Agriculture - 1,538 entries found
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Levy B.S., Levin J.L., Teitelbaum D.T.
DBCP-induced sterility and reduced fertility among men in developing countries
Topics: agriculture; antifertility effects; Nemagon; cohort study; developing countries; ethics; nematocides; pesticides; spermatogenic disturbances; sterility; toxic effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.5, No.2, p.115-150. Illus. 104 ref.
Krüger E., Straube E.
Exposure of pesticide applicators as a basis for risk assessment
Expositionsumfang bei Pflanzenschutzmittelapplikatoren als Grundlage für die Abschätzung der Belastung [in German]
The number of hours of exposure and the types of pesticides sprayed by workers on twelve farms in the Land of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, were determined. These data were collected for 28, 27 and 30 workers in the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The total hours of exposure in those years ranged from 28 to 727 in 1995, from 4 to 906 in 1996 and from 1 to 983 in 1997. With an average of 56 hours of exposure in the 3 years, pesticides containing pyrethroids as active ingredients were applied the most often. They were followed by carbamate pesticides with an average of 48 hours of exposure over the 3 years and the organophosphorus pesticides with an average 3-year exposure of 38 hours. Only a small proportion of the applied pesticides belonged to the highly toxic or toxic groups. Herbicides were the most frequently used pesticides. From the widely varying extent of individual exposures and types of pesticides used by each worker it is concluded that personal sampling is needed to find the true exposure of each worker.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 1999, Vol.49, No.10, p.367-372. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Preventing accidents to children in agriculture - Approved Code of Practice
This Code of Practice replaces the 1988 Code on the same topic (see CIS 89-1555). It covers: risk assessment; general principles of accident prevention; operation of tractors and machinery; riding on machinery; other contact with machinery and moving vehicles; drowning and asphyxiation; falls; falling objects; contact with animals; hazardous substances; fire. In appendix: extracts from relevant legislation.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1999. iv, 15p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.
Lyman S., McGwin G., Enochs R., Roseman J.M.
History of agricultural injury among farmers in Alabama and Mississippi: Prevalence, characteristics and associated factors
There have been no studies of the prevalence, characteristics and factors associated with the history of prior farm injury among active farmers, nor with adequate numbers of black farmers to evaluate farm owner/farm worker and black/white differences. The sample in this survey is based upon surveys administered to active male farmers in rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Prior injury was more frequent among white owner/operators than among black workers and black owner/operators. In multiple logistic regression analyses, post-high school education and tiredness when farming were independently associated with prior injury in black owner/operators. In white owner/operators, age ≥ 60 years, post-high school education, full-time farming, tractor use, more pieces of machinery, hurry when farming and alcohol consumption were associated with prior injury. In black workers, only being very careful was associated with prior injury. The results suggest that prevention efforts focussing on alcohol consumption, fatigue and hurry when farming might reduce injuries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.499-510. 36 ref.
Lin S.H., Lin C.P., Tsai H.Z., Ho C.K.
Fungal corneal ulcers of onion harvesters in southern Taiwan
Fungal corneal ulcers related to agriculture have been reported throughout the world, especially in tropical areas. Most of them are sporadic and have histories of ocular trauma or use of topical corticosteroids and topical antibiotics. Five onion harvesters had fungal corneal ulcers during the same harvest period in Southern Taiwan. The authors think that this is the first report of a group occurrence relating to agricultural workers. Although all of the patients improved after medical and surgical management, their vision was greatly reduced. It is suggested that the tropical climate, the harvest procedure, the monsoon and the lack of eye protection all had a role. Therefore, the importance of the eye protection, hygiene education and improving medical care to reduce the occurrence of fungal corneal ulcer in agriculture workers must be emphasized.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.423-425. Illus. 17 ref.
Gathering data on culture and health to develop educational materials on zoonoses for subsistence dairy farmers in Costa Rica
Socially and culturally sensitive educational materials on the transmission and prevention of zoonoses for subsistence dairy farmers in Costa Rica are being designed based on information gathered through a series of personal interviews. Women were targeted in the study since they make nutritional and health-related decisions for the family and in particular for children. The women in the study were able to actually describe the symptoms of many zoonotic diseases but were not necessarily able to identify those diseases by their medical name or knew of a vernacular name. All women preferred alternative medicine including herbal treatments and homoeopathy for any disease or ailment over western medicine. The radio was identified as the preferred source for health education dissemination for adults while it was story or colouring books for children.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.1, p.33-41. 9 ref.
Quandt S.A., Austin C.K., Arcury T.A., Summers M.E., Saavedra R.M.
