Lead and compounds - 901 entries found
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Wong O., Harris F.
Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995
To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref.
Lead poisoning in a historical perspective
Lead poisoning was already known in Antiquity. In the 19th century, it reached epidemic proportions during the period of industrialization, and several comprehensive clinical articles appeared in the literature. The clinical picture became clearer at the beginning of the 20th century, at which time preventive efforts were initiated. However, the concept of poisoning remained strictly clinical. During the latter half of the 20th century a new concept emerged: subclinical and early forms became recognized as undesirable effects. This led to a substantial lowering of exposure levels. After the 1920s, environmental pollution by lead caused by the introduction of tetraethyllead in gasoline became an alarming public health problem. Its use became restricted in the 1980s; its effects on blood lead levels are now evident. Current research focuses on the effects of low exposure, often with the aim of defining non-effect levels for different types of effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.244-254. 54 ref.
Landrigan P.J., Boffetta P., Apostoli P.
The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: A critical review
Lead is a known reproductive toxin, causing reductions in sperm count and fertility in males and an increased risk of miscarriage in females. Recent research has shown that these reproductive effects occur at relatively low levels of exposure that were previously considered safe. Lead is also a potent neurotoxin. Prospective longitudinal studies demonstrate that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to lead at levels as low as 10-20µg/dL results in damage to the central nervous system, resulting in diminished intelligence and altered behaviour. These effects appear to be irreversible and untreatable, the only approach to their control being to reduce prenatal and early life exposure to lead. Lead is a proven animal carcinogen. It can cause renal cancer and possibly brain tumours in rats and mice. In humans, IARC had previously considered the evidence on the carcinogenicity of lead to be "inadequate". However, new data have accumulated on the cancer risk of workers exposed to lead, which justify a re-evaluation of the classification.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.231-243. 89 ref.
Chuang H.Y., Schwartz J., Tsai S.Y., Lee M.L.T., Wang J.D., Hu H.
Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead
Workers in a lead battery factory in Taiwan (China) were required to have a blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test. The variables of exposure to lead were all significantly correlated with the VPT of the feet, but not of the hands. The conclusion is that measurement of VPT is a relatively effective tool for detecting lead neuropathy and that lead might cause sensory neuropathy with an effect threshold corresponding to a 5 year mean blood lead concentration of 31µg/dL.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.588-594. Illus. 36 ref.
Leleu B., Shirali P., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D.
Lead genetic susceptibility: A general review
Biosusceptibilité au plomb: revue générale [in French]
The effects of lead on the human organism have long been known. In particular, lead is recognized as a cause of secondary porphyria resulting from haeme synthesis inhibition. There is considerable inter-individual variation in the response to lead exposure. These differences are likely to be mediated, in part, by genetic factors. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) is among the first enzymes affected by lead, and its inhibition is quite specific. This enzyme is polymorphic and is responsible for three different phenotypes. ALAD is encoded by a single gene on the q34 region of chromosome 9, with two co-dominant alleles. During the last two decades, various investigators have studied this polymorphism and its possible influence on the toxicity of lead. This article consists of a review of the research conducted in this field.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 29 ref.
Hwang Y.H., Chao K.Y., Chang C.W., Hsiao F.T., Chang H.L., Han H.Z.
Lip lead as an alternative measure for lead exposure assessment of lead battery assembly workers
Air lead, lead loadings on workers' sleeves, gloves, hands, cheeks, and lips, and blood lead were determined in 96 workers from a lead battery plant in Taiwan. A questionnaire also was administered on work history, suspected exogenous lead sources, and personal behaviour and activities. Total air lead at different sub-areas ranged from 0.070 to 0.159mg/m3. Respirable air lead level for different subgroups of workers varied from 0.009 to 0.032mg/m3, whereas those of the blood lead level ranged from 22.4 to 44.5µg/dL. The heaviest lead loadings were found for plate-processing workers (66.4 on gloves, 0.80 on cheeks, and 0.79µg/cm2 on bare-hands after washing). Blood lead level was significantly correlated with lead levels in air, lead loadings on lips, and bare hands after washing. Regression analysis shows that only lip lead can be used as an alternative index of lead exposure through ingestion.
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.825-831. Illus. 31 ref.
Johnson J.C., Reynolds S.J., Fuortes L.J., Clarke W.R.
Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: Comparisons of trades, work tasks
Lead exposures were evaluated at a bridge renovation site. Although the bridge had been previously de-leaded, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188µg/m3), followed by clean-up and paint-removal workers. Respirators were generally worn by workers with the greatest exposures; however, labourers performing clean-up operations had exposures of 43µg/m3 and often wore no respiratory protection. Wipe samples revealed that almost all contractor vehicles were contaminated. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3600µg/m2). Labourers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4766µg/m2).
AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.815-819. 22 ref.
Fertility among workers exposed to solvents or lead
To investigate whether occupational exposure to solvents or lead is associated with reduced fertility, data on time to pregnancy were collected for female workers and wives of male workers biologically monitored for exposure to these agents. Exposure assessment was based on biological exposure measurements and on self-reported data on work and use of chemicals. Also, a register-based study on infertility was conducted among the families of lead-exposed men. Daily or high maternal exposure to organic solvents was associated with reduced fertility, particularly among women working in dry-cleaning shops, shoe factories and in the metal industry. No clear connection was found between maternal exposure to lead and fecundity. There is some indication that paternal exposure to solvents is associated with decreased fertility and that paternal exposure to lead may be associated with delayed conception. Five research articles on these topics are reproduced in the Annex (the author being among the co-authors in every case).
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41aA, Helsinki 00250, Finland, 2000. 80p. + Annex (49p.). Illus. 157 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for lead (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of lead is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurotoxic effects; brain damage (encephalopathy); anaemia; renal damage; effects on reproduction (miscarriage, damage to the male reproductive system); retarded development of the new born; possible effects on children resulting from parental exposure; animal studies indicate a carcinogenic potential. (Update of CIS 96-2227).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, July 1999. xx, 587p. Illus. Approx. 1600 ref.
Skerfving S., Bencko V., Vahter M., Schütz A., Gerhardsson L.
Environmental health in the Baltic region - Toxic metals
Recent reports on concentrations of lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic and nickel in some biological media in populations of the Baltic region are reviewed. In particular, children in parts of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany have uptakes of lead sufficient to cause adverse effects on the central nervous system and kidneys. Cadmium exposure is also high in Poland. Methylmercury uptake is dependent upon the intake of fish in Sweden and Finland, as well as along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. There are some indications of immunotoxic effects. However, fish also contain other immunomodulating agents. Exposure to arsenic seems to be low everywhere in the Baltic region. There is high nickel exposure in northern Russia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.40-64. Illus. 199 ref.
Lead, you and your family
Le plomb, vous et votre famille [in French]
This leaflet is aimed at workers handling or in contact with lead. It explains health effects due to lead and measures to be taken to prevent the contamination of the workers' families. Contents: intake routes (nose, mouth); health effects (haematological effects, effects on the nervous system, nephrotoxic effects); effects on reproduction and on children; uses of lead and possible exposures; rules for limiting exposure at the workplace (personal protective equipment, workplace cleaning, hygiene, medical examinations); preventing the contamination of the family.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 1999. 8p. Illus.
Löfstedt H., Seldén A., Storéus L., Bodin L.
Blood lead in Swedish police officers
Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in firing ranges is a well-known source of lead exposure in adults, and police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication. Swedish police officers considered as the most active shooters on and/or off duty responded to a questionnaire about health, lifestyle, shooting habits and potential lead exposure. Blood samples were collected and analysed for PbB and a multivariate regression analysis was performed. The mean PbB in male officers was 0.24µmol/L, and in female officers it was even lower (0.18µmol/L). For both sexes combined, a positive correlation of PbB with the number of bullets annually fired both on and off duty was observed and this finding remained in a multiple regression analysis including age, smoking habits and latency from last shooting exercise. Occupational and recreational lead exposure from firing ranges still seems to be a source of lead exposure in Swedish police officers, but it no longer appears to he a health risk. Lead-free ammunition and well-ventilated indoor firing ranges may have been decisive for this encouraging finding.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1999, Vol.35, No.5, p.519-522. Illus. 10 ref.
Reynolds S.J., Seem R., Fourtes L.J., Sprince M.L., Johnson J., Walkner L., Clarke W., Whitten P.
