Lead and compounds - 901 entries found
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Exposure to lead during abrasive blasting and gas cutting
Gefährdung durch Blei bei Strahl- und Brennschneidarbeiten [in German]
Abrasive blasting of bridge railings for removal of rust leads to lead exposure of workers in those cases in which red lead coatings were originally used. When 15 to 25L/h water was added to the blasting jet, lead exposure was reduced. In gas cutting of steel scrap coated with red lead, concentrations of 0.5-7.4mg lead/m3 were measured in the breathing zone. The use of supplied-air helmets or respirators in these types of work is considered necessary.
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1987, No.3, p.11-12. 6 ref.
Schütz A., Skerfving S., Christofferson I.O., Ahlgren L., Mattson S.
Lead in vertebral bone biopsies from active and retired lead workers
Samples of vertebrael bone were obtained and lead concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The median level of lead in bone in 27 active lead workers was 29µg/g wet weight (range 2-155), corresponding to 370µg/g calcium (range 30-1,120). In 9 retired workers, the corresponding levels were 19µg/g (5-76) and 250µg/g calcium (60-700); in 14 reference subjects without occupational exposure, 1.3µg/g (1-4) and 13µg/g calcium (8-40). The bone lead content rose with time of exposure. Comparison of levels in vertebrae with those in fingerbone, in the same subjects, strongly suggested the presence of lead pools with different kinetics. The accumulation pattern, as well as the relation between levels in vertebrae and fingerbone, suggests a much shorter half-time of lead in the mainly trabecular vertebrael bone as compared to the mainly cortical fingerbone. Further, there was an association between vertebrael and blood lead levels in the retired workers, which shows a considerable endogenous lead exposure from the skeletal pool.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1987, Vol.42, No.6, p.340-346. 43 ref.
Verschoor M., Wibowo A., Herber R., Van Hemmen J.
Influence of occupational low-level lead exposure on renal parameters
The influence of lead exposure on renal function was examined. In 155 lead workers and 126 control workers, lead in blood (PbB) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) were measured as indicators of exposure to lead; various proteins in urine were measured as parameters of renal functions. Regression and matched-pair analyses suggest that tubular parameters may be more influenced by lead exposure than glomerular parameters. Changes in renal function parameters may already occur at PbB levels below 3µgmol/L (600µg/L). The excretion of N-acetyl-α-D-glucosaminidase appears to be the most consistent and sensitive parameter of an early effect on the tubular function.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1987, Vol.12, No.4, p.341-351. Illus. 21 ref.
Díaz Ojeda M.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Lead and our health
El plomo y nuestra salud [in Spanish]
Illustrated training guide, aimed at workers. Contents: uses of lead in industry; exposure; entry into the body; effects on the respiratory and digestive system; acute and chronic lead poisoning; legislative provisions in Spain (for 8hr workdays, action level: 75µg/m3, TLV: 150µg/m3 of air; TLV for concentration in blood: 70µg/100mL blood); hygiene in the workplace; medical supervision; glossary.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1987. 49p. Illus. Price: ESP 100.00.
Abrasive blasting to remove old coatings containing lead
Strahlarbeiten zum Entfernen bleihaltiger Altanstrichstoffe [in German]
Review of the guidelines worked out by employers, employees and accident insurance agencies for removing old lead containing coatings of steel structures. The following items are mentioned: medical surveillance, personal protective equipment, design of the cabins in which the old coatings are removed and waste disposal.
Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, July 1987, No.3, p.10-12. Illus.
Fukaya Y., Ohno Y., Matsumoto T., Arafuka M.
Blood lead and blood pressure - An analysis of health examination materials in two companies for lead poisoning
Chichū enryō to chiatsu - Bōni jigyōjo de no en kenshin shiryō kara [in Japanese]
Whether blood pressure is higher among those occupationally exposed to low concentrations of lead is a matter of interest in recent epidemiological studies. To explore this issue, 348 male workers in a vinyl chloride-manufacturing company and a newspaper company were examined. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure appeared to increase with age and obesity. Blood levels decreased as obesity increased. Systolic blood pressure was higher among those with high blood lead levels (7µg/dL or more), when they were both young (less than 43 years old) and less obese (less than 3.5% of the obesity index). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure appeared to be higher among those with high blood lead levels when they were obese, irrespective of age. Partial correlation coefficients were calculated.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Aug. 1987, Vol.42, No.3, p.754-761. 18 ref.
