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Lead and compounds - 901 entries found

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  • Lead and compounds


CIS 86-691 Gu X.
Experience in controlling lead poisoning in the People's Republic of China
The work done to control lead poisoning in Chinese workplaces is summarised (health surveillance of workers, exposure limit setting, research for early detection indicators, improvement of work conditions). The current maximum allowable concentrations are 0.03mg/m3 for lead fume and 0.05mg/m3 for lead dust.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.16-19. 5 ref.

CIS 86-689 Gu X.
The role of early detection in the prevention of occupational disease - A review of work in the People's Republic of China
The importance of identifying indicators for early detection of exposure is illustrated by blood zinc protoporphyrin determination in case of lead poisoning. A short history of the progress in the detection of lead poisoning in China is given. Recommendations: research on early detection indicators should focus on methods suitable for primary health care; the indicators should be consistent with international standards; environmental monitoring should keep pace with research on early detection; research on early detection should be integrated with the use of health examinations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.7-9. 6 ref.

CIS 86-131 Walkinshaw J.R.
Blod lead analyses: methods, proficiency and trends in results
The 3 principal techniques for blood lead analysis (extraction/colorimetry, anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic absorption spectrophotometry) and programmes for testing their proficiency are described. The analyses performed by the Ontario occupational health laboratory over the last 6 years are reviewed and they indicate that, on average, the levels of lead in the blood of workers are decreasing.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Fall 1985, Vol.6, No.4, p.170-176.

CIS 86-151 Baker E.L., White R.F., Pothier L.J., Berkey C.S., Dinse G.E., Travers P.H., Harley J.P., Feldman R.G.
Occupational lead neurotoxicity: improvement in behavioural effects after reduction of exposure
This is a follow-up study to the article analysed under CIS 85-125. After significant reductions in workplace lead exposure (no blood lead concentration above 50µg/dL), behavioural reactions in workers and controls were followed up for 2 years. With the lowered lead concentrations, there were highly significant reductions in indices of tension, anger, depression, fatigue and mental confusion. Other neurobehavioural indices also improved. The study confirms the importance of complying with workplace standards designed to lower exposure to lead.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.507-516. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 85-2011 Watanabe T., Fujita H., Koizumi A., Chiba K., Miyasaka M., Ikeda M.
Baseline level of blood lead concentration among Japanese farmers
Lead concentrations were determined for 2583 blood samples collected from farmers in various parts of Japan to establish reliable baselines for blood lead levels. The data were distributed log-normally with a geometric mean of 48.6±1.5µg/L for males and 32.1±1.50µg/L for females. These levels are among the lowest observed in the industrialised countries of the world. The sex difference was significant while the seasonal variation was not. Both drinking and smoking habits were associated with a dose dependent increase in blood lead levels, especially in males.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1985, Vol.40, No.3, p.170-176. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 85-1678 Coulonges P.
Optical neuropathies due to lead poisoning (In connection with a worker exposed to lead for twenty years)
Les neuropathies optiques toxiques au plomb (A propos d'un cas chez un travailleur exposé pendant vingt ans au risque saturnin) [in French]
This medical thesis is a case study of optical nerve damage due to chronic lead poisoning.
Université Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Xavier Richat, Paris, France, 1985. 127p. 75 ref.

CIS 85-1670 Kirkby H., Gyntelberg F.
Blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors of long-term exposure to lead
Study of the coronary risk profile of 96 heavily exposed lead smelter workers employed for 9 to 45 years and for a matched, unexposed control group. A higher coronary risk profile and higher blood pressures were observed for the lead workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1985, Vol.11, No.1, p.15-19. 14 ref.