Agricultural chemical safety training materials for farm workers: Review and annotated bibliography
Preventing or reducing exposure to agricultural chemicals is an important focus for health educators serving migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families. The development of the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard requiring that farmworkers receive pesticide-related training created a demand for culturally appropriate and effective training materials, yet no compendium of such materials exists. This paper reports the results of a search for and evaluation of training materials designed for use with farmworkers. There is considerable redundancy in the training materials currently available to health educators. Few items address the health issue of chemical residues in the fields, an important source of low-level chronic chemical exposure for farmworkers. There are no published evaluations of the effectiveness of any of the materials. This review suggests the need for further development and testing of appropriate training materials to reduce the exposure of farmworkers to agricultural chemicals.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.1, p.3-24. 19 ref.
International Labour Office (ILO)
The face of decent work
Le visage du travail décent [in French]
El aspecto del trabajo adecuado [in Spanish]
This videotape is an exposé on the world's most deadly professions and workplace hazards: mining, agriculture, factory fires, to name but a few. It shows primitive forms of labour that have remained unchanged in their methods for nearly a thousand years. It shows the victims of the pressure to increase production in an increasingly competitive and global economy, and is intended as an awareness-raising tool for the general public, to be used by the ILO's social and institutional partners and the NGO community in the framework of seminars, group presentations, exhibitions and technical meetings.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1999. VHS Videotape (length: 18min).
Horowitz S.H., Stark A., Marshall E., Mauer M.P.
A multi-modality assessment of peripheral nerve function in organophosphate-pesticide applicators
Health effects from chronic, low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides have not been studied extensively and are not well-established. This report follows up a study in New York State in which a cohort of 90 male pesticide applicators were found to have increased vibration sensitivity thresholds, compared with a matched sample drawn from the general population. This investigation examined the nature and extent of peripheral nerve abnormalities in a small subgroup of the original cohort. Of the nine subjects studied, four had clinical evidence of peripheral neuropathic dysfunction, and one who was normal physiologically showed electrophysiological abnormalities. The remaining four showed no clinical, electrophysiologic or quantitative signs or other abnormalities. This study adds to the growing evidence that organophosphates are toxic to the peripheral nervous system at levels of exposure that do not induce acute or subacute symptomatology.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.41, No.5, p.405-408. 21 ref.
Amre D.K, Infante-Rivard C., Dufresne A., Durgawale P.M., Ernst P.
Case-control study of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers in India
To investigate the risk of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers and sugar mill workers, a case-control study was conducted in six hospitals in predominantly sugar cane farming districts. Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases were identified from these hospitals between May 1996 and April 1998. Other cancers were chosen as controls and matched to cases by age, sex, district of residence and timing of diagnosis. Adjusting for confounders, an increased risk of lung cancer was found for workers ever employed on a sugar cane farm. Increased risks were round for work involving preparation of the farm and burning of the farm after harvesting. Non-significant increases in risks were round for harvesting the crop and processing the cane in the mills. Exposure to fibres of biogenic amorphous silica (BAS) formed from silica absorbed from the soil and deposited in the leaves of the sugar cane crop or crystalline silica formed as a result of conversion of BAS to cristobalite at high temperatures may account for the increased risks of lung cancer among sugar cane farmers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.56, No.8, p.548-552. 25 ref.
Müller-Wening D., Neuhauss M.
Investigation of the efficacy of the protective effect of respiratory devices in farmers with occupational asthma
Untersuchungen zur Wirkung von Atemschutzgeräten bei Landwirten mit berufsbedingtem Asthma bronchiale [in German]
Farmers have an above-average frequency of bronchitis and bronchial asthma attributable to the inhalation of specific organic dusts. As in other professions, filters of respiratory devices do not offer complete protection. This was demonstrated in 26 farmers suffering from occupational asthma, who were challenged by exposure to work-related dust, first without and then, about 20 weeks later, with the respiratory device. The increases in airway resistance and thoracic gas volume were statistically significant in both challenges, but 50-80% smaller when respiratory devices in the second challenge. This experiment shows that the use of a respirator in farmers suffering from occupational asthma reduces the development of bronchial obstruction but does not prevent it.
Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Nov. 1999, Vol.25, No.11, p.635-638. Illus. 24 ref.
Tielemans E., Louwerse E., de Cock J., Brouwer D., Zielhuis G., Heederik D.
Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure
Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured among workers in the fruit-growing sector using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin pads on several body parts (12 persons). For harvesting activities, re-entry time appeared to be an important determinant of dermal exposure to captan and tolylfluanid. For captan, calculated half-life times from the most recent exposure survey were lower (glove data: 5 days; pad data: 6 days) compared with half-life times based on another study conducted recently (11 days). Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. For tolylfluanid, estimated half-life times during harvesting were 2 and 3 days, based on pad and glove data, respectively. Prediction of captan exposure during other crop activities appeared to be far more difficult, although the estimated half-life time was comparable with that for harvesting.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.789-793. Illus. 18 ref.
Simcox N.J., Camp J., Kalman D., Stebbins A., Bellamy G., Lee I.C., Fenske R.
Farmworker exposure to organophosphorus pesticide residues during apple thinning in central Washington State
The exposure of twenty workers from three work sites to azinphos-methyl over an entire apple-thinning season was studied. Exposure potential was estimated by foliar residue measurements, and individual exposures were estimated by biological monitoring through urinary metabolites. Measurable azinphos-methyl residues were found on apple foliage at all sites throughout the six-week sampling period, indicating continuous exposure potential (median residue level of 0.5µg/cm2). Measurable levels of the urinary dialkylphosphate metabolite, DMTP, were found in virtually all urine samples, with concentrations differing significantly across the three sites (0.53, 0.29 and 0.90µg/ml), and with intraindividual variability much greater than interindividual differences. Group mean DMTP concentrations at each site fluctuated according to foliar residue levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.752-761. Illus. 26 ref.
Knoblauch A., Steiner B.
Major accidents related to manure: A case series from Switzerland
Data on 61 serious accidents related to manure exposure in Switzerland between 1951 and 1995 were analysed. 44 were due to inhalation of manure gas, 11 involved falls into manure containers and six were methane explosions. There were 105 victims in all, with 49 fatalities, including 12 in which persons attempting to rescue primary victims died. 37 persons survived gas poisoning. There were 15 successful rescues and four cases in which primary victims saved themselves. The main danger is that of gradual or sudden manure gas intoxication, which is often fatal. However, almost a third of the accidents were due to falls into manure containers or manure gas explosions. Accidents in which victims of gas poisoning regained consciousness and saved themselves are also reported. Analysis of the accident circumstances confirms the importance of strict observation of existing safety guidelines with respect to both structural design and working practices. Specific measures at the scene can substantially increase the chances for survival of both primary victims and would-be rescuers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.177-186. Illus. 22 ref.
Thelin A., Stiernström E.L., Holmberg S.
Differences in the use of health care facilities and patterns of general risk factors in farmers with and without occupational health care programs
To investigate whether differences in the use of health care facilities and the distribution of risk factors were related to the accessibility of occupational health services, 912 farmers with or without health care programs were studied. Information was collected from nine different localities in rural areas, using questionnaires, standardized interviews, physical examinations and blood tests. Few differences were found in the use of general health care facilities between the groups. Those affiliated with occupational health services generally had more medical visits, but also had fewer diagnoses of cardiac disease. Known risk factors were more frequent in the group without occupational health services. The work of occupational health care services and the farmers' interest in health questions appeared to be significantly related to the way risk factors were distributed.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.170-176. 30 ref.
Lankford J.E., Meinke D., Hotopp M.
Need for hearing loss prevention for agricultural aerial application service personnel
Agricultural aerial applicator services utilize fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters which generate noise levels that may produce noise-induced hearing loss in pilots and support personnel. Cockpit noise levels (Leq) ranged from 98 to 110dBA. Pilot noise doses for fixed-wing aircraft averaged 954% and for helicopters averaged 407%. The hearing sensitivity of 12 pilots surveyed was worse than would be predicted for individuals in a non-noise exposed environment. It is recommended that all pilots working in agricultural aerial applications be included in an effective hearing conservation programme. Some support personnel (chemical handlers) might also be at risk and should be considered for the programme.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.2, p.25-39. Illus. 18 ref.
Commission Directive 1999/40/EC of 6 May 1999 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 79/622/EEC relating to the roll-over protection structures of wheeled agricultural or forestry tractors (static testing) [European Communities]
Directive 1999/40/CE de la Commission, du 6 mai 1999, portant adaptation au progrès technique de la directive 79/622/CEE du Conseil relative aux dispositifs de protection en cas de renversement des tracteurs agricoles ou forestiers à roues (essais statiques) [Communautés européennes] [in French]
For Council Directive 79/622/EEC see CIS 79-1724. Topics: agriculture; directive; drivers seats; equipment testing; European Communities; logging; protection against overturning; safety devices; safety frames and cabs; tractors.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 18 May 1999, Vol.42, No.L 124, p.11-13.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/1999/l_124/l_12419990518fr00110013.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/1999/l_124/l_12419990518en00110013.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/1999/l_124/l_12419990518es00110013.pdf [in Spanish]
McNeill M., Westby A.
