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Lead and compounds - 901 entries found

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  • Lead and compounds


CIS 91-391 Lead (inorganic)
International chemical safety card. Long-term exposure effects: delayed symptoms; neurotoxic effects; anaemia; renal damage; antifertility effects; retarded development of newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 91-547 Roels H.A., Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A.M., Lijnen P., Van Houte G.
Urinary kallikrein activity in workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or mercury vapour
A significant reduction of kallikrein activity in urine (assayed by its amidolytic activity) was found in 64 normotensive workers who had been exposed to cadmium for 11 years on average and whose cadmium concentrations in urine ranged from 2.2 to 33.1µg/g creatinine. The mean (geometric) urinary kallikrein acitivity (in U/g creatinine) amounted to 0.52 in the control group (n = 193) against 0.39 in the cadmium group. A reduction of aldosterone release (aldosterone in urine) associated with an increased natriuresis was also observed. This might constitute a compensatory mechanism maintaining blood pressure in the normal range. This study indicates that cadmium can induce an irreversible toxic effect in the distal nephron. It also suggests that an excessive cadmium body burden alone may not be sufficient to induce hypertension, but in individuals whose blood pressure regulation may be impaired by other factors cadmium could stimulate the development of hypertension. This study also supports the recommendation to prevent hypertensive subjects from being exposed to cadmium. There was no indication that moderate exposure to mercury vapour was associated with a reduction of kallikrein production by the kidney.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1990, Vol.47, No.5, p.331-337. 35 ref.

CIS 91-571
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for lead
At high exposure levels, lead produces encephalopathy, gastrointestinal effects, anaemia, nephropathy and electro-cardiographic abnormalities in humans. These effects are generally seen only in occupationally exposed populations and in children. High exposure may also cause spontaneous abortion in women and decreased fertility in men. Lower-level exposure may cause neurobehavioural effects (decreased IQ scores, elevated hearing thresholds) and growth retardation in infants exposed prenatally and children exposed postnatally, and the elevation of blood pressure in middle-aged men. There is inadequate evidence of the carcinogenicity of lead in humans.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, June 1990. 207p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-587 Workplace air - Determination of particulate lead and lead compounds - Flame atomic absorption spectrometric method
Air des lieux de travail - Dosage du plomb particulaire et des particules de composés de plomb - Méthode par spectrométrie d'absorption atomique dans la flamme [in French]
The method specified in this standard is applicable to the determination of masses of approximately 10µg to 200µg of lead per sample using the normal procedure without dilution. It may be used for personal and fixed location sampling. Principle: particulate lead and lead compounds in a known volume of air sample are collected on a filter and wet-ashed using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Sample solutions are aspirated into an atomic absorption spectrometer and absorbance measurements are made at 283.3nm. Analytical results are obtained by the analytical-curve technique.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1990. 10p. 5 ref.

CIS 90-1855 Ziegler G.
Lead and occupational hazards
Gesundheitliche Gefährdung am Arbeitsplatz durch Blei [in German]
Plomb et risques professionnels [in French]
This information note can be used as a training manual on the hazards of long-term exposure to low concentrations of lead. It is primarily aimed at occupational physicians. Main topics covered: description of hazardous substances and sources; intake, distribution, elimination and toxic effects; diagnosis; medical protective measures; engineering safety techniques; legal aspects in Switzerland.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale, Lucerne, Switzerland, 1990. 24p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 90-1267 Hassine L., Hedkili A., Ben Salah N., Souilem J., Yacoub M.
Occupational lead poisoning among potters
Saturnisme professionnel chez les artisans potiers [in French]
Eleven potters working in 3 pottery workshops were examined in order to find signs of lead poisoning caused by exposure to a lead-based varnish. The findings confirm biological exposure of all 11 potters, despite the poor clinical symptomatology. In conclusion, the authors emphasise the need for elementary prevention measures.
Journal de toxicologie clinique et expérimentale, Jan.-Feb. 1990, Vol.10, No.1, p.27-30. 5 ref.


CIS 93-715 Decree No.274/89 of 21 Aug. 1989, establishing various measures of protection of the health of workers against the risks of exposure to lead [Portugal]
Estabelece diversas medidas de protecção da saúde dos trabalhadores contra os riscos de exposição ao chumbo [in Portuguese]
This decree implements in Portuguese legislation Directive 82/605/EEC (see CIS 83-1783) concerning exposure to lead and its ionic compounds in the workplace. It concerns: general concepts and definitions; general safety measures; exposure evaluation; determination of lead concentration in air; what to do when the action level, the exposure limit and the biological limit are exceeded; incidents and emergency situations; medical surveillance of workers exposed to lead; hygienic measures; personal protection; welfare and hygiene facilities; information of workers; keeping and consultation of records. In annex: indicative list of activities where exposure to lead occurs; basic requirements of equipment used for sampling and for the determination of lead concentration in air; abbreviations of determination methods for biological indicators.
In: Colectânea de Legislação - Segurança, higiene e saúde no trabalho - Instrumentos comunitários e legislação portuguesa, Serviço de Informação Científica e Técnica (SICT), Ministério do Emprego e da Segurança Social (MESS), Lisboa, Portugal, May 1992, p.LP 32-38.