Prevalence of elevated blood leads and exposure to lead in construction trades in Iowa and Illinois
This study characterized the prevalence of blood lead concentrations in high-risk construction trades in Iowa/Illinois, and identified risk factors for occupational exposure to lead in these construction workers. A sample of 459 workers was selected from the total population of all union members from trade groups of painters, plumbers/pipefitters, ironworkers, laborers and electricians. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire obtaining information on demographics, symptoms, occupational history, work practices, personal protective equipment and training. Venous blood samples were collected from each participant and analysed for blood lead and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. Blood lead levels differed by the type of trade, type of project and specific job activity owing to differences in the inherent exposure potential of each task. The study provides evidence that training, implementation of engineering contracts and proper use of personal protective equipment such as respirators is effective in controlling lead poisoning.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.307-316. Illus. 20 ref.
Carelli G., Masci O., Altieri A., Castellino N.
Occupational exposure to lead - Granulometric distribution of airborne lead in relation to risk assessment
The Permissible Exposure Limit for lead of 50µg/m3 set by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is based on a number of assumptions, including that which predicts that the first 12.5µg/m3 are made up of fine particles of less than 1µm diameter and the remaining 12.5mgg/m3 consist of particles >1µm. Occupational exposure to airborne lead at a concentration of 50µg/m3 and a granulometric distribution as above leads to a mean blood level of 40µg/m3. The validity of OSHA's assumption was tested in a factory that manufactured crystal glassware containing 24% lead oxide. Results indicate that the assumption cannot be considered valid in the work environment investigated in this study and that lead absorption levels in exposed workers may be noticeably different from those predicted by the OSHA model. It is therefore essential to integrate total airborne lead concentration with a measurement of the granulometric distribution of the aerosol.
Industrial Health, July 1999, Vol.37, No.3, p.313-321. Illus. 18 ref.
Roscoe R.J., Gittleman J.L., Deddens J.A., Petersen M.R., Halperin W.E.
Blood lead levels among children of lead-exposed workers: A meta-analysis
Blood lead levels among U.S. children (ages 1-5) from households with lead-exposed workers was estimated in order to assess the utility of targeted blood lead level screening for such children. All reports of take-home lead exposure in the USA which included data on venous blood lead levels for children, children's ages, data for at least five children, workers' occupations, workers' blood lead levels, and data collection methods, were studied. The children of lead-exposed workers had a geometric mean blood lead level of 9.3µg/dL compared to a U.S. population geometric mean of 3.6µg/dL. Also in this group, 52% of the children had blood lead levels (BLLs) > 10µg/dL compared to 8.9% in the USA in general, and 21% of the children had BLLs > 20µg/dL compared to 1.1% in general. It is estimated that there are about 48,000 families with children under six years of age living with household members occupationally exposed to lead. About half of the young children in these families may have BLLs > 10µg/dL. Findings support the position that children of lead-exposed workers should be targeted for blood lead screening.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.36, No.4, p.475-481. 30 ref.
Aiba Y., Ohshiba S., Horiguchi S., Morioka I., Miyashita K., Kiyota I., Endo G., Takada H., Iwata H.
Peripheral hemodynamics evaluated by acceleration plethysmography in workers exposed to lead
To clarify the effect of lead exposure on peripheral haemodynamics, acceleration plethysmography (APG) was performed on 48 male subjects occupationally exposed to lead (exposure group) and 43 male subjects with no history of occupational exposure to lead (control group). In the exposure group, the blood lead concentration (Pb-B) was also measured. Each APG parameter was assessed by comparing measured data with standard aging curves. A significant negative correlation was obtained between the APG parameter -b/a and Pb-B. The exposure group showed significantly lower values of parameters -b/a and b/a than did the control group. The parameter -b/a in the exposure group showed a dose-dependent decrease with increases in length of working career (duration of exposure to lead) and Pb-B. The parameter -b/a significantly decreased in subjects with working careers of five years or more and in subjects whose Pb-B was 40µg/100mL or more. Results suggest that lead exposure affects peripheral haemodynamics as evaluated by APG. Topics: atherosclerosis; lead; determination in blood; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; lead industry; peripheral circulation; plethysmography.
Industrial Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.37, No.1, p.3-8. Illus. 18 ref.
Billig P., Gurzau E., Vultur C., Stoica A., Filimon V., Puscas M.