Ergonomics evaluation of a manually operated cassava chipping machine
A manually-operated machine for chipping cassava was evaluated. Physiological, postural, and subjective measurements were taken of six farmers. Using the machine resulted in drudgery and postural discomfort. Following an iterative design process and using appropriate anthropometric measurements, an improved, adjustable prototype was developed which was tested with the six farmers and six novice users. The machine reduced discomfort and physiological strain, allowed a faster work-rate with the novice users, and was preferred by all users. The study demonstrates how ergonomics can play an important role in reducing drudgery and improving user satisfaction in technology development and transfer in developing countries.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1999, Vol.30, No.6, p.565-570. Illus. 14 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Field Operations Directorate
Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and agriculture 1998-1999
Topics: accident descriptions; agriculture; causes of accidents; children; falls of persons; fatalities; forestry; horticulture; location of injury; occupational accidents; report; statistical trends; statistics; time of accident; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 1999. vi, 55p. Illus.
Kuno Y., Kawabe Y., Sakakibara S.
Allergic contact dermatitis associated with photosensitivity, from alantolactone in a chrysanthemum farmer
Topics: case study; eczema; erythroderma; flower and perfume-plant growing; lactones; photosensitization dermatitis; sensitization dermatitis; sesquiterpenes; skin allergies; skin tests; ultraviolet radiation.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1999, Vol.40, No.4, p.224-225. Illus. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Commission, Agriculture Industry Advisory Committee
Farmwise - Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture
Topics: agricultural equipment; agriculture; children; economic aspects; first aid; health hazards; maintenance and repair; materials handling; notification of occupational accidents; occupational safety and health; personal protective equipment; protection against falls from heights; safety and health committees; safety guides; subcontractors; training material; United Kingdom; welfare facilities.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1999. 47p. lllus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc165.pdf [in English]
Panemangalore M., Dowla H.A., Byers M.E.
Occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals: Effect on the activities of some enzymes in the blood of farm workers
Eight volunteers who were working on a small tobacco farm were monitored over a period of two years along with a comparable urban unexposed group. Activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was depressed by 30% after 1 day and there was no further decrease in ALAD activity after 30 days of field work. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in contrast, declined by 29% and 50% after 1 day and 30 days, respectively, as compared with 0-day activity and that of the urban control, which was similar to 0-day activity. Plasma cholinesterase activity declined by 19% after both 1 and 30 days of exposure/field work. The activities of all three enzymes were restored to urban control or pre-exposure levels during post-exposure. Plasma cadmium levels were high in the samples taken after 30 days as compared with the pre-exposure levels. Respiratory nicotine exposure was highest after 30 days of field work. This preliminary study suggests that erythrocyte SOD is a sensitive indicator of exposure to agricultural chemicals in tobacco field workers. Topics: agricultural chemicals; ALAD; blood monitoring; maleic acid hydrazide; orthene; nicotine; cadmium; cholinesterase monitoring; cholinesterase; determination in blood; enzyme activity; exposure evaluation; metabolism of blood constituents; pesticides; smoking; superoxide dismutase; tobacco farming.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.84-88. 27 ref.
Feming L.E., Bean J.A., Rudolph M, Hamilton K.
Mortality in a cohort of licenced pesticide applicators in Florida
In this retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio, licenced pesticide applicators in Florida were compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licenced pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993. Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, male prostate cancer was significantly increased in these pesticide applicators. Female cervical cancer and breast cancer were not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors, such as the organochlorines. The lack of cases of soft tissue sarcoma is at odds with previous publications associating the use of the phenoxy herbicides with an increased risk of these cancers. Topics: agriculture; breast cancer; vitamin D; chlorinated organic compounds; cohort study; frequency rates; mortality; pesticide spraying; pesticides; prostatic cancer; sex-linked differences; uterine cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.56, No.1, p.14-21. 57 ref.
Agricultural tasks, exposures and diseases
Arbeiten, Expositionen und Krankheiten in der Landwirtschaft [in German]
Travaux, expositions et maladies dans l'agriculture [in French]
Topics: agricultural operations; agriculture; allergies; bacterial toxins; biological hazards; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; dairy farming; eczema; farmer's lung; fodder silos; grain dust; handling of animals; hay; health hazards; immunoglobulins; liquid manure; livestock rearing; moulds; noise; occupation disease relation; organic dust; poultry farming; swine; toxic gases; zoonoses.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, Spring 1999, No.71, p.80-98 (French), p.79-96 (German). Illus. 4 ref.
Kimbell-Dunn M., Bradshaw L., Slater T., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Fishwick D., Pearce N.