CIS 85-1665 Jeyaratnam J., Devathasan G., Ong C.N., Phoon W.O., Wong P.K.
Neurophysiological studies on workers exposed to lead
This study involved 46 workers exposed to both organic and inorganic lead in the workplace (mean blood lead concentration: 2.35µmol/L), and 64 workers without lead exposure (mean blood lead concentration: 0.76µmol/L). Significant neurological changes among the exposed workers included: lower nerve conduction velocities of the median and posterior tibial nerves; prolonged somatosensory evoked potential of the same nerves, when measured at the negative and positive deflections; prolonged distal latency. No EEG abnormalities were found among the exposed workers. Subclinical neurological damage can thus be detected among lead-exposed workers by measuring nerve conduction velocities, somatosensory evoked potential and distal latency.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1985, Vol.42, No.3, p.173-177. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1332 Lerner S.I., Hogan D.J.
Detection of inorganic lead contamination with sodium sulfide
A qualitative screening method to detect inorganic lead on skin and other surfaces is described. It is based on the development of a brownish to black lead sulfide when sodium sulfide solution reacts with inorganic lead. The procedure can facilitate worker training and assist in reducing excessive exposure to lead of workers and their families.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1985, Vol.27, No.4, p.293-294. 8 ref.

CIS 85-1368 Harlan W.R., Landis J.R., Schmouder R.L., Goldstein N.G., Harlan L.C.
Blood lead and blood pressure - Relationship in the adolescent and adult US population
This survey is based on data derived from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-II), conducted 1976-1980 in the USA. There was a significant increase in blood lead level in the 21-55 year age group among those with high diastolic blood pressure (>90mm Hg) from the blood lead level of those with normal blood pressure. No such relation was found for the 56-74 year age group. Because of the nature of the survey, no causality can be inferred.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 25 Jan. 1985, Vol.235, No.4, p.530-534. Illus. 28 ref.


CIS 90-1961
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP)
Review of potentially harmful substances - Cadmium, lead and tin
This review concentrates on the effects of cadmium, lead and tin in the marine environment, and on the human health effects of marine pollution. Approximately 5% of ingested cadmium is absorbed, with the main concentration being in the kidneys. Cadmium intoxication leads to a dysfunction of the kidneys. About 10% of ingested lead is absorbed, with higher levels reported for infants. Main target tissues for damage are the haematopoietic and nervous systems. Gastrointestinal absorption of inorganic tin is low, with the highest concentrations being found in bones and lungs. Toxicity of organotin compounds shows wide variation. Food is the main source of exposure for all 3 metals, but under normal circumstances it is thought that marine food is unlikely to contribute greatly to the total daily intake. The Report is also available in French, Russian and Spanish from the sponsoring agencies of GESAMP.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 114p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 89-1501 Lead
Blei [in German]
Bly [in Swedish]
Plomb [in French]
Il piomo [in Italian]
El plomo [in Spanish]
Practical information on the hazards of exposure to lead.
International Metalworkers' Federation, 54 bis, route des Acacias, 1227 Genčve, Switzerland, 1984. 5p. Illus.

CIS 86-1104 Itoh Y., Ohtani M., Niiya Y., Shima S.
Relationship between blood vanadium concentration and blood lead level in lead-exposed workers
Analysis of the blood of healthy lead-exposed steel-industry workers revealed that blood lead level correlated with blood vanadium concentration and blood ALA-D activity decreased with the increase of blood vanadium concentration.
Medicine and Biology, Aug. 1984, Vol.109, No.2, p.109-112. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1101 Itoh Y., Ohtani M., Niiya Y., Shima S.
Relationship between blood vanadium level and serum bile acid concentration in lead-exposed workers
Blood lead and vanadium levels in healthy lead-exposed steel-industry workers were measured and compared with serum concentrations of bile acids and several enzymes. Vanadium levels were significantly correlated only with bile acid concentration. This suggests that vanadium inhibits the secretory function of the gall bladder.
Medicine and Biology, Aug. 1984, Vol.109, No.2, p.113-115. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 86-85 Kalnas J., Alleyne B.C.
A health assessment of workers exposed to lead in radiator shops in Alberta - 1983
Zinc protoporphyrine (ZPP), urine aminolevulinic acid (ALAU) and blood lead (BPb) were measured in 142 radiator shop workers in Alberta, Canada. Symptoms consistent with lead intoxication were reported when workers employed for 2 years or less had a ZPP level >0.35µmol/L although the BPb level was <2.0µmol/L. The ALAU levels were indicative of longer term exposure to lead, as workers with values >75µmol/L were employed for more than 4 years and had a mean BPb level of 2.8µmol/L. ZPP levels provide a better biological screening parameter for effects of chronic lead exposure than do blood lead levels.
Alberta Workers' Health, Safety and Compensation, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, 31 July 1984. 68p. Illus. 32 ref. Appendices.