Parkinson D.K., Hodgson M.J., Bromet E.J., Dew M.A., Connell M.M.
Occupational lead exposure and blood pressure
Recent community studies have suggested that low-level lead exposure is significantly associated with high blood pressure in the general population. This study examines the relation between occupational lead exposure and diastolic and systolic blood pressure in 270 exposed and 158 non-exposed workers. Four exposure indicators were examined: employment at a lead battery plant versus a control plant, current blood lead value, current zinc protoporphyrin value, and TWA blood lead value. Association between known risk factors (age, education, income, cigarette usage, alcohol consumption) and exposure and blood pressure were non-significant. These results challenge the validity of the general population association.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.44, No.11, p.744-748. 26 ref.
Possible toxic metal exposure of prehistoric bronze workers
An attempt was made to assess the possible occupational exposure to arsenic, lead, and mercury during the Bronze Age. Archaeological, metallurgical, and historical evidence is combined to form a picture of the potential toxic hazards. In the case of arsenic, a definite picture emerges of the effect of toxicity as a useful material is abandoned for health reasons on discovery of an acceptable alternative.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1987, Vol.44, No.10, p.652-656. Illus. 10 ref.
Ito Y., Minohara M., Kurita H., Niiya Y, Sarai S.
Relationship between blood lead concentration and frequencies of food intake in workers occupationally exposed to lead
Enbakuro sagyōsha no chishu enryō to shokuhin sesshu hindo to no kanrensei [in Japanese]
The relationship between food intake and blood lead concentration in 382 male steel workers occupationally exposed to lead, aged 18-55 years, was investigated. Blood lead concentrations were significantly lower in workers with high intake of pulses, salad and calcium-containing foods, and also in workers with active intake of potatoes and vegetables. This seems to indicate that active intake of foods containing vitamins and trace metals could be an important factor in maintaining the health of workers occupationally exposed to heavy metals such as lead.
Fujita-Gakuen Igakkaishi - Bulletin of the Fujita-Gakuen Medical Society, Aug. 1987, Vo.11, No.1, p.93-96. 18 ref.
Ito Y., Minohara M., Niiya Y., Ishigaki K., Otani M., Sarai S.
Relationship between subjective symptoms and frequencies of food intake in workers occupationally exposed to lead
Enbakuro sagyōsha no jikaku shōjō to shokuhin sesshu hindo to no kanrensei [in Japanese]
The relationship between subjective symptoms and food intake in 286 male steel-workers occupationally exposed to lead, aged 18-55 years, was investigated. Workers with subjective symptoms of lead poisoning such as tiredness and dullness were getting significantly lower intakes of vegetables, fruits and vitamin C-containing foods. Lower intakes of vitamin B1- or calcium-containing foods also increased these subjective symptoms in the workers. This suggests that active intake of protein and carbohydrate, and of vitamin-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits, could be useful for reducing subjective symptoms and maintaining the general health of steel workers
Fujita-Gakuen Igakkaishi - Bulletin of the Fujita-Gakuen Medical Society, Aug. 1987, Vol.11, No.1, p.163-167. 12 ref.
Goldberg R., Garabrant D.H., Peters J.M., Simonowitz J.A.
Excessive lead absorption resulting from exposure to lead naphthenate
In an aluminium forging operation where lead naphthenate was sprayed without local ventilation, the mean concentration of lead in air was 96µg/m3 with a range of 12-430µg/m3. The 29 forge operators who worked in this area had a mean blood lead concentration of 63µg/dL which was significantly higher than the mean blood lead concentration of 17µg/dL among the 103 unexposed workers. Similarly the mean zinc protoporphyrin concentration among the forge operators was 265µg/dL, which was significantly higher than the mean concentration of 26µg/dL among the unexposed workers. Nineteen workers from the forge areas had blood lead concentrations in excess of 60µg/dL with the highest concentration being 108µg/dL. This is the first reported instance in which the use of lead naphthenate has been associated with increased lead absorption in humans.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1987, Vol.29, No.9, p.750-751. 6 ref.
Ahmed N.S., El-Gendy K.S., El-Refaie A.K., Marzouk S.A., Bakry N.S., El-Sebae A.H., Soliman S.A.