Asthma and allergy in New Zealand farmers
The prevalence of symptoms of asthma and allergy was studied in 1,706 farmers from different farming groups throughout New Zealand. The 12-month period prevalence of current asthma was 11.8% overall, compared with 15% in the general population. Asthma prevalence was higher for horse breeders/groomers, pig farmers, poultry farmers, and those working with goats. Asthma was also significantly elevated among those working with cleaning powders. Women were more likely to report current asthma than were men. Hay fever was significantly higher in deer and crop farmers, and farmers working with horses and goats; eczema was higher for goat and deer farmers. The lower overall prevalence of asthma in farmers may be due to the healthy worker effect. Topics: agriculture; allergic respiratory disorders; allergies; asthma; eczema; frequency rates; grain dust; handling of animals; healthy worker effect; livestock rearing; New Zealand; poultry farming; questionnaire survey; sex-linked differences; swine.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.35, No.1, p.51-57. 40 ref.
Beware of pesticides
This videotape is aimed at the managers and workers of greenhouse farms, instructing them on the safe use of pesticides. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on persons applying the pesticides. It is now recognized that persons handling agricultural products are also at risk. The video includes advice on protection against pesticide exposure.
General Workers Union, Kampmannsgade 4, Box 392, 1740 København V, Denmark, 1998. Video in VHS/PAL format, duration: 14 min.
Leal Ferreira L., Gonzaga M.C., Donatelli S., Bussacos M.A
Ministério do Trabalho
Comprehensive analysis of the work of sugarcane harvesters in the region of Araraquara, São Paulo
Análise coletiva do trabalho dos cortadores de cana da região de Araraquara, São Paulo [in Portuguese]
Present working conditions of sugarcane harvesters in Brazil are not very different from those described by historians; to this day, these workers represent a segment of labour that is highly exploited. This study of the working conditions of sugarcane cutters in the state of São Paulo, whose numbers are currently estimated at 400,000, is based on interviews and includes actual quotations of workers. Contents include: layout of plantations; tasks and activities of sugarcane cutters; system for calculating workers' wages (as a function of acreage harvested); impact on health (pain of the arms, blisters and cuts to the hands, exhaustion), system for identifying workers and labour inspection.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1998. 57p. Illus. 4 ref.
Héran-le-Roy O., Sandret N.
Results of the "SUMER 94" survey - Exposure to stresses and physical factors in the food and agriculture sector
Résultats de l'enquête "SUMER 94" - Expositions aux contraintes et nuisances dans les industries agricoles et alimentaires [in French]
Topics: agriculture; biological hazards; chemical hazards; food industry; France; noise; physical hazards; questionnaire survey; risk factors; thermal environment; work organization.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.74, p.161-167. Illus.
Safe equipment - Proper handling
Sichere Maschinen - richtig bedient [in German]
Topics: agricultural equipment; agriculture; analysis of accident causes; hazard evaluation; legislation; maintenance and repair; occupational accidents; risk factors; safe working methods; Switzerland.
Beratungsstelle für Unfallverhütung in der Landwirtschaft (BUL), Picardiestrasse 3-STEIN, 5040 Schöftland, Switzerland, 1998. 30p. Illus.
de Vreede J.A.F., Brouwer D.H., Stevenson H., van Hemmen J.J.
Exposure and risk estimation for pesticides in high-volume spraying
During twenty applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored using the "whole-body" method. On the basis of exposure data, the health risk from methomyl and thirteen other pesticides frequently used in flower horticulture was evaluated. From the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) in animal experiments an Indicative Limit Value (ILV) was derived. The ILV is considered indicative of the limit of daily exposure which probably has no adverse health effects. This value is only a rough approximation, as it is based on limited data. The database for a proper assessment of such a value is generally incomplete. To reduce dermal exposure levels below the ILV, exposure of the hands in particular has to be reduced, for example by using impermeable gloves.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.151-157. Illus. 16 ref.
The risk of infection
Le risque infectieux [in French]
Topics: agriculture; biological hazards; containment; disposal of harmful waste; food industry; France; garbage collectors and related labourers; hospitals; infection control; infectious diseases; infectious hepatitis; injection injuries; job-exposure relation; legal aspects; microorganisms; safety rules; vaccination.
Santé et Travail, Apr. 1998, No.23, p.23-57. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
LOLER: How the regulations apply to agriculture
Topics: agriculture; comment on law; data sheet; falling objects; fork-lift trucks; information of personnel; legislation; lifting of loads; loaders; mechanical hazards; protection against overturning; safe working methods; safety and health training; safety devices; telescopic jib cranes; truck-mounted cranes; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 4p. 1 ref.