CIS 85-1953 De Freitas Sousa M.G., Sales de Carvalho R.D., Galvăo Spínola A.
Haemoglobin AS in workers exposed to inorganic lead
Hemoglobina AS em trabalhadores expostos ao chumbo inorgânico [in Portuguese]
In a sample of 204 workers in lead metallurgy, no significant difference was found in blood lead levels between workers with normal haemoglobin and workers with haemoglobin abnormalities (Hb AS and Hb AC). This suggests that exposure to lead will not affect workers with haemoglobin abnormalities (relatively common among the black population of Brazil) differently from other workers.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.12, No.46, p.14-16. 16 ref.

CIS 85-1929 Arhipova O.G., Bezel' V.S., Pavlovskaja N.A., Širokov Ju.G., Semenova L.S., Helkovskij N.A., Makedonskaja R.N., Koroleva E.P., Ivanova N.Ju.
Quantitative correlation between lead concentrations in the air and in body fluids of workers
Količestvennye sootnošenija meždu koncentracijami svinca v vozduhe i biosredah organizma čeloveka [in Russian]
Airborne lead levels in 3 enterprises (a printing plant, a non-ferrous metal plant, and a storage-battery factory) were measured and compared with the blood and urine lead levels of workers in the plants. Lead concentrations in body fluids followed a log-normal distribution and correlated well with the concentrations in air. Regression equations describing the correlations were slightly different from those obtained by other workers because of differences in the range of exposure levels covered by the equations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.21-24. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1373 Niculescu T., Dumitru R., Hörer O., Botha V.
Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin in occupational exposure and poisoning by lead
La protoporphyrine érythocytaire libre dans l'exposition et l'intoxication professionnelles par le plomb [in French]
Study of the correlations between free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP), blood lead (PbB) and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-U) in 20 workers exposed to lead, 25 workers with symptoms of lead poisoning and 20 controls. The exposed and poisoned groups had FEP, PbB and ALA-U levels above those of control (p<0.001) and the poisoned group had higher FEP and PbB levels (p<0.005) than the exposed group. FEP and PbB were highly correlated (r=0.70-0.75) in the exposed and poisoned groups. The correlation between FEP and ALA-U was somewhat less (r=0.68), with the weakest correlation between PbB and ALA-U (r=0.32-0.60). Thus, FEP determination is a sensitive test for lead exposure, especially at low airborne concentrations, and is useful for the detection of chronic poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.87-90. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-1076 deSilva P.E.
Blood lead levels and the haematocrit correction
Theoretical arguments, backed up by experimental data, for correcting for haematocrit when blood lead levels are determined. Since almost all lead in the blood is in the erythrocytes, this correction is particularly important when the haematocrit is low (as is frequently the case with lead poisoning).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.4, p.417-428. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 85-1061 Ikeya Y., Sakai T., Yanagihara S., Ushio K.
Method for determination of plasma lead concentrations and relationships between plasma lead and other parameters of lead exposure
The authors examined the working linear range and coefficients of variation in the determination of plasma lead concentrations (Pb-P) by the atomic absorption method of de Silva. There was little effect of plasma constituents on the determination, as shown by a standard-addition method. The blood lead levels (Pb-P) in 48 lead workers were between 3.8 and 65.3µg/100g (mean: 18.9µg/100g), Pb-P ranged from 0.03 to 1.3µg/dL. A relatively high correlation was found between Pb-P and Pb-B (r=0.729). Erythrocyte lead (Pb-E) was calculated and Pb-P/Pb-E was determined to be 0.83%. Pb-P was highly correlated with urine lead concentration (r=0.862). Correlation coefficients of Pb-P with ALAD activity and urinary ALA and coproporphyrin concentrations were -0.637, 0.461 and 0.204 respectively.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1984, Vol.32, No.3, p.236-241. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 85-1055 Valentino M., Coppa G., Ruschioni A.
Pregnancy in a worker exposed to lead
Gravidanza in un'operaia esposta al piombo [in Italian]
Case study of a woman who had worked 16 years in ceramics enameling. During a 6 year period she had one spontaneous abortion and 2 stillbirths. High lead levels in her blood and urine, and the absence of any other biochemical, anatomical or genetic abnormality, suggest that lead poisoning was the cause of the 3 foetal deaths. After EDTA treatment a fourth pregnancy, during which she had no occupational exposure to lead, had a successful outcome.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.296-299. 20 ref.