Innovative intersectoral approach reduces blood lead levels of children and workers in Romania
An intersectoral approach involving the community, governmental and nongovernmental agencies, and local management, with the support of the U.S. Agency for International Development, succeeded in reducing the blood lead levels of plant workers and of young children living in the vicinity of a copper smelter in Zlatna, Romania. Details of the collaborative effort, which attracted enthusiastic responses from all participants, are provided. Topics: lead; copper; children; cooperation; copper ores; determination in air; determination in blood; health programmes; information of personnel; Romania; smelting plants.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.50-56. Illus.
Viskum S., Rabjerg L., Jřrgensen P.J., Grandjean P.
Improvement in semen quality associated with decreasing occupational lead exposure
Sperm quality changes were prospectively assessed in 19 men employed at a car battery plant where efforts were made to decrease the exposure level to lead. The participants delivered monthly samples of semen and venous blood during their employment at the factory. The factory then closed, and additional samples were obtained from 16 of the men. Average blood-lead concentrations decreased from 2.03µmol/L to 0.96µmol/L during the observation period. Concomitantly, significant improvements were seen in the proportion of motile cells both at sample delivery and after 24h, and in penetration. However, the sperm cell concentration and the proportion of morphological abnormalities did not change. These results support the notion that occupational lead exposure at currently acceptable levels has a small adverse effect on sperm quality, especially sperm motility, and that this effect is at least partially reversible. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; determination in blood; limitation of exposure; spermatogenic disturbances.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1999, Vol.35, No.3, p.257-263. Illus. 36 ref.
Lindgren K.N., Masten V.L., Tiburzi M.J., Ford D.P., Bleecker M.L.
The factor structure of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and its relationship to occupational lead exposure
The Profile of Mood States (POMS) is an instrument composed of six mood scales that were developed using clinical populations. 467 current and retired lead-smelter workers completed the POMS, and a factor analysis was performed on the individual items. Factor analysis produced one factor, labelled "general distress", that was composed mainly of items from five of the six POMS subscales (anger, confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension) and a second factor labelled "psychological adjustment". Integrated blood lead level, a measure of cumulative lead exposure that included prior high exposure, was significantly related to the POMS "general distress" factor, while a current blood lead level that was relatively low was unrelated. As expected, POMS psychological adjustment was not related to lead exposure. Factor analysis did not support the use of six separate POMS subscales in this occupational population. Topics: age-linked differences; alcoholism; lead; depressive neurosis; determination in blood; evaluation of technique; exposure evaluation; human behaviour; lead industry; lead poisoning; long-term exposure; mental health; neuropsychic stress; psychological effects; psychological tests.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.3-10. Illus. 34 ref.
Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P.
Lead and its inorganic compounds
Plomb et ses composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1783. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; haemolytic anaemia; cytologic hepatic damage; neurological effects (intracraneal hypertension and convulsive coma) which may leave sequelae. Chronic toxicity: haematological effects (anaemia); effects on the digestive tract (deposits of lead); neurological effects (convulsive coma, sensitive-motor neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis); renal damage; high blood pressure; bone damage; effects on reproduction; carcinogenic effects (lung and stomach cancer). Exposure limits (France): 150µg/m3 (mean value over 40 hours expressed as lead). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.231-100-4 (lead), No.082-001-00-6 (lead monoxide); T, R61, R62, R20/22, R33, S53, S45, 215-267-0 (lead monoxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 8p. Illus. 38 ref.
Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Wilczyńska U.
Occupational lead poisoning in Poland
Problemy zawodowych zatruć ołowiem w Polsce [in Polish]
From 1970 to 1996, 8414 cases of lead poisoning, recognized as an occupational disease, were registered in Poland, with a peak between 1973-1976, with 500-800 cases per year. Most persons (64.3%) were employed in plants located in the province of Katowice. More than half of men with occupational lead poisoning were exposed to concentrations of lead exceeding MAC values by two hundred times. The diminishing number of occupational lead poisonings reported during the 1990s may not reflect the true level of occupational exposure. Most cases reported apply to large plants or industrial complexes, where prevention services are well organized. However, there may be under-reporting from small enterprises. For effective prevention of occupational lead poisoning, one would need to make a complete inventory of industrial sites where lead occurs, to identify workplaces hazardous to health, and to monitor lead concentrations in the air.
Medycyna pracy, 1998, Vol.XLIX, No.3, p.217-222. Illus. 6 ref.