Bujak F., Lachowski S., Florek M., Latuszyńska J.
Agricultural occupational accidents among rural children - Part III: Consequences of accidents - Health effects
Wypadki dzieci podczas prac w rolnictwie - Część III: Następstwa wypadków - Skutki zdrowotne [in Polish]
Agricultural accidents in Poland on private farms involving children and adolescents under 15 were analysed. Children most often suffered traumas of the upper extremity (70% of all injuries), with the forearm and fingers most liable to injury. Traumas of the lower extremity made up 28%, with one third of them being injuries of the shank. Fractures, cuts and bruises were the most frequent and constituted 75.4% of all types of injuries experienced by children. A relatively numerous group of traumas were amputations (6.6%), especially of the fingers. There were also several cases of eye loss, amputation of the whole hand, loss of an ear or a toe. The more long-term consequences were hospitalization (76 children, i.e. 14% of the group examined, were hospitalized for more than one day) and long-lasting or permanent health damage: in 50% of children. See also CIS 00-730 and CIS 00-731.
Medycyna Ogólna, 1998, Vol.4(XXXIII), No.3, p.314-321. Illus. 11 ref.
Bujak F., Lachowski S., Florek M., Latuszyńska J.
Agricultural occupational accidents among rural children - Part II: Causes of accidents, factors causing injuries, categories of accidents
Wypadki dzieci podczas prac w rolnictwie - Część II: Przyczyny wypadków, czynniki powodujące obrażenia, kategorie wypadków [in Polish]
Based on the analysis of the causes of 841 occupational accidents on private farms in which children were involved it may be concluded that: 1) The accident causes most frequently mentioned in protocols were: carelessness of the child (26.0%); tripping, stumbling and falling (23.2%); and slipping (22.2%). The vast majority of accidents took place in untidy farmyards. 2) 10% of the accidents were due to animal bites or kicks. 3) The main causes of injuries were due to work on slippery, uneven surfaces (30.1 %), or work with farm machinery and trailers (14.2%), with tractors (9.5%) or on ladders and stairs (8.1%). 4) The most frequent categories of accidents were: falls from height (34.8%), falls on the ground (24.2%) and being struck or ensnared by operating parts of machines (17.8%). See also CIS 00-730 and CIS 00-732.
Medycyna Ogólna, 1998, Vol.4(XXXIII), No.2, p.177-182. 9 ref.
Bujak F., Lachowski S., Florek M., Latuszyńska J.
Agricultural occupational accidents among rural children - Part I: Age and sex of accident victims: Time and place of accidents
Wypadki dzieci podczas prac w rolnictwie - Cz. I: Wiek i płeć poszkodowanych oraz czas i miejsce wypadków [in Polish]
Data from 841 post-accident protocols collected from all regional sections of the Agricultural Social Insurance Fund in Poland were analysed. The cases analysed occurred in 1996 on private farms and involved children and adolescents up to the age of 15. Boys constituted 71% of all victims of accidents. The greatest accident risk was noted among boys aged 13 and girls aged 12. Accidents most frequently occurred during vacations (July, August) and in springtime (May). The distribution of the number of the accidents by day of the week was fairly even, except that only approximately 10% of accidents took place on a Sunday. Nearly 50% of all accidents took place in the late afternoon (3pm - 6pm). Accidents happened most frequently in the household (64.3%), including slippery, uneven, cluttered yards, or non-ergonomic, untidy barns or farm buildings. See also CIS 00-731 and CIS 00-732.
Medycyna Ogólna, 1998, Vol.4 (XXXIII), No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 8 ref.
Fayomi B., Lafia E., Fourn L., Akpona S., Zohoun T., Forget G.
Knowledge and behaviour of pesticide users in Benin
Connaissance et comportement des utilisateurs de pesticides au Bénin [in French]
Topics: agriculture; assessment of knowledge; behaviour study; Benin; cross-sectional study; developing countries; food contamination; information dissemination; occupational hygiene; personal hygiene; pesticides; questionnaire survey; risk factors; safety and health training; solubility in lipids; supply of information.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 1998, Vol.8, No.2, p.44-47. Illus. 10 ref.
Crawford J.M., Wilkins J.R., Mitchell G.L., Moeschberger M.L., Bean T.L., Jones L.A.
A cross-sectional case control study of work-related injuries among Ohio farmers
In a study of 90 agricultural workers injured during farm work in the previous 12 months, the overall rate of injury was 5 per 100 person-years. The most notable result was the relationship between self-reported neurotoxic symptoms and injury, suggesting that those with more reported symptoms were at greater risk of injury. Risk was inversely related to age. Results show marked increases in risk of injury associated with farmers less than 30 years of age and an increased severity of self-reported neurological symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.34, No.6, p.588-599. 42 ref.
