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Lead and compounds - 901 entries found

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CIS 96-1780 Pfister E., Böckelmann I., Brosz M., Ferl T., Winter C.G.
Determination of neurotoxic effects caused by long-term exposure to lead in the Saxony-Anhalt copper industry by means of psychometric performance tests
Ermittlung neurotoxischer Effekte infolge langjähriger Bleiexposition in der Kupferindustrie Sachsen-Anhalts anhand psychometrischer Leistungsdaten [in German]
The influence of long-term exposure to lead on perceptual-motor performance was studied in 109 workers of a copper smelter in the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (ex-GDR). The workers had been exposed throughout a 10-year period to permissible lead concentrations of somewhat above 0.025mg/m3, which amounted to somewhat more than one quarter of the exposure limit. The average blood lead level amounted to 31.2µg/dL which was less than half the biological threshold limit. The performance of the lead-exposed workers in 7 computer-aided psychometric tests was compared to that of a non-exposed control group of 27 workers of a mechanical engineering plant. No statistically significant relationship between the blood lead levels and the perceptual-motor performance was found for the exposed group. It is concluded that perceptual-motor performance is not a good indicator of the latent effects caused by a long-term sub-clinical exposure to lead.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.12, p.422-432. Illus. 58 ref.

CIS 96-1424 Coluccio V.M.
Lead-based paint hazards: Assessment and management
This book deals with different aspects of lead pollution, which remains a serious problem for workers and the public despite its early regulation as a result of environmental concerns. While this comprehensive text focuses on the assessment and mitigation of lead-based paint hazards, other sources of lead and their relative contribution to lead poisoning problems are also described. Topics covered include: source of lead contamination; health consequences of exposure; US federal environmental regulations; occupational safety; abatement studies; assessment of hazards; liability and insurance considerations. In annex: acronyms; glossary; information sources in the US; summaries of the lead-based paint risk assessment process and of OSHA General Industry Standard (29 CFR 1910.25); OSHA fact sheets for lead exposure in construction; the National Lead Abatement Council Mission Statement.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1994. xvi, 320p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 54.95, GBP 37.50.

CIS 96-869 Harris M.K., Carter S.R.
Investigative industrial hygiene: Airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces
Determination of airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces in a petroleum refinery.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1188-1192. 10 ref. ###

CIS 96-556 Scarselli R., Nesti M., Perticaroli S., Marconi M., Benvenuti F., Azzaretto E., Camillucci L.
Project of a system for the reporting of occupational data on the health monitoring of workers exposed to lead, asbestos and noise (Decree 277/91, art. 4-21-35-49)
Schema progettuale di sistema informativo per la registrazione dei dati inerenti i levelli di esposizione e la sorveglianza sanitaria dei lavoratori esposti a piombo, amianto e rumore (D.Leg 277/91, artt. 4-21-35-49) [in Italian]
The Italian Superior Institute for Prevention and Work Safety (ISPESL) describes in this study a project for data collection on the health monitoring of workers exposed to lead, asbestos and noise. Appropriate questionnaires for risk assessment have been devised and are described. This is being performed because of the requirements of Italian Decree 277/91 (CIS 93-1404). The target is to build up an Italian national registry like those already existing in Finland, the US and the UK.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 1994, Vol.7, No.1 (Supplement), p.1-64.

CIS 96-798 Wennberg A.
Neurotoxic effects of selected metals
A substance is considered to be neurotoxic if it is capable of inducing a consistent pattern of neural dysfunction or lesion in the nervous system. Several metals are known as neurotoxic. Among them, four were selected as being especially important from the occupational point of view: lead, manganese, aluminium and mercury. All four have proved to be neurotoxic even though the toxic mechanisms may be unclear or unknown. This paper reviews the recently published documentation on the neurotoxic properties of these metals, from the general as well as the occupational point of view.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1994, Vol.20, Special issue, p.65-71. Illus. 70 ref.