Assessment of lead toxicity in traffic controllers of Alexandria, Egypt, road intersections
Blood lead level (BPbL) was determined in forty-five traffic controllers working at Alexandria road intersections. Central nervous system dysfunction in the subjects studied was investigated by means of performance tests. Biochemical indicators related to lead exposure such as δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and haemoglobin in their blood were also determined. Results indicated that most of the subjects studied have a comparably high BPbL. They also showed significantly poorer performance scores than those obtained in a previous study of a group of textile workers of the same age and educational level. The mean BPbL in the traffic controllers was 68.28 ± 13.22µg/dL. This is a very high level when compared to an acceptable level of 30.00µg/dL. All neurobehavioral symptoms demonstrated in the traffic controllers could be attributed to a high level of lead exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1987, Vol.42, No.2, p.92-95. Illus. 8 ref.
Lead and inorganic compounds of lead in air
Guidance note on a laboratory method using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 15min-8h. Suitable for measuring lead-in-air concentrations in the range 0.03-30mg Pb/m3 for samples of 30L of air. The precision of the method is expected to be better than 10%, measured as a coefficient of variation for samples of a minimum of 1h in the range 0.075-0.3mg Pb/m3. Tin and selenium may interfere with the method. Additional information on lead and its inorganic compounds: occurrence, toxicity, first aid, control.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, May 1987. 4p. 9 ref. Price: GBP 0.50.
Lead and inorganic compounds of lead in air
Guidance note on a laboratory method using atomic absorption spectrometry. Scope: suitable for sampling over periods of 15min-8h. The lower analytical limit is 0.01mg Pb/m3 for samples of 30L of air. The precision of the method is expected to be better than 10%, measured as a coefficient of variation for samples of a minimum of 1h in the range 0.075 to 0.3mg Pb/m3. The only spectral interference reported is from antimony. A number of anionic interferences can occur. Phosphate, carbonate, iodide, fluoride and acetate suppress the lead absorbance significantly when their respective concentrations are about 10 times greater than that of lead. Additional information on lead and its inorganic compounds: occurrence, toxicity, first aid, control.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, Apr. 1987. 4p. 8 ref. Price: GBP 0.50.
Lead and inorganic compounds of lead in air
Guidance note on a colorimetric field method using sym-diphenyl-thiocarbazone (dithizone). Scope: with a 30L (15min) air sample, the colour standards cover the range 0.1-0.5mg/m3. The method may be used for longer period sampling to give greater sensitivity. It can also be used where levels are above the colour range by diluting a suitable aliquot of the original sample. Interferences: while tin in solution interferes strongly at a level of 15µg, tin tapped on a filter, at least up to 60µg, is not soluble in the nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide solution and hence does not interfere with the test. Bismuth and thallium, if dissolved during treatment of the sample, do interfere with the test, the former only if present in great excess. Additional information on lead and its inorganic compounds: occurrence, toxicity, first aid, control.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St. Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, May 1987. 4p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 0.50.
Cavalleri A., Minoia C.
Lead level of whole blood and plasma in workers exposed to lead stearate
In a group of 23 male workers exposed to lead stearate the levels of lead in whole blood and plasma were determined and compared to those obtained from a group of 23 subjects exposed to inorganic lead compounds. The mean values for lead in whole blood were similar in both groups, while the mean lead concentration in plasma was 0.1729µmol/L (SD 0.0677) for those exposed to lead stearate and 0.0936µmol/L (SD 0.0577) for those exposed to other lead compounds. The difference was highly significant. The percentage ratio for lead in plasma to lead in whole blood, which can be considered a "bioavailability index" for lead, proved to be two times higher for stearate workers than for subjects exposed to inorganic lead compounds. The data suggest that the different chemical properties of absorbed lead stearate may cause a different distribution of the metal in different blood compartments, the plasma compartment having a higher affinity for lead stearate than for other lead compounds. Because the plasma fraction has a greater bioavailability, lead stearate could induce toxic effects that differ (possibly being severer) from those caused by other lead compounds at similar absorbed doses.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1987, Vol.13, No.3, p.218-220. 7 ref.
Cherchi P., Carta P., Anni M.S., Giacomina C., Alessio L., Casula D.