Gomes J., Lloyd O., Revitt M.D., Basha M.
Morbidity among farm workers in a desert country in relation to long-term exposure to pesticides
Subclinical morbidity patterns among male established migrant farm workers were compared with referents and with new migrant farmworkers in a desert country. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and haemoglobin-adjusted erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were significantly depleted, and results of aiming and digit symbol tests were significantly lower for the established workers. Irritated conjunctiva, watery eyes, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, muscular pain, and weakness were reported by established workers in statistically significantly higher numbers than by the referents and new workers. Morbidity patterns, such as the health complaints and objective parameters suggested in this study, would be suitable as criteria for identifying farm workers most at risk from pesticide toxicity and as criteria for initiating measures to control and reduce exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1998, Vol.24, No.3, p.213-219. 31 ref.
Occupational epidemiology in agriculture: A case study in the Southern African context
Some challenges facing occupational epidemiology in developing countries are outlined in this case study of agriculture drawing on Southern African research. These include the characterization of exposures in resource- and data-poor environments typical of developing countries, the assessment of outcomes where cross-cultural and socio-environmental confounders may be substantial obstacles, and the impact of environmental exposures on workplace health. It is argued that, if occupational epidemiology is to have meaningful impact on the health of the most marginalized groups of workers in developing countries, it must redefine itself in terms of a public health approach. The boundaries of epidemiologic inquiry need to be broad, and amenable to interfacing with policy research, using qualitative methods and participatory approaches. More so than in other industrial settings, epidemiologists must move from research to practice, seeking to take action where interventions are needed, and to evaluate such actions. Topics: agriculture; child labour; confounding factors; developing countries; epidemiology; ethics; exposure evaluation; neurotoxic effects; pesticides; South Africa; women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.4, No.4, p.245-256. Illus. 47 ref.
Karr C.J., Keifer M.C., Miller M.E.
Field-based monitoring of agricultural workers for overexposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: Evaluation of a trial program
A field cholinesterase test kit was used to monitor orchard pesticide applicators and field workers. The kit utilizes blood obtained by finger-stick sampling, is extremely portable, battery powered and very simple to operate. Compared to baseline values obtained prior to the start of exposure, at each visit, approximately 7-8% of monitored workers were identified as having cholinesterase activity level changes consistent with significant inhibition. Applicators had significantly lower levels than field workers. With a few technical corrections, the kit holds the promise of being a simple, rapid, accurate method for testing cholinesterase in the field. Topics: agriculture; cholinesterase monitoring; crop protection; determination in blood; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; haemoglobin monitoring; orchards; pesticides.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.4, p.35-47. 15 ref.
Xiang H., Stallones L., Chiu Y., Epperson A.
Non-fatal agricultural injuries and risk factors among Colorado female farmers
Non-fatal agricultural injuries and associated risk factors among female farmers in Colorado were assessed on 485 farms between 1993 and 1995. 872 principal operators and spouses were interviewed in 1993, of whom 402 were female farmers. 359 of the female farmers were re-interviewed in 1994, and 316 of the second year participants were followed up in 1995. 12.1% of the female farmers reported agricultural work-related injuries between January 1992 and June 1995. Of these, 59.2% were injured once, 28.2% were injured twice, 10.2% were injured three times, and 2.04% were injured four times. Injury rates per 200,000 working hours for animal handling, farmstead material handling, crop production, farm maintenance, transport of farm equipment or produce, and other activities were 8.3, 11.4, 5.0, 8.2, 5.4, and 14.5 respectively. Agricultural work-related injuries were significantly associated with depressive symptoms, more than 30 years experience in agricultural work, and age between 30 and 39. Topics: age-linked differences; agricultural equipment; agriculture; Colorado; depressive neurosis; frequency rates; handling of animals; harvesting; hazard evaluation; maintenance; materials handling; occupational accidents; pesticides; questionnaire survey; risk factors; statistics; USA; women.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.4, p.21-33. Illus. 27 ref.
Contract labour - Health and safety implications in Zimbabwe
Topics: agriculture; construction industry; degree of skill; developing countries; employee rights; forestry and logging; legislation; responsibilities of employers; safety training in industry; subcontractors; temporary workers; Zimbabwe.
On Guard, Dec. 1998, Vol.6, No.15, p.13-18. Illus.
National economic performance through health and safety in the agricultural sector
Topics: agriculture; developing countries; economic aspects; immunodeficiency syndrome; occupational accidents; pesticide poisoning; social aspects; statistics; Zimbabwe.