CIS 92-916 Rempel D.
The lead-exposed worker
The lead standard established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 1978 requires physicians and employers to follow very specific guidelines when treating lead-exposed workers. Physicians play a key role in the implementation of the lead standard which specifies frequency of blood lead measurements, frequency and extent of medical monitoring and medical removal from work. This article reviews the lead standard as it applies to physicians and makes recommendations about managing the workers with lead poisoning.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 28 July 1989, Vol.262, No.4, p.532-534. 19 ref.

CIS 91-492 Nienhaus A.
Work in a dangerous environment - the road as work environment
Arbeiten in gefährlicher Umwelt - die Strasse als Arbeitsumgebung [in German]
The fears of road repair workers of being run over by a car are illustrated by quoting accounts of near misses. Other hazards encountered by these workers are exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A) during most of their work and to air pollutants from exhaust gases. A study of 70 workers revealed hearing losses between 23 and 26dB(A) after an average of 15 years of noise exposure. A survey of information on the effects of exhaust gas components on the respiratory tract of workers showed that few specific studies exist.
Arbeit und Betrieb, 1989, No.22, p.74-93. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 90-1907 Osterloh J.D., Selby J.V., Bernard B.P., Becker C.E., Menke D.J., Tepper E., Ordonez J.D., Behrens B.
Body burdens of lead in hypertensive nephropathy
Chronic human lead intoxication has long been associated with the development of renal failure. To determine the role of chelatable urinary lead, blood lead or the haematologic effect of lead in hypertensive nephropathy, a study was carried out on 40 subjects with hypertensive nephropathy and on 24 controls having a similar degree of renal dysfunction due to causes other than hypertension. The results show that subjects from the general population with hypertensive nephropathy do not have greater body burdens of lead than do renal failure controls without hypertension.
Archives of Environmental Health, Sep.-Oct. 1989, Vol.44, No.5, p.304-310. 62 ref.

CIS 90-1563 Matte T.D., Figueroa J.P., Burr G., Flesch J.P., Keenlyside R.A., Baker E.L.
Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica
To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry 46 production workers and 23 battery repair workers were surveyed. Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050mg/m3. Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60µg/dL respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1989, Vol.16, No.2, p.167-177. Bibl.

CIS 90-1611 Ong C.N., Chia K.S., Koh D., Saijoh K.
Neurochemical effect of lead exposure: A study on catecholamine metabolism
A study was conducted on 106 lead workers and a control group of 25 nonexposed workers to examine the neurochemical changes caused by lead exposure. The urinary excretion of major catecholamine metabolites, homovanillic acid (HVA), and vanillylmandellic acid (VMA) was measured. Workers exposed to lead had a mean blood lead concentration of 43.2µg/100mL, whereas the concentration for the nonexposed was 12.7µg/100mL. Urinary HVA was significantly elevated in the exposed group when compared with controls ( p<0.01). HVA was also found to be associated with an increase of lead in blood. Although not statistically significant, the VMA excretion was also noted to be moderately elevated. The present study was unable to establish a highly significant dose-response relationship between lead exposure and HVA excretion, as has been reported earlier in lead-poisoned children.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1989, Vol.16, No.6, p.667-673. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 90-1275 Baxter P.J., Samuel A.M., Wall L.T., Randell R.A.
Monumental masons: Lead and other hazards of an old trade re-visited
A survey of lead exposure among gravestone inscription writers was undertaken in 12 firms of monumental masons in London and one in the East Midlands (England). The mean blood lead concentration in the 25 men studied was 35µg/dL, with six workers exceeding 40µg/dL. The four highest levels were 49, 57, 78 and 89µg/dL respectively, indicating that substantial occupational exposure to lead was occurring. The men were unaware of the risks of lead exposure and the importance of not smoking or eating in their workshops. The stonemasons understood the hazards of granite stone dust, but an unexpected and common finding was an unacceptably high exposure to marble dust.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Autumn 1989, Vol.39, No.3, p.99-100. 6 ref.