Laforest L., Annino M.C., Alluard A., Van den Wiele F., Precausta D., Albouy J.
Secondary lead contamination - Evaluation of the preventive measures undertaken by occupational medicine services
Contamination secondaire au plomb - Evaluation des mesures de prévention menées par les services de médecine du travail [in French]
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; children; determination in blood; dosimetry; evaluation of control measures; hospitals; industrial physicians; lead industry; lead poisoning; long-term exposure; medical supervision; occupational medicine; parental exposure; permissible levels; threshold limit values.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3th Quarter 1998, No.75, p.259-263. Illus. 1 ref.
Laforest L., Annino M.C., Alluard A., Van den Wiele F., Precausta D., Albouy J.
Secondary lead contamination - Epidemiological study of children of occupationally-exposed employees
Contamination secondaire au plomb - Etude épidémiologique sur des enfants de salariés professionnellement exposés [in French]
Topics: atmospheric pollution; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; children; determination in blood; dosimetry; epidemiologic study; industrial physicians; lead industry; long-term exposure; medical supervision; parental exposure; permissible levels; statistical evaluation; threshold limit values.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3th Quarter 1998, No.75, p.251-257. Illus. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Lead and you: A guide to working safely with lead
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; blood monitoring; lead; enamelling; expectant mothers; glass industry; harmful substances; ingestion; inhalation; legal aspects; limitation of exposure; plant safety organization; pottery industry; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; safe working methods; smelting plants; threshold limit values; training material; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1998. 8p.
Lead and inorganic compounds of lead
Plomb et composés minéraux [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, pathology and toxicology. Attention is drawn to French legislation relating to occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations are made concerning technical and medical aspects. Topics: anaemia; biological threshold limits; carcinogenic effects; lead nitrate; lead dioxide; lead tetroxide; lead oxide; lead sulfate; lead sulfide; lead carbonate; lead; lead chloride; lead chromate; data sheet; determination in air; endocrine effects; fire fighting; fire hazards; first aid; France; gastrointestinal diseases; haematotoxic effects; handling and storage; health hazards; hypertension; labelling; lead and compounds; lead poisoning; legislation; limitation of exposure; nephrotoxic effects; neurological effects; personal protective equipment; spills; threshold limit values.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1998. 8p. 38 ref.
Bergdahl I.A., Strömberg U., Gerhardsson L., Schütz A., Chettle D.R., Skerfving S.
Lead concentrations in tibial and calcaneal bone in relation to the history of lead exposure
Concentraciones de plomo en los huesos tibial y calcáneo en relación con la historia de exposición ocupacional al plomo [in Spanish]
Topics: atomic absorption spectrometry; bones; lead; determination in blood; determination of concentration; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; long-term exposure; mathematical models; tibia; x-ray fluorescence.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 1998, Vol.45, No.177, p.71-82. Illus. 34 ref.
Masci O., Carelli G., Vinci F., Castellino N.
Blood lead concentration and biological effects in workers exposed to very low lead levels
A longitudinal study was carried out on two groups of workers engaged in tin/lead alloy welding in the telecommunications sector. The risk of exposure was evaluated by measuring levels of airborne lead and concentrations of lead in blood. The correlated effects were assessed by determining zinc protoporphyrin(ZPP) and haemoglobin levels and red blood cell count. Subjective symptoms were also recorded. Results indicated a very low risk of lead exposure during microwelding operations. While blood lead concentrations were significantly higher than those in the general population, they were significantly lower than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's permissible exposure limit. No variation was found in the other biological parameters investigated, and no health effects were observed. During the study period, the introduction of some technological innovations led to a further reduction in lead exposure and,subsequently, to its total elimination. Blood lead concentrations gradually declined to lower values, and ZPP concentrations also decreased to normal levels, demonstrating that the effect of lead on heme synthesis may occur even at very low levels of lead exposure. Topics: biological effects; lead; determination in air; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; haemoglobin; length of exposure; microwelding; porphyrins.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1998, Vol.40, No.10, p.886-894. Illus. 16 ref.
Cocco P., Dosemeci M., Heineman E.F.
