Cadmium and compounds - 296 entries found
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On a preventive medical examination for workers exposed to cadmium
Zur Vorsorgeuntersuchung Kadmiumexponierter [in German]
After discussion of the methods for determination of urinary albumin, the author shows comparative results of 6 different determinations from 51 people exposed to cadmium. Since there have been very frequent cases of proteinuria observed in non-exposed persons, the author concludes that it is impossible to draw conclusions from proteinuria in exposed persons independently of clinical symptoms and the presence of cadmium in urine and air.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Dec. 1975, Vol.25, No.12, p.363-366. 9 ref.
Yoshiki S., Yanagisawa T., Kimura M., Otaki N., Suzuki M., Suda T.
Bone and kidney lesions in experimental cadmium intoxication.
Morphological studies in rats fed 10-300ppm cadmium in both a normal and rachitic diet. Bone lesions (retarded growth, osteoporosis) were similar in both groups after 3 weeks. Osteomalacia did not occur. Morphological kidney changes occurred only after 5 weeks' exposure, as did urinary excretion of cadmium. The kidneys appear to have a protective mechanism against cadmium poisoning in the early stages.
Archives of Environmental Health, Nov. 1975, Vol.30, No.11, p.559-562. Illus. 12 ref.
Koller L.D., Exon J.H., Roan J.G.
Antibody suppression by cadmium.
Mice were given 3 or 300ppm cadmium for 10 weeks. Both primary and secondary immune responses to inoculation of antigen (sheep red blood cells) were depressed. (Graphs show both responses to administration of antigen during and 1, 7, 14 and 42 days after exposure to cadmium). The most significant aspect of the results was depression of the IgG antibody response in mice inoculated with antigen 42 days after cadmium exposure.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.30, No.12, p.598-601. Illus. 14 ref.
Meier H., Unger E.
Determination of harmful metal substances at the workplace by means of radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis
Zur Frage der Bestimmung metallischer Schadstoffe am Arbeitsplatz mit Hilfe der Radionuklid-Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse [in German]
Study of the possible application of this method, above all for determination of cadmium in air, and literature survey on modes of sampling, principles of the method, and equipment. The method, which is suitable for determination of harmful substances in the workplace air, has the following features: simultaneous determination of several elements; rapidity; simple preparation of samples; good sensitivity.
Staub, Sep. 1975, Vol.35, No.9, p.321-326. Illus. 117 ref.
Roels H.A., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.R., Sonnet J.
Comparison of in vivo effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on glutathione reductase system and δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase in human erythrocytes.
In these studies, performed with the finanical support of the Commission of the European Communities, erythrocyte δ-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), blood lead (PbB) and cadmium (CdB), the erythrocyte content of reduced glutathione (GSH), and the regeneration rate of GSH by intact erythrocytes, were measured in 84 men from a cadmium- and lead-producing plant and in 26 controls. The logarithm of PbB showed a strong inverse correlation with the log of ALAD activity and a significant negative correlation with GSH, but neither correlation held good for log CdB. Results showed the overall activity of the glutathione oxidation-reduction pathway not to be impaired in workers with high PbB and CdB levels. It is postulated that the moderate fall in endogenous erythrocyte GSH found in lead-exposed workers might result from lead-induced impairment of the erythrocyte mechanism of glutathione synthesis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1975, Vol.32, No.3, p.181-192. 75 ref.
Materne D., Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J., Stanescu D.
Investigations of the hazards of exposure to cadmium in 2 plants producing and 2 using cadmium
Investigations sur les risques résultant de l'exposition au cadmium dans deux entreprises de production et deux entreprises d'utilisation du cadmium. [in French]
Account of an occupational health survey covering 163 workers exposed to cadmium and approximately the same number of controls employed in 4 different plants. Detailed description of observations and examinations: questionnaire and clinical examination, lung function tests, ECG and chest radiography, laboratory tests. Findings: slight lung and kidney impairment was found in some workers (the pulmonary lesion consisted of a slight obstructive syndrome, occasionally with incipient emphysema); abnormal laboratory findings became worse with length of exposure; the slight kidney damage was found in 70% of the workers with over 20 years' exposure. Conclusion: the total permissible concentration of Cd in air should not exceed 50µg/m3; furthermore, in view of the correlation between urinary Cd and proteinuria, urinary Cd in exposed workers should not exceed 15µg/g creatinine.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, Mar.-June 1975, Vol.12, No.1 and 2, p.3-76. Illus. 65 ref.