CIS 90-915 Sharp G.B., Gosai K., Finklea J.F.
Medical appraisal during health hazard evaluations involving workers exposed to lead
To evaluate the medical aspects of the Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) programme of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 170 lead-related HHE reports published through 1984 were examined. The percentages of HHEs conducting basic medical examination procedures justified by elevated environmental exposure to lead at worksites were as follows: blood or urine lead level testing, 57%; medical history taking, 55%; physical examinations, 23%; CBCs, 18%; and urinalysis, 7%. The HHE programme has primarily focused on whether or not environmental worksite hazards are present at the time of the evaluation and not on ascertaining whether there is evidence of adverse health effects attributable to past worksite exposures. More clearly defined HHE programme goals and a logic for deciding when and how medical examinations should be performed during HHEs need to be developed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1989, Vol.15, No.4, p.449-461. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 90-933 Kononen D.W., Kintner H.J., Bivol K.R.
Air lead exposures and blood lead levels within a large automobile manufacturing workforce, 1980-1985
Recent (1980-1985) trends in air lead (PbA) exposures and blood lead (PbB) levels experienced by approximately 10,000 workers employed in various stages of the automobile manufacturing process (i.e. auto assembly, lead-acid battery manufacture, foundry work, and "other" manufacturing-related operations) are described. Between 1980-1985, the mean PbB levels of assembly, battery, foundry, and "other" workers decreased by 28, 24, 3, and 27%, respectively, to 16.6, 23.6, 15.9, and 11.8µg Pb/dL. Workers in the following job categories experienced the highest annual mean PbB levels: paste machine operators (battery plants), solder-grinders (assembly plants), and crane operators (foundries). During the same period median 8-h Time-Weighted Average PbA exposures (µg Pb/m3) in assembly plants, battery plants, and foundries decreased by 10, 12, and 20%, respectively, to 8.1, 13.6, and 10.9µg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1989, Vol.44, No.4, P.244-251. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 90-935 Marino P.E., Franzblau A., Lilis R., Landrigan P.J.
Acute lead poisoning in construction workers: The failure of current protective standards
Construction workers who use oxyacetylene torches to cut lead-painted metal are at high risk of acute and subacute lead poisoning. Poisoning results from inhalation of submicron-diameter particles of lead fume generated in paint burning. We describe a series of 14 cases of lead poisoning in ironworkers cutting a lead-painted bridge in New York City. Peak blood lead levels ranged from 2.32 to 5.80µmol/L (48-120µg/dL). Median duration of employment was 4 wk. Two workers required chelation therapy. Personal (breathing zone) exposures to airborne lead ranged from 600 to 4000µg/m3. Construction workers are specifically exempted from the provisions of the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lead standard. The data from this study indicate that such exemption is not warranted. A need exists for improved protection of construction workers against occupational exposure to lead.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1989, Vol.44, No.3, p.140-145. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 90-550 Zaprjanov Z., Calev D., Georgieva R., Kalojanova F., Nikolova V.
New toxicokinetic exposure tests for metals on the basis of their determination in nails by atomic absorption spectrometry
Novi toksikokinetični ekspozicionni testove za metali na osnovata na atomnoabsorbcionnoto im opredeljane v nokti [in Bulgarian]
The proposed method for analysis of microelements permits their determination in small (100mg) toenail samples. As, Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, Mo, Sb, and Sn are measured in samples dissolved with tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide. The levels of these elements were determined in unexposed persons and in workers exposed to Pb, Cr and Mn. This analysis permits longitudinal control of Pb, Cr and Mn exposure by painless sampling and an accessible and reliable analytical procedure.
Problemi na higienata, 1989, Vol.14, p.75-97. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 90-247 Stollery B.T., Banks H.A., Broadbent D.E., Lee W.R.
Cognitive functioning in lead workers
In a cross sectional study of occupational exposure to inorganic lead 91 men performed a series of microcomputer based tasks assessing sensor motor reaction time, memory, attention, verbal reasoning, and spatial processing. Performance on the tasks was studied in relation to 3 ranges of blood lead concentration (low, <20µg/dL; medium, 21-40µg/dL; and high, 41-80µg/dL) and exposure response correlations for blood lead concentration, zinc protoporphyrin (Z PP) (range 7-210µg/dL), and urinary aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) (range 0.5-22.0mg/L). The results show that the high group was impaired on most of the tasks used and, in general, the magnitude of the impairment correlated better with blood lead concentration than with Z PP or urinary ALA. An examination of the patterns of task impairment indicated a general slowing of sensory motor reaction time which was relatively independent of the nature of the cognitive functions being tested. There was some evidence, however, suggesting mild impairment of attention, verbal memory, and linguistic processing. In general, workers with high blood lead concentrations showed clear impairment of sensory motor functions in the absence of correspondingly strong evidence for impairment processing and memory functions. It is argued that a general slowness in responding may underlie many previous reports of widespread cognitive impairment in lead workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.698-707. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 89-1925 Polato R., Morossi G., Furlan I., Moro G.
Risk of abnormal lead absorption in glass decoration workers
Rischio di abnorme assorbimento di piombo nella decorazione del vetro [in Italian]
Following the observation of abnormal lead absorption (PbB 72µg/100mL) in a young female glass decorator in a routine laboratory test, blood lead levels were measured in glass decorators of an entire area of Northern Italy. Abnormal lead absorption was found in a large number of glass workers, the source of exposure being the high content of inorganic lead in the "low-melting" paints that were used (brush and spray painting). Most of the exposed workers were females of fertile age, for whom even a moderate exposure to inorganic lead may constitute a risk during pregnancy. Attempts to reduce lead exposure levels by means of a health education programme and environmental improvements at the workplace were unsuccessful. In conclusion, a reduction in lead absorption in female glass decoration workers can only be achieved by using "low-melting" paints with a lower lead content.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1989, Vol.80, No.2, p.136-139. 7 ref.