Occupational lead exposure, G-6PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency and β-thalassaemia are frequent genetic conditions on the island of Sardinia (Italy). This study involved 334 workers in a lead foundry on the island, among whom it was possible to establish a subgroup of workers with total G-6-PD deficiency (38 workers) and a subgroup of β-thalassaemia carriers (32 workers). Tests for blood lead content (PbB) and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) did not demonstrate significant differences between the 2 subgroups and the chosen controls, except that in the β-thalassaemia carriers the mean PbB value, when adjusted according to a 45% haematocrit value, was significantly higher than in the controls. From these results it appears that persons occupationally exposed to lead who have G-6-PD deficiency or who are carriers of β-thalassaemia in the heterozygote form, are not subject to any greater risk of adverse effects than those without these genetic conditions.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1987, Vol.78, No.1, p.75-84. Illus. 36 ref.
Commission of the European Communities
Biological indicators for the assessment of human exposure to industrial chemicals: Alkyl lead compounds, dimethylformamide, mercury, organophosphorus pesticides
The available data on the human health effects, metabolism and biological indicators of these substances are reviewed. Conclusions reached: determination of the substance (or its metabolites) in urine may be used for assessment of occupational exposure to organic lead, dimethylformamide, mercury vapours and inorganic mercury compounds; the measurement of mercury in blood may be used for evaluating exposure to organic mercury compounds; for organophosphorus pesticides, urinary excretion of metabolites is the best indicator of internal dose, while measurement of blood cholinesterase is the most important indicator of exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1986. 77p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Gadea Carrera E., Bartual Sánchez J.
Lead - Standards for evaluation and control
Plomo. Normas para su evaluación y control [in Spanish]
Contents of this information note: definition of lead-exposed worker and action level; exposure limits in Spain (environmental limit 8h-TWA: 150µg/m3 air; biochemical limit: 70µg Pb/100mL blood; other limits using biochemical indicators); environmental monitoring and control; preventive medical control. Appropriate Spanish legislation is referred to.
INSHT, Torrelaguna, 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 6p.
Pascual Benes A.
ZPP used as a biological indicator in the early detection and diagnosis of lead poisoning
La ZPP como marcador biológico en la detección precoz y diagnosis del saturnismo [in Spanish]
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) in blood is used as a biological indicator of exposure to lead. This information note describes the effects of lead on blood formation, and it explains why the presence of ZPP can indicate exposure to lead. The analytical methods used for the determination of ZPP are described. The possibility of errors in using ZPP as an indicator of lead poisoning is raised (at low concentrations, ZPP 26-48µg/mL, false positives are more likely; at higher concentrations, 62-93µg/mL, false negatives are more likely).
INSHT, Torrelaguna, 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1986. 4p. Illus. 8 ref.
Metabolism of inorganic lead at occupational exposure
Contents of this thesis: sources of lead exposure in Sweden; absorption, distribution and excretion; toxic effects; the metabolic model; chelatable lead; materials and methods; decay of blood lead level after end of exposure; studies of the skeletal lead pool; lead mobilisation test; discussion. The thesis is based on 6 papers which are appended.
Lund University, Department of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Hygiene, Lund, Sweden, 1986. 46p. 142 ref.
Monitoring of lead poisoning in battery manufacturing workers and in printers - Phase 2
Akü ve matbaa işçilerinde kurşun zehirlenmesi taranmasi - Ikinci aşama [in Turkish]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 1509 battery workers explored the regional distribution of high blood lead levels in the country. High levels (>49.9µg/dL) ranged from 29.4% of exposed workers in Izmir to 54% in Adana. When zinc protoporphyrin levels were taken into consideration, the blood lead level was in general even higher. Blood lead levels showed negative correlation with age, work duration and personal hygiene habits, but there was no correlation with health complaints and clinical findings. 142 workers were included in both phases of the survey. Among the 96 who had normal or acceptable blood lead levels in the first phase, about 80% had increased blood lead levels in the second phase, whereas among the 46 who had high lead levels in the first phase, 58.7% could be reclassified as belonging to the normal or acceptable category in the second phase.
İSGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1986. 73p.
Health and Safety Executive
Control of lead: air sampling techniques and strategies
Guidance note describing acceptable techniques for the determination of lead-in-air concentrations for use in connection with the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 (United Kingdom) and the associated code of practice. Contents: preliminary survey and assessment; routine monitoring; group sampling; 8h TWAs; 40h TWAs; sampling method for lead dust and fumes; analytical methods. Appended: the Lead-in-Air Standard; calculation of 8h TWAs from full shift samples; calculation of 8h TWAs from split samples; calculation and interpretation of TWAs for workers exposed intermittently; technical specification for sampling and analysing lead-in-air. This guidance note is a revised edition of the first guidance note with this number from 1981 (CIS 82-718).
