Lead and compounds - 901 entries found
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Risk of lead poisoning during lead-tin wire electronic soldering operations
Risque de saturnisme lors des opérations de soudure électronique au fil plomb-étain [in French]
Topics: lead; determination in air; determination in blood; electronics industry; France; lead poisoning; questionnaire survey; soldering and brazing; tin.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.4, p.455-458. Illus. 7 ref.
Winder C., Long A.
Occupational risk management: Lead at work
Topics: Australia; lead; comment on directive; determination in blood; hazard evaluation; health hazards; implementation of control measures; medical supervision; permissible levels; plant health organization; transfer to other work.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 1997, Vol.13, No.6, p.557-566. 17 ref.
Fayerweather W.E., Karns M.E., Nuwayhid I.A., Nelson T.J.
Case-control study of cancer risk in tetraethyl lead manufacturing
Topics: lead; case-control study; chemical industry; exposure evaluation; gastrointestinal cancer; Hodgkin's disease; lead and compounds; length of service; neoplasms; rectal cancer; smoking; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1997, Vol.31, No.1, p.28-35. 21 ref.
The politics of reproductive hazards in the workplace: Class, gender, and the history of occupational lead exposure
Topics: antifertility effects; lead; lead poisoning; legislation; literature survey; plant health organization; sex-linked differences; social aspects; USA; women.
International Journal of Health Services, 1997, Vol.27, No.3, p.501-521. 67 ref.
Spear T.M., Werner M.A., Bootland J., Harbour A., Murray E.P., Rossi R., Vincent J.H.
Comparison of methods for personal sampling of inhalable and total lead and cadmium-containing aerosols in a primary lead smelter
Topics: aerosols; cadmium; lead; evaluation of technique; filtration sampling; inhalation; particle size distribution; personal sampling; respirable dust; sampling and analysis; smelting plants; threshold limit values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.12, p.893-899. Illus. 27 ref.
Fleming D.E.B., et al.
Accumulated body burden and endogenous release of lead in employees of a lead smelter
Bone lead levels were measured by X-ray fluorescence in a population of 367 active and 14 retired lead smelter workers. Whole-blood lead readings from the workers generated a cumulative blood lead index (CBLI) that approximated the level of lead exposure over time. Relations between bone lead concentration and CBLI demonstrated a distinctly nonlinear appearance. When the active population was divided according to date of hire, a significant difference in the bone lead-CBLI slope emerged. The transfer of lead from blood to bone in the workers has apparently changed over time, possibly as a consequence of different exposure conditions.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Feb. 1997, Vol.105, No.2, p.224-233. Illus. 31 ref.
Whelan E.A., et al.
Elevated blood lead levels in children of construction workers
Workers with high potential household contamination should be considered as a possible pathway for lead exposure of young children. 29 construction workers were identified from a New Jersey registry including workers with blood lead levels of 25µg/dL. 26% of these workers' children had blood lead levels at or over the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention action level of 0.48µmol/L (10µg/dL), compared with 5% of neighbourhood control children.
American Journal of Public Health, Aug. 1997, Vol.87, No.8, p.1352-1355. 30 ref.
Bleecker M.L., et al.
Curvilinear relationship between blood lead level and reaction time
A computerized simple reaction time (SRT) test was administered to 78 lead smelter workers, and the relationship between different measures of blood lead and components of SRT performance were investigated. Measures of blood lead included current blood lead (PbB) and mathematically derived blood lead fractions from the environment (PbB-env) and from bone (PbB-bn). Measures of SRT performance were obtained from 44 trials with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 1 to 10s. A curvilinear relationship was observed between current blood lead (PbB) and median SRT; the SRT for ISIs between 6 and 10s was the preferred measure. Of the other blood lead measures, only PbB-env was related to components of SRT.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1997, Vol.39, No.5, p.426-431. 22 ref.
Piacitelli G.M., et al.
Elevated lead contamination in homes of construction workers
Lead exposures were studied among 37 families of construction workers with blood lead levels at or above 25µ/dL and among 22 neighbourhood families with no known lead exposure. The hands of lead-exposed workers were 7 times more contaminated with lead compared with control workers. Levels of lead contamination in automobiles and homes were significantly higher for exposed workers compared with controls. Occupational exposure together with poor hygiene practices were the primary causes of lead contamination. Efforts should be made to ensure compliance with measures intended to prevent lead contamination beyond the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1997, Vol.58, No.6, p.447-454. 28 ref.