CIS 89-1981 Lead - Environmental aspects
Conclusions reached by the report on the ecological effects of lead: Most work on plant tolerance to lead has concentrated on plants growing on mining wastes, naturally highly contaminated areas, and roadside verges. Tolerance has only been found in populations of a few plant species. No effect on the reproduction of birds nesting near highways has been observed. Toxic effects have been observed in pigeons in urban areas, the kidneys being most frequently affected. Lead poisoning, due to the ingestion of lead shot, is a cause of death for large numbers of birds. A recurring incident of massive bird kills in estuaries near to industrial plants manufacturing leaded "anti-knock" compounds has been reported. The total lead content of the livers was sufficiently high to cause mortalities: lead was mostly present in the alkyl form.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1989. 106p. Bibl. Price: CHF 13.00.

CIS 89-1266 Apostoli P., Romeo L., Peroni E., Ferioli A., Ferrari S., Pasini F., Aprili F.
Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers
The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the 1st or 2nd phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69µg/100mL; in the controls PbB was less than 25µg/100mL. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.204-208. Illus. 16 ref.


CIS 01-956 European Communities (Protection of Workers) (Exposure to Lead) Regulations, 1988 [Ireland]
These Regulations implement in Ireland the provisions of Council Directive 82/605/EEC (see CIS 83-1783) of 28 July 1982 on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to metallic lead (Pb) and its ionic compounds at work. Contents: definitions; application; assessment; air monitoring; hygiene; clinical assessment and biological surveillance; clinical examination; protective and preventive measures; provision of information; limit values (air concentration: 150µg/m3, TWA over 40h per week; blood Pb level: 70µg Pb/100mL in individual workers; ALAU measurement: 20mg/g creatinine); procedures for air monitoring; what to do if limits are exceeded; occupational health registers; duties of appointed doctors; access to information; responsibilities of workers; enforcement; offences and penalties.
Government Publications Sales Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1989. 28p. [in English]

CIS 93-1761 Occupational Health and Safety (Lead Control) Regulations 1988 [Australia - Victoria]
These regulations (made on 30 June 1988, gazetted as S.R. 268/1988) were issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (CIS 88-1751). Contents: prohibition of persons under 16yrs of age in lead process areas; obligation of employers to control lead exposure at source (8h TWA: 0.15mg/m3); provision of protective clothing and equipment; exposure assessment; cleaning of lead process areas; prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking in lead process areas; provision of changing rooms and washing facilities; information and education of workers; biological monitoring; medical examinations and surveillance; authorised medical practitioners; exemptions. In annex: definition of lead processes; standard forms for the results of biological monitoring and medical examinations.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., CNR Talavera & Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde, NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 7p. (pages numbered 60,713 - 60,723).

CIS 91-535 Castleman B.I., Ziem G.E.
Corporate influence of threshold limit values
Investigations into the historical development of specific Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) in the US for many substances have revealed serious shortcomings in the process followed by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists. Unpublished corporate communications were important in developing TLVs for 104 substances; for 15 of these, the TLV documentation was based solely on such information. Case studies on the TLV Committee's handling of lead and 7 carcinogens illustrate various aspects of corporate influence and interaction with the committee. Corporate representatives listed officially as "consultants" since 1970 were given primary responsibility for developing TLVs on proprietary chemicals of the companies that employed them. An ongoing international effort is needed to develop scientifically based guidelines to replace the TLVs in a climate of openness and without manipulation by vested interests.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1988, Vol.13, No.5, p.531-559. Bibl.ref.

CIS 91-128 Calderón Fernández L.I.
Early detection of occupational lead poisoning - erythrocyte zinc protophorphyrin
Detección precoz del saturnismo profesional - La zinc-protoporfirina eritrocitaria [in Spanish]
The biotoxicological situation of a Spanish lead-acid battery plant is analysed, seeking to find a relationship between lead in the blood and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) per gramme haemoglobin. The theoretical values in the Spanish Regulations on Hazard Prevention and Protection of the Health of Workers in the Presence of Metallic Lead and its Ionic Compounds in the Working Environment (Official Government Gazette of 24 March 1986) are compared to the results of the analysis. New ZPP and blood lead values are proposed (the present biological exposure limit for ZPP is 20µg/g haemoglobin; a maximum of 10µg/g is proposed.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th quarter 1988, No.32, p.21-24. 11 ref. Illus.

