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Lead and compounds - 901 entries found

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  • Lead and compounds

2005

CIS 05-669 Garnier F.
Toxicity of lead and its derivatives
Toxicité du plomb et de ses dérivés [in French]
Lead is among the most ancient and widely-used metals. Occupational exposures remain important. The release of scales or dusts during the painting of old and poorly-maintained wallcovering is the cause of frequent cases of lead poisoning among children in many countries, including France. In regions where the mineral content of drinking water is low, it can absorb various metals, including lead. This article describes cases of poisoning by inorganic and organic lead compounds. Topics covered: sources and means of exposure; toxicokinetics of lead; acute and chronic toxic effects, including carcinogenicity and reproductive health effects; procedures for screening, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of childhood lead poisoning; principles of medical supervision for workers exposed to lead; treatment and compensation of work-related poisonings.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.147, 15p. Illus. 95 ref.

CIS 05-373 Bleecker M.L., Ford D.P., Lindgren K.N., Hoese V.M., Walsh K.S., Vaughan C.G.
Differential effects of lead exposure on components of verbal memory
To determine if verbal learning and memory retention is affected by lead exposure, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) was administered to 256 English-speaking lead smelter workers (mean age 41 years and mean employment duration 17 years). Lead exposure variables, based on up to 25 years of prior blood lead data, included a mean current blood lead of 28µg/dl, working lifetime time weighted average blood lead (TWA) of 39µg/dl, and working lifetime integrated blood lead index (IBL) of 728µg-y/dl. Associations of these chronic and recent lead exposure variables with measures from the RAVLT were modelled through multiple linear regressions after controlling for age and educational achievement. It was found that long-term lead exposure interfered with the organisation and recall of previously learned verbal material.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.62, No.3, p.181-187. Illus. 45 ref.

2004

CIS 07-866 Garçon G., Leleu B., Zerimech F., Marez T., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D., Shirali P.
Biologic markers of oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity as studied in biomonitoring of adverse effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium
This study examined the impregnation levels of workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium, the usefulness of early urinary markers of nephrotoxicity and the occurrence of oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism involved in adverse effects induced by lead or cadmium. Levels of lead and cadmium in blood and urine were measured in 35 male workers in a nonferrous metal smelter. Relations between oxidative stress markers and exposure levels, on the one hand, and early urinary markers and exposure levels, on the other hand, were evaluated. Mean exposure levels were moderate. Findings suggest the use of α-glutathione S-transferases excretion in urine as an indicator of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity that could later lead to clinical disease if exposure is not reduced.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1180-1186. 35 ref.

CIS 07-856 Chia S.E., Yap E., Chia K.S.
δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphism and susceptibility of workers exposed to inorganic lead and its effects on neurobehavioral functions
This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the frequency of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) polymorphisms among a total of 120 ethnic Chinese, Malay and Indian male workers who were exposed to low to medium levels of inorganic lead. The association between ALAD1 and ALAD2 genotypes and neurobehavioural functions among these workers was also investigated. Blood and urine were collected to determine the ALAD genotypes, blood lead levels, ALAD, and urinary δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). ALAD1-1 was the predominant genotype for all three ethnic groups while ALAD2-2 was the rarest. The distribution of ALAD1-2 was higher among Malays (76.7%) and Indians (14.3%), compared to Chinese (3.6%). Workers with ALAD1-1 genotypes had significantly higher urinary ALA and significantly poorer neurobehavioral scores than those with ALAD1-2/2-2 genotypes. The ALAD2 allele may exert protective measures against the neurotoxic effects of lead.
Neurotoxicology, 2004, Vol.25, p.1041-1047. 20 ref.

CIS 07-31
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Lead
Revista do trabalhador: Chumbo [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers and others may be exposed to lead and lead compounds in the form of vapour or dust or ingested in contaminated drinks or food. Exposure may result in lead poisoning, causing damage to the nervous system and kidneys and reproductive effects.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 12min.