Min Y.I., Correa-Villaseñor A., Stewart P.A.
Parental occupational lead exposure and low birth weight
This study suggests that paternal occupational lead exposure may be associated with low birth weight in the offspring. The odds of low birth weight rose fivefold among infants of fathers who were potentially exposed to high levels of lead during the period 6 months before pregnancy to the end of pregnancy. This effect was most prominent for low-birth-weight infants who were both preterm and small for gestational age. There was a suggestion of a gradual increase of the odds of low birth weight at medium levels of exposure, but this increase was not statistically significant. No increased odds were observed at low levels of exposure. Low birth weight was not associated with paternal ever versus never exposure, indirect exposure or exposure frequency. An independent effect of exposure duration could not be evaluated as it was highly correlated with exposure level.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.30, No.5, p.569-578. 32 ref.
Biological monitoring of lead-exposed workers
Topics: lead; determination in biological matter; determination in blood; exposure tests; free erythrocyte porphyrin determination; literature survey; medical supervision; medico-legal aspects; neurological effects; neuropsychic effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.2, No.3, Supplement, p.S37-S41. 84 ref.
Working safely with lead
Topics: lead; construction industry; health engineering; health hazards; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; training material; USA; videotape.
Tel-A-Train, 309 North Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1996. Videotape (length 20min). Price: USD 495.00.
Klein R.C., Weilandics C.
Potential health hazards from lead shielding
Field and laboratory measurements were collected to evaluate the distribution and removal of lead from radiation shielding material and to measure airborne exposures during large shielding emplacement projects. The data indicate that lead is readily dispersed from visibly oxidized as well as freshly-cleaned shielding, but that a single coating of polyurethane can significantly reduce lead removal. While 8h time-weighted average exposures for workers constructing lead shielding structures were nearly all below the current action level of 30µ/m3, the distribution of airborne lead concentrations during this kind of work demonstrates a potential for overexposure.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.12, p.1124-1126. Illus. 4 ref.
Abudhaise B.A., Alzoubi M.A., Rabi A.Z., Alwash R.M.
Lead exposure in indoor firing ranges: Environmental impact and health risk to the range users
Health risk from airborne lead exposure was evaluated in 54 trainees and 31 firearm instructors at two military indoor firing ranges in Amman, Jordan. High concentrations of airborne lead that markedly exceeded internationally adopted safe exposure levels were found in both ranges. Despite the absence of lead poisoning symptoms, instructors and trainees had significantly higher blood lead levels than did a control group. In addition, the activity of aminolevulinic acid dehydrogenase was significantly lower than in the controls, indicating a subcritical biological effect. Control of lead emissions and periodic monitoring of frequent range users is recommended.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.323-329. 26 ref.
Wegman D.H., Fine L.J.
Occupational and environmental medicine
Recent developments in selected areas of occupational and environmental medicine are briefly reviewed: work-related asthma (causes, changing individual susceptibility, and problems of diagnosis and compensation); low back pain (contribution of work and nonwork factors, use of back belts, and rehabilitation of affected workers); and the association between body burden of lead and delinquent behaviour.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 19 June 1996, Vol.275, No.23, p.1831-1832. 23 ref.
Ausschuss für Gefahrstoffe
Lead and lead containing substances, safety rules for harmful substances 505
Blei und bleihaltige Gefahrstoffe, Technische Regeln für Gefahrstoffe TRGS 505 [in German]
Safety rules on exposure to lead and lead containing substances and products whose lead content is larger than 0.5% by weight came into effect in Germany in 1996. The safety rules describe the protective measures which are necessary on workplaces where the exposure limit of 0.1mg lead/m3 air is exceeded. Mainly addressed are the supply of personal protective equipment, regular medical examinations, labelling and storage of lead containing products. Lead concentrations in excess of the limit value are to be expected in the lead industry, in the manufacture of lead containing paints, lead batteries and during the polishing and welding of lead containing alloys.
Bundesarbeitsblatt, Apr. 1996, No.4, p.41-46. 1 ref.
Todd A.C., Wetmur J.G., Moline J.M., Godbold J.H., Levin S.M., Landrigan P.J.