Harvey T.C., McLellan J.S., Thomas B.J., Fremlin J.H.
Measurement of liver-cadmium concentrations in patients and industrial workers by neutron-activation analysis.
Description of a new, rapid, non-surgical technique for measuring tissue cadmium concentrations in the liver, in which the specific changes produced by irradiation with neutrons are analysed. Studies in 4 men with known or suspected poisoning showed very high liver cadmium levels of 35-200ppm (non-exposed subjects (<1.0ppm), and these are compared with urine cadmium concentrations in a table (there was little correlation). The radiation dose used in clinical studies was 0.1-1.0rem and the detection limit of cadmium was 1.0ppm. Short literature review of pathology of cadmium poisoning. Further studies are planned.
Lancet, 7 June 1975, Vol.1, No.7919, p.1269-1272. Illus. 37 ref.
Choosing materials for brazes
Kovajuotteiden materiaalinvalinta [in Finnish]
In order to avoid toxic vapours of cadmium, brazes not containing this element can and should be used. Contents: technical characteristics of cadmium-containing brazes; applications of brazing materials; occupational health aspects in the choice of brazing materials.
Tutkimusraportti 8, National Board of Labour Protection (Työsuojeluhallitus) Tampere, Finland, 1975. 45p. Illus. 26 ref.
Cernik A.A., Sayers M.H.P.
Application of blood cadmium determination to industry using a punched disc technique.
Description of a punched disc flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the determination of blood cadmium (CdB) that simplifies sample preparation. Its accuracy was evaluated by comparison with the results of cathode ray polarography (POL). Blood and urine samples were obtained from a total of 202 workers engaged in silver brazing, battery and pigment manufacture and cadmium smelting, and from 10 controls, urinary cadmium being measured by POL. Statistical analysis of results, presented graphically and in tables. Cadmium was detected in the blood even when urine determinations were negative. Although CdB does not necessarily reflect the body burden, it may prove to be a valuable index of exposure. Further investigation should be facilitated by the use of the technique described.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1975, Vol.32, No.2, p.155-162. Illus. 12 ref.
Bui T.H., Lindsten J., Nordberg G.F.
Chromosome analysis of lymphocytes from cadmium workers and itai-itai patients.
The mutagenicity of cadmium compounds was investigated in workers in an alkaline battery factory where the average cadmium concentration in air was 35µg/m3. Also studied was the blood of female itai-itai patients not exposed to cadmium compounds. The blood samples of both groups contained more cadmium than those of control subjects. There was no significant difference in chromosome breakage between exposed and control groups, a conclusion different from that of Shiraishi and Yosida (1972).
Environmental Research, Apr. 1975, Vol.9, No.2, p.187-195. Illus. 9 ref.
Some biochemical aspects of cadmium toxicology.
This review article affords comprehensive coverage of the many aspects of cadmium poisoning including: sources of cadmium and its occurrence in various occupations: effects on man of acute and chronic cadmium exposure with special reference to biochemistry and pathophysiology; establishment of an acceptable threshold limit value; and monitoring procedures for exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1975, Vol.17, No.3, p.189-195. 106 ref.
Health hazards of cadmium
Gesundheitsgefahren durch Kadmium [in German]
After reviewing the production and occurrence of cadmium and its importance as a polluting agent in food and water, the article deals with the air concentration of cadmium at the workplace and the incidence of cadmium poisoning, giving details of symptoms in acute and chronic intoxications. A number of cases from the author's practice, especially those of 4 brazers, are described. The possibilities offered by laboratory tests to confirm exposure and permit diagnosis are discussed and a review of the relevant West German regulations concludes the article.