CIS 05-366 Juárez-Pérez C.A., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith D.R., Lacasaña-Navarro M., Téllez-Rojo M.M., Piacitteli G., Hu H., Hernández-Avila M.
Predictors of plasma lead among lithographic print shop workers in Mexico City
Plasma lead is a biological marker that reflects the fraction of lead in blood that is toxicologically available. This study examined the relationship between plasma lead and other biomarkers of lead exposure in 69 lithographic print shop workers. Lead was measured in plasma and whole blood, in bone, in occupational air samples and in hand wipes. Personal hygiene habits at work were also surveyed. Subjects had a mean age of 47 years and 86% were men. The mean lead levels were 0.3µg/L in plasma, 11.9µg/L in blood, 46.7µg/L in patella, and 27.6µg/L in tibia. Taken together, two multivariate linear models explained 57% of variability in plasma lead levels. Predictors for the first model were lead in patella, blood, and personal hygiene habits. Predictors for the second model were lead in tibia, blood, and personal hygiene habits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.245-252. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 05-162 Shiau C.Y., Wang J.D., Chen P.C.
Decreased fecundity among male lead workers
The objective of this study was to investigate time to pregnancy (TTP) in wives of male workers exposed to lead in order to determine the dose-response relation between blood lead and decreased fecundity. 163 currently-employed married male lead battery workers were classified into five categories of exposure based on questionnaire information and annual blood lead levels. Information pertaining to the TTP was collected using personal interviews of men and their spouses. Fecundity ratios (FRs) were calculated using regression techniques. After controlling for other factors associated with TTP, a dose-response relation was observed between blood lead level and TTP. The measured FRs were 0.90, 0.72, 0.52 and 0.40 for concurrent blood lead levels of <20, 20-29, 30-39, and >40µg/dl, respectively. These results corroborate the hypothesis that a raised blood lead level affects fecundity.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.61, No.11, p.915-923. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 05-17 Cruz Nogueira A.F.
Metals - Hazards from occupational exposure
Metais - Riscos de exposição profissional [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, explains how to avoid or reduce the risks due to exposure to metals. After a general introduction on exposure to metals and its effects, it goes on to describe in detail the risks related to exposure to cadmium, lead and hexavalent chromium, covering the following aspects for each of these substances: physical and chemical properties; uses and occupations that present risks; metabolism; acute and chronic toxicity and effects on health; recommendations and protective measures; current legislation; determination in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, March 2004. 40p. Illus.

CIS 04-577 Chlebda E., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J., Andrzejak R.
The effect of occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic on the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of copper foundry workers
Wpływ ekspozycji zawodowej na ołów i arsen na stężenie karotenoidów w surowicy u pracowników huty miedzi [in Polish]
Occupational exposure to heavy metals and arsenic in moderate doses may lead to a decrease in the concentration of carotenoids in the serum of people at risk, thus reducing the efficiency of their antioxidative mechanisms.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.389-401. 40 ref.

CIS 04-405 Telišman S., Pizent A., Jurasović J., Cvitković P.
Lead effect on blood pressure of moderately lead-exposed male workers
The effect of lead on blood pressure was examined in 100 subjects with moderate-to-low occupational exposure to lead and 51 unexposed controls. Measurements included blood lead (BPb), activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP), blood cadmium (BCd), serum zinc (SZn), serum copper (SCu), haematocrit (Hct), body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. There was no significant difference in blood pressure between the two groups, possibly because the reference subjects had relatively high BPb levels and significantly higher BMI than the lead workers. Among lead-exposed workers, an increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increasing EP and BMI. An increase in diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with increasing BMI and EP and decreasing BCd. It is concluded that a cumulative long-term moderate exposure to lead may result in a significant increase blood pressure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2004, Vol.45, No.5, p.446-454. 52 ref.

CIS 03-1713 Turmo Sierra E.
Lead acid battery charging workshops
Locales de carga de baterías de acumuladores eléctricos de plomo-ácido sulfúrico [in Spanish]
This information note describes the hazards from working in lead acid battery charging workshops. Contents: description of lead acid batteries; risks related to working with batteries; release of hydrogen; control of ignition sources; precautions for preventing sulfuric acid spills; safety measures to be taken during the handling of batteries and equipment; equipment layout in charging workshops, safety and hygiene in charging workshops (charging equipment, ventilation, acid spills, collective and personal protective equipment, signalling, training of workers, emergency planning).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 7p. Illus. 19 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_617.htm [in Spanish]

2003

CIS 06-117 Rosenman K.D., Sims A., Luo Z., Gardiner J.
Occurrence of lead-related symptoms below the current Occupational Safety and Health Act allowable blood lead levels
To determine the occurrence of symptoms of lead toxicity at levels below the current allowable OSHA blood lead level of 50µg/dL, standardized telephone interviews were conducted among individuals participating in a statewide laboratory-based surveillance system. Four hundred and ninety-seven individuals, 75% of the eligible participants, were interviewed. Gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and nervous system symptoms increased with increasing blood lead levels. All symptoms were reported to increase among individuals with blood lead between 30 and 39µg/dL and possibly at levels as low as 25-30µg/dL for nervous system symptoms. The results of this study are consistent with and provide added weight to previous results showing subclinical changes in the neurological and renal systems and in sperm counts at blood lead levels currently allowed by OSHA.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.546-555. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 06-95 Jokić V., Borjanović S.
Neural conduction impairment in forestry workers exposed to vibration and in lead-exposed workers
This study examines the effects of two different adverse factors, lead and local vibration, on the peripheral nervous system in the upper and lower limbs. Detailed neurophysiological investigations were performed in 40 chainsaw workers, 26 lead-exposed workers, and 36 healthy male controls. Among the chainsaw operators, the maximal motor conduction velocity (51.4±5.6 m/s) was significantly lowered in the right and left median nerves (in 27-45% of subjects), compared to that in controls (58.2±6.1 m/s). In the lead-exposed group, slowing sensory nerve conduction velocity (54.0±10.6 m/s) was the most frequent pathological pattern.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.13-22. 28 ref.