Brain cancer and occupational exposure to lead
Analysis of data from the death certificates of 27,060 brain cancer cases showed that brain cancer risk increased by probability of exposure to lead among white men and women with high-level exposure, with a significant twofold excess among white men with high probability and high level of exposure. Risks were also elevated for African-American men with high-level exposure. Although exposure assessment was based solely on the occupation and industry reported on the death certificate, these results add to other epidemiologic and experimental findings in lending some support to the hypothesis of an association between occupational exposure to lead and brain cancer risk. Topics: brain cancer; case-control study; exposure evaluation; lead and compounds; mortality; race-linked differences; sex-linked differences.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.40, No.11, p.937-942. 26 ref.
Jakubowski M., Trzcinka-Ochocka M., Raźniewska G., Frydrych J.
Blood lead levels in industrial workers in Poland
The study assessed lead exposure, based on Pb-B determinations, of 2,489 workers employed in 13 different types of industry with exposure to lead, including manufacture of crystal glass, battery manufacture, copper and zinc smelters, and welding in a ship repair yard. Results indicated that exposure to lead continues to be a serious problem in Polish industry. Pb-B levels exceeded the Polish biological exposure index (BEI) of 500µg/L for male workers in about 30% of cases. 65% of the women under 45 years of age presented Pb-B levels higher than the 300µg/L recommended as the BEI for this age group. Topics: lead; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; limitation of exposure; Poland.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol.11, No.1, p.59-67. Illus. 20 ref.
Ho S.F., Sam. C.T., Embi G.B.
Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries
Workers from two PVC compounding plants and two lead acid battery manufacturing plants in Singapore were studied along with a control group. The mean lead-in-air level was higher in the battery manufacturing plants than in the PVC compounding plants. Battery workers had higher mean blood lead than PVC workers, but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Malays had higher blood lead levels than the Chinese, although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups among the controls. Workers who ate with bare hands at least once a week had higher blood lead levels after adjusting for lead-in-air levels. Results indicate that the higher blood lead levels observed in the Malay workers may have been due to their higher exposure and eating with bare hands. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; case-control study; determination in air; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; food contamination; job-exposure relation; personal hygiene; personal sampling; race-linked differences; smoking.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1998, Vol.48, No.6, p.369-373. 18 ref.
Ashley K., Mapp K.J., Millson M.
Ultrasonic extraction and field-portable anodic stripping voltammetry for the determination of lead in workplace air samples
Workplace air samples were collected at sites where airborne particulates were generated from the abrasive blasting of lead-containing paint on highway bridges. Lead concentrations were determined by ultrasonic extraction (UE) of air filter samples in diluted nitric acid followed by portable anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). The performance of the UE-ASV method was acceptable, as evaluated by comparison with results from hotplate strong acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry analysis. The described procedure demonstrates potential for the on-site determination of lead in personal breathing zone and area air samples. Topics: air sampling; airborne dust; lead; coulometry; description of technique; detection by ultrasonic methods; determination in air; field tests; paint removal.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1998, Vol.59, No.10, p.671-679. Illus. 20 ref.
Influence of the work environment in a Pb-Zn mine on the incidence of cytogenetic damage in miners
In a study of cytogenetic damage in 120 miners occupationally exposed to radon and heavy metals in a lead-zinc mine, end points studied were structural chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges. Radon measurements were performed and the effective equivalent radiation doses over a 2-year period were calculated. The mean values of the percentage of structural chromosomal aberration frequency were 4.09% in miners, compared to 1.43% and 1.88% in two non-occupationally exposed control groups. The frequency of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges were also higher in the miners. Findings should be interpreted with regard to simultaneous exposure to radon and metals (lead, cadmium and zinc). Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; radon; lead; case-control study; chromosome changes; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; lymphocytes; mining industry; smoking; workplace monitoring; zinc.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.455-463. Illus. 21 ref.
Irgens Ĺ., Krüger K., Skorve A.H., Irgens L.M.
Reproductive outcome in offspring of parents occupationally exposed to lead in Norway
All births in Norway 1970-1993 with possible maternal or paternal occupational lead exposure were compared with a reference population. Offspring of lead-exposed mothers had an increased risk of low birth weight and neural tube defects. Effects on birth weight and gestational age showed significant dose-response associations. Offspring of lead-exposed fathers had no increased risks of any of the analysed reproductive outcomes. However, decreased risks were observed of low birth weight and preterm birth. Further efforts are needed to protect the offspring of lead-exposed mothers. Topics: lead; case-control study; list of occupations; parental exposure; sex-linked differences; teratogenic effects.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.34, No.5, p.431-437. 28 ref.