Unraveling the chronic toxicity of lead: An essential priority for environmental health
Exposure to lead in the general population has declined, but chronic lead toxicity remains a major public health problem in the United States, affecting millions of children and adults. To close current gaps in knowledge of chronic lead toxicity an integrated, multidisciplinary, marker-based research programme combines a) direct measurement of individual lead burden by Cd-109 X-ray fluorescence analysis of lead in bone, b) determination of ALA-D phenotype as index of individual susceptibility to lead, and c) assessments of subclinical injury produced by lead in the kidneys, nervous system and the reproductive organs. This marker-based research program offers a feasible approach to understand the following questions: a) are current environmental and occupational standards adequate to prevent chronic lead intoxication? b) is lead mobilized from the skeleton during pregnancy or lactation to cause foetal toxicity? c) is lead mobilized from bone during menopause to cause neurotoxicity? d) what is the significance of genetic variation in determining susceptibility to lead? e) what is the contribution of lead to hypertension, renal disease, chronic neurodegenerative disease or declining sperm counts? f) is chelation therapy effective in reducing body lead burden in persons with chronic overexposure to lead?
Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.1, p.141-146. 68 ref.
Schlecht P.C., Groff J.H., Feng A., Song R.
Laboratory and analytical method performance of lead measurements in paint chips, soils, and dusts
The U.S. National Lead Laboratory Accreditation Program (NLLAP) recognizes laboratories capable of analyzing lead in paints, soils and dusts. NLLAP requires successful participation in the Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing (ELPAT) programme. This study summarizes the performance of laboratories over the first three years (1992-1995) of the ELPAT programme. During this period, 92 to 93% of participating laboratories met the ELPAT proficiency criteria for paint chips, soils and dust wipe analysis. Differences in laboratory performance, analytical techniques and instrumentation are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.1035-1043. 36 ref.
Strickland D., Smith S.A., Dolliff G., Goldman L., Roelofs R.I.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and occupational history: A pilot case-control study
In this study 25 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 25 controls were assessed. The strongest association with ALS was exposure to welding or soldering materials (OR=5.0) and work in the welding industry (OR=5.3). Perhaps the most obvious candidate for causing agent from materials used in welding and soldering is lead. Other suggestions of risk were seen in paint and pigment manufacturing, shipbuilding, electroplating and the dairy industry. More research is needed to obtain more definite conclusions.
Archives of Neurology, Aug. 1996, Vol.53, p.730-733. 11 ref.
Mitchell C.S., Shear M.S., Bolla K.I., Schwartz B.S.
Clinical evaluation of 58 organolead manufacturing workers
58 workers were evaluated clinically and through laboratory examinations for potential health effects related to organic and inorganic lead exposures. Workers reported symptoms that predominantly involved central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Findings for which no alternative medical explanations could be found included neurobehavioural abnormalities (18 out of 39 workers) and sensorimotor polyneuropathies (11 out of 31 workers). It was pointed out that this was a case series, not an epidemiological study, and that in these workers there was more of a CNS rather than a PNS involvement.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1996, Vol.38, No.4, p.372-378. Illus. 34 ref.
Cardiovascular effects of metals
Studies of the toxic cardiovascular effects of metals in animals and humans are reviewed, in particular those of arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and vanadium. Despite the numerous data available, the exact mechanism of metals in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease remains obscure. Future research needs are outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-145. 194 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
The future of the lead and asbestos regulations
This document concerns the possibility of incorporating into the Control of Substances to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH, see CIS 95-19) certain lead and asbestos legislation: the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 and parts of some old legislative provisions concerning lead; the Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 and 1992; the Asbestos (Prohibition) Regulations 1992; and the Asbestos (Licensing) Regulations 1983. This legislation is summarized and the COSHH Regulations are presented with draft amendments to incorporate provisions for lead and asbestos. The Commission seeks views on the options discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. 80p.
Myers W.R., Zhuang Z., Nelson T.
Field measurements of half-facepiece respirators - Foundry operations
Workplace protection factors provided by elastomeric and disposable half-facepiece respirators were calculated from the ratio of ambient and in-facepiece concentrations of dust and fume exposures at three foundries. The main components of the airborne exposures were zinc, lead and silicon. The main components of the in-facepiece samples were zinc, chlorine and lead. While significant differences were observed in ambient zinc and lead concentrations among foundries, no significant difference was observed in the in-facepiece concentrations of these elements among foundries. The in-facepiece penetration data clearly indicate that these respirators, when conscientiously used and maintained, and in conjunction with existing controls, provide effective worker protection.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.166-174. 13 ref.
Ashley K., Fischbach T.J., Song R.