Heft 18, Moderne Unfallverhütung, Vulkan-Verlag, Haus der Technik, 43 Essen, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1974, p.134-144. Illus. 75 ref.
On the normal value of urinary excretion of lead, mercury, cadmium and fluoride in Japan.
The author presents his own and other Japanese studies to determine the urinary excretion of these substances in non-exposed persons, so as to establish a set of normal values against which those obtained in exposed workers can be assessed. Daily and hourly variations in excretion are considered, and factors influencing the results for each substance are discussed. A close correlation was found between the dithizone and atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods for lead determination. The values considered representive of the Japanese population are: lead, <20µg/l; mercury, <10µg/l; cadmium, <5µg/l; fluorides, 1mg/l. All the papers referred to in the bibliography are in Japanese, some with an English abstract.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Dec. 1974, Vol.50, No.12 (Part II), p.893-908. Illus. 13 ref.
Fukushima M., Sakamoto M., Kobayashi E.
Urinary amino acid excretion in "Itai-itai" patients and inhabitants of cadmium polluted areas
Kadomium osenti jumin no nyochyu-yuri-aminosan haisetsu ni tuite [in Japanese]
Aminoaciduria was widespread among patients with Itai-itai disease (chronic cadmium poisoning) living in the Jinzu River Basin area polluted with cadmium and also in inhabitants with tubular proteinuria and glucosuria in the Ichi River Basin area, where cadmium pollution has also been observed. The amino acid patterns were similar in these cases and also resembled that reported in the Fanconi syndrome. The increase in amino acid excretion in these cases seems to be due to multiple disorders of the amino acid transport systems in the renal tubules, although increased hydroxyproline excretion is ascribed to a disturbance of amino acid metabolism.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Dec. 1974, Vol.29, No.5, p.498-504. Illus. 29 ref. (12 English).
Bielecka W., Kucharska E.
Comparative concentrations of lead, zinc and cadmium in certain internal organs of the rat after exposure to zinc and lead ore dust
Porównawcze stężenia ołowiu, cynku i kadmu w niektórych narządach wewnętrzynch szczurów po ekspozycji na pyły rud cynkowo-ołowiowych [in Polish]
Description and results of research in rats to determine the retention, distribution and elimination of lead, zinc and cadmium inhaled simultaneously. A week and a half after exposure had ceased, the greatest accumulation of lead was found in the kidneys, followed by the lungs, and lastly the liver. The zinc level was approximately equal in the 3 organs; cadmium was concentrated principally in the liver, where it exceeded physiological levels. After 26 days lead levels had fallen only slightly in the lungs and kidneys, and had returned to normal in the liver; zinc levels were greatly reduced in the lungs, but had risen in the liver and remained stable in the kidneys. The cadmium content had not changed. The fall in liver lead may be attributed to the increase in the zinc content of this organ.
Medycyna pracy, Łódź, Poland, 1974, Vol.25, No.6, p.533-541. Illus. 20 ref.
Friberg L., Piscator M., Nordberg G.F., Kjellström T.
Cadmium in the environment.
This report updates the earlier review on cadmium carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Environmental Hygiene of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden. It presents and reevaluates all information contained in the first edition and subsequent findings. Chapters cover: analytical methods; occurrence, possible routes of exposure and daily intake; metabolism; respiratory and systemic effects and dose-response relationships; the possibility of carcinogenic and genetic effects; health effects of cadmium in the general environment in Japan; and the need for future research.
CRC Press, 18901 Cranwood Parkway, Cleveland, Ohio 44128, USA, 2nd edition, 1974. 248p. Illus. 561 ref. Price: US-$29.95.
Gabor S., Anca Z., Papilian V.V., Grecu F.