Ronin D., Strehl F.
Elevation of zinc protoporphyrin levels in lead workers with iron-sufficient microcytosis
Results of a study of two groups of lead-exposed subjects with either normal or low mean blood cell volume showed a significant difference in zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels between the groups. There was no difference in age, lead levels or iron levels between the groups. Abnormally high ZPP levels may occur in individuals with haemoglobinopathies. Topics: blood-cell anomalies; lead; determination in blood; exposure tests; lead and compounds; protoporphyrin; statistical evaluation.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1998, Vol.40, No.5, p.492-496. Illus. 6 ref.
Smith D.R., Ilustre R.P., Osterloh J.D.
Methodical considerations for the accurate determination of lead in human plasma and serum
Topics: blood plasma; lead; contamination monitoring; description of technique; determination in blood; evaluation of technique; mass spectrometry; plasma emission spectrometry; serum.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1998, Vol.33, No.5, p.430-438. Illus. 24 ref.
Nelson N.A., Kaufman J.D.
Employees exposed to lead in Washington State nonconstruction workplaces: A starting point for hazard surveillance
Topics: air sampling; blood monitoring; lead; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; limitation of exposure; list of occupations; medical supervision; questionnaire survey; respirators; risk awareness; USA; Washington.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1998, Vol.59, No.4, p.269-277. Illus. 11 ref.
Health and Safety Executive, Health and Safety Laboratory
Lead and inorganic compounds of lead in air
Topics: atomic absorption spectrometry; lead; data sheet; description of equipment; description of technique; determination in air; lead and compounds; legislation; sampling and analysis; toxic effects; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Mar. 1998. 13p. 23 ref. Price: GBP 12.00.
Health and Safety Commission
Control of lead at work
Topics: lead; cleaning of workplaces; determination in air; determination in blood; directive; dust control; hazard evaluation; health engineering; health service records; implementation of control measures; information of personnel; lead and compounds; lead poisoning; medical supervision; outdoor work; personal hygiene; prohibited work; protective clothing; respirators; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; safety checks; United Kingdom; washing facilities; women; young persons.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1998. iv, 91p. Price: GBP 8.95.
Health and Safety - The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1998 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (effective 1 April 1998) revoke the 1980 Regulations of the same name (CIS 81-134). Topics: lead; determination in air; exposure evaluation; exposure records; health hazards; information of personnel; law; limitation of exposure; medical supervision; personal protective equipment; safety and health training; United Kingdom; women, children, young persons.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1998. 11p. Price: GBP 2.80.
Guidelines on method of sampling and analysis for airborne lead
Description of techniques for sampling and analysis of airborne lead in compliance with legislation. It is based primarily on the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (4th ed., 1994, see CIS 98-217).
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 1997. iii, 16p. Illus. 16 ref.
http://dosh.mohr.gov.my/koperat/G-PANDUAN%20PDF/GUIDE-Sampling%202-97%20(I).pdf [in English]
Chia S.E., Chia K.S., Chan A.
Workers suspended from lead work return to work: When and how
Results of a study conducted in Singapore. Topics: anaemia; blood monitoring; lead; compensatory leave; exposure evaluation; iron deficiency anaemia; plant health organization; Singapore; thalassaemia.
Journal of UOEH, Mar. 1997, Vol.19, Supplement, p.246-252. Illus. 8 ref.
Factories (Medical Examinations) (Amendment) Regulations 1997 [Singapore]
Topics: arsenic and compounds; arsenic; asbestos; benzene; bitumen; cadmium; tetrachloroethylene; pitch; lead; manganese; mercury; vinyl chloride; silica; trichloroethylene; compressed air; cotton industry; creosote; dust; exposure; law; lead and compounds; medical examinations; medical supervision; mercury and compounds; mists; noise; organophosphorus compounds; Singapore; smoke.
Photocopy, 13p. On file at CIS.
Chia S.E., Chia H.P., Ong C.N., Jeyaratnam J.