CIS 96-837 Lille F., Margules S., Fournier E., Dally S., Garnier R.
Effects of occupational lead exposure on motor and somatosensory evoked potentials
In order to determine the exact effects of inorganic lead compounds on the nervous system, 17 occupationally exposed men were tested for Motor Electric Potentials (MEPs) of the abductor policis brevis muscles with transcranial, cervical root and peripheral electrical stimulations, for Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs) of the median and tibial posterior nerves, and for electromyography (EMG). Sixteen of the 17 subjects exhibited electrophysiological abnormalities, occurring at both peripheral and central levels for the somatosensory as well as for the motor systems. Lead exposure was also related to decreased sensory and motor peripheral conduction velocities, increased motor central conduction time, and delayed cortical P22 SEPs component that could be interpreted as a sensory-motor cortical dysfunction. The respective contributions of MEPs and SEPs are compared to clinical, biological and EMG examinations in the evaluation of the neurotoxic effects of inorganic lead compounds.
Neurotoxicology, Fall 1994, Vol.15, No.3, p.679-683. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-2134 Pillière F.
Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to lead - Precautions during sampling, analysis and interpretation of data on blood lead levels
Surveillance biologique de l'exposition professionnelle au plomb: précautions de prélèvement, d'analyse et interprétation des résultats de plombémie [in French]
In France, medical surveillance of workers exposed to lead must satisfy the conditions of the order of 15 Sep. 1988 implementing article No.16 of Decree No.88-120 of 1 Feb. 1988. This decree, relating to the protection of workers exposed to metallic lead and its compounds, requires that employers must use the services of an organism licensed for this kind of activity to monitor exposure by atmospheric sampling and biological surveillance.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1994, No.59, p.267-270.

CIS 95-983 Jalbert M., Maître A., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Morin B., Perdrix A.
Lead poisoning risk in microwelding operations in the electronics industry
Risque saturnin des opérations de microsoudure en électronique [in French]
Lead exposure of welders using a lead and tin alloy was assessed comparing the blood lead levels of 169 welders in the electronics industry and those of 98 controls. Procedures included monitoring of airborne lead and surveying personal hygiene practices and soldering use by questionnaire. Atmospheric concentrations were all under 75µg/m3. No blood level was over 40µg/100mL, and there was no significant difference between blood lead levels of microwelding operators and controls. However, men and women have different lead levels, and eating and drinking at the workplace significantly modify blood lead concentration. According to this study, manual soldering operators in the electronics industry, using soldering irons and a solder of 40% lead and 60% tin, are not being exposed to a lead hazard.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.8, p.589-594. 25 ref.

CIS 95-616 Millson M., Eller P.M., Ashley K.
Evaluation of wipe sampling materials for lead in surface dust
The suitability of several commercially available wipe sampling materials for the determination of lead dust on solid surfaces was evaluated. Criteria for the selection of wipe materials appropriate for field use and subsequent laboratory analysis were identified. These included uniform background lead levels in the materials; ease of digestion in nitric acid/hydrogen peroxide or nitric acid/perchloric acid leachate; more than 80% recoveries of lead from standard reference material spikes and ease of use in the field.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1994, Vol.55, No.4, p.339-342. 9 ref.

CIS 95-547 Cottica D., Imbriani M.
Proceedings of the 13th National Conference of the Italian Association of Industrial Hygienists
Atti - 13° Congresso Nazionale dell'Associazione Italiana degli Igienisti Industriali [in Italian]
Proceedings of a conference held in Turin (Italy), 20-22 June 1994. There were four sessions: asbestos (6 papers); environmental lead (8 papers); the indoor environment and physical agents (16 papers, dealing with harmful substances and biological agents spread by air conditioning, organic aerosols, passive smoking, environmental monitoring, microclimate of steam locomotives, lighting environment of VDU workplaces, hypotheses for the calculation of exposure limits, noise and its effects); free topics (17 papers, dealing with, among others: dust, man-made mineral fibres, biological monitoring of various substances, emission of benzene by polymers, determination of cobalt in the environment, expert system for safety in a robot environment, exposure limits for welding fumes). A poster session was also held (21 posters).
Fondazione Clinica del Lavoro, Via P. Azzario 19, 27100 Pavia, Italy, 1994. 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-275
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Control of inorganic lead at work. National standard. National code of practice
This national standard specifies requirements for minimizing the adverse health effects caused by lead exposure in the workplace; the accompanying code of practice provides guidance on compliance with the standard. Contents: objectives, scope and application; definitions; employer/employee consultation; provision of information - duties of employers and suppliers; personnel training; risk assessment; control measures; atmospheric monitoring; exclusion from working in a lead-risk job; health surveillance; counselling; medical examinations; record keeping; responsibilities of employees.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Oct. 1994. ix, 97p. 38 ref. (NOHSC: 2015) [in English] (NOHSC: 1012) [in English]

CIS 95-218 Duc M., Kaminsky P., Klein M.
Poisoning by lead and its salts
Intoxication par le plomb et ses sels [in French]
Main points of this note on the occupational pathology of lead (Pb): French schedule of occupational diseases due to lead and its compounds; activities exposing to a risk of lead poisoning: metal and chemical industry and applications; crafts and art trades; miscellaneous (accumulators, ammunition, printing, demolition). Lead metabolism (absorption, distribution, excretion). Mechanisms of the toxicity of Pb: cellular, tissular, renal and digestive toxicity. Clinical signs of Pb poisoning. Biological diagnosis of lead poisoning: available tests. Treatment. Legislation applicable in France: prevention and medical surveillance of exposed workers; pre-employment medical examination (aptitude to work record).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie, Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1994. 10p. Illus. 97 ref.