CIS 05-180 Work on lead-containing paints - Prevention of occupational hazards
Interventions sur les peintures contenant du plomb - Prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
Aimed at building contractors and their clients, the objective of this guide is to describe the exposure hazards during work involving lead-containing paint and to provide guidance for enterprises on evaluating the hazards specific to building sites and on selecting appropriate prevention measures to limit these hazards. It also enables clients to take into account the constraints related to lead hazards when defining the scope of work, allowing the contractors to submit proposals that include the required prevention measures.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 2003. 52p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 7.30. Downloadable version free.
http://www.inrs.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/D77BA4F32E8F78A5C1256D50004932C5/$FILE/ed909.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-152 Menezes Filho J.A., de Carvalho W.A., Spínola A.G.
Assessment of occupational exposure to lead in a metallurgy plant - A cross-sectional study
Avaliação da exposição ocupacional ao chumbo em uma metalúrgica - Um estudo transversal [in Portuguese]
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate occupational exposure to lead in a smelting plant. It involved 195 workers of a primary lead refining plant and an unexposed control group of 65 persons. In both groups, determinations of blood lead, urinary d-aminolvulinic acid, zinc protoporphyrin and haemoglobin were made. Compared to the control group, levels of all these indicators were significantly higher in the metallurgy workers, even among persons working in administrative services; the highest levels were recorded among workers assigned to sintering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.63-72. Illus. 39 ref.

CIS 04-576 Joffe M., Bisanti L., Apostoli P., Kiss P., Dale A., Roeleveld N., Lindbohm M.L., Sallmén M., Vanhoorne M., Bonde J.P.
Time to pregnancy and occupational lead exposure
Lead exposure is known to be harmful to the male reproductive system, including impairment of fertility. However, it is unclear whether currently existing low levels of exposure have this effect. This study retrospectively examines current workers in lead-using industries (battery manufacture, smelting, etc,), and in non-lead-using control industries in four European countries, with time to pregnancy as the outcome variable. Exposure assessment was mainly by blood lead values, which were available from the late 1970s, supplemented by imputed values where necessary. Three exposure models were studied: short term (recent) exposure, total duration of work in a lead using industry and cumulative exposure. A Cox proportional hazards model was used for the statistical analysis, with covariates for both partners. Results show that among the total of 1104 subjects that took part, 638 were occupationally-exposed to lead at the relevant time. Blood lead levels were mainly less than 50µg/dL. No consistent association of time to pregnancy with lead exposure was found in any of the exposure models. If any impairment of male reproductive function exists at the levels of occupational lead exposure now current, it does not appear to reduce biological fertility.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.752-758. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 04-314 Rhodes D., Spiro A., Aro A., Hu H.
Relationship of bone and blood lead levels to psychiatric symptoms: The normative aging study
Blood and bone lead levels were used to investigate the potential effect of lead on psychiatric symptoms among middle-aged to elderly men from the Normative Aging Study. Symptoms were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Average lead concentrations were 6.3µg/dL, 21.9mgg/g and 32.1mgg/g for blood, tibia and patella lead respectively. In logistic regression models that adjusted for age, alcohol intake, employment status and education status, it was found that blood and bone lead was significantly associated with an increased risk of phobic anxiety and combined measure of psychiatric symptoms. It is concluded that cumulative lead exposure reflected by bone lead levels could be a risk factor for psychiatric symptoms even at modest levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.45, No.11, p.1144-1151. 34 ref.

CIS 04-153 Fiedler N., Weisel C., Lynch R., Kelly-McNeil K., Wedeen R., Jones K., Udasin I., Ohman-Strickland P., Gochfeld M.
Cognitive effects of chronic exposure to lead and solvents
The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function effects of chronic occupational exposure to lead and solvents. Based on tibial bone lead and occupational history of solvent exposure, subjects were classified into the following exposure groups: "lead" (N=40), "solvent" (N=39) and "lead/solvent" (N=45), as well as an unexposed control group (N=33). All subjects completed tests to assess concentration, motor skills, memory and mood. Relative to controls, the "lead", "solvent", and "lead/solvent" groups performed significantly more poorly on a test of verbal memory, while the "lead" and "lead/solvent" groups were slower than the solvent and control groups on a task of processing speed. Bone lead was a significant predictor of information processing speed and latency of response while solvent exposure was a significant predictor of verbal learning and memory.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.44, No.4, p.413-423. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 03-1295 Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Used battery waste processing: A study in specialized undertakings
Traitement des déchets des piles et accumulateurs usagés - Enquête dans des entreprises spécialisées [in French]
Occupational exposures of 380 workers in fifteen enterprises specialized in the recycling of electrochemical batteries was evaluated. The survey shows that there is a high risk of lead exposure during the shredding and melting of lead batteries, a potential risk of mercury poisoning during pyrometallurgical processing, and that during the treatment of Ni-Cd batteries, air purification is not effective. The constant wearing of air purifying respirators is a measure that must remain temporary. Cadmium smoke and dust emissions need to be captured at the source. Appendices include schedules of occupational diseases caused by lead, mercury, cadmium and their compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.192, p.5-19. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 03-1297 Whittaker S.G.
Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: A survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data
The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead in the state of Washington, estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting, describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing data from the state's official blood lead reporting registry and by conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that 226 workers in Washington (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Only 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (≥25µg/dL) reported to the state's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of the health effects of lead, appropriate industrial hygiene controls and the requirements of the Lead Standard.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.724-733. Illus. 17 ref.