Morphological and functional modifications of the adrenal glands of rats due to the effect of cadmium and cadmium-zinc ions
Modifications morphofonctionnelles des glandes surrénales chez le rat sous l'action des ions de cadmium et de cadmium-zinc. [in French]
A study was carried out in rats exposed to 4 weekly doses (10mg/kg). The morphological and functional changes in the adrenal glands were determined by histological examinations, biochemical monitoring and functional tests. The histological examination revealed hypertrophy of the glands due to the effect of cadmium ions, affecting exclusively the fasciculated layer of the adrenal cortex. There was a reduction in ascorbic acid and lipids, which suggests impaired adrenal function. Thorn test results were negative; hypoglycaemia and reduced hepatic glycogen revealed impairment of the function of the glycocorticoid hormones. On the other hand, the combined action of Cd/Zn ions shows that zinc exerts a protective action.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1974, Vol.35, No.6, p.641-646. 9 ref.
Aleksieva C., Ivanova S.
Changes in serum enzymes in workers chronically exposed to cadmium
Njakoi enzimni promeni v seruma na rabotnici, podloženi na hronično kadmievo văzdejstvie [in Bulgarian]
Study of the activity of 7 serum enzymes in workers chronically exposed to cadmium, with concomitant observation of the detoxifying function of the liver. The increased activity of 4 enzymes (ornithine carbamyl transferase, aspartate transaminase, malate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase) noted in a considerable number of subjects, and changes in the detoxifying function of the liver, suggest a reaction of the liver parenchyma to the chronic effect of cadmium.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.283-287. 7 ref.
Sugawara N., Sugawara C.
Cadmium accumulation in organs and mortality during a continued oral uptake.
Results of an experimental study in rats given food containing cadmium (10 or 50ppm) for 41 weeks: immediate reduction in food consumption and growth; cadmium accumulation in the kidneys and liver; the distribution rate of cadmium depended on its concentration (greater accumulation in the liver with the 50ppm intake); with the 50ppm intake, increased mortality from the 28th week on, coinciding with a rapid increase of cadmium in the kidney and liver; renal tubular damage.
Archiv für Toxikologie, 1974, Vol.32, p.297-306. Illus. 14 ref.
Fukabori S., Nakaaki K.
On the urinary excretion of Cd, Pb, Hg and F.
Study to determine the normal ranges or urinary excretion of Cd, Pb, Hg, and F, their hourly and daily variations and individual differences, and the relation between Hg or Pb concentration in workplace air and urinary excretion. Numerous tables and diagrams with English captions illustrate these relations. The following normal excretion values were found: Cd 0.04µg/h, 0.64µg/l; Pb 0.42µg/h; 6.27µg/l; Hg 0.5µg/h, 7.35µg/l; F 28.4µg/h, 0.43mg/l. Urinary Hg concentration ranged from 50 to 130µg/l when the Hg concentration in air was 0.06mg/m3 (recommended Japanese threshold limit 0.05mg/m3). The urinary concentration of Pb is estimated to be approximately 75µg/l on exposure to 0.15mg/m3 Pb fume. It is suggested that in dust exposure the particle size affects the urinary excretion of Pb.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Apr. 1974, Vol.50, No.4, p.249-269. Illus. 27 ref.
Fleischer M., Sarofim A.F., Fassett D.W., Hammond P., Shacklette H.T., Nisbet I.C.T., Epstein S.
Environmental impact of cadmium: A review by the Panel on Hazardous Trace Substances.
This report reviews and assesses the information available to Nov. 1972 on the environmental occurrence, transport and biological effects of cadmium, with special attention to significant gaps in knowledge. Techniques for determining trace concentrations of cadmium are summarised and areas of research for future studies are recommended.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Experimental Issue No.7, May 1974, p.253-323. Illus. 261 ref.
Gieske T.H., Foulkes E.C.
Acute effects of cadmium on proximal tubular function in rabbits.
While it is known that chronic exposure to cadmium produces a renal tubular syndrome in man and in experimental animals, the effects of more acute exposure to cadmium have not been studied in detail. This paper describes the renal dysfunction in acutely poisoned rabbits, with special emphasis on the nature and mechanism of the associated aminoaciduria.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1974, Vol.27, No.2, p.292-299. Illus. 29 ref.