CIS 94-2036 Guidelines for the medical surveillance of lead workers
Contents of this guidance document: health effects of lead exposure (neurotoxic effects, effects on the stomach, intestine, kidneys, antifertility effects); estimating lead exposure by health assessment and determination of lead in air; recommended maximum levels of exposure; medical surveillance; notification of blood lead results; suspension of workers with high blood lead levels; blood lead tests and recording blood lead levels; medical evaluations. Glossary.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Mar. 1994. 16p.

CIS 94-2035 Repainting - Lead-based paint
This leaflet describes the dangers of lead-based paints and the effects of lead poisoning, and provides guidelines on the safe removal of lead-based paint and methods of personal protection.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, May 1994. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-1654 Peltier A., Boulet A.
Government-approved laboratories and organizations for the assessment of lead exposure. Results of quality tests
Laboratoires et organismes agréés pour l'évaluation de l'exposition au plomb. Résultats des essais de qualité [in French]
French Decree No.88-120 of 1 Feb. 1988 (see CIS 88-1768) requires laboratories seeking Government accreditation to assess the exposure of workers to lead (and enterprises seeking government authorization) to undergo quality tests. The INRS, the accredited laboratory of the Ministry of Labour, organizes these tests. The results of the tests carried out between 1988 and 1993 are presented here. Testing every 3 years seems insufficient to monitor the quality of an analytical laboratory: yearly testing would be preferable. And as a compulsory preliminary to analysis, the sampling of dusts should also be monitored, and training should be provided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 1994, No.154, Note No.1951-154-94, p.43-49 Bibl.ref.


CIS 06-401 Horiguchi S.
Lead - Environmental lead and its effects on the human body
Namari: Kankyō-chū no namari to seitai eikyō [in Japanese]
An introduction to the toxicological effects of lead from an occupational and environmental point of view. Themes covered: historical overview of lead and lead poisoning; physical and chemical properties; lead in the air, water and the soil; lead in food; lead in biological samples; absorption, excretion and distribution of lead in humans and animals; toxic effects of lead on various body organs; diagnosis, treatment and prevention of lead poisoning; alkyl derivatives of lead.
Rōdō-kagaku Kenkyū Kyūjo-Shuppambu, Kanagawa-ken, Kawasaki-shi, Miyamae-ku Sugo 2-8-14, Japan 216, 1993. vi, 364p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: JPY 4800.

CIS 99-1124 Marqués Marqués F.
Lead: Current toxicological criteria for medical monitoring of exposed workers
Plomo: Criterios toxicológicos actuales para la vigilancia médica de trabajadores expuestos [in Spanish]
Topics: lead; determination in biological matter; exposure evaluation; health hazards; medical supervision; Spain; threshold limit values; toxic effects; toxicology; training manuals; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, Apr. 1993. 63p. Illus. 170 ref.