2002

CIS 05-184
Health and Safety Executive
Control of lead at work (Third edition) - Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 - Approved Code of Practice and guidance
This code of practice provides guidance on the provisions of the Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 (CIS 03-1030). Includes guidance on: assessment of health risks created by work involving lead; prevention or control of exposure to lead; personal protective equipment; maintenance of control measures; air monitoring; medical surveillance; provision of information and training; arrangements for accidents and emergencies; health hazards and biological monitoring. Replaces previous edition (CIS 98-857).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. iv, 122p. 26 ref. Price: GBP 10.50.

CIS 05-169 Machado Prista e Silva J.M.
Occupational exposure to lead: Use of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) for the health surveillance of exposed workers
Exposição profissional a chumbo: utilização da protoporfirina-zinco (PPZ) na vigilância de saúde de trabalhadores expostos [in Portuguese]
This thesis examines the feasibility of implementing a surveillance method for lead poisoning based on zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) among workers exposed to lead. The study involved 180 workers, of which 110 had blood lead (BL) levels over 40µg/dL. ZPP was determined by fluorimetry on samples of capillary blood; haemogrammes were also carried out. Urinary δ-aminolevulininc acid (U-ALA) was also determined in approximately 25% of the workers. A strong relationship was found between BL and ZPP, with an earlier detection threshold than that between BL and U-ALA. This study shows that fluorimetric determination of ZPP in capillary blood is a more reliable method than haemogrammes or U-ALA determinations for the medical supervision of workers exposed to lead.
Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal, 2002. 246p. Illus. 432 ref.

CIS 03-1745 Park D.U., Paik N.W.
Effect on blood lead of airborne lead particles characterized by size
Worker exposure to airborne lead particles was evaluated for a total of 117 workers of four different industries in Korea. The particle sizes were measured using 8-stage cascade impactors worn by the workers. Mass median aerodynamic diameters and size distributions as a function of airborne lead (PbA) concentration were determined by type of industry. Blood lead (PbB) levels of workers were also examined. The results indicate PbB correlated better with respirable lead concentrations than with PbA which implies that the contribution of respirable lead particles to lead absorption is greater than that of PbA. This study concludes that the measurement of PbA only may not properly reflect a worker's exposure to lead particles with diverse characteristics. For the evaluation of a worker's exposure to various types of lead particles, it is recommended that respirable lead particles as well as PbA be measured.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.237-243. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1030 Health and Safety - The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 2002 [United Kingdom]
These Regulation re-enact, with modifications, The Control of Lead at Work Regulations 1998 (S.I. 1998/543) (CIS 98-391). They implement in Great Britain the provisions of Council Directive 98/24/EC (CIS 98-1094), insofar as they apply to exposure to lead. Contents: interpretation; duties of employers and self-employed persons; prohibitions (use of lead-containing glaze or high-solubility glaze; employment of young persons or women of reproductive capacity in certain activities); hazard evaluation of work involving lead; prevention and control of lead exposure; prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking in areas where contamination by lead is present; maintenance, examination and testing of control measures; air monitoring; medical surveillance; information, instruction and training; arrangements to deal with accidents, incidents and emergencies. Intervention levels are established: action level - blood-lead concentration of 25µg/dL for women of reproductive capacity, 40µg/dL for young persons, and 50µg/dL for others; suspension level - blood-lead concentration of 30, 50 and 60µg/dL, respectively, for the above categories and urinary lead concentrations of 25µg Pb/g creatinine for women of reproductive capacity and 110µg Pb/g creatinine for others. In the schedule: activities in which employment of young persons and women of reproductive capacity is prohibited on account of possible exposure to lead.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2002. (Also: TSO Online Bookshop, http://www.tso.co.uk/bookshop/). 13p. Price: GBP 3.00.
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si2002/20022099.htm [in English]