Evaluation of a chemical spot-test kit for the detection of airborne particulate lead in the workplace
In an evaluation of a rhodizonate-based spot-test kit, more than 350 air samples were collected at abrasive blasting lead paint abatement sites. Filter samples were tested with the kit and then analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Experimental data were statistically modelled to estimate the performance parameters of the kit. The identification limit of the kit was approximately 3.6µg/filter sample. 95% confidence of a positive reading was found for lead mass values above approximately 10µg Pb/filter; 95% confidence of a negative reading was found for lead masses below approximately 0.6µg Pb/filter. The kit may be used for on-site screening of lead in workplace air.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1996, Vol.57, No.2, p.161-165. 19 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Summaries in French and Spanish. Topics: antifertility effects; biological effects; blood pressure; carcinogenic effects; lead; central nervous system; criteria document; determination in biological matter; diseases of blood-forming organs; diseases of peripheral nervous system; epidemiologic study; gastric disorders; IPCS; lead and compounds; literature survey; neurological effects; neurotoxic effects; renal damage; toxic effects; toxicology.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 300p. Illus. Approx. 650 ref. Price: CHF 43.00 (CHF 30.10 in developing countries).
Anttila A., Heikkilä P., Pukkala E., Nykyri E., Kauppinen T., Hernberg S., Hemminki K.
Excess lung cancer among workers exposed to lead
Topics: cancer; lead; determination in blood; epidemiologic study; exhaust gases; exposure evaluation; Finland; lung cancer; morbidity; mortality; sex-linked differences; synergism.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1995, Vol.21, No.6, p.460-469. 57 ref.
Kim Y., Harada K., Ohmori S., Lee B.K., Miura H., Ueda A.
Evaluation of lead exposure in workers at a lead-acid battery factory in Korea: With focus on activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N)
Activity of erythrocyte pyrimidine 5'-nucleotidase (P5N) and other biological variables were examined in 66 exposed workers in a lead-acid battery factory and in 26 non-exposed workers in Korea. The time-weighted average of 13 of 18 air samples for lead exceeded 0.05mg/m3. Blood lead concentration (PbB) in 39 of the 66 exposed workers was above 40µg/dL and the mean PbB in the exposed group was 45.7(15,7)µg/dL. Compared with the non-exposed group, erythrocyte P5N activity and activity of erythrocyte aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (ALAD) were significantly inhibited. The findings show that the depression of erythrocyte P5N activity by lead exposure results in the accumulation of erythrocyte pyrimidine nucleotides. The results indicate that the erythrocyte P5N activity test provides supporting evidence of lead exposure and shows the effect of lead on nucleotide metabolism.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.484-488. 29 ref.
Yeh J.H., Chang Y.C., Wang J.D.
Combined electroneurographic and electromyographic studies in lead workers
In order to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to lead on the peripheral nervous system, nerve conduction velocity and electromyographic studies were performed on 31 lead workers of a battery recycling factory and 31 matched controls. Compared with the control group, the distal motor latency of the median nerve was significantly prolonged in workers with lead neuropathy. The electromyographic abnormalities found were neurogenic polyphasic waves in workers with abnormal electromyographic findings. There was a positive linear correlation between the index of cumulative exposure to lead and the distal motor latencies of the tibial nerve, as well as a negative correlation with conduction velocities of the sural nerve after multivariate analysis and control of potential confounding by age and sex. Electromyographic abnormalities also occurred in workers with blood lead concentrations between 17.4 and 58µg/dL. Electromyographic study in distal extensors of the upper limbs may be used as a tool for biological monitoring of effects in lead workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.415-419. 27 ref.
Maizlish N.A., Parra G., Feo O.
Neurobehavioural evaluation of Venezuelan workers exposed to inorganic lead
To assess neurobehavioural effects of low exposure to lead, 43 workers from a lead smelter and 45 workers from a glass factory were evaluated with the World Health Organization neurobehavioural core test battery (NCTB) in a cross-sectional study. Historical blood lead concentrations were used to classify exposure based on current, peak and time-weighted average. Although the exposed workers performed less well than the non-exposed in 10 of 14 response variables, only profile of mood states tension-anxiety, hostility and depression mood scales showed a significantly poorer dose-response relation with blood lead concentration in multiple linear regression models that included age, education and alcohol intake as covariates. The frequency of symptoms of anger, depression, fatigue and joint pain were also significantly increased in the exposed group. This study is consistent with the larger body of neurobehavioural research of low occupational exposure to lead.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.408-414. Illus. 27 ref.