CIS 91-140 Banić N., Hajnić V.
Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb, 1948-1988
This book marking the 40th anniversary of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health (University of Zagreb), introduces its structure, research, training and publishing activities, and presents the Institute collection of scientific articles on various aspects of occupational health.
The Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Yugoslavia, 1988. 198p. Bibl.

CIS 90-1860 Safety code of practice: protection against the harmful effects of lead
Newpatibad khwamplodphai ryang kanpongkan phe phid takua [in Thai]
Illustrated booklet presenting proper working methods, correct use and maintenance of protective equipment, personal hygiene and medical monitoring.
National Institute for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, Phra Pinklao-Nakorn Chaisri Highway, Taling Chan, Bangkok 10170, Thailand, 1988. 25p. Illus.

CIS 90-1474 Inorganic lead
Chemical safety information sheet taken from the newly revised edition of the NIOSH publication "Occupational Safety and Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards". Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (8h-TWA) = 0.05mg/m3; NIOSH REL (10h-TWA) = 0.1mg/m3; ACGIH TLV (8h-TWA) = 0.15mg/m3. Toxicity: neurotoxic effects (peripheral nerves); encephalopathy; anaemia; renal damage; penetration of lead through placental barrier causes neurological disorders in infants.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45226, USA, 1988. 6p. Bibl.

CIS 90-711 Grand-Ducal Regulation of 15 July 1988 on the protection of workers from the risks of exposure to metallic lead and its ionic compounds at work [Luxembourg]
Règlement grand-ducal du 15 juil. 1988 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à une exposition au plomb métallique et à ses composés ioniques pendant le travail [Luxembourg] [in French]
Regulation issued in conformity with EC Council Directive 82/605/EEC (see CIS 83-1783). Its provisions concern: reduction of exposure; medical supervision of exposured workers; exposure limits (in air: 150µg/m3 - TWA for a 40h work-week; biological parameters: plombaemia - 70µg/100mL of blood, ALAU - 20mg/g creatinine, ALAD - 6 European Units, PPZ - 20mg/g haemoglobin); sampling; action to take if exposure or biological limits are exceeded; prohibition of smoking, eating and drinking in case of exposure; protective clothing; information of workers. In annexes: list of work activities where lead exposure is likely; technical characteristics of sampling instruments; methods of measuring biological indicators; practical recommendations for the clinical supervision of exposed workers.
Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 1988, p.796-801. 4 ref.

CIS 90-186 Nekrasova S.V., Tašči P.V.
Polarographic determination of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese in atmospheric air
Poljarografičeskoe opredelenie medi, svinca, kadmija, nikelja, zinka i marganca v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
An alternating-current polarographic method for the determination of 6 metals without prior separation is proposed. The method is based on reducing ions of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese at a dropping mercury electrode with a supporting electrolyte of acetic acid and ammonium acetate. Samples are collected and prepared by pumping measured volumes of air through APHA filters, ashing the filters, treating the ash with concentrated hydrochloric acid and taking up the residue in electrolyte. Detection limits are 0.04µg/mL for copper, lead, cadmium and manganese and 0.08µg/mL for nickel and zinc. Iron and chromium do not interfere with the determination. Analysis after dissolving the sample takes about 30 minutes.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.48-49. 2 ref.

CIS 89-1868 Sakai T., Araki T., Ushio K.
Determination of pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) acitvity in whole blood as an index of lead exposure
A simple method for determining pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) activity in whole blood involves the use of concanavalin (Con A). Con A specifically inhibits the activity of plasma 5'-nucleotidase (5N) but does not affect erythrocyte P5N activity. P5N activity determined by the present method with heparinised blood and Con A was comparable with that by a method reported previously and correlated well with blood lead concentrations. The mean value and SD for P5N activity in normal subjects not exposed to lead are 16.2 and 2.5µmole/h/g Hb, respectively. The present method can eliminate not only the isolation step of RBC but also Hb determination, the activity being expressed as µmole/h/L blood or RBC. Thus the procedures are so simplified that the assay may be used as a routine test for mass screening of lead exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1988, Vol.45, No.6, p.420-425. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 89-1955 Holness D.L., Nethercott J.R.
Acute lead intoxication in a group of demolition workers
Workers were assessed during four phases of a demolition project during which the burning of lead-based paint occurred. Changes in work practices (sandblasting paint off before cutting) and attention to hygiene resulted in significantly lower exposure to, and absorption of, lead in succeeding phases of the project. The mean blood lead levels were 59, 30, 19, and 16µg/100mL, respectively. As the exposure and absorption of lead decreased, symptom prevalences declined. Significant exposure to lead may occur when metal structures coated with lead-based paint are demolished. Strict attention to hygiene and work practices is necessary to help to control worker absorption of lead. Sandblasting the metal structure prior to the actual cutting is recommended as a simple, effective method of reducing exposure to lead fume. The importance of the responsibility of management to realise that a risk is present and to ensure that adequate measures are taken to educate workers, control exposure, and monitor airborne exposure and lead absorption is emphasised.
Applied Industrial Hygiene, Dec. 1988, Vol.3, No.12, p.338-341. 11 ref.