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev. ed., Apr. 1986. 8p.
Pollock C.A., Ibels L.S.
Lead intoxication in paint removal workers on the Sydney Harbour Bridge
Case studies of 6 workers who had worked on the removal of lead-based paint from a major Australian bridge. Early symptoms (mostly of neuro-psychiatric in nature) were ignored, despite the fact that these symptoms were compatible with lead poisoning. Lead poisoning was finally confirmed, based on abnormal kidney functioning and the results of calcium-EDTA chelation tests. Calcium-EDTA chelation therapy lead to an immediate improvement in the workers' symptoms.
Medical Journal of Australia, 1-15 Dec. 1986, Vol.145, No.11-12, p.635-639. 31 ref.
Ong C.N., Phoon W.O., Lee B.L., Lim L.E., Chua L.H.
Lead in plasma and its relationships to other biological indicators
Blood lead (PbB), erythrocyte lead (PbE) and plasma lead (PbP) were measured in 304 workers exposed to low and moderate concentrations of inorganic lead. The relations of these 3 parameters to biological indicators of health effect were also examined. The biological indicators were erythrocyte dehydratase (ALAD) and ALA in urine (ALAU). A strong association was found between PbB and PbE, whereas little relation was seen between PbB and PbP. Significant correlations were observed between PbB and ALAD and slightly lower correlations were found between PbE and ALAD. Similar findings were found for the association of PbB and PbE with ALAU. However, no significant correlations were noted for PbP with both ALAD and ALAU. These findings suggest that, despite the possibility that lead in plasma may be of greater biological significance, practical considerations favour lead in blood (PbB) as a more sensitive indicator for monitoring lead exposure.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1986, Vol.30, No.2, p.219-228. Illus. 32 ref.
Lead (metal fumes and dust)
Chumbo metálico - fumos e poeiras [in Portuguese]
Chemical safety information sheet. Extremely toxic. Haematological and neurological disorders. Exposure limits: Biological exposure index = 60µg/dL of blood (Brazil, 1983); 48h TWA=0.1mg/m3 (Brazil, 1978).
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Jan.-Mar. 1986, Vol.14, No.53, insert, 2p. 9 ref.
Tomokuni K., Ichiba M.
Simple determination of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase activity in human blood by high-performance liquid chromatography
A simpler method to indicate lead exposure was developed by using whole blood instead of washed erythrocytes. Uridine formed by the reaction of the pyrimidine nucleotidase on the uridine monophosphate substrate was determined spectrophotometrically. The method is rapid and accurate.
Industrial Health, 1986, Vol.24, No.4, p.227-233. Illus. 12 ref.
Smith W.J., Dekker D.L., Greenwood-Smith R.
Development and application of a "real time" lead-in-air analyzer in controlling lead exposure at a primary lead smelter
An instrument was developed which can determine the lead content of particulate matter and can be used for engineering control monitoring. The instrument comprises a pump which draws air through a paper filter tape and an x-ray fluorescence analyser. The system is accurate; the presence of zinc causes no problems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1986, Vol.47, No.12, p.779-784. Illus. 4 ref.
Awad El Karim M.A., Hamed A.S., Elhaim Y.A.A., Osman Y.
Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan
Effects of exposure were investigated among 92 workers in the factory and 40 non-exposed workers in a control group from an oil mill. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socio-economic conditions. A highly significant increase (P<.01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only in 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic and constipation were recorded.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1986, Vol.41, No.4, p.261-265. 21 ref.
Assennato G., Paci C., Baser M.E., Molinini R., Gagliano Candela R., Altamura B.M., Giorgino R.
Sperm count suppression without endocrine dysfunction in lead-exposed men
Battery workers (N=18), who were exposed to high airborne lead levels were compared with cement workers (N=18), who were exposed to ambient lead levels. Blood lead, urinary lead, semen lead, and zinc protoporphyrin concentrations were markedly elevated in battery workers. Battery workers had a significantly shifted frequency distribution of sperm count. There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, prolactin, luteinising hormone, or total neutral 17-ketosteroid levels. Alcohol, cigarette, and coffee consumption, frequency of intercourse, and days of abstinence prior to semen donation were not significantly different in the groups. These results suggest a direct toxic effect of increased lead absorption on sperm production or transport in man.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1986, Vol.41, No.6, p.387-390. 22 ref.