CIS 85-1105 Fujino T., Matsuo K., Itai Y.
Health examination of the workers engaged in plumbing in the Minamata area
Results of a health examination of the plumbers working in the Chisso Corporation's Minamata factory in 1974 (2 working in the company at that time and 20 who had left the company after an average of 16.9 years employment). In addition to subjective symptoms and physical findings, items such as lead concentration in blood (maximum 38.4µg/dL) and urinary lead (before and after a calcium-EDTA load) were measured and studied. Nerve conduction velocities were also measured in some workers. On the basis of the results, 3 were diagnosed as clearly suffering from lead poisoning and 4 as suspected of lead poisoning.
Labour and Medicine, Apr. 1984, No.20, p.30-49. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 85-710 Chavalitnitikul C., Levin L., Chen L.C.
Study and models of total lead exposures of battery workers
Mathematical correlations of blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels as the dependent variable with the lead exposure sources were derived and demonstrated most strongly as log-log relationships. Computerized statistical analysis indicated that contaminated skin and work surfaces played a very significant part in lead exposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1984, Vol.45, No.12, p.802-808. 32 ref.

CIS 85-695 Factory and Machinery (Lead) Regulations 1984 [Malaysia]
Contents of these regulations (effective: 1 Mar. 1984) promulgated under the Malaysian Factories and Machinery Act of 1967: generalities; permissible exposure limits; exposure monitoring; methods of compliance; respiratory protection; protective clothing and equipment; housekeeping; hygiene facilities and practices; medical surveillance; removal of exposed workers; employee information and training; signs; record keeping; penalties.
Government Gazette (Malaysia), 23 Feb. 1984, No.10, p.159-175. [in English]

CIS 85-476 Williams M.K.
Biological tests of lead absorption following a brief massive exposure
A contractor's man suffered a brief massive exposure to lead (Pb) fume by contaminating and smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. His blood Pb concentration rose rapidLy to 300µg/dL but zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary lead and urinary coproporphyrin did not. It is suggested that only the blood Pb concentration is of value in detecting brief massive exposure.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1984, Vol.26, No.7, p.532-533. 1 ref.

CIS 85-405
Bly [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective: 1 July 1985) apply to all work involving the manufacture, use or handling of lead and lead-containing materials (except for those which contain less than 1% lead, and except for work in mines). Sections cover: definitions, general safety rules, marking, limitation of use of certain lead-containing products, precautions to be taken when performing tasks such as cleaning of lead cables or storage batteries, welding and cutting, equipment and premises, housekeeping, personal protective equipment, work clothes and protective clothing, monitoring of lead in air, medical supervision, special provisions. Detailed commentary.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 24 Sep. 1984. 27p.

CIS 85-452 Wrangskog K.
Inter-laboratory comparison of lead-in-blood determinations
Interlaboratoriekontroll avseende bestämning av bly i blod [in Swedish]
The reliability of lead-in-blood monitoring values is important since they serve as a basis for remedial measures. Inter-laboratory comparisons were made to ascertain this reliability: identical specimens of human blood containing "natural" and added lead were analysed by 20 laboratories, each of them using the method of its choice. Intra-laboratory accuracy was found to be better than inter-laboratory accuracy. Accuracy was not related to the method used. An acceptance interval for accuracy and precision in such determinations was calculated and proposed. The probability of erroneous decisions regarding remedial measures was also calculated.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 25p. 14 ref.