CIS 96-2227
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for lead: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: brain damage (neurotoxic effects, encephalopathy); renal damage; haematotoxic effects (anaemia); damage to the male reproductive system; retarded development of the new born. (Update of CIS 91-571).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 1993. 307p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-662 Lee B.K., Lee C.W., Ahn K.D.
The effect of respiratory protection with biological monitoring on the health management of lead workers in a storage battery industry
Zinc protoporphyrin in blood samples from 85 lead-exposed workers in a storage battery manufacturing plant in Korea was determined monthly for one year. The workers participating in the study wore maintenance-free respirators. The levels of lead and haemoglobin in blood and of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. A questionnaire was administered to collect information on symptoms related to lead exposure. The use of respirators significantly decreased the blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin levels and the levels of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine but not the mean haemoglobin concentrations. The prevalence of lead related symptoms decreased more significantly in female workers than male workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, Suppl.1, p.S181-S184. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1982 Horiguchi S., Kurosawa K., Endo G., Kiyota I., Teramoto K., Shinagawa K., Wakitani F., Fukui M.
A 40-year review of health of workers at a lead reclamation factory
Investigators at Osaka City University Medical School have followed the workers at a lead reclamation plant since 1950. This article reviews the evolution of environmental lead levels over the period and relates them to technical progress, legislation and indicators of worker health, such as blood and urinary lead levels and delta-aminolevulinic acid excretion. The overall trend has been one of improvement, although atmospheric lead concentrations still exceed official standards.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Jan. 1993, Vol.69, No.1 (Part II), p.1-12. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 94-1985 Schwartz B.S., Bolla K.I., Stewart W., Ford D.P., Agnew J., Frumkin H.
Decrements in neurobehavioral performance associated with mixed exposure to organic and inorganic lead
In 1990, 222 employees of a chemical facility that manufactured tetraethyllead were administered a series of neurobehavioural and neuropsychological tests. The range of exposure was 4-119µg/m3 for organic lead and 1-56µg/m3 for inorganic lead in 29 exposure zones. The adjusted mean differences in neurobehavioural test scores were estimated by comparing the average scores of the moderate, high, and highest exposure groups with the low exposure (reference) group. After adjustment for premorbid intellectual ability, age, race, and alcohol consumption, neurobehavioural test scores were poorer as measures of both cumulative lead exposure and exposure duration increased; many of the associations evidenced dose-response relations. Associations were most common in two cognitive and functional domains: manual dexterity and verbal memory/learning. On the affected neuropsychological measures, the groups with the highest exposure averaged scores 5-22% lower than those of the reference groups.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 May 1993, Vol.137, No.9, p.1006-1021. 48 ref.

CIS 94-1984 Maheswaran R., Gill J.S., Beevers D.G.
Blood pressure and industrial lead exposure
The association between lead exposure and raised blood pressure was examined in a 1981 cross-sectional study of 809 male factory workers. The geometric mean blood lead level was 31.6µg/dL. Unadjusted systolic blood pressure rose with increasing blood lead levels from 127mmHg in men with blood lead levels less than 21µg/dL to 133mmHg in men with levels exceeding 50µg/dL. Following adjustment for the confounding effects of age, body mass index, and alcohol consumption, however, the effect of blood lead on systolic pressure was diminished to 129mmHg and 132mmHg in the respective categories. There was no association between diastolic blood pressure and blood lead. Zinc protoporphyrin levels and years of industrial lead exposure did not raise adjusted systolic or diastolic pressure. The findings are consistent with a weak effect of industrial lead exposure on systolic blood pressure, within the range of exposures observed in this study.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Mar. 1993, Vol.137, No.6, p.645-653. 27 ref.

CIS 94-1998 Kristensen P., Irgens L.M., Daltveit A.K., Andersen A.
Perinatal outcome among children of men exposed to lead and organic solvents in the printing industry
The study investigated the relation between paternal occupational exposures to lead and solvents and postconception events. Records of 6,251 infants born between 1967-1986 were used in the study. The adjusted odds ratio for early preterm birth (16-27 weeks) was 5.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-17.4) for infants with paternal exposure to solvents and 8.6 (95% CI 2.7-27.3) for children whose fathers were in the lead plus solvents category. The adjusted odds ratio for all perinatal deaths was 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9) for children with fathers in the lead-exposed group and 1.9 (95% CI 0.96-3.7) for children with fathers in the lead plus solvents group. An increased risk of cleft lip was demonstrated, with interaction between sex and paternal lead exposure: the standardized morbidity ratio for boys in the two subgroups with lead exposure was 4.1 (95% CI 1.8-8.1). Paternal exposure had little impact on birth weight, intra-uterine growth, or total number of birth defects.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Jan. 1993, Vol.137, No.2, p.134-144. 50 ref.

CIS 94-1331
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 February 1993. IARC final classifications: beryllium and beryllium compounds and cadmium and cadmium compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). In the glass manufacturing industry, the manufacture of art glass, glass containers and pressed ware entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) while occupational exposures in flat-glass and special glass manufacture are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 444p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 75.00.

CIS 94-1197 Bayer R.
Coal, lead, asbestos, and HIV: The politics of regulating risk
This article is a discussion of politics versus scientific evidence, when it comes to setting exposure limits. What is needed to set a reasonable exposure limit? A number of statements from participants in the debate are summarized. It is stated that the setting of exposure limits and other regulations to limit exposure to harmful factors is a political issue more than a scientific one. The main discussion is on whether doubts should be resolved in favour of workers' health or the economy.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.897-901. 15 ref.