Lead poisoning associated with oxygen cutting of metallic structures - Six case studies
Saturnisme par oxycoupage de structures métalliques. A propos de six observations personnelles [in French]
Medical thesis. Lead poisoning; paths of entry into the organism, metabolism and excretion; health effects and clinical signs of lead poisoning; literature review and personal observations of workers involved in oxygen cutting, including an incident of group poisoning during work on a bridge; description of medical examinations used for the prevention and diagnosis of lead poisoning; role of the industrial physician; new methods of testing for lead poisoning to be introduced in the near future into French law in accordance with the 1982 EEC directive on the protection of workers against lead.
Université Paris V, Faculté de médecine Paris-Ouest, Paris, France, 1986. 109p. Illus. 60 ref.
Christoffersson J.O., Ahlgren L., Schutz A., Skerfving S., Mattsson S.
Decrease of skeletal lead levels in man after end of occupational exposure
Lead levels in finger bone were monitored using an in vivo X-ray fluorescence technique in retired lead workers. Eight subjects followed for 2.5 years directly after end of exposure all displayed a decrease. Their average half-time was 7 years in a second group of six persons, followed from year 7 to year 13 after finishing lead work, a decrease was seen in all but one. The average half-time for this group was 8 years. The mean value for both groups was 7 years. The decrease of lead in bone after the end of exposure is considerably faster than estimated earlier from various data on lead metabolism.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1986, Vol.41, No.5, p.312-318. Illus. 26 ref.
Chemical identity; potential exposure; exposure limits; properties; health effects; industrial hygiene practices and control; personal protective equipment; fire, explosions, dangerous combinations; storage, spillage, disposal, transportation.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, Aug. 1986. 2p.
Biological monitoring for heavy metals: Practical concerns
Some of the practical concerns associated with performing routine analyses of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic) in various biological matrices are the selection of the biological matrix for monitoring, the sample collection, sample storage and shipment, and sample preparation and analysis. Other factors that affect the quality of the analytical values include contamination of sampling materials, blood drawing procedures, methods of obtaining urine samples, sample homogeneity, instrument calibration and performance, and laboratory quality control programmes. A total system quality control approach is necessary to obtain accurate analyses of metals in biological samples, just as it is in all analytical situations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.615-618. 2 ref.
Bloch P., Shapiro I.M.
An x-ray fluorescence technique to measure in situ the heavy metal burdens of persons exposed to these elements in the workplace
The use of an x-ray fluorescence technique (XRF) enables measurement of the long-term retention of various heavy metals in select tissues in vivo. XRF was used to measure the mercury content of head and bone tissue in 298 dentists with long-term exposure to mercury-containing amalgams. It was also used to evaluate the lead burden of persons suspected of having elevated lead exposure at the workplace, and to assay the lead levels in urban and rural children. These studies indicated that the x-ray fluorescence method of assaying heavy metals in vivo is noninvasive, safe, rapid, and sensitive to levels of many heavy metals that accumulate in human tissues.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.609-614. Illus. 23 ref.
Order to approve the regulations governing risk prevention and the protection of workers' health in respect of the presence of metallic lead and its ionic compounds in the working environment
Orden de 9 de abril de 1986 por la que se aprueba el Reglamento para la prevención de riesgos y protección de la salud de los trabajadores por la presencia de plomo metálico y sus compuestos iónicos en el ambiente de trabajo [in Spanish]
This regulation came into force in October 1986. Are defined: exposure limits; exposure evaluation methods and strategies; engineering controls; personal protection; medical monitoring and general conditions of hygiene. The 8h time weighted average exposure limit is set at 150µg lead/m3 of air (40h week). The biological exposure limit is set at 70µg lead/100 cm3 blood.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 24 Apr. 1986, No.98, p.14637-14641.
Jayaratnam J., Boey K.W., Ong C.N., Chia C.B., Phoon W.O.
Neuropsychological studies on lead workers in Singapore
The neuropsychological performance of a group of 49 workers in Singapore occupationally exposed to lead (mean blood lead level: 2.35 mol/L) was compared with a matched control group of 36 non-exposed workers. Compared with the controls, the performance of the exposed workers was significatly poorer in a number of tests of perceptual motor ability and attention concentration functioning. Answers to a questionnaire on subjective symptoms also revealed significantly more complaints of anxiety, depression, poor concentration, forgetfulness and other somatic problems among the exposed workers than among the controls.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep.1986, Vol.43, No.9, p.626-629. 9 ref.