CIS 85-140 Mantere P., Hänninen H., Hernberg S., Luukkonen R.
A prospective follow-up study on psychological effects in workers exposed to low levels of lead
Intelligence, memory, visuomotor function, vigilance, and personality tests were administered to a group of 89 workers before they began work at a storage battery factory in 1975 and to 24, 16 and 11 available members of the same group after 1, 2 and 4 years of work, respectively. The time-weighted average blood lead (Pb) values were in the range of 0.68-2.17µmol/L. Initially the average psychological performances were similar in the Pb workers and a referent non-exposed group. For some of the tests, a learning effect, which was clearly evident among the referents during the follow-up, was almost absent among the Pb workers. Visual intelligence and visuomotor functions were significantly impaired after 2 years. When the Pb workers were divided into 2 groups according to the median time-weighted average of blood Pb values the Block Design and Santa Ana co-ordination tests were those which best separated the subgroups. Although the impairment was slight the dispersion in the psychological changes was wide and some higher nervous functions were affected by Pb levels ≥1.45µmol/L.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1984, Vol.10, No.1, p.43-50. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 85-125 Baker E.L., Feldman R.G., White R.A., Harley J.P., Niles C.A., Dinse G.E., Berkey C.S.
Occupational lead neurotoxicity: a behavioural and electrophysiological evaluation
Neurobehavioural and electrophysiological tests were administered to 99 foundry workers exposed to lead, and to 61 controls. Current and past blood lead concentrations were used to estimate lead absorption levels, which did not exceed 90µg/100mL in any one measurement. No symptoms of lead poisoning (wrist extensor weakness, colic) were seen. Sensory conduction in the sural nerve was slightly slowed by lead exposure level, but ulnar and peroneal nerve conductivity was not affected. Neurobehavioural functions deteriorated with increasing lead concentration in blood; at lead concentrations of 40-60µg/100mL, impaired performance was found on tests of verbal, visual/motor, and memory performance, as well as mood changes. The effects became more severe with increasing lead concentration.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.352-361. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 85-92 Manton W.I., Cook J.D.
High accuracy (stable isotope dilution) measurements of lead in serum and cerebrospinal fluid
Description of a method of determining lead in blood, serum, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. The method involves a stable isotope dilution, and is more accurate than any other lead determination method. It was used to determine the lead concentration in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with motor neurone disease. No additional lead was determined, suggesting that there is no basis for the assertion that the cause of motor neurone disease is exposure to lead.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1984, Vol.41, No.3, p.313-319. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 84-1938 Chavalitnitikul C., Levin L.
A laboratory evaluation of wipe testing based on lead oxide surface contamination
A dust dispersion system was devised using a Wright dust feeder to produce relatively uniform surface concentrations of lead oxide dust in an aerosol chamber. Significant improvement in recoveries of up to 90% were obtained with good repeatability for non-porous surfaces with moist paper. For porous surfaces, adhesive sampling materials applied at maximum pressure provided an optimum recovery of 77%. The effects of wiping techniques on the precision of the method are also discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.311-317. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 84-1943 Peltier A., Demange M., Guillemin C., Boulet A., Elcabache J.M.
Prevention of lead poisoning. Results of field monitoring from 1971 to 1982
Prévention du saturnisme. Bilan des contrôles en entreprises de 1971 á 1982 [in French]
More than 3,000 air samples taken in French industry were analysed, separated by economic sector and presented as a function of the TLV proposed by a directive of the EEC (0.15mg/m3 for metallic lead and its salts). The TLV was exceeded overall in 30% of the samples, with a 50% rate reached in lead remelting and in the battery manufacturing industry. The concentration of lead dust in the workplace air is judged to be too high in many cases.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1984, No.116, Note No.1490-116-84, p.327-331. 6 ref.

