspecified low-back pain and sciatic pain were low. Full-time farmers had a higher prevalence of sciatic pain than did part-time or retired farmers. A strong association was found between smoking and the prevalence of sciatic pain; other known risk determinants failed to have any predictive significance. Farmers with no low-back pain in middle-age remain well without low-back pain despite heavy work.
Occupational Medicine, June 1995, Vol.45, No.3, p.141-146. 49 ref.

CIS 95-2013
Federated Farmers of New Zealand
Farm health and safety
Five-part training manual on safety and health in agricultural work. Section 1 covers issues related to the relevant provisions of the Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (see CIS 93-701), including responsibilities towards visitors to farms and the safety and health of self-employed farmers. Section 2 contains 18 advice sheets on a wide variety of hazards present on farms (including: compliance with the law, machinery, transportation and materials handling, farm forestry, electricity, fires and explosions, maintenance work, protective clothing and equipment, child safety, avoiding health problems, livestock, pesticides and other chemicals, noise, atmospheric pollution, work methods, general working environment, dealing with accidents and emergencies, substitution of hazardous chemicals). Section 3 contains 43 check sheets on preventive action in connection with the advice sheets. Section 4 deals with accident investigation and notification. Section 5 is on how to obtain further information.
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1995. 1 vol. [170]p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1655 Guidelines for the safe handling, transportation and stacking of large hay bales
Basic safety guide usable for training purposes. Contents: hazard assessment (including a safety checklist before starting work); child safety; employee safety; overhead power lines; use of proper equipment; bale transport; safe stacking and destacking; stack maintenance; safety with trailers; roping and sheeting; working at heights; accident case histories; basic safety rules. In appendix: summary of legal obligations under the Health and Safety in Employment Act (CIS 93-701).
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1995. 44p. Illus.

CIS 95-1701 Stallones L., Marine W., Garrett C., Krafft K.
Identifying fatal agricultural occupational injuries in Colorado, 1982-1987: A comparison of two surveillance systems
Two systems for the surveillance of fatal agricultural injuries in Colorado, USA were compared: one based on death certificate data where place of injury was a farm, and a second, more comprehensive, system based on death certificate data for work-related injuries and on a workers' compensation data system. The comprehensive surveillance identified more agricultural work-related deaths than place of injury surveillance and provided higher average annual rates of injury. Results suggest that place-of-injury surveillance alone would underestimate agricultural work-related deaths and that more comprehensive surveillance systems are required.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.3, p.29-38. 14 ref.

CIS 95-1897 Meyers J., Bloomberg L., Faucett J., Janowitz I., Miles J.A.
Using ergonomics in the prevention of musculoskeletal cumulative trauma injuries in agriculture: Learning from the mistakes of others
A review is presented of the size and nature of the problem related to musculoskeletal cumulative trauma disorders. Examples of successful control strategies in general industry are described in terms of engineering controls, administrative controls and behavioural controls. The application of ergonomic principles in agriculture is described with specific examples from the nursery industry. Elimination or reduction of ergonomic hazards promises greater success in controlling cumulative musculoskeletal injuries than worker training alone or prescreening.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.3, p.11-24. 55 ref.

CIS 95-1778 Archibald B.A., Solomon K.R., Stephenson G.R.
Estimation of pesticide exposure to greenhouse applications using video imaging and other assessment techniques
Pesticide exposure in greenhouse applicators was measured using the video imaging technique to assess exposure (VITAE) along with dermal patches, air monitoring and biological assessment techniques. The exposure of 5 male workers to pesticides during high- and low-volume application methods was studied. The highest level of dermal tracer deposition occurred when there was failure to use precautionary handling methods during low-volume applications. In general, there was non-uniform deposition of tracer/pesticide mixtures on various body regions, which goes against the assumption of uniform deposition when assessing exposure with the dermal patch technique. Estimates of exposure to a pesticide (pirimicarb) using the VITAE method had a high correlation with the excretion of urinary metabolites. The immediate visual results obtained by the VITAE system were a powerful educational tool for persuading workers to adopt precautionary application techniques. The need to employ protective operating procedures was demonstrated, no matter how short the exposure period.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.226-235. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 95-1912 Lovelace O.
Stress in rural America
Stress factors identified among the rural population of America are discussed. In a survey of 50 rural residents, financial situation and personal illness were ranked as the most significant sources of stress, while occupational hazards were ranked the least stressful. The mortality rate from accidental death is nearly 40% higher in rural than in urban areas; rural residents have fewer injuries but greater levels of injury disability than urban residents. Problems in the provision of adequate rural health care are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.71-78. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1699 Farrar J.A., Schenker M.B., McCurdy S.A., Morrin L.A.
Hazard perceptions of California farm operators
In a survey of 140 randomly selected California farm operators, only 10% perceived farming to be more hazardous than other occupations. The most frequently mentioned health concerns were injuries, pesticides and chemicals, stress and cancer. Operating or repairing farm equipment was most frequently identified as the single most hazardous farm task. Earlier studies in Iowa and New York had revealed that approximately 70% of farmers in those States considered farming to be more dangerous than other occupations. Reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.27-40. 24 ref.

CIS 95-1892 Cobb N., Sullivan P.S., Etzel R.A.
Pilot study of health complaints associated with commercial processing of mushroom compost in southeastern Pennsylvania
In response to complaints from local residents, health effects near a large repository for spent mushroom compost were investigated. A questionnaire survey indicated that people living close to the site were more likely than those living further away to report headache, tiredness, eye irritation and sore throat. Local physicians did not report any distinct illness among site neighbours or mushroom workers and objective morbidity was low. There was no evidence of a major health hazard associated with this site.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.13-25. 18 ref.

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