CIS 03-775 Dykeman R., Aguilar-Madrid G., Smith T., Juárez-Pérez C.A., Piacitelli G.M., Hu H., Hernandez-Avila M.
Lead exposure in Mexican radiator repair workers
Lead exposure was investigated among 73 Mexican radiator repair workers employed in 31 repair shops, 12 members of their families (four children and eight wives) and 36 unexposed working controls. Exposure was assessed directly through the use of personal air sampling and hand wipe analyses. In addition, industrial hygiene inspections were performed, detailed questionnaires were administered and blood lead levels were measured. The mean values for blood lead of the radiator repair workers was 35.5µg/dL, compared to 13.6µg/dL for controls. Air lead levels ranged from 0 to 99µg/m3 with a mean value of 19µg/m3. The strongest predictors of elevated blood lead levels were smoking, the number of radiators repaired per day and the use of a uniform while at work, which were associated with blood lead elevations of 11.4µg/dL, 1.95µg/dL/radiator/day, and 16.4µg/dL, respectively. Uniforms were not laundered regularly and consequently served as reservoirs of contamination on which workers frequently wiped their hands.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.179-187. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 03-279 Wang V.S., Lee M.T., Chiou J.Y., Guu C.F., Wu C.C., Wu T.N., Lai J.S.
Relationship between blood lead levels and renal function in lead battery workers
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between blood lead (PbB) levels and renal function indices of blood-urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SC) and uric acid (UA) among lead battery industry workers with exposure to lead. 229 workers of both genders from two lead battery factories were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Personal airborne and blood samples were collected on the same day. A positive correlation between PbB levels and individual renal function index of BUN, SC, and UA was found. PbB levels and renal function indices showed significant difference between male and female workers. An increment of 10µg/dL PbB produced an increase of 0.62mg/dL BUN and an increase of 0.085mg/dL UA. For all workers, there was a significant dose-response relationship between PbB and BUN and UA levels. It is suggested that blood-urea nitrogen and uric acid be considered as indicators of renal dysfunction in lead-exposed workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.569-575. 40 ref.

CIS 03-195 Ibrahim K.S., Ahmed S.B.
Male endocrine dysfunction in lead smelter workers
Evidence of the effect of occupational exposure to lead on the male endocrine function is controversial. This study evaluated the primary (testicular) and secondary (hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular) effects of exposure to lead in 69 workers employed for an average of 16 years and in 40 non-exposed workers. The mean blood lead concentration was 42.92±4.89µg/dL in the exposed workers and 29.5± 5.3µg/dL in the control group. Concentrations of serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were both significantly higher in exposed workers but there was no significant difference in the level of testosterone in both groups. Exposed workers showed a statistically significant increase in the incidence of sexual problems (premature ejaculation, impotence, decreased libido). Periodic medical examination of workers and biological monitoring of blood lead are a necessity for the early detection of side effects or complications caused by exposure.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2002, Vol.8, No.1, p.31-38. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1651 Böckelmann I., Pfister E.A., McGauran N., Robra B.P.
Assessing the suitability of cross-sectional and longitudinal cardiac rhythm tests with regard to identifying effects of occupational chronic lead exposure
The aim of this study was to examine whether signs of the neurotoxic influence of lengthy occupational lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system could be detected by cardiac rhythm analysis. A total of 109 male lead-exposed workers and 27 controls were examined in a cross-sectional study. In addition, 17 lead-exposed participants were investigated a second time in a follow-up study four years later. Heart rate variability was assessed in rest, strain and recovery phases. In the cross-sectional study, lead-exposed persons showed a delayed restoration of cardiac rhythm parameters to the initial vegetative state after the strain phase. This effect significantly increased over a period of four more years of exposure in the 17 workers participating in the follow-up study. Vagal depression caused by long-term lead exposure was found within the current threshold limit value range, but it should nonetheless be interpreted as an adverse effect.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 02-1659 Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H.
Neuro-ototoxicity in Andean adults with chronic lead and noise exposure
Brainstem auditory evoked responses and audiological thresholds were used as biomarkers for neuro-ototoxicity in adults in Ecuador with chronic lead intoxication from long-term exposure in ceramic glazing work. Venous blood samples collected from 30 adults (15 men and 15 women) indicated a mean blood lead level of 45.1µg/dL, above the WHO health-based biological limits. Mean auditory thresholds at frequencies susceptible to ototoxicity (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0kHz) revealed sensory-neural hearing loss in men, which may be attributable to occupational noise exposure in combination with lead intoxication. Brainstem auditory evoked response tests on participants with elevated blood lead levels (mean, 47.0 µg/dL) showed delayed wave latencies consistent with sensory-neural hearing impairment. The results suggest that environmental noise exposure must be considered an important factor in determining sensory-neural hearing status in occupationally lead-exposed adults.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.30- 38. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 02-1821 Scholz P.F., Materna B.L., Harrington D., Uratsu C.
Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation
This article describes a project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among residential and commercial painters. Full-shift personal samples were collected from 25 participants, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550µg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57µg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 500µg/m3, all involving dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The value for uncontrolled power sanding as 580µg/m3 respectively, while that of power sanding using high-efficiency particulate-arresting (HEPA) respirators was 33µg/m3. These results are cause for concern because these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing only half-mask respirators, while the use of HEPA respirators would reduce paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.22-28. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 02-841 Materna B.L., Harrington D., Scholz P., Payne S.F., Stubbs H.A., Hipkins K., Merideth E., Kirsch L., Lomax G., Coyle P., Uratsu C.
Results of an intervention to improve lead safety among painting contractors and their employees
Painters are at risk of lead poisoning when preparing surface for painting in older buildings. An intervention strategy was evaluated for improving lead safety in small businesses. 21 painting contractors received 32 hours of training, technical assistance, and a safety manual; their employees attended an 8-hr training session. Impact evaluation involved interviewing participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention and one year later, and conducting contractor focus groups post-intervention. Employers met 15 of the 27 target objectives and workers met 3 of 12; however, even in areas where objectives were not met, both groups made improvements. Motivated contractors and their employees can make moderate improvements in lead-safe practices if provided with extensive training and technical assistance. Changes that are costly, unfamiliar, or perceived as a threat to work quality are more difficult to implement.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.119-130. 32 ref.