CIS 94-1298 Rinehart R.D., Yanagisawa Y.
Paraoccupational exposures to lead and tin carried by electric-cable splicers
To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, 9 splicers were matched with their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence for lead and tin. The difference in the geometric mean lead concentrations in both the laundry areas and the other areas between the splicers' and neighbours' homes was significant. Tin concentrations in house dust were also higher in the splicers' homes. Recommendations are included to prevent paraoccupational lead exposures by eliminating the pathways into the home.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.593-599. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 94-1295 Anderson L.A.
Developing an effective lead detection and abatement industry: The role of the industrial hygienist
The present and future roles of the industrial hygienist in the control and detection of lead sources in both industrial and general environments (e.g. paints, soil, water) are described.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.331-334. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-1223 Maizlish N., Rudolph L.
California adults with elevated blood lead levels, 1987 through 1990
Follow-up data based on California (USA) blood lead registry reports (95% of whom occupationally exposed adults) are presented. From 1987 through 1990, the California Department of Health Services received 17,951 reports for 4,069 civilian, non-institutionalized adults employed by at least 328 companies. Of 232 incident case subjects with severe toxicity (2.90µgmol/L or greater), 182 were successfully traced and interviewed. Index case subjects were mostly male (95%) and disproportionately Hispanic (46%); 35% lived with children aged seven or younger, and 10% had been hospitalized. Ninety-four percent involved over-exposures at worksites that lacked medical removal (50%), ventilation (36%), appropriate respirators (62%), training (64%), clothing changes (45%), or showering (60%). Tabular data are given indicating the distribution of persons by peak blood lead levels, according to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes.
American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 1993, Vol.83, No.3, p.402-405. 9 ref.

CIS 94-868 Zhang J.
Investigation and evaluation of zinc protoporphyrin as a diagnostic indicator in lead intoxication
To evaluate the utility of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) as an indicator of lead exposure, we examined 128 workers employed at a battery storage plant and two smelters, 343 persons who lived within 200m of the plants, and 217 controls. Based on Chinese criteria, the "normal" ZPP value among inhabitants of Shaanxi Province was determined to be 85µg/100mL. ZPP proved to be more sensitive and specific indicator of lead exposure, at both high and lower levels, than PbB or PbU. Among 115 patients who underwent chelation therapy for lead poisoning, ZPP also proved to be a valid index of recovery.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.707-712. 9 ref.

CIS 94-880 Frumkin H., Gerr F.
Dimercaptosuccinic acid in the treatment of depression following lead exposure
Long-term exposure to lead is known to cause a variety of neurotoxic manifestations, including symptoms of depression. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a recently approved oral chelating agent, can diminish the body burden of lead, but few cases of documented clinical improvement following treatment have been reported. We report a case of moderate to severe depression in a long-term lead worker that appeared to respond dramatically to DMSA. This response suggests a possible therapeutic role for DMSA in the treatment of depression in lead-exposed patients.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1993, Vol.24, No.6, p.701-706. 17 ref.

CIS 94-976 Edmonds M.A., Gressel M.G., O'Brien D.M., Clark N.J.
Reducing exposures during the pouring operations of a brass foundry
The focus of this exposure assessment and control technology study was a brass foundry and the lead exposures of workers involved in the transportation and pouring of metal. Controls in place at the foundry included ventilation systems at the furnace and along the continuous and stationary pouring lines. Real-time measurements were made to determine which tasks were the primary exposure sources, and a hand-held aerosol monitor was used to measure real-time aerosol exposures (as a surrogate for lead) in the workers' breathing zones. The greatest aerosol exposures occurred during the transportation of an unventilated full ladle. The addition of local exhaust ventilation could result in a reduction of worker exposure to aerosols during the continuous pouring operation by up to 40%. The controls and techniques suggested in this study could be applied to pouring operations throughout the industry to reduce worker exposure to metal fumes.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.260-266. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 94-975 Zedd H.C., Walker Y.P., Hernandez J.E., Thomas R.J.
Lead exposures during shipboard chipping and grinding paint-removal operations
Shipboard chipping and grinding paint-removal operations were evaluated to determine personnel exposures to airborne lead concentrations. Of the personnel conducting paint removal operations, 62% were exposed at or above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Permissible Exposure Limit for lead of 50µg/m3. Correlations or airborne lead concentrations and bulk lead-paint contents for chipping and grinding operations were statistically significant. Blood lead (Pb) levels were significantly higher in the follow-up blood tests when compared to the initial blood tests taken prior to paint removal. However, blood Pb levels were well below the OSHA allowable level of 40µg/100g.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.392-396. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-886 Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene - Meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séances des 13 octobre, 10 novembre, 8 décembre 1992 et 12 janvier 1993 [in French]
Themes of papers presented at the meetings of 13 Oct., 10 Nov., 8 Dec. 1992 and 12 Jan. 1993 of the Society of Occupational Medicine and Hygiene (France): the clothing industry in the centre of Paris (recommendation to include arthrosis of the navicular bone of the hand in the French Schedule as an occupational disease among garment-cutters); protection of garbage workers against risks due to medical refuse present in domestic waste; occupational lead poisoning in connection with the renovation of an older building; cholinesterases: value of isolated variations of their levels; one case of thallium poisoning in a mineralogy laboratory; a case of chronic transfusion hepatitis affecting a nurse; occupational stress: in-plant experimental approach; sleep apnoea and aptitude to work in fire brigades; comments on the Decree of 29 May 1992 pertaining to the prohibition of smoking at work.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.7, p.587-606.