Ulander A., Axelson O.
Measurement of blood-cadmium levels.
An analytical technique is described whereby normal values of blood cadmium were obtained from persons without known industrial exposure to cadmium. Blood-cadmium levels in smokers were significantly higher than in non-smokers. A low blood-cadmium concentration does not seem to exclude an accumulation of cadmium in the kidneys; a high blood-cadmium level does not necessarily indicate renal damage. Nevertheless, monitoring of the exposure is of primary preventive interest.
Lancet, 13 Apr. 1974, Vol.1, No.7589, p.682-683. 9 ref.
Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Roels H.A., Brouwers J., Stranescu D.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium - Effect on lung, kidney and several biological indices.
Pulmonary and renal functions and several biological indices were investigated in 3 groups of workers exposed to cadmium dust (women with less than 20 years' exposure (E1), men with less than 20 years' exposure (E2) and men with more than 20 years' exposure (E3) and in 3 control groups. The current airborne cadmium dust concentration was below the TLV (200 µg/m3). Slight but significant impairment of pulmonary function was found in the E3 category. Kidney damage was more prevalent, manifested by proteinuria in 15% of the E2 group and in 68% of the E3 group. These findings support the proposal to reduce the TLV for cadmium dust to 50 µg/m3.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1974, Vol.28, No.3, p.145-148. Illus. 22 ref.
Coulson D.M., Haynes D.L., Balazs M.E., Dolder M.P.
Survey of manual methods of measurements of asbestos, beryllium, lead, cadmium, selenium, and mercury in stationary source emissions.
Analytical methods were reviewed and one chosen for each substance. The chosen methods were tested and modified if necessary to give procedures that were easy to use, had equipment easily available, and were sensitive enough for proposed Environmental Protection Agency standards. Electron microscopy was chosen for asbestos, atomic absorption spectroscopy for beryllium, lead, and cadmium, spectrophotometry and fluorometry for selenium, and flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy for mercury. Although the analytical methods were primarily for factory stack gas streams, workers' environments were also included in the discussion.
PB-234 326/7WP, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, Sep. 1973. 162p. Illus. 158 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$5.00/Microfiche US-$2.25.
Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Brouwers J.
Epidemiological survey of workers exposed to cadmium
Enquête épidémiologique des travailleurs exposés au cadmium. [in French]
Preliminary results of a survey covering 80 workers occupationally exposed to cadmium dust (electronics factory, manufacture of Ni-Cd storage batteries, industrial production of cadmium). The authors distinguish 3 groups of effects according to the degree and duration of exposure to the dust. They also take into account the effects of the subjects' smoking habits. Conclusion: prolonged exposure to a cadmium dust concentration lower than the TLV may result in a syndrome of mild respiratory obstruction; kidney damage occurs before lung function impairment. The authors therefore recommend that the TLV for total cadmium dust concentration should be lowered from 200 to 50µg/m3.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Dec. 1973, Vol.10, No.4, p.169-170.
Dequidt J., Haguenoer J.M., Fromont B.
Action of some detoxicants in experimental cadmium poisoning
Action de quelques détoxicants dans l'intoxication expérimentale par le cadmium. [in French]
Results of experiments on rats to determine the action of a number of substances (penicillin, BAL, EDTA, DTPA and D-penicillamine) known for their detoxifying action on certain heavy metals, in the case of cadmium poisoning. To determine this action, the authors followed the localisation and urinary excretion of cadmium after administration of the metal and the detoxifying substances. The determinations were obtained by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Curry's and Knott's method). None of the tests carried out were conclusive.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1973, Vol.34, No.7-8, p.427-435. Illus. 9 ref.
Some inorganic and organometallic compounds.
