Copper and compounds - 64 entries found
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Health hazard from occupational exposure to metallic copper and silver dust.
The toxicity and occupational hazard of these metals is reviewed in a summary report. The data do not suggest that the prime metals produce disease in man. Both satisfy the requirements for definition as nuisance particulates, and should be regulated as such at the recommended level of 10mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1979, Vol.40, No.3, p.245-247. 28 ref.
Bergqvist U., Sundbom M.
Copper - Health and hazard.
This literature survey covers the interactions of copper with biological materials: chemistry of copper and amino acids, peptides, and proteins; metabolism; copper deficiency in animals and man; toxic effects in man (acute toxicity, chronic accumulation in tissues, cellular toxicity, copper-induced haemolytic anaemia, effects on the liver and the kidneys, respiratory effects, effects on the central nervous system, Wilson's disease, copper and cancer); metal-metal interactions in the body (copper-zinc, copper-cadmium, copper-molybdenum, copper-iron, copper-lead, etc.); comparison of copper deficiency and toxicity in different organisms; copper ecology and the environment. Supplemental information includes analysis of copper in biological materials and a glossary.
USIP Report 78-05, Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Stockholm, Vanadisvägen 9, 113 46 Stockholm, Sweden, Mar. 1978. 224p. Illus. 346 ref.
Zawadzki S., Domański W.
Method of prediction of nitrogen oxides emissions from nitric acid pickling vats for copper and its alloys
Metoda prognozowania emisji tlenków azotu z wanien do trawienia miedzi i jej stopów kwasem azotowym [in Polish]
The general principles of a method to establish prediction formulae for air pollutant emissions at the design stage of chemical processes are presented. Two mathematical models are used to determine the quantities of nitrogen oxide emitted from the vats during nitric acid cleaning: the first for processes with bath temperature 10-50°C, surface load 8.5-100 dm2, and acid concentration 10-10%, the second where the acid concentration is 40%. Accuracy of the method (concrete illustrations are given) depends on the number and representativity of the basic experimental data. It can be used to establish similar formulae for prevention of emissions in painting, welding, and other processes.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1977, Vol.27, No.94, p.195-208. Illus. 12 ref.
Ulrich L., Malík E., Borovský M., Šulcová M.
Health damage due to some new welding techniques
Účinok nových zváracích postupov na zdravie [in Slovak]
The authors analysed the fumes given off during the following 3 welding or cutting techniques: steel welding in CO2 atmosphere, copper and argon welding in argon atmosphere, with or without melting electrodes, plasma torch cutting in helium/hydrogen atmosphere. Apart from an increase in the quantities of fumes released, the presence of certain additional elements (Be, Cu, Ni) requires more rapid air renewal to avoid exceeding the TLVs for these substances. The authors emphasise the particularly high concentrations of aerosols observed during argon-shielded aluminium welding, and the occupational hazards due to the presence of beryllium in fumes given off in this types of welding.
Pracovní lékařství, Feb. 1977, Vol.29, No.2, p.47-50. 12 ref.
Clausen J., Rastogi S.C.
Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. I. Lead - II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.
Reports on controlled studies in 216 automobile repair workers. Blood lead levels (p.208-215) were raised in 59% and >80µg/100ml in 9%. Sources of airborne lead were lead particulates and high-pressure-resistant lubricants containing lead naphthenate. There was a significant relation between raised PbB levels and reduced ALAD activity. Results of blood analyses and medical examinations are also given. The lead content of various unused and used oils is listed. Part II (p.216-220) reports normal cadmium and copper levels and significantly raised chromium and nickel levels in the blood of exposed workers. Heavy metal content of the workshop air is given, and sources of pollution discussed in the light of the literature.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.208-220. Illus. 63 ref.
Safety techniques in copper smelting plants
Tehnika bezopasnosti na medeplavil'nyh zavodah [in Russian]
Contents of this practical handbook: occupational safety and health organisation; personal protective equipment; occupational hygiene (ventilation, lighting, noise control, etc.); electrical safety; prevention of lifting and handling accidents; safe working methods in storage areas, ore dressing plants, furnaces and converters, in thermal or electrolytic refining, in production of copper and nickel sulfates and rhenium, dust collectors, and in construction and maintenance of chimneys.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per. 14, 119034 Moskva G-34, USSR, 1977. 239p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: Rbl.0.69.
Scheinberg H., Buck W.B., Cartwright G.E., Davis G.K., Dawson C.R., Morgan J.M., Nelson K.W., Price C.A., Sternlieb I., Boaz T.D.
This volume in the "Medical and Biologic Effects of Environment Pollutants" series deals comprehensively with: sources and prevalence of copper in the environment, its physical and chemical nature, its measurements, toxicity (acute and chronic) and biologic effects; human copper metabolism; copper as an industrial health hazard. Recommendations include further research in the role, if any, of copper in producing granulomas or malignant tumours, particularly in liver and lungs, and in the role of copper as an aetiologic agent in metal fume fever.
National Academy of Sciences, 2101 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20418, USA, 1977. 115p. 638 ref. Price: US-$6.00.
Askergren A., Mellgren M.