CIS 84-1393 Campara P., D'Andrea F., Micciolo R., Savonitto C., Tansella M., Zimmermann-Tansella C.
Psychological performance of workers with blood-lead concentration below the current threshold limit value
40 exposed workers whose blood lead levels (PbB) had never exceeded 60µg/100ml and 20 matched controls were studied. Performance of workers with recent PbB levels of 45-60µg was significantly poorer than in those with <35µg/100ml, and they also reported the most physical symptoms. There were no significant differences in performance or number of subjective symptoms between the workers with PbB levels of <35µg/100ml and the non-exposed control group. The threshold for impaired performance lies below the current biological threshold limit of 60µg/100ml.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.53, No.3, p.233-246. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 84-1391 Triebig G., Weltle D., Valentin H.
Investigations on neurotoxicity of chemical substances at the workplace - V. Determination of the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity in persons occupationally exposed to lead
Four nerve conduction velocities (NCV) were studied in 148 workers at a storage battery manufacturing plant and 66 controls. In comparison with age-matched controls, lead workers showed a mild slowing of NCV, with mean values of 0.8-2.0m/s. There were significant correlations between NCV and both age and blood lead levels (PbB). A dose-response relation was found only in the case of PbB above 70µg/dl. Chronic lead exposure resulting in blood lead levels of below 70µg/dl do not represent an occupational risk of significant reduction of nerve conduction velocity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.53, No.3, p.189-203. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 84-1045 Aerts J., Mertani C., Dômont A., Pasquier P., Proteau J.
Refractory anaemia and anaemia caused by lead poisoning - a case study
Anémie réfractaire et anémie saturnine - A propos d'un cas [in French]
Case of a worker who had worked for 20 years (1961-1980) in a lead recovery plant. In 1980 he left the workplace where he had been exposed to lead, but his haematologic problems continued. The medical diagnosis was refractory anaemia that was not sideroblastic. Discussion of problems with the diagnosis, and establishment of the relationship with lead poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.45-47.


CIS 89-1793
USSR Committee for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC (momentary) = 0.01mg/m3; MAC (average) = 0.0007mg/m3.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1983. 40p. 268 ref.

CIS 85-1630 Facchetti S.
Analytical techniques for heavy metals in biological fluids
Lectures given during a course held at the Ispra Establishment of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities (Italy, 22-26 June 1981) within the framework of programmes relating to OSH and to environmental protection, and with the cooperation of the Health and Safety Directorate (Luxembourg) and the WHO. The main toxic metals considered are lead, arsenic, nickel and cadmium. The techniques described include the monitoring of biological indicators (internal sampling), analysis of trace elements, atomic absorption spectrometry and various applications of voltammetry.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Molenwerf 1, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1983. 288p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-1712 Suenaka T., Miyajima K.
Long-term survey of the work environment in a continuous lead-plating plant
Measurements of lead and zinc concentration in workplace air, of lead concentration in blood, and of lead and coproporphyrin concentration in urine of workers were made at a plating plant from 1971 to 1982. The plant applies a lead-zinc alloy coating to steel strip. Process improvements and emission controls immediately reduced lead concentration in air, but lead concentrations in the urine of workers decreased only 3 years later. In 1977, the lead concentration in air was <41µg/m3 measured by personal samplers and <5.2µg/m3 by area sampling, and the blood lead concentration was 17±3.4µg/100g, while in 1982 the average lead concentration in blood was 12±2.7µg/100g and the lead concentration in urine was 14.6µg/L.
Proceedings of the Osaka Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Sep. 1983, No.21, Edition of Industrial Health, p.11-16. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1654 Horiguchi S., Kiyota I., Teramoto K., Kageyama M., Tojo F., Nakaseko H.
Health examination with liver function tests of lead workers
The average values of the liver function test results for 42 lead workers in a lead refinery were within the normal ranges. There was a correlation between the urinary aminolevulinic acid amount and serum cholinesterase activity. At the levels of atmospheric and blood lead studied (≤0,61mg/m3 and 43,44±21,80µg/100g, respectively) lead has no significant effect on liver function.
Osaka City Medical Journal, Sep. 1983, Vol.29, No.1, p.93-97. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-779 Vilar J., Moura M.A., Costa V.M.
Occupational exposure to inorganic lead - an occupational hygiene survey
Exposiçăo profissional ao chumbo inorgânico - um inquérito de campo de higiene do trabalho [in Portuguese]
Inorganic lead concentration was determined in the blood of 1671 workers from 124 workplaces and 23 different types of work. The time-weighted average TLV for inorganic lead (0.15mg/m3) was exceeded in 9 types of work, and the short-term exposure TLV (0.45mg/m3) was exceeded in 12. The blood lead concentration limit of 70µg/100mL was exceeded in 34% of the 973 workers examined. It is suggested that better control of lead exposure be instituted in Portugal.
Revista portuguesa de saúde pública, July 1983, Vol.1, No.3, p.35-51. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 85-411 Human biological monitoring of industrial chemicals series: Benzene, cadmium, chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, lead, manganese, titanium, toluene
The information provided for each substance includes physico-chemical properties, health effects, metabolism, biological indicators, biological monitoring techniques and their evaluation, conclusions and research needs. Biological monitoring for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents covers monochloromethane, monobromoethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, vinyl chloride, anaesthetics (halothane, methoxyflurane).
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation, Jean Monnet Bldg, Luxembourg, 1983. 188p. Bibl.