Cumulative blood lead levels and neurobehavioral test performance
Fifty lead battery workers and 97 non-exposed (referent) workers from a vehicle maintenance workshop were evaluated on neurobehavioral performance using the World Health Organization Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery. Concurrent blood lead (ConPb) and cumulative blood lead (CumPb) were used to study the association with the neurobehavioral test results. The exposed group had significantly poorer manual dexterity perceptual-motor speed, and motor steadiness compared with the referents. The standardized partial regression coefficients were higher for CumPb than ConPb for most of the neurobehavioral test results. In the group >35 years old, there were significantly stronger associations between CumPb and Digit Symbol and Trail Making Part A results than for Con Pb which are tests of perceptual and motor skills. CumPb was a better prediction than ConPb of the effects of lead on neurobehavorial performances. Topics: age-linked differences; lead; determination in blood; dose-response relationship; nervous function tests; neuropsychic effects; perceptual-motor performance; vehicle repair and servicing.
Neurotoxicology, 1997, Vol.18, No.3, p.793-803. 38 ref.
Bergdahl I.A., Schütz A., Gerhardsson L., Jensen A., Skerfving S.
Lead concentrations in human plasma, urine and whole blood
The concentration of lead in human plasma (P-Pb) was investigated in relation to blood-lead levels (B-Pb) and urinary lead (U-Pb). Blood samples were obtained from 145 male workers, 110 of whom were employed in lead work. P-Pb was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The detection limit was 0.04µg/L, and the imprecision was 5%. The low detection limit and good precision of P-Pb determination make it possible to use P-Pb in assessments of lead exposure and risk. Furthermore, in relative terms, P-Pb is a more sensitive measure than B-Pb, especially at high lead levels. Topics: accuracy; blood plasma; lead; determination in blood; determination in urine; evaluation of technique; exposure tests.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1997, Vol.23, No.5, p.359-363. Illus. 17 ref.
Pelclová D., Picková J., Patzelová V.
Chromosomal aberrations, hormone levels and oxidative phenotype (P450 2D6) in low occupational lead exposure
Topics: analysis of chromosome aberrations; battery and dry cell manufacture; lead; chromosome changes; determination in blood; hormone secretion; metabolic disturbances.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.314-322. Bibl.ref.
Vaglenov A.K., Laltchef S.G., Nosko M.S., Pavlova S.P., Petkova V.V., Karadiov A.D.
Cytogenetic monitoring of workers exposed to lead
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; blood-cell anomalies; lead; cytogenetic studies; determination in blood; genetic effects.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.4, p.298-308. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Ministčre du Logement
Lead-based paints in old housing
Les peintures au plomb dans l'habitat ancien [in French]
Topics: building industry; lead; construction sites; disposal of harmful waste; dust control; France; hazard evaluation; legislation; paint removal; paints; repair work.
Direction de l'Habitat et de la Construction, Arche de la Défense, Paroi Sud, 92055 Paris - La Défense Cedex 04, France, 1997. 105p. Illus.
Goldberg M., Levin S.M., Doucette J.T., Griffin G.
A task-based approach to assessing lead exposure among iron workers engaged in bridge rehabilitation
Topics: bridge building; lead; determination in air; exposure evaluation; limitation of exposure; paints; personal sampling; structural steel work; USA.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1997, Vol.31, No.3, p.310-318. Illus. 15 ref.
Protecting workers exposed to lead-based paint hazards: A report to Congress
Topics: abrasive blasting; antifertility effects; carcinogenic effects; cardiovascular disorders; lead; epidemiological aspects; exposure evaluation; haematological effects; health engineering; neighbourhood populations; paint removal; painting; paints; renal damage; report; respirators; sampling and analysis; substitution; teratogenic effects; USA.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Publications Dissemination, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1997. xii, 74p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Tsai C.J., Shih T.S., Sheu R.N.
Characteristics of lead aerosols in different work environments
Topics: aerosols; airborne dust; atomic absorption spectrometry; lead; determination in air; determination in blood; dust measurement; exposure evaluation; job-exposure relation; particle size determination; particle size distribution; respirable dust; sampling and analysis; Taiwan (China).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1997, Vol.58, No.9, p.650-656. Illus. 16 ref.
Risk of lead poisoning during lead-tin wire electronic soldering operations
Risque de saturnisme lors des opérations de soudure électronique au fil plomb-étain [in French]
Topics: lead; determination in air; determination in blood; electronics industry; France; lead poisoning; questionnaire survey; soldering and brazing; tin.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1997, Vol.37, No.4, p.455-458. Illus. 7 ref.
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