CIS 94-186 Fischbein A., Tsang P., Luo J.C.J., Bekesi J.G.
The immune system as target for subclinical lead related toxicity
Fifty-four firearm instructor volunteers underwent immunological tests in order to see what effect lead (Pb) exposure has on the immune system. The instructors were divided into two groups: one group of 15 (HL group, with blood Pb concentrations >25µg/dL, mean 31.4µg/dL) and another of 39 (LL group, with blood Pb concentration <25µg/dL, mean 14.6µg/dL). The HL group showed considerable reductions in the percentage and absolute number of circulating T cells and T helper cells, a significant reduction in the T helper cell/T suppressor cell ratio and significant changes in lymphocyte functional parameters.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.185-186. 16 ref.

CIS 94-310 Nuyts G.D., Elseviers M.M., De Broe M.E.
Healthy worker effect in a cross-sectional study of lead workers
A cross-sectional study of workers at a lead-smelting plant was conducted in order to study the role lead may play in the development of renal disease. Renal function was defined based on calculated creatinine clearance using the prevalence of values under the third percentile to compare groups. The prevalence of clearance values under the third percentile in these workers (n=1782) as a whole was 2.81%, a result comparable to that expected for the general population. Closer analysis, however, showed significantly lower prevalence of calculated creatinine clearance under the third percentile in some workers. These subgroups were workers between the ages of 30 and 39, workers over 50, and Belgian workers who had worked in the plant for longer than 10 years. In conclusion, these observations once more clearly demonstrate a "healthy worker effect" on the measurement of renal function in this work force, a major problem in epidemiological cross-sectional studies.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.387-391. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 93-1948 Nunez C.M., Klitzman S., Goodman A.
Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York city
Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education programme for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York city. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n=62) in 89% of the shops tested (n=24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25µg/dL. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10µg/dL. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.763-777. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 93-1980 Risk Reduction Monograph No.1 : Lead - Background and national experience with reducing risk
This monograph summarises information regarding releases of lead into the environment and the ensuing environmental and human exposures, the way various countries perceive the risks associated with exposure to lead and the actions taken by those countries and industry to reduce the risks. Information on the benefits, in terms of protection of human health and the environment that could result from taking such actions, is presented where available. Industries where occupational exposure to lead may occur are listed and a table shows exposure limits in each country studied. Detailed summary in French.
OECD Environment Directorate, Environmental Health and Safety Division, 2 rue André Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1993. 277p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1943 Carton B., Jeandel B.
The lead exposure hazard - Information supplied by the COLCHIC chemical exposure data base
Le risque saturnin - Informations fournies par la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
In France, the results of sampling of products in use and of air contaminants in workplaces are fed into the COLCHIC national database on exposure to chemicals. Analysis of the data thus collected can provide a picture of lead pollution in the industrial workplaces surveyed. From the point of view of exposure assessment, the basis for a general job-exposure matrix is provided by the results of the personal samples taken. The atmospheric sample results indicate those work situations where priority preventive action is needed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1921-151-93, p.229-236. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 93-1958 Porru S., Donato F., Apostoli P., Coniglio L., Duca P., Alessio L.
The utility of health education among lead workers - The experience of one program
This study evaluates the effectiveness of a health education programme in 50 workers exposed to inorganic lead employed in seven small factories. It was performed in three phases over one year. Before the programme, blood lead levels were measured and a questionnaire was administered in order to evaluate the baseline knowledge of the workers about lead poisoning and its prevention. After the health education programme, the blood lead levels decreased (from 38.2 to 32.3µg/dL) and the questionnaire scores improved in a highly significant manner (p<0.001). These results were obtained both in the short-term (4 months) and the medium-term (1 yr). The reduction of blood lead concentrations seemed to be due to changes in hygiene behaviour and life habits, such as alcohol consumption or cigarette smoking, probably induced by an increase in specific knowledge about the prevention of lead damages.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.23, No.3, p.473-481. 16 ref.