CIS 84-2042 Phoon W.O., Ong C.N., Plueksawan W.
Cross sectional study on the health of fire fighters in Singapore
A study of 506 uniformed employees of the Singapore Fire Brigade, based on a questionnaire survey, pulmonary function and blood lead measurements, and audiometric tests. Mean values of forced vital capacity and FEV1 differed significantly among the 3 ethnic groups distinguished. Pulmonary function was better among the fire fighters than in other groups of workers studied previously, but degraded more rapidly with advancing age than in the other groups. This suggests that proper personal respiratory protection equipment should be worn more frequently than is currently the case. The audiometric and blood lead tests revealed no occupational effects.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Nov. 1983, Vol.25, No.6, p.463-470. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 84-1988 Araki S., Murata K., Aono H., Yanagihara S., Ushio K.
A comparison of the diminution rates of lead in blood and lead mobilized by CaEDTA after termination of occupational exposure: A long-term observation in two lead workers
Calcium-EDTA (CaEDTA) was administered weekly at 20mg/kg for 3.5 years after termination of occupational exposure to two male lead workers. The diminution half-lives for lead in blood and urine lead mobilized by CaEDTA were 4.8 and 3.3 years, respectively, for one subject after 28 years exposure and 3.3 and 2.0 years for the other subject after 26 years exposure. The difference in the diminution rate between lead in blood and lead mobilized by CaEDTA was significant in the second subject.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1983, Vol.20, No.5, p.475-486. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 84-1986 Colmenero J., Albaizar A.
ALAD - Usefulness of this parameter as a test of lead poisoning, and its relation to lead concentration in blood and to aminolevulinic acid in urine
El ALA D: Fiabilidad de este parámetro como seguimiento de los saturnismos y su relación con cifras de plomo en sangre y ALA en la orina [in Spanish]
This evaluation of the usefulness of aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) determination in urine in checking for lead poisoning involved urine testing of 119 workers in lead mines and 15 controls. Good correlation was found between lead levels in blood and aminolevulinate concentration in blood - nevertheless, the disadvantages of the method are also given (determination in urine, interference from other substances, inhibition by other metals).
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1983, Vol.3, No.10, P.15-19. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 84-1918 De Rosa E., Toffolo D., Sigon M., Brighenti F., Gori G.P., Bartolucci G.B.
Evaluation of the current risk of lead poisoning in the ceramics industry
Average blood lead levels (PbB) were determined in 5 checks on 94 workers in 4 ceramic tile plants and once in 221 subjects in 5 other plants. There was a reduction in mean PbB compared with previous investigations which is attributed to the use of glazes containing less lead. PbB levels observed were satisfactory and overlapped with data for workers involved in artistic pottery production, which is considered a less dangerous source of lead exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.9, No.6, p.463-469. 22 ref.