Greenberg A., Parkinson D.K., Fetterolf D.E., Puschett J.B., Ellis K.J., Wielopolski L., Vaswani A.M., Cohn S.H., Landrigan P.J.
Effects of elevated lead and cadmium burdens on renal function and calcium metabolism
Epidemiologic study of 38 industrial workers exposed to cadmium and lead for 11 to 37 years, aimed at assessing the pathophysiological significance of increased body burden of the 2 elements. Individuals with a high lead burden had a slight decrease in mean serum phosphorus but no accompanying phosphaturia. There was no abnormality of serum calcium. 22% of subjects were hypercalciuric and 2 had low vitamin D levels, but these abnormalities bore no relation to heavy metal burden. In this carefully characterised group of men with chronic lead and cadmium exposure, definite, if subclinical, effects on renal function and serum phosphorus but not calcium or vitamin D metabolism were demonstrable.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.41, No.2, p.69-76. Illus. 36 ref.
Samuel A.M., Baxter P.J.
An unusual source of lead exposure in a precious metal assay worker
Flux containing lead oxide, borax, and sodium carbonate, is used during assaying ore for gold and silver content. Workers exposed to dust from this flux were found to have significantly raised blood levels of lead. There were no symptoms of lead poisoning. Subsequent installation of local exhaust ventilation and modification of work practices led to an elimination of significant exposure to lead.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1986, Vol.43, No.6, p.420-421. Illus. 2 ref.
Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing
Effective protection for workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-masks, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1986, Vol.47, No.2, p.144-146. 6 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of lead at work - Approved code of practice
This Code of Practice (effective 1 Jan. 1986) is a revision of the one published in 1980 (see CIS 81-111). It was approved under section 16 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 for the purpose of providing practical guidance with respect to the provisions of the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980. Contents: interpretation; duty of employer; assessment of work; information, instruction and training; control measures; respiratory protective equipment; protective clothing; washing and changing facilities; eating, drinking and smoking; cleaning; use and maintenance of control measures; air monitoring; medical surveillance and biological tests; records. Six appendices give additional information on these questions.
HMSO Publication Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1985. 29p. Bibl. Price: GBP 3.90.
Monitoring of lead poisoning in battery manufacturing workers and in printers
Akü ve matbaa işçilerinde kurşun zehirlenmesi taranmasi [in Turkish]
This survey (with an inserted English-language summary) of 744 battery workers and 604 printers demonstrated high (>49.9µg/dL) blood levels in 25.2% of the battery workers and 4.1% of the printers, while it showed "acceptable" (30-49.9µg/dL) blood lead levels in 16.1% of the battery workers and 6.9% of the printers. Protoporphyrin IX analysis showed a higher percentage of affected workers: 69.8% among the battery workers and 13.2% among the printers registered high (>79.9µg/dL) protoporphyrin IX levels. In general, blood lead level determination proved to be more sensitive a test of lead exposure than protoporphyrin IX analysis.
IŞGÜM, PK: 393 Yenişehir, Ankara, Turkey, 1985. 49p.
Legaspi Velasco J.A., Martínez Murillo F.
Lead poisoning in adults
Intoxicación plúmbica en adultos/Intoxicación plúmbica en adultos [in Spanish]
Contents of this booklet written for occupational physicians: toxicological aspects; clinical aspects; laboratory tests; diagnosis; treatment; medico-legal aspects; evaluation of permanent work impairment.
Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Paseo de la Reforma 476, 06698 México, D.F., Mexico, 1985. 1st ed. 31p. 42 ref.
Manitoba Regulation 208/77 respecting the protection of persons engaged in any industrial process, particularly processes involving the use of manufacture of lead or benzol [Canada - Manitoba]
Regulation filed 6 Oct. 1977, and issued under the Workplace Safety and Health Act (1976).
Queen's Printer, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, Jul. 1985. 2p.
Brodeur J., P'an A.Y.S., Craan A.G.