A series of 7 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 29 Nov.-4 Dec. 1972). Individual monographs are devoted to: asbestos, arsenic and inorganic arsenic compounds, cadmium and inorganic cadmium compounds, chromium and inorganic chromium compounds, nickel and inorganic nickel compounds, tetraethyl- and tetramethyllead and iron-carbohydrate complexes.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.2. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France, 1973. 181p. Illus. 432 ref. Price: SF.12.00.
Hepatic cellular lesions in the course of experimental poisoning by a cadmium salt
Lésions cellulaires hépatiques au cours d'une intoxication expérimentale par un sel cadmique. [in French]
MD thesis. Part 1: industrial uses of cadmium, clinical and biological symptoms, physiopathology. Part 2: literature survey of liver damage in human pathology and animal experiments. Part 3: animal experiments; here, by using optical and electron microscopy, the exact nature and extent of hepatic cell impairment due to poisoning of short duration can be ascertained. Nothing was observed by optical microscopy, whereas tissue examination by electron microscopy disclosed, on the 60th day, the presence of numerous intranuclear inclusions, of leafy aspect, which would lead one to suspect lipid changes, as well as large zones of cytoplasmic necrosis.
Université de Paris V, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1973. 61p. Illus. 116 ref.
Hoschek R., Schittke H.J.
Comparative determinations of blood lead as well as urinary lead and cadmium
Vergleichsbestimmungen für Blei im Blut sowie für Blei und Kadmium im Urin [in German]
Account of a study of the reliability of determinations, carried out with the participation of 28 institutes in West Germany and other European countries. The 1st part of this report is devoted to the preparation of samples, laboratory methods, results obtained by the various institutes, and to the discussion of prerequisites and influential factors. The 2nd part contains the results of a statistical evaluation which are reproduced in numerous diagrams and tables. For blood lead, the mean errors recorded in the majority of the institutes were between 7 and 15%, and even 20%. Furthermore, most of the institutes did not take into account the fact that a large part of urinary lead is absorbed by the sediment and consequently is also deposited on the surface of the receptacle. The determination of urinary cadmium did not raise any difficulties. The study showed that routine recovery tests by the institutes themselves gave over-favourable results and were thus not significant.
Forschungsbericht Nr.101, Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 25, 46 Dortmund-Marten, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1973. 188p. Illus. 124 ref. Price: DM.12.50.
Moore W., Stara J.F., Crocker W.C., Malanchuk M., Iltis R.
Comparison of 115m cadmium retention in rats following different routes of administration.
This study compares the influence of 4 different routes of administration (oral, inhalation, intraperitoneal and intravenous) on whole-body retention of 115mCd. The retention curve for each route of administration was divided into 2 components. The first component, which was markedly influenced by the route of administration, reflected the initial rapid clearance of 115mCd; the second component indicated the absorption and turnover of 115mCd. The route of administration did not significantly influence the rate of elimination and biological half-life of the second component of the whole-body retention curve.
Environmental Research, 1973, Vol.6, No.4, p.473-478. Illus. 11 ref.
Yeager D.W., Cholak J., Meiners B.G.
The determination of cadmium in biological and related material by atomic absorption.
The atomic absorption spectroscopy technique used for the determination of lead in biological materials has been adapted to the determination of cadmium in blood, urine, body tissues, airborne dust, water and foods. The experimental technique is described in detail, and the results presented and discussed. A sensitivity of 0.01 ppm can be attained, and the accuracy is ± 4% for microgram quantities of Cd. No correlation could be established between Pb and Cd concentrations in the blood of 100 workers employed in various lead industries.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1973, Vol.34, No.10, p.450-454. Illus. 11 ref.
Kaplan P.D., Blackstone M., Richdale N.
Direct determination of cadmium, nickel and zinc in rat lungs by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
An atomic absorption method for the direct determination of metals in mammalian tissues has been developed. By use of the technique, which involves dissolution of the tissue with a quaternary ammonium hydroxide, low concentrations of cadmium and nickel can be measured with a great degree of sensitivity and a minimal amount of sample handling.