Vanacore N., Corsi L., Fabrizio E., Bonifati V., Meco G.
Relationship between exposure to environmental toxic factors and motoneuron disease: A case report
Rapporto tra l'esposizione a fattori tossici ambientali e malattia del neurone di moto: osservazioni su un caso [in Italian]
The analysis of one case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is reported. Due to the fact that the patient had worked as a solderer for about 15 years, while being exposed to metal fumes (including lead) and solvents from varnishes, it is suggested that there is a direct relationship between these exposures and his subsequent motor-neuron disease. This interpretation is supported by other literature data, which are reviewed and discussed.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1995, Vol.86, No.6, p.522-533. 50 ref.
Fu H., Boffetta P.
Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: A meta-analysis of published data
This study reviews and summarizes the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to organic lead. The findings from workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between cancers of the stomach and lung and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1995, Vol.52, No.2, p.73-81. 56 ref.
Lee B.K., Schwartz B.S., Stewart W., Ahn K.D.
Provocative chelation with DMSA and EDTA: Evidence for differential access to lead storage sites
This study was designed to validate a provocative chelation test with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by direct comparison with the standard ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) test in the same subjects and to compare and contrast the predictors of lead excretion after DMSA with those after EDTA. 34 male lead workers in the Republic of Korea were given a single oral dose of 10mg/kg DMSA, urine was collected over the next eight to 24 hours, and urine volume and urinary lead concentration determined at given intervals. Either two weeks before or two weeks after the dose of DMSA, 17 of these workers also received 1g intravenous EDTA followed by an eight hour urine collection with fractionation at set intervals. The predictors of lead excretion after DMSA and EDTA are different and an earlier dose of EDTA may increase lead excretion after a subsequent dose of DMSA. Two-hour or four-hour cumulative lead excretion after DMSA may provide an estimate of lead in storage sites that is most directly relevant to the health effects of lead.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.52, No.1, p.13-19. Illus. 35 ref.
Danse I.H.R., Garb L.G., Moore R.H.
Blood lead surveys of communities in proximity to lead-containing mill tailings
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.384-393. 124 ref. ###
Conroy L.M., Menezes Lindsay R.M., Sullivan P.M.
Lead, chromium, and cadmium emission factors during abrasive blasting operations by bridge painters
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.266-271. 26 ref. ###
Schlecht P.C., Groff J.H.
ELPAT Program Report: Background and current status (July 1995)
Progress report on the US Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing (ELPAT) Program, administered by the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), NIOSH and the EPA.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.1034-1040. 22 ref. ###
Timár M., Groszmann M., Hudák A., Náray M., Szépvölgyi E.
Biological monitoring in lead exposure
Blood lead levels (PbB) and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) concentrations were measured in populations living in residential areas and/or working in factories differently polluted by lead. Reference values for rural and urban populations were established. Based on the relationship between PbB and ZPP, different ZPP values may be used for pre-screening of workers (i.e. selection of those workers in whom PbB determination is necessary), depending on the PbB value chosen as a limit or action level. A system for periodical health surveillance of lead exposed workers is outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.53-62. 31 ref.
Elliehausen H.J., Böhm R., Feikert G., Gross D.
Lead exposure during removal of old paint from wood
Bleigefährdung bei der Entfernung älterer Holzanstriche [in German]
Lead-containing paint on wooden window frames and doors is usually removed with pressurized hot air or by propane gas flame cleaning followed by sanding. Following a case of acute lead intoxication during this kind of work, the lead concentrations in personal air samples taken at the workplace of 17 workers were determined as well as the lead concentrations in the blood of some of these workers. Lead concentrations exceeded the exposure limit regardless of the paint removal method used. It is recommended that respirators be worn for this kind of work.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Oct. 1995, Vol.30, No.11, p.499-502. Illus. 8 ref.
Murata K., Araki S., Yokoyama K., Nomiyama K., Nomiyama H., Tao Y.X., Liu S.J.
Autonomic and central nervous system effects of lead in female glass workers in China
Autonomic and central nervous system functions were measured in 36 female lead-exposed workers and in a nonexposed control group. Measurements included electrocardiographic R-R interval variability (CVRR) and visual and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (VEP and BAEP). All parameters of autonomic nervous system function except heart rate were significantly depressed in the exposed workers compared with the nonexposed group. The exposed group also had more complaints of subjective symptoms. No significant differences in either VEP or BAEP latencies were found between the two groups. It is suggested that autonomic nervous function is more susceptible to lead than are visual and auditory nervous functions; lead affects sympathetic activity more strongly than parasympathetic activity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.233-244. Illus. 47 ref.