CIS 02-788 Vincent R., Jeandel B.
Occupational exposure to lead - Analysis of the data contained in the COLCHIC database
Exposition professionnelle au plomb - Analyse des résultats archivés dans la base de données COLCHIC [in French]
The results of 14,822 determinations in workplace air carried out since 1987 by the eight regional chemical laboratories and specialized laboratories of the French national occupational safety and health institute (INRS) for the purpose of evaluating occupational exposure to lead were recorded in a database. The analysis of this data enabled the assessment of occupational exposure to lead by sector of activity and type of occupation. Results show that despite an overall and continuous decline in the levels of exposure to lead since 1990, there are still occupations where the exposure levels are above the current French TWA exposure limits of 150µg/m3, particularly in the building and metalworking sectors.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2169-187-02, p.63-72. Illus. 16 ref.

2001

CIS 03-1834 Roulleau C.
Lead - The hazard still exists
Plomb - Le risque persiste [in French]
This special feature describes the current situation with respect to the persistence of lead-related hazards in the construction industry, in particular during building renovation work. A field report presents the efforts undertaken by a lead battery manufacture with respect to managing hazards from lead.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, Mar. 2001. 19p. Illus. 15 réf. Price: EUR 1.50.

CIS 03-1288 Lee S.S., Lee B.K., Lee G.S., Stewart W.S., Simon D., Kelsey K., Todd A.C., Schwartz B.S.
Associations of lead biomarkers and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and vitamin D receptor genotypes with hematopoietic outcomes in Korean lead workers
This study compares associations of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)-chelatable lead, tibia lead and blood lead with five haematopoietic variables (haemoglobin, haematocrit, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), and urinary (ALAU) and plasma (ALAP) δ-aminolevulinic acid) and evaluates the effect of these relations by polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes. A cross-sectional study of 798 lead workers and 135 unexposed controls was performed. It was found that tibia lead was associated with all five haematopoietic outcomes, while blood lead and DMSA-chelatable lead were associated only with ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. A comparison of the regression coefficients, total model adjusted R2 values, and delta R2 values revealed that blood lead was the best predictor of ZPP, ALAP and ALAU. Only tibia lead was significantly associated with haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. No clear effect modification of the relations between the lead biomarkers and haematopoietic outcomes studied was caused by ALAD or VDR genotype.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2001, Vol.27, No.6, p.402-411. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 03-100 Paceli Hatem Diniz E., Sampaio M.R.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Lead and measures for limiting exposure
O chumbo e as formas de controle [in Portuguese]
Aimed at workers handling lead, this booklet provides practical guidance on limiting exposure. Contents: characteristics of lead; causes of lead poisoning (inhalation of dust or smoke; eating, drinking or smoking at the place of work); poisoning prevention (local ventilation, protective screens, collection of waste); respirators; other prevention and hygiene measures (cleaning of premises and workplaces, food and smoking, information of workers, periodical medical examinations).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 39p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: BRL 7.00.

CIS 03-99 Sampaio M.R.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Lead workers are not made of steel
O trabalhador do chumbo não é de ferro [in Portuguese]
Aimed at workers exposed to lead, this training booklet presents the risks incurred, hygiene and preventive measures, and workers' rights with respect to occupational safety and health in poem form. Four exercises are also proposed to the workers. They consist of analysing their conditions of work, the risks they incur and their influence on health, as well as the prevention measures they should consider.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 30p. Illus. Price: BRL 5.00.

CIS 02-1819 Wójcik A., Brzeski Z., Sieklucka-Dziuba M.
Lead levels in body fluids of workers of an automobile factory with clinically diagnosed arterial hypertension
The aim of the study was to evaluate lead levels in body fluids of workers diagnosed with various stages of arterial hypertension who had been subjected to long-term lead exposure at different workplaces. The examination of the patients included medical history, physical examination and biochemical tests of blood and urine in order to assess medical condition in terms of sub-clinical symptoms of lead exposure. No significant differences in mean values of lead in the blood and urine of the studied population compared to the control group. The results do not allow to conclude the existence of an effect of occupational exposure to lead in sub-threshold doses on the development of arterial hypertension, and were within recommended hygiene standards.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.2, p.285-287. 12 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/aaem0140.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-1336 Roulleau C.
Lead - The hazard continues
Plomb - Le risque persiste [in French]
Risks of exposure to lead arise mainly during the use of the metal in the chemical, metallurgical and glass industries, as well as in building renovation, since old paints used in buildings often contain lead. According to the SUMER 1994 survey (see CIS 95-161), more than 120,000 workers are at risk of exposure to lead in France. Topics covered in this special feature on lead: sectors at risk; secondary exposure of persons close to the directly-exposed workers; regulations; sampling and analysis of lead concentrations in workplace air by accredited laboratories; medical supervision; appropriateness of lowering limit values for blood lead; toxic effects; lead poisoning; collective and personal protective measures on building renovation sites; building waste management; example of preventive measures implemented by a lead battery producer.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2001, No.605, p.20-38. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1315 Tassler P.L., Schwartz B.S., Coresh J., Stewart W.F., Todd A.C.
Associations of tibia lead, DMSA-chelatable lead, and blood lead with measures of peripheral nervous system function in former organolead manufacturing workers
This study of former organolead manufacturing workers (with an average of 16 years since their last occupational lead exposure) found no strong association between biomarkers (blood lead, DMSA-chelatable lead, current tibia lead and back-extrapolated "peak" tibia lead) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory or motor function indicators. PNS may be less affected than some other body systems by the chronic toxic effects of lead in adults, possibly because it has a greater capacity for repair than does the central nervous system (CNS).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.254-261. 35 ref.