CIS 93-1256 Vyskocil A., Viau C., Brodeur J.
Biological monitoring of exposure to lead: An update
La surveillance biologique de l'exposition au plomb. Une mise à jour [in French]
This bibliographic review is a comparative study of the biological monitoring methods available for the evaluation of exposure to lead. The level of blood lead remains the most useful biological marker for exposed workers although in the case of recent exposure it reflects body weight and previous exposure as well. Although urinary blood levels are more easily obtained, they are considered by many unsatisfactory because of the large inter-individual variations in the behaviour of urinary lead and the risk of sample contamination. Blood δ-aminolevulinate dehydrase measurements are well correlated with blood lead but are only useful at low levels of exposure and are simply an indirect and more complicated means of measuring blood lead. Urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid measurements lack sensitivity at lower exposure levels. Erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin measurements are also considered to be too insensitive and the delay in the response of this indicator to lead exposure is viewed as a drawback. Promising X-ray fluorescence techniques have been used for the direct measurement of bone lead but further validation will be required before this measurement can be proposed as a routine monitoring test.
Travail et santé, Mar. 1993, Vol.9, No.1, p.S-2-S-7. 39 ref.

CIS 93-898 Chia S.E., Phoon W.H., Lee H.S., Tan K.T., Jeyaratnam J.
Exposure to neurotoxic metals among workers in Singapore: An overview
The extent of occupational exposure to inorganic lead, manganese, arsenic and inorganic mercury in Singapore was determined from the results of Statutory Medical Examinations and environmental monitoring carried out by the Department of Industrial Health in 1989. There were 786 workers exposed to lead. Of these, 7.8% had blood levels greater than 40µg/dL. There were 67 workers exposed to mercury, 11.9% of whom had urinary mercury levels greater than 50µg/L. There were 101 and 144 workers exposed to arsenic and manganese respectively. None of the biological samples exceeded the health-based limits. A review of local studies showed that some of the exposed workers had neurophysiological and neurobehavioural changes.
Occupational Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.43, No.1, p.18-22. 23 ref.


CIS 96-1781 Horiguchi S., Endo G., Kiyota I., Teramoto K., Shinagawa K., Wakitani F., Tanaka H., Konishi Y., Kiyota A., Ota A., Fukui M.
Frequency of cold infections in workers at a lead refinery
En seiren kōjō sagyōsha ni okeru kanbō kansen no hindo [in Japanese]
The study covered 56 workers at a secondary lead refinery, 46 male and 10 female, aged 18-73, whose lengths of time working with lead ranged from less than 1 to over 43 years. Interviews were supplemented with blood and urine analyses. No cases of influenza were reported, but the frequency of colds was higher in those with more than 40µg lead/100g blood, and especially high in those with more than 60µg/100g. Similarly, the likelihood of contracting colds more than twice per year was higher in the group with blood lead levels >60µg/100g than in those with lower levels. This confirms a report published by others 10 years previously, and suggests suppression of the immune system in lead-exposed workers.
Osaka City Medical Journal, June 1992, Vol.38, No.1, p.79-81. 5 ref.

CIS 96-809 Baracco A., D'Allio G., Mercurio G., Leante E., Berra A.
Risk control in activities linked to battery charging
Il controllo dei rischi nell'attività di carica batterie [in Italian]
Occupational exposure of 158 male workers assigned to the charging of lead batteries was monitored and their health was compared with 295 controls (285 men + 10 women), in order to evaluate the risks connected with lead as required by Italian Decree No.277/91 (CIS 93-1404). No environmental lead pollution was observed, these activities being performed in conformity with CEI (Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano) Regulations 21-4 and 64-2. Since blood lead levels in the exposed workers was below the OSHA (U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration) standard, it was suggested to re-evaluate the hazard values of various activities listed in the Italian Decree and to delete the "battery handling" work category as a hazardous occupational activity.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.4, No.3, p.13-24. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 95-1059 Cézard C., Haguenoer J.M.
Lead toxicology in humans
Toxicologie du plomb chez l'homme [in French]
This scientific and legal reference manual on lead (Pb) toxicity is designed for industrial physicians, Health, Labour, Environment and Industry specialists as well as for general practitioners, manufacturers and environmentalists. It reviews available knowledge on exposure sources to Pb, its action mechanisms, and acute or long-term toxicity. Monitoring and prevention methods are dealt with based on epidemiologic studies. Contents: physical and chemical properties of Pb; exposure sources to Pb; Pb metabolism; effects of Pb on human health; interactions; French legislation; analytical methods; index.
Tec & Doc Lavoisier, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75384 Paris Cedex 08, France, 1992. 350p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: FRF 380.00.