Wolf C., Wallnöfer A., Waldhör T., Vutuc C., Meisinger V., Rüdiger H.W.
Effect of lead on blood pressure in occupationally nonexposed men
In a survey of 507 males with no occupational exposure to lead, the effects of age, weight, height, alcohol intake, nicotine consumption and blood lead on blood pressure were investigated. Both the diastolic and systolic blood pressure were significantly influenced by the body mass index, age and alcohol. A significant effect of lead could only be found for diastolic blood pressure. Results indicate that even in low concentrations, the influence of lead on diastolic blood pressure may be significant in this group of middle-aged men.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1995, Vol.27, No.6, p.897-903. 18 ref.
Chia K.S., Jeyaratnam J., Lee J., Tan C., Ong H.Y., Lee E.
Lead-induced nephropathy: Relationship between various biological exposure indices and early markers of nephrotoxicity
Current blood lead levels were determined in 128 lead-exposed workers and in 93 non-exposed controls. For the exposed workers, time-integrated blood indices were derived from serial blood lead measurements taken during the years of exposure. Urinary α1-microglobulin, urinary β2-microglobulin and urinary retinol-binding protein were also measured as markers of lead-induced kidney damage. In the exposed workers, all the effect markers had better correlation with the time-integrated blood lead indices than with current blood lead levels; urinary α1-microglobulin was the only marker that was significantly higher in the exposed group, with a good dose-response and dose-effect relationship with the time-integrated blood lead indices.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1995, Vol.27, No.6, p.883-895. 37 ref.
A global ban on lead mining and primary smelting
This editorial considers lead exposure to be a worldwide environmental problem and urges a global ban on lead mining and smelting. While regulations have resulted in reduced lead exposure in the United States, much of the reduction is matched by increased exposure in developing countries to which lead is exported. Although the short-term economic impact of a global ban on mining would probably be severe, the health consequences of lead exposure justify source reduction. Such a ban would stimulate efforts to find substitute products.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.70-71. 3 ref.
McGrail M.P., Stewart W., Schwartz B.S.
Predictors of blood lead levels in organolead manufacturing workers
Estimates of recent and cumulative exposure to lead and blood lead levels were examined for 222 workers in an organolead manufacturing plant. Recent exposure to organic lead and recent and combined exposure to organic and inorganic lead were associated with increased blood lead levels. Alcohol use was associated with lower blood lead levels. The data suggest that organic lead exposure affects blood lead levels, probably after dealkylation to inorganic lead; the association with alcohol consumption may be evidence of differences in enzyme-mediated metabolism of organolead compounds. Recent lead exposure and internal lead stores both influenced blood lead levels in these workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.37, No.10, p.1224-1229. Illus. 22 ref.
Froom P., Kristal-Boneh E., Ashkanazi R., Ribak J.
The value or urinary lead measurements in the periodic examination of battery workers
An attempt was made to determine whether urinary Pb measurements can help to identify battery workers who need more careful follow-up. The results, which were compared with data from blood Pb measurements, indicated that, although a correlation was found between blood and urinary Pb levels, urinary lead measurements should not be included in the periodic examination of workers exposed to lead.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.27-32. 11 ref.
Pines A., Klebanov M., Lemesch C., Alkaslassy D., Furth M., Meiri N., Ribak J.
Laboratory evaluation of combined exposure to lead, zinc and copper in secondary copper smelter workers
Compared with a control group of wood workers not exposed to metals, the exposed workers showed high mean blood Pb (29.8µg/100mL) and zinc protoporphyrin in blood (48.5µg/100mL), an increased Zn level in blood serum, and increased urine excretion of copper. The correlations in the study group were lead-dominated. There was a significant negative correlation between blood creatinine and the Pb blood level.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995. Vol.1, No.1, p.5-26. Illus. 46 ref.