CIS 02-1373 Vork K.L., Hammond S.K., Sparer J., Cullen M.R.
Prevention of lead poisoning in construction workers: A new public health approach
Two key features of CRISP (the Connecticut Road Industry Surveillance Project) are: a contract-specified lead health protection programme and a centralized system of medical monitoring. Data from 90 bridge projects from 1991 to 1995 and approximately 2,000 workers were evaluated. Peak lead concentrations in the blood of CRISP workers were compared with those from workers outside of Connecticut. After 1992, only the painting employees experienced peak blood lead levels exceeding 50µg/dL; other Connecticut workers had significantly lower peak blood lead levels than did workers from other states.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.243-253. 38 ref.

CIS 02-528 Lead Regulations, 2001 [South Africa]
Loodregulasies, 2001 [in Afrikaans]
These regulations were issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). They apply to all workplaces where lead (Pb) is produced, processed, used, handled and stored in a form in which it can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed by any person in that workplace. Contents: definitions (the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for lead is set at 0.10mg Pb/m3 for tetra-ethyl lead, and at 0.15mg Pb/m3 for all other kinds of lead); prohibition of employment in an environment where exposure to lead may occur beyond occupational exposure limits; information and training of workers; duties of persons who may be exposed; assessment of potential exposure; air monitoring; medical surveillance; respirator zones; record keeping; control of lead exposure (to occur if the level of airborne Pb is above the OEL, or if biological limits (20µg/100mL in blood for ingestible lead and 120µg/L in urine for lead alkyls) are exceeded); personal protective equipment and facilities; cleanliness of premises and plant; maintenance of control measures; prohibitions; labelling, packaging, transportation and storage; disposal of lead waste. The Lead Regulations of 22 Mar. 1991 are repealed. In annex: maximum intervals between blood and urinary Pb measurements, depending on the measured Pb levels in workers.
Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 28 Feb. 2002, Vol.440, No.7292, p.3-42.
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2002/23175.pdf [in English]

CIS 02-796 Taylor L., Jones R.L., Kwan L., Deddens J.A., Ashley K., Sanderson W.T.
Evaluation of a portable blood lead analyzer with occupationally exposed populations
A portable electro-analytical instrument for blood lead determination was evaluated. Samples were obtained from 208 lead-exposed employees who donated two venous blood samples into lead-free evacuated tubes. One blood sample was analysed onsite using the portable field instrument while the second sample was analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). According to GFAAS results, employee venous blood lead levels ranged from 1µg/dL to 42µg/dL. The mean difference between the results from the field instrument and GFAAS was less than 1µg/dL. Within the blood range evaluated, the instrument performed adequately according to Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments (CLIA) proficiency requirements. The ability of the instrument to perform rapid analysis makes it potentially valuable to occupational health professionals for medical monitoring or onsite investigations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.354-362. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-853 Rosenman K.D., Sims A., Hogan A., Fialkowski J., Gardiner J.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of following up laboratory reports of elevated blood leads in adults
A report of a state-wide laboratory-based blood-lead surveillance system in the state of Michigan (USA). The effectiveness of inspection of companies in which at least one worker had a blood lead level (BLL) of 30-39µg/dL (but not higher) was considered. Companies where lead exposures occurred were identified and enforcement inspections performed. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted, employing three endpoints: 1) identification of cases of elevated blood lead levels, due to occupational exposure; 2) identification of workplaces that had received a citation for violating the lead standard; 3) identification of workers at risk of exposure to lead at problem work sites. Workplaces with blood lead citations also had increased overall citations and penalties, when compared with control workplaces not using lead. The cost to identify lead-exposed workers at problem worksites was USD 125 per worker. It is recommended that routine inspection be instituted for all companies in which even one employee is identified with blood lead levels ≥30µg/dL.
AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.371-378. 11 ref.