CIS 89-1612 Hilla W., Tiller R.E.
Medical examinations of lead-exposed workers in an automobile production plant
Vorsorgeuntersuchungen bei Bleiarbeitern in einem Automobilwerk [in German]
In automobile factories lead is used in the manufacture of car bodies. In recent years lead exposure has been reduced through process modification and by installation of exhaust facilities. Measurements in the breathing zones of lead exposed workers taken in 1988 yielded a maximum concentration of 14µg/m3. In view of the facts that exposure is well below the maximum allowable concentrations while a risk of occasional excessive exposure still persists, more widely spaced check-up examinations are recommended.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1988, Vol.23, No.12, p.309-312. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 89-1329 Dally S.
Lead and health. Some recent clinical data
Plomb et santé. Quelques données cliniques récentes [in French]
Review of the literature on the risks connected with lead exposure: arterial hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, organic mental disorders in children and in workers, digestive syndrome, renal syndrome, haematological syndrome, endocrine effects, reproductive effects, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Also discussed are: elevation of blood lead levels due to non-occupational factors, therapy, surveillance of lead-exposed workers (measurement of exposure levels, evaluation of the consequences of exposure and of lead intoxication).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.33, p.9-15. 71 ref.

CIS 89-1290 Poór G., Mituszova M.
Hyperuricaemia and gout among people with long-term exposure to lead
Hyperurikémia és köszvény előfordulása tartós ólomexpozíció esetén [in Hungarian]
A comparison of 105 males with long-term exposure to lead in a battery manufacturing plant (with no symptoms of lead poisoning) and of 97 healthy male controls showed a significantly higher number of cases of hyperuricaemia (31) among the exposed men than among the controls (9). There were 4 cases of gout among the exposed workers, showing a prevalence rate of 3.8%, much higher than among adult males in Hungary (0.25%). There were no cases of gout among the controls. The literature of the subject is discussed.
Magyar Reumatológia, 1988, Vol.29, p.69-76. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-844
Ministerstvo cvetnoj metallurgii SSSR
Safety rules for lead and zinc production
Pravila bezopasnosti pri proizvodstve svinca i cinka [in Russian]
Safety rules for the construction and operation of installations for lead and zinc production. Contents: preparation of furnace charges; roasting lead-ore concentrates; smelting; preparation of coal dust; granulation of slag; ladles; lead refining; roasting zinc-ore concentrates and charges; hydrometallurgical reduction; electroprecipitation of zinc; rotary kilns; cadmium production; cooling of metallurgical equipment; waste-heat boilers and evaporative cooling; heating of metallurgical equipment; responsibilities in case of non-observance of these rules.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per., d.14, 119857, GSP, Moskva G-34, USSR, 1988. 16p. Price: SUR 0.05.