Guidelines for the management of lead-based paint
These guidelines concern the management of hazards associated with the removal of lead-based paint. Contents: hazards of lead; statutory controls; responsibilities of contractors, owners and managers; recommended working practices (procedures for paint removal, special precautions for interior and exterior paintwork, protective clothing, personal hygiene); personal health surveillance; environmental surveillance; sampling, analysis and interpretation. In appendix: lead content of paints; health effects of lead; hazard assessment.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, June 1995. 51p. 8 ref.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of substances hazardous to health in the production of pottery - Approved Code of Practice
This Approved Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH) (CIS 95-19) and the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1980 (CIS 81-134). Contents include: risk assessment; risks associated with silica, lead and other substances; prevention of contamination and disposal of waste; respiratory protective equipment; cleaning of workrooms, fixtures, plant and equipment; removal of scraps and spillages; construction of buildings, floors, benches and equipment; welfare facilities; use and maintenance of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information of personnel. Formerly published as COP41 (CIS 91-159).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. iv, 32p. 27 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Cronje S., Venter E., Rees D.
Workbook: Application of lead regulations
This manual contains guidelines for compliance with South African regulations on lead exposure of workers, and gives further advice on control of lead exposure. A procedure for identification of tasks with possible lead exposure is given. The health effects of lead absorption in the body are described, with distinction between organic and inorganic lead exposure. Diagnoses on lead poisoning are discussed. A model for the assessment of lead exposure in the workplace is given. Procedures for biological monitoring, medical surveillance and control of lead exposure are presented. Relevant legal texts are reproduced.
National Centre for Occupational Health, P.O. Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa, no date. v, 109p. Illus.
Chia S.E., et al.
Postural stability of workers exposed to lead
Postural stability was investigated with a computerized postural sway measurement system in 60 workers exposed to lead with a duration of exposure of 84 months and in 60 controls. The results show that workers exposed to lead had significantly poorer postural stability than the controls. Lead may affect certain parts of the whole sensory neural axis, resulting in postural instability when the visual input is cut off.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1994, Vol.51, No.11, p.768-771. 20 ref.
Mattos S.V.M., Nicácio M.A., Prado G., Oliveira M.S.
Evaluation of exposure to inorganic lead compounds in workers of metropolitan Belo Horizonte - 1988 to 1993
Avaliação da exposição aos compostos inorgânicos de chumbo em trabalhadores da região metropolitana de Belo Horizonte - 1988 a 1993 [in Portuguese]
This article analyzes the levels of contamination by inorganic lead compounds in 1520 blood samples taken from exposed workers in metallurgy, car battery plants, and the ceramics and paint manufacturing industries in a Brazilian city.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1994, Vol.22, No.83, p.7-16. Illus. 13 ref. ###
Kentner M., Fischer T.
On the correlation between external and internal lead concentrations
Zur Korrelation von äusserer und innerer Bleibelastung [in German]
Lead concentrations in the air of 134 workplaces in a battery manufacturing plant were correlated with lead concentrations in workers' blood. The measurements were taken once per year throughout the period from 1982 to 1991. The close correlation between the two concentrations reported by similar studies published in the literature could not be confirmed. High lead concentrations in the workplace increased the blood lead level less than low lead concentrations. Lead concentrations in the air of workplaces below the maximum allowable exposure limit of 0.1mg/m3 increased the blood lead concentrations to a considerably higher degree than did lead concentrations above the maximum allowable exposure limit.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.12, p.433-443. Illus. 73 ref.
Pfister E., Böckelmann I., Brosz M., Ferl T., Winter C.G.
Determination of neurotoxic effects caused by long-term exposure to lead in the Saxony-Anhalt copper industry by means of psychometric performance tests
Ermittlung neurotoxischer Effekte infolge langjähriger Bleiexposition in der Kupferindustrie Sachsen-Anhalts anhand psychometrischer Leistungsdaten [in German]
The influence of long-term exposure to lead on perceptual-motor performance was studied in 109 workers of a copper smelter in the Land of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany (ex-GDR). The workers had been exposed throughout a 10-year period to permissible lead concentrations of somewhat above 0.025mg/m3, which amounted to somewhat more than one quarter of the exposure limit. The average blood lead level amounted to 31.2µg/dL which was less than half the biological threshold limit. The performance of the lead-exposed workers in 7 computer-aided psychometric tests was compared to that of a non-exposed control group of 27 workers of a mechanical engineering plant. No statistically significant relationship between the blood lead levels and the perceptual-motor performance was found for the exposed group. It is concluded that perceptual-motor performance is not a good indicator of the latent effects caused by a long-term sub-clinical exposure to lead.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.12, p.422-432. Illus. 58 ref.
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