On Guard, Dec. 1998, Vol.6, No.15, p.7-12. Illus.
de Cock P.A.J.J.M., Vorwerk H., Bruynzeel D.P.
Hand dermatitis caused by ferns
Topics: allergy tests; case study; eczema; horticulture; plants; sensitization dermatitis; skin allergies; skin tests.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1998, Vol.39, No.6, p.324. 3 ref.
Health and Safety - The Prevention of Accidents to Children in Agriculture Regulations 1998 [United Kingdom]
Topics: agricultural equipment; agriculture; children; law; prohibition of use; tractors; United Kingdom.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1998. 3p. Price: GBP 1.50.
Fiedler D., Von Essen S., Morgan D., Grisso R., Mueller K., Eberle C.
Causes of fatalities in older farmers vs. perception of risk
Farm fatality data in Nebraska, USA, were recorded over a 10 year period. Injuries involving tractors were the most common cause of death in farmers of 55 years of age or more, with the rate being highest in those of 75 and over. Data on cause of death were compared with results from a telephone survey in which farmers rated their concern about risk associated with various farming activities. There was a discrepancy between where farmers of 55 or more years of age perceive danger and where the greatest risk actually lies. Topics: age-linked differences; agricultural equipment; agriculture; analysis of accident causes; attitude towards accidents; causes of accidents; epidemiologic study; fatalities; handling of animals; older workers; risk awareness; safety consciousness; tractors.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.3, p.13-22. Illus. 19 ref.
Case study: Hypotension, nausea and vertigo linked to hydrogen cyanamide exposure
A case is described in which a worker experienced hypotension, vertigo, nausea, and puffiness of the face without exposure to alcohol while applying hydrogen cyanamide for use as a growth regulator in kiwi fruit. He was wearing a full protective ensemble and there was no patient history or objective signs of alcohol use. The hypotension was without tachycardia and lasted four days after exposure. This case suggests that an acute intoxication syndrome from the use of hydrogen cyanamide includes hypotension without tachycardia, nausea and vertigo at the onset. The difficulty of obtaining an accurate history is highlighted. Topics: acute poisoning; cyanamide; case study; crop protection; hypotension; orchards; toxic effects; vertigo.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.3, p.5-11. 16 ref.
Mori S., Nakagawa-Yoshida K., Tsuschihashi H., Koreeda Y., Kawabata M., Nishiura Y., Ando M., Osame M.
Mushroom worker's lung resulting from indoor cultivation of Pleurotus osteatus
Indoor cultivation of the oyster mushroom Pleurotus osteatus led to an outbreak of extrinsic allergic alveolitis in two workers. High titer of indirect fluorescent antibody and positive precipitins against basidiospores of P. osteatus were demonstrated in sera of the patients. Mushroom workers should protect themselves from the basidiospores. Topics: antibodies; case study; chest radiography; detection by fluorescence; extrinsic allergic alveolitis; mushroom farming; mushroom workers lung; serum precipitins; spores.
Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.48, No.7, p.465-468. Illus. 20 ref.
Use of agricultural pesticides
Utilização de pesticidas agrícolas [in Portuguese]
Topics: agriculture; dangerous substances; harmful substances; hazard identification; pesticide poisoning; pesticides; Portugal; safe working methods; safety guides; training material.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho, Lisboa, Portugal, 1998. 23p. Illus.
Fernandes Teixera C., de Fátima Brandão M.
Effects of pesticides on the auditory system of agricultural workers
Efeitos dos agrotóxicos no sistema auditivo dos trabalhadores rurais [in Portuguese]
Topics: agriculture; audiometric tests; Brazil; developing countries; hearing disorders; hearing loss; pesticide poisoning; pesticides; questionnaire survey.
Revista CIPA, Jan. 1998, Vol.19, No.218, p.46-54. Illus. 28 ref.
Simkin S., Hawton K., Fagg J., Malmberg A.
Stress in farmers: A survey of farmers in England and Wales
A survey of 500 farmers in England and Wales showed that potential sources of stress included problems with record keeping and paperwork, difficulty understanding forms, problems arising from the effects of new legislation and regulations and financial problems. The majority of farmers worked over 10h a day and many had health problems which interfered with their work. Results confirm findings from several regional studies that many farmers are experiencing considerable stress from various causes. Local and national initiatives to assist farmers should be encouraged. Topics: agriculture; economic aspects; hours of work; legal aspects; mental stress; neuropsychic stress; questionnaire survey; social aspects; stress factors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.729-734. Illus. 14 ref.
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