CIS 89-860 Florence T.M., Lilley S.G., Stauber J.L.
Skin absorption of lead
Letter to the editor. Skin absorption is not usually considered a significant mode of uptake of lead, unless the lead is present as a lipid-soluble compound such as tetraethyl lead or lead naphthenate. However, raised levels of lead appeared in sweat samples taken from the right arm after a membrane filter impregnated with lead nitrate solution (6mg Pb), was placed on the left arm, covered with plastic film, and left on the arm for 24 hours. (Pilocarpine iontophoresis sweat samples, taken from the right arm periodically before and after the application of lead, were analysed for lead by anodic stripping voltammetry.) The sweat concentration continued to rise even after the lead was removed, and increased from the normal value of 15-20µg/L to over 350µg/L after 2 days. Thus, skin absorption of inorganic lead may be important in industries such as lead battery manufacture and lead smelting, where the area of worker's skin covered with lead dust may be orders of magnitude greater than that used in the presented experiments.
Lancet, 16 July 1988, Vol.II, No.8603, p.157-158. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 89-804 Tuppurainen M., Wägar G., Kurppa K., Sakari W., Wambugu A., Fröseth B., Alho J.
Thyroid function as assessed by routine laboratory tests of workers with long-term lead exposure
Thyroid function was studied in 176 male workers occupationally exposed to lead. The mean blood lead concentration of the workers was 2.70 (SD 1.15, range 0.70-6.45) µmol/L. The mean duration of lead exposure was 7.6 (range 0.1-20) years. The total thyroxine (T4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (T3), and thyrotropin concentrations in serum were similar in the workers in the low and high blood lead categories. In regression equations the duration of lead exposure had a weak but significant negative association with T4 and FT4, and this association was particularly pronounced when the analyses were restricted to workers with the most intense lead exposure over time. Thus, the results suggest that thyroid function might be depressed as a result of intense long-term lead exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1988, Vol.14, No.3, p.175-180. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 89-567 Kudo M., Aizawa Y., Takata T.
Biological exposure evaluation and hair analysis in workers handling chromium compounds
Kuromu-kagōbutsu-toriatsukai-sagyōsha no mōhatsu-bunseki to seibutsugakuteki-bakuro-hyōka [in Japanese]
The hair of 40 workers exposed to chromium (Cr) compounds was analysed for 18 elements by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Twenty-one subjects worked in a factory that manufactured chromate pigments, 11 in a painting factory and 8 in a Cr plating factory. The percentage of workers exhibiting high concentrations of Cr in the hair was 62.5% and that of Pb, 37.5%. Those engaged in chromate manufacture showed high concentrations of both Cr and Pb in the hair. Mean concentrations of Cr, Pb, Ca and Zn in the workers were higher in controls. The high levels of Cr, Pb and Zn were considered to be due to occupational exposure. Cr concentrations were correlated with those of Pb, Zn, Ca, Cd and Ni. Fairly close correlations were observed between blood and urinary Pb, urinary Cr and Pb, and hair and urinary Cr. Simultaneous measurements of Cr in the hair and urine were found useful for determining the extent of exposure to Cr. Determination of multiple elements should be the best means for estimating the degree of exposure to Cr compounds in which they are found.
Kitasato Igaku, Feb. 1988, Vol.18, No.1, p.39-47. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 89-486 Fanning D.
A mortality study of lead workers, 1926-1985
In a case-control study of 867 deaths between 1926 and 1985 of men who had relatively high occupational lead exposure, compared with 1,206 who died during the same period, and whose lead exposure had been low or absent, there was a statistically significant excess of deaths from cerebrovascular disease between 1946 and 1965. There were also signs of a decreasing secular trend in the odds ratios for deaths from this cause between 1926 and 1985, with no difference between the two groups over the past 20 years. There was no statistically significant excess in the number of deaths from malignant neoplasms, either in general or for specific sites. Previous evidence of an increased risk of death from cerebrovascular disease is therefore confirmed, but it would seem that with the introduction of stricter standards of lead control that this has now disappeared, as has any marginal risk of death from malignant disease.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1988, Vol.43, No.3, p.247-251. 9 ref.

CIS 89-597 Schmidt P.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR
Biological monitoring methods in occupational medicine
Biologische Kontrollmethoden in der Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Manual for occupational health care personnel and inspectors. Chapters cover: the value of laboratory diagnosis to the occupational physician; biological exposure tests as a component of medical surveillance of workers exposed to harmful substances; toxicological bases of exposure assessment; exposure to substances in the general environment as a part of total exposure; principles of genetics applicable to the evaluation of exposure tests; recognition and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and embryotoxic substances; variations in the pollution of workplace air; sampling; the analytical laboratory; assessment of the reliability and validity of biological exposure tests; properties, analysis and monitoring of 21 substances or groups of substances.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 89-376
Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Formation Professionnelle
Order of 15 Sep. 1988 implementing Article 16 of Decree No.88-120 and establishing the technical rules that occupational physicians must follow when they conduct the medical supervision of workers exposed to metallic lead and its compounds [France]
Arrêté du 15 sept. 1988 portant application de l'article 16 du décret n°88-120 ... et fixant les instructions techniques que doivent respecter les médecins du travail assurant la surveillance médicale des travailleurs exposés au plomb métallique et à ses composés [France] [in French]
This order implements Article 16 of Decree No.88-120 (see CIS 88-1426) and it provides technical guidelines that must be followed by occupational physicians who conduct the medical supervision of workers exposed to metallic lead and its compounds. It also establishes reference values for biological parameters associated with lead exposure. The order of 4 Nov. 1977 on the same subject (see CIS 78-570) is repealed.
Journal officiel de la République française, 22 Oct. 1988, p.13345-13350.

CIS 89-183 Sidhu A., Moch P., Podewils G., Schliephake D.
Determination and reduction of air pollution at soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry
Erfassung und Verminderung der Arbeitsplatzbelastung beim Weichlöten in der Elektroindustrie [in German]
Analyses of the components of soldering flux, of emissions and of breathing-zone air samples at 100 soft-soldering workplaces in the electrical industry in Germany (Fed.Rep.) showed the presence of harmful substances, e.g. of aldehydes, lead and tin. The 100 exposed women showed higher incidences of reversible eye irritations, irritations of the mucuous membranes of the respiratory tract and breathing difficulties than did matched non-exposed controls. It is recommended not to use soldering flux that contains succinic acid, maleic anhydride and hydrazine.
Schweissen und Schneiden, 1988, Vol.40, No.2, p.75-78. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 88-1768 Decree No.88-120 of 1 February 1988, concerning the protection of workers exposed to metallic lead and its compounds [France]
Décret n°88-120 du 1er février 1988 relatif à la protection des travailleurs exposés au plomb métallique et à ses composés [France] [in French]
This decree incorporates the provisions of EEC directive No.82-605 of the Council of the European Communities, 28 July 1982, into French legislation. It concerns limit values, exposure monitoring, collective and personal protection techniques, training, information and medical surveillance. Duplicate of CIS 88-1426.
Journal officiel de la République française, 5 Feb. 1988, p.1758-1760.