Toxicological significance of the presence of lead in saliva
La signification toxicologique du plomb présent dans la salive [in French]
Among lead-exposed workers, the relation between the concentrations of lead in saliva and whole blood was r=0.72, p<0.01, n=266. In workers removed from lead exposure because of high blood lead concentration, saliva lead level decreased much more rapidly than did blood lead level. The saliva lead half-life was 5-7 days while that of blood lead was approximately 45 days. Several animal studies were conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats; as long as lead treatment was continued, a significant correlation was found between saliva lead and blood lead. In clearance experiments, both blood lead and saliva lead disappearence curves had a fast initial drop followed by a slow regression component. Saliva lead concentration corresponds to 50-60% of the lead concentration in plasma filtrate. The results suggest that saliva lead reflects the diffusible fraction of plasma lead rather than the total body burden.
Travail et santé, Spring 1985, Vol.1, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 11 ref.
Riediger G., Wolf D.
Studies of the effectiveness of filter respirators against lead fume
Untersuchungen zur Wirksamkeit von Atemfiltern gegen Bleirauche [in German]
Examination of the effectiveness of particulate filters and combination gas/particulate filters on the German (Federal Republic) market. Tests were performed in the laboratory with a molten lead bath. The results confirmed American studies showing that glass fibre filters of classes P2 and P3 provide adequate protection.
Staub, 1985, Vol.45, No.11, p.522-524. Illus. 9 ref.
Yamamura Y., Yoshida M., Higuchi Y.
Epidemiological survey of lead effects on cloisonné makers
One of the workers in a cloisonné factory was found to be suffering from lead poisoning and was treated. With this case as an index case, 109 workers were surveyed for the effects of lead exposure. Blood (PbB) lead values of 25 workers were above 60µg/100g, and the highest PbB value was 147µg/100g. The correlations of PbB values with the logarithm of the activity of blood ALA dehydratase and the concentrations of free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary ALA (ALA-U), urinary coproporphyrin (CP-U) and serum iron were: -0.891, 0.780, 0.759, 0.753, 0.018, respectively. The correlation coefficient for log ALA-U vs. log CP-U was 0.915. A slight depression of haemoglobin or elevation of blood urea nitrogen was observed in a few workers with high PbB levels. The fabrication of cloisonné articles is briefly described.
Occupational Health Journal - Sangyō Igaku Jānaru, Sep. 1985, Vol.8, No.5, p.29-37. Illus. 9 ref.
Warning, danger - Contaminants and hazardous substances: lead
Attention, danger - Contaminants et matičres dangereuses: le plomb [in French]
Aspects covered in this illustrated guide intended for workplace safety and health committees in Quebec: lead and health; prevention in the workplace; respiratory protection and work clothes; current standards and regulations.
Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec, 1199, rue de Bleury, Box 1056, Station A, Montréal, Qué., Canada H3C 4E1, 4th quarter 1985. 55p. Illus. 10 ref. Bibl.
Chen Z., Chan Q., Par C., Qu J.
Peripheral nerve conduction velocity in workers occupationally exposed to lead
The peripheral nerve conduction velocity between the wrist and elbow of the right upper limb and the relationship between this parameter and biochemical parameters for workers occupationally exposed to lead were studied. The nerve conduction velocity (NCV) was decreased when the exposure level reached 0.0652mg/m3 and it slowed further when exposure levels increased. There was a negative correlation between NCV and length of exposure. The NCV decreased proportionally with increasing blood lead levels. The blood lead level associated with a significant change in NCV was <40µg/100mL. There was no correlation between NCV and the amount of porphyrin metabolites. The measurement of NCV can be used as one of the sensitive criteria for the early detection of the toxic effects of lead.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.26-28. 9 ref.
Wang Y., Lu P., Chen Z., Liang Y., Lu Q.
Effects of occupational lead exposure
Epidemiologic study covering 53 workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory and 50 embroidery workers (control group). The average air lead levels in each workplace were 0.578, 0.002 and 0.001mg/m3, respectively. Only the battery workers showed adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria. A significant dose-response relationship existed between toxic effects and lead concentrations in air and in blood and urine. Early clinical symptoms were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. The symptomatic threshold values of blood lead, urinary lead, and zinc photoporphyrin were, respectively, 0.300, 0.045 and 0.400mg/L. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed group than in the reference group.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.20-25. 20 ref.
Experience in controlling lead poisoning in the People's Republic of China
The work done to control lead poisoning in Chinese workplaces is summarised (health surveillance of workers, exposure limit setting, research for early detection indicators, improvement of work conditions). The current maximum allowable concentrations are 0.03mg/m3 for lead fume and 0.05mg/m3 for lead dust.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.16-19. 5 ref.
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