CIS 84-1964 Gribova I.A., Evlaško Ju.P., Pavlovskaja N.A., Semenova L.S., Sorkina N.S.
Importance of morphological studies of the blood at various levels of lead exposure
O značenii morfologičeskogo issledovanija krovi pri raznyh urovnjah vozdejstvija svinca [in Russian]
520 workers in unspecified industries were divided into 3 groups on the basis of their lead exposure: ambient levels no higher than the USSR MAC, ambient levels transiently exceeding the MAC, and ambient levels routinely exceeding the MAC by an order of magnitude. Lead levels in blood and other tissues were correlated with exposure. The 1st group showed no anaemia, mild reticulocytosis and few cellular abnormalities. 5.0% of the 2nd group were anaemic, but blood morphology was little different from that of the 1st group. The 3rd group contained 8.8% anaemics, and cases of extreme reticulocytosis, with high counts of erythrocytes containing basophilic granules, were encountered. When individual blood and urine lead levels were plotted with reticulocyte and granulated erythrocyte counts, quantitative correlations between lead content and blood-cell abnormalities were clear.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1983, No.2, p.22-25. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 84-1963 Karai I., Lee S.I., Horiguchi S., Fukumoto K., Matsumura S., Takise S.
Combined effects of lead and EDTA on Na+,K+-ATPase activity of erythrocyte membranes
Erythrocyte sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity increased significantly in 12 male lead workers in a lead refining plant when measured with EDTA and compared to controls without EDTA. Enzyme activity measued with EDTA was least in controls, greater in 11 male office workers in the refining plant, and greatest in lead workers. Positive correlations were found between blood lead and enzyme activity with EDTA and activity without EDTA. A negative correlation was found between sodium in erythrocytes and enzyme activity with EDTA and the activity without EDTA. No relationship was found between enzyme activities and potassium in erythrocytes. In in-vitro tests the addition of lead to fragments of erythrocyte membranes caused a significant decrease in the activity of the enzyme without EDTA but no change with EDTA. On addition of lead to blood no significant change occurred in the enzyme activity with or without EDTA.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 1983, Vol.12, Nos.4-6, p.721-730. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 84-1675 Rosén I., Wildt K., Gulberg B., Berlin M.
Neurophysiological effects of lead exposure
22 neurophysiological variables were measured in 3 groups of male workers in a storage battery factory exposed to low, medium and high levels of lead (Pb). The results were related to the degree of Pb exposure and to the concentrations of Pb and zinc protoporphyrin in blood. A small but significant correlation was observed between Pb exposure and motor and sensory conduction velocities in the lower limbs, the conduction velocities of slow motor fibres in the upper limbs, and also sensory nerve action potentials. Neurophysiological examinations should be a part of the health surveillance of lead workers.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1983, Vol.9, No.5, p.431-441. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 84-1666 Ljubčenko N.N., Tišenina R.S., Kozlova N.I., Drozdova G.A., Hzardžjan V.G.
Atherogenic lipid levels in the blood of workers exposed to lead
Soderžanie aterogennyh lipidov v krovi u rabočih pri vozdejstvii svinca [in Russian]
Blood lipids, sugar and insulin were measured in 33 patients with a history of lead exposure and in 21 workers exposed to other harmful factors (noise, vibration, heavy work). Both groups showed high levels of atherogenic lipids (β-lipoprotein, cholesterol and triglycerides). Lead-exposed workers with mild symptoms of poisoning had lower levels of β-lipoprotein than did asymptomatic lead-exposed workers, and no deviation of β-lipoprotein levels from normal values was seen in exposed workers with severe symptoms. Lipid load tests revealed no disturbance of the mechanisms regulating lipaemia. Thus, lead exposure under present industrial conditions does not disrupt lipid metabolism any more than does exposure to other harmful factors.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1983, No.1, p.21-23. 19 ref.

CIS 84-1354 Boscolo P., Porcelli G., Menini E., Finelli V.N.
EDTA plus zinc as therapy of lead intoxication: preliminary results
2 cases of lead poisoning are presented. Both patients were hospitalised twice: the first time they received 0.5g EDTA twice daily for 2 days, the second time this treatment was supplemented by 150mg zinc daily for 5 days, beginning the day before EDTA administration. The combined therapy was more effective in lowering urinary ALA excretion.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.370-375. 21 ref.

CIS 84-1335 Kirkby H., Nielsen C.J., Nielsen V.K., Gyntelberg F.
Subjective symptoms after long-term lead exposure in secondary lead smelting workers
92 men and 4 women replied to a questionnaire and were compared with matched non-exposed controls. Blood lead concentrations were 60µg/100ml in approx. 30% of the lead workers (the mean for the control group was 11µg/100ml), and zinc protoporphyrin levels were: 500µmol/mol Hb in nearly 18% of the lead workers (control mean: 68µmol/mol Hb). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of fatigue, headache, sleep disturbances and digestive disturbances; nervousness was 4 times more prevalent among controls. Subjective symptoms are useless as indicators of incipient lead poisoning.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.314-317. 11 ref.

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