CIS 95-247 Needleman H.L.
Human lead exposure
Contents of this manual: historical background on medicinal exposure to lead, lead poisoning, monitoring of human lead exposure and lead in the environment; neurobiological factors in lead toxicity; occupational exposure (current sources and trends, exposure in lead smelters, battery plants and the construction industry, exposure among children of lead workers, prevention); health effects of human lead exposure (renal effects, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and growth, developmental and neurological disturbances); sociological and legal issues.
CRC Press, Inc. Available from: Exel Logistics, 3 Sheldon Way, Larkfield, Aylesford, Kent ME20 6SF, United Kingdom, 1992. xi, 290p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 146.00.

CIS 94-422 Lead [Sweden]
Bly [in Swedish]
These Regulations (effective: 1 Mar. 1993) apply to all work involving the manufacture, use or handling of lead and lead-containing materials (except for those which contain less than 1% lead, and except for work in mines). Sections cover: definitions; general rules; marking; limitation of use of certain lead-containing products; precautions to be taken when performing tasks such as cleaning of lead cables or storage batteries; welding and cutting; equipment and premises; housekeeping; personal protective equipment; work clothes and protective clothing; monitoring of lead in air; medical supervision; special provisions. Detailed commentary. For previous Regulations (AFS 1984:12), see CIS 85-405.
National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 25p.

CIS 94-338
Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee
Lead - A guide to assessment
This booklet explains the dangers of lead and using a series of questions and answers outlines how to make an assessment of the lead hazard in pottery workshops. Topics include: lead in glazes and colours; health hazards; employer's responsibilities; exposure evaluation; air sampling; blood tests; information of personnel. Methods to prevent or control exposure are also outlined.
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Oct. 1992. 12p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 94-91 Lead (inorganic)
Plomb inorganique [in French]
International chemical safety card. Long-term exposure effects: delayed symptoms; neurotoxic effects; anaemia; renal damage; antifertility effects; retarded development of newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-1678 Beije B., Lundberg P.
Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992
English translations of five criteria documents published previously as individual documents in Swedish: CIS 93-1673 (inorganic acid aerosols), CIS 93-1674 (aluminium), CIS 93-1675 (cadmium), CIS 93-1676 (inorganic lead), CIS 93-1677 (selenium).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 267p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1676 Skerfving S.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 104. Inorganic lead
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 104. Oorganiskt bly [in Swedish]
Review and evaluation of the relevant literature. Lead is present in the environment, and additional exposure may occur in many industrial settings. Its metabolism is adequately described by a two-compartment model: lead in soft tissues has a half-life of about one month and the bone lead pool has a half-life of about 10 years. The whole-blood level (B-Pb) is the most valuable tool for biological monitoring. Basal levels are highly variable, but average about 0.4µmol/L in the Nordic countries. Effects on the nervous system and kidneys are critical for the establishment of exposure limits. Sensitive adults show effects at exposure corresponding to B-Pbs of 1.5-2.0µmol/L, and foetuses may suffer non-specific central nervous system effects at maternal B-Pbs of 0.5-0.75µmol/L.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 111p. Illus. 897 ref.

CIS 93-1616 Apostoli P., Alessio L.
Lead in the 1990s - "New" regulations for the "oldest" of environmental toxins
Il piombo negli anni 90 - "Nuove" regole per il più "vecchio" dei tossici ambientali? [in Italian]
With the introduction of strict lead-control legislation, blood lead (PbB) levels have been falling worldwide, to about 30µg/100mL in exposed workers and to below 10µg/100mL in the general population in industrialised countries. However, there is growing evidence that even low levels of Pb exposure can have harmful health effects. In particular, there is no threshold below which no such effects have been noted on haeme, on the central nervous system and on blood pressure. After a survey of current legislative practices in the US, the EEC and Japan, this article explores the possibility of further reducing exposure, either through reduction of exposure limits or by improving technical prevention.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1992, Vol.83, No.86, p.539-556. 135 ref.

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