Changes in the nasal mucosa after exposure to copper salt dust - A preliminary report.
When copper sheeting is worked, some of the patina is released in the form of dust, the main constituents of which are copper hydroxide nitrate, copper hydroxide sulfate, copper silicate, and cupric oxide. The toxic effects of these compounds, above all the sulfate, are reviewed. In the present study 10 exposed workers and 2 groups of controls were examined. The exposed group had subjective symptoms (a sweet taste in the mouth, running nose, mucosal irritation of mouth or eyes), while those exposed for long periods showed atrophic changes of the mucosae. If the release of dust cannot be prevented by moistening of a surface finish, respiratory protection in the form of breathing masks must be assured.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1975, Vol.1, No.1, p.45-49.
Environmental conditions in U.S. copper smelters.
This report is an overview of 6 extensive and 8 superficial surveys of the environments of U.S. copper smelters through 1973. About 5,000 workers were involved. Concentrations were tabulated of airborne arsenic, lead, zinc, copper, cadmium, molybdenum, and sulfur dioxide, as well as the concentrations of the first five of these elements in the urine of smelterers. Urine concentrations were not significantly higher than for normal exposures. Airborne concentrations of sulfur dioxide were relatively high and variable in the smelters, but lead, zinc, cadmium and molybdenum were low. Airborne copper was high, lead was as "non-respirable" dust. A hazard of arsenic-induced cancer may exist in the industry, though the airborne concentrations show no problem in regard to the usual acute effects. Analytical procedures and results are given in the appendix.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH) 75-158, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Post Office Building, Cincinnati, Ohio 45202, USA, Apr. 1975. 35p. Illus. 24 ref.
Lukáš E., Kotas P., Obrusník I.
Copper and zinc levels in peripheral nerve tissue of rats with experimental carbon-disulphide neuropathy.
The levels of zinc and copper in the peripheral nerve tissue of 2 groups of rats with carbon disulfide neuropathy were estimated. The neuropathy was evoked by inhalation of 3.6mg CS2/l of air (variant 1) or 2.4mg CS2/l of air (variant 2). Stationary Zn levels were found in control and exposed animals in both of the experimental variants, while the levels of copper increased by 135% in experiment 1 and 127% in experiment 2. These results, together with previous experience such as the apparently protective effects of Zn and Cu salt-enriched diet, suggest that changes in metal metabolism deserve attention as a possible pathogenic link in the development of carbon disulfide poisoning.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1974, Vol.31, No.4, p.288-291. Illus. 17 ref.
A review of the health hazards from copper exposure.
The element copper has widespread use in many industrial processes. This report illustrates the various aspects of its toxicity. A description of the manifestations of copper dust, fume and salt intoxication is given. Methods of detecting and treating copper poisoning in its various forms are suggested.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1974, Vol.16, No.9, p.621-624. 35 ref.
Sorenson J.R.J., Melby E.G., Nord P.J., Petering H.G.
Interferences in the determination of metallic elements in human hair - An evaluation of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
A study to evaluate the sources of interference in the determination of the concentrations of metals in human hair. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a standard reference hair sample, the authors established that the determination of concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium is free of interference when nitric acid is used as the sole digesting agent. They also demonstrated that chemical ionisation, light scattering and molecular absorption interferences are absent when commercially available equipment is used.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1973, Vol.27, No.1, p.36-39. 11 ref.
Düngemann H., Borelli S., Wittmann J.
Copper and cadmium contact eczema in welders, polishers, electroplaters and similar workers
Über Kupfer- und Kadmium-Kontaktekzeme bei Schweissern, Schleifern, Galvaniseuren und ähnlichen Berufsgruppen [in German]
A review of previous systematic studies (see CIS 64-975) is followed by a report on the skin testing of 256 metalworkers, with particular reference to cadmium sensitization. Clinical findings and medical histories in 9 positive reactions to cadmium sulfate are described, and 5 positive reactions to copper sulfate are analysed. Sensitization is due primarily to exposure to dust and, in the case of cadmium, to contact with cadmium metal or cadmium-containing liquids. Cadmium and copper should form part of the skin test battery whenever metal allergy is suspected. Potential exposure areas in industry are tabulated.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Apr. 1972, Vol.7, No.4, p.85-93. 42 ref.
Lung-tissue copper content in experimental pneumoconiosis
Med' legočnoj tkani pri ėksperimental'nom pnevmokonioze [in Russian]
The literature gives only occasional indications that copper is actively involved in pathological fibrotic tissue changes; however, increased copper levels are regularly encountered in pneumoconiotic blood serum. Lung-tissue copper content was determined in rats following intratracheal administration of quartz, tungsten-containing rock, coal and malachite dust. Since malachite contains nearly 15% copper, the amount of malachite dust administered was only one-fifth of that for the other substances. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 3 and 6 months. All substances and durations of action produced increased lung-tissue copper levels. Absolute and relative copper uptake was attributed to endogenous mechanisms and was proportional to the synthesis of "non-collagenous" proteins and the degree of lung-tissue inflammatory changes.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1972, Vol.16, No.4, p.32-35. 15 ref.
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