CIS 02-784 Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H., Ortega F.
Gender differences in blood lead and hemoglobin levels in Andean adults with chronic lead exposure
A study of the prevalence of lead (Pb) intoxication was conducted in 158 adults (67 men and 91 women) living at an altitude of 2,500-2,800 meters in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination from local small-scale Pb-glazing cottage industries. Venous blood samples showed mean blood lead (PbB) levels of 34.5µg/dL for men and 27.0µg/dL for women. 39% of the men had PbB levels≥ 40µg/dL, while 41% of the women had PbB levels≥ 30µg/dL (the WHO health-based biological limits). A reference group of 39 adults (24 men and 15 women) had a mean PbB level of 5.9µg/dL, significantly different from that of the 158 subjects in the study group. The difference in mean PbB levels of men (6.8µg/dL) and women (4.7µg/dL) in the reference group was significant. The mean altitude-corrected haemoglobin levels in the study group were lower than normal, 11.3g/dL for men and 10.9g/dL for women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.113-118. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 02-809 Sallmén M.
Exposure to lead and male fertility
This literature review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for the effects of inorganic lead on male fertility. Blood lead measurements were applied to exposure assessment in all the studies. The results of the studies on fertility rates are consistent in showing an association between lead and reduced fertility. Also, there seems to be a tendency towards stronger association at older age with increasing duration of exposure. The studies conducted suggest that male exposure to lead may be associated with delayed conception. There are a number of mechanisms by which exposure to lead may reduce male fertility. On the basis of animal studies, alterations in sperm chromatin stability or epigenetic effects may be the most probable mechanisms involved at low exposure level.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.14, No.3, p.219-222. 20 ref.

CIS 02-318 Tepper A., Mueller C., Singal M., Sagar K.
Blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers
Although debate about the relationship between lead and blood pressure has focused on low environmental lead levels, industrial exposure remains a concern. The blood pressure and left ventricular mass (LVM) in 108 battery manufacturing workers was measured, and the cumulative and historic average measures of blood lead were calculated. It was found that diastolic pressure increased with increasing lead levels, with a significant 5mmHg difference in mean pressure between the highest and lowest cumulative exposure levels. Diastolic pressure increased with the log of cumulative lead. Both hypertension (defined as currently medicated or systolic > 160mmHg or diastolic > 95mmHg) and LVM increased non-significantly with increasing lead exposure. In conclusion, a small effect of blood lead on diastolic blood pressure, particularly for a cumulative measure of exposure was found, but there was no convincing evidence of associations between lead and other blood-pressure-related outcomes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.63-72. 31 ref.

CIS 02-334 Health hazard evaluations: Issues related to occupational exposure to lead - 1994 to 1999
The Health Hazards and Technical Assistance (HETA) programme responds to requests from employers, employees, employee representatives and governmental agencies for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) of the workplace to determine if chemical, physical, biological or other agents are hazardous to workers. This document presents summaries of 31 HHEs related to lead that were completed between 1994 and 1999. The HHE requests originated from a variety of workplaces, including secondary lead smelters, battery manufacturers, structural steel painting sites, shipyards, and firing ranges.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Mar. 2001. vi, 18p. 13 ref.

2000

CIS 03-291 Sakai T.
Biomarkers of lead exposure
This article consists of a literature survey of biomarkers of lead exposure. Blood lead (Pb-B) is representative of soft tissue lead, and most widely used as measures of body burden and absorbed (internal) doses of lead. Urine lead (Pb-U) and plasma lead (Pb-P) increase exponentially with increasing Pb-B under a steady-state situation and reflect recent exposure. Lead in plasma and urine after administration of a chelating agent are useful biomarkers of internal exposure to lead, reflecting the available pool of blood and soft tissue lead. Critical effects in bone marrow arise mainly from the interaction of lead with enzymatic process responsible for haeme synthesis such as the inhibition of delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the variation in some metabolite concentrations. Activities of pyrimidine nucleotidase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase in blood are also decreased in lead exposure, and nucleotide contents in blood are altered by lead exposure. These effects of lead on humans can be useful as biomarkers.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.127-142. Illus. 141 ref.

CIS 02-1169 Occupational lead poisoning
Le saturnisme professionnel [in French]
Lead poisoning is recognized in Tunisia as a compensable occupational disease. This leaflet highlights the occupations that present exposure hazards to lead and the clinical symptoms of lead poisoning. It offers practical guidance to technical and medical preventive measures, medical supervision, screening and the approach to be adopted by employers in case of lead poisoning.
Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus.

CIS 02-1339 Başaran N., Ündeğer Ü.
Effects of lead on immune parameters in occupationally exposed workers
To assess the immune competence of workers occupationally exposed to lead, several subsets of peripheral lymphocytes, i.e., T, TCD4+, TCD8+, B, NK cells, serum immunoglobulin and complement protein concentrations, chemotaxis, and intracellular killing activity of neutrophils of 25 male storage battery workers were analysed and compared with those of 25 healthy males with no history of lead exposure. The results indicated that industrial exposure to lead resulting in group mean blood lead concentrations of 75±18µg/dL are associated with a significant depression of: T helper lymphocytes, IgG, IgM and C3, C4 complement levels, chemotaxis, and random migration of neutrophils. No correlation was found between the duration of exposure and the altered immune parameters. In conclusion, the immune system can be a target for lead toxicity and elimination of lead hazard in working places is necessary.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.349-354. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1246 Wong O., Harris F.
Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995
To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref.

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