CIS 88-1646 Lead poisoning and its control
This data sheet covers: high risk occupations; lead sensitivity; symptoms; laboratory investigations for diagnosis; treatment; legislation.
United Trade Press Limited, 33-35 Bowling Green Lane, London EC1R ODA, United Kingdom, Mar. 1988. Bibl.

CIS 88-1426
Ministère des affaires sociales et de l'emploi
Decree No.88-120 of 1 Feb. 1988 concerning the protection of workers exposed to metallic lead and its compounds [France]
Décret n°88-120 du 1er fév. 1988 relatif à la protection des travailleurs exposés au plomb métallique et à ses composés [France] [in French]
Contents: scope of the decree; exposure limits; exposure monitoring (determination of lead concentration in fumes and dust inhaled by workers, determination of blood lead concentration in each exposed worker); technical prevention; training and information of workers; medical supervision.
Journal officiel de la République française, 5 Feb. 1988, p.1758-1760.


CIS 90-267
Health and Safety Executive: Medical Division
The control of lead at work: Medical surveillance
This guidance note, which should be read in conjunction with the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 (see CIS 81-134) and the Approved Code of Practice (see CIS 89-1325), amplifies the information on Regulation 16 given in paragraphs 103 to 105 of the Code. Content: biological monitoring; application of Regulation 16; initial and periodic assessment; protection of the foetus; certificates of unfitness for work with lead; information to employers; notification of lead poisoning. In the appendix: lead and lead compounds; clinical effects of lead toxicity.
Health and Safety Executive Sales Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QY, United Kingdom, June 1987. 8p. 4 ref.

CIS 90-205 Coscia G.C., Discalzi G., Ponzetti C.
Immunological aspects of occupational lead exposure
The behaviour of the major parameters related to cellular and humoral immunity was studied in 38 lead-exposed workers. Characteristic findings include a constant increase in 3 lymphocyte percentages and absolute counts in currently exposed workers, and a decrease in IgM level in both currently and formerly exposed workers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1987, Vol.78, No.5, p.360-364. 18 ref.

CIS 89-1421
Ontario Ministry of Labour - Occupational Health and Safety Division
Regulation respecting lead - made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
This Regulation, as amended by Ontario Regulation 23/87, prescrbes lead (Pb) (including its inorganic and organic compounds) as a designated substance. Exposure limits set for workplace air: TWA exposure - 0.15mg Pb/m3 of air (except for tetraethyl lead), Tel, 0.10mg Pb/m3); short-term exposure (<15min, no more than 4 times in a workday, at least 60min apart each time) - 0.30mg Pb/m3 (except for TEL, 0.45mg Pb/m3). Other aspects covered: responsibilities of employers; exposure evaluation; control programmes; monitoring; medical supervision; record keeping. Also included: schedule for calculating TWA exposures; code for respiratory equipment for lead; codes for determining lead in blood, urine and air; code for medical surveillance.
Ontario Government Bookstore, Publication Services Section, 5th Floor, 880 Bay Street, Toronto M7A 1N8, Ont., Canada, 1987. 77p. Index.

CIS 89-1586 Lukašev A.A., Zinger V.Ė.
Prophylaxis of saturnism in lead metallurgy
O profilaktike saturnizma v metallurgii svinca [in Russian]
Animal experiments to study the impact of sulfate ions on poisoning caused by lead and polymetallic mixtures showed their positive effect. Use of sulfate in drinking water for prophylaxis of harmful effects of polymetallic aerosols on workers in lead melting plants is recommended (sulfate ions intake from other sources must be taken into account).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1987, No.10, p.40-43. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 89-1578 Weiler
Exposure to lead during abrasive blasting and gas cutting
Gefährdung durch Blei bei Strahl- und Brennschneidarbeiten [in German]
Abrasive blasting of bridge railings for removal of rust leads to lead exposure of workers in those cases in which red lead coatings were originally used. When 15 to 25L/h water was added to the blasting jet, lead exposure was reduced. In gas cutting of steel scrap coated with red lead, concentrations of 0.5-7.4mg lead/m3 were measured in the breathing zone. The use of supplied-air helmets or respirators in these types of work is considered necessary.
Mitteilungen der Südwestlichen Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft, 1987, No.3, p.11-12. 6 ref.

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