Archives of Environmental Health, Dec. 1973, Vol.27, No.6, p.387-389. 13 ref.
Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Roels H.A.
Comparative study of effect of inorganic lead and cadmium on blood δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase in man.
This paper compares the action of lead and cadmium on the red blood cell enzyme δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and is based on findings made during a survey of 77 workers exposed to cadmium and 73 controls. It is clear from the investigation that in the general population, and even in cadmium exposed workers, cadmium has no significant effect on ALA-D, while all the available evidence indicates that the ALA-D activity of the erythrocytes is a very sensitive and specific parameter of lead in blood.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.30, No.4, p.359-364. 29 ref.
Sorenson J.R.J., Melby E.G., Nord P.J., Petering H.G.
Interferences in the determination of metallic elements in human hair - An evaluation of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium, using atomic absorption spectrophotometry.
A study to evaluate the sources of interference in the determination of the concentrations of metals in human hair. Using atomic absorption spectrophotometry and a standard reference hair sample, the authors established that the determination of concentrations of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium is free of interference when nitric acid is used as the sole digesting agent. They also demonstrated that chemical ionisation, light scattering and molecular absorption interferences are absent when commercially available equipment is used.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1973, Vol.27, No.1, p.36-39. 11 ref.
Minister of State for Social Affairs, Paris, France.
Decree No.73-215 of 23 February 1973 to revise and supplement the schedule of occupational diseases annexed to Decree No.46-2959 of 31 December 1946
Décret n° 73-215 du 23 février 1973 revisant et compléant les tableaux de maladies professionnelles annexés au décret n°46-2959 du 31 décembre 1946. [in French]
This decree, which came into force on 2 Mar. 1973, adds to the statutory list of occupational diseases the following new tables (Nos.59 to 63): occupational poisoning due to hexane; occupational poisoning due to pentachlorophenol or sodium pentachlorophenolate; diseases due to cadmium and its compounds; diseases due to organic isocyanates; diseases due to proteolytic enzymes. Table No.34 is amended. [The text of this decree is also reproduced in Travail et sécurité, Paris, Mar. 1973, No.3, p.223-227, with comments, followed by the text of the administrative circular of 7 Mar. 1973 on this subject].
Journal officiel de la République française, 2 Mar. 1973, No.52, p.2321-2322.
Aerosols of lead, nickel and cadmium - A method of generating soluble and insoluble compounds
Description of a generator developed for the production of aerosols of soluble nickel and lead compounds (PbCl2 and NiCl2) as well as aerosols of insoluble nickel oxide (NiO) and cadmium oxide (CdO). The mass median diameters obtained were within the range 0.15-0.30µm. The generator consists essentially of a nebuliser; its use provides a simple, easily controllable and flexible system for the generation of metal oxide aerosols.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1973, Vol.26, No.2, p.75-77. Illus. 8 ref.
Cadmium - Health and safety precautions.
This note briefly describes cadmium and its industrial uses, toxic effects and appropriate preventive measures. Threshold limit value: metal dust and soluble salts, 0.2mg/m3 of air; cadmium oxide fume, 0.1mg/m3 of air.
Technical Data Note No.11 (Rev), H.M. Factory Inspectorate, Department of Employment, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London S.E.1, United Kingdom, 1972. 2p. Gratis.
Cadmium poisoning as an occupational disease - An attempt at a medico-legal definition
L'intoxication par le cadmium, maladie professionnelle - Essai de définition médico-légale. [in French]
This M.D. degree thesis first recalls the properties of cadmium and describes how it is prepared, its uses in industry, its toxicity and the symptoms of acute and chronic poisoning. Passing symptoms denote impregnation: cadmium "yellow tooth", general health disturbances, irritation of upper airways, digestive or nervous troubles, cardiovascular impairment. Some symptoms are definitive and indicate more severe poisoning: pulmonary, renal and bone disorders. Discussion of biological data, animal experiments, pathogenesis and treatment. Definition of the medico-legal aspects of the problem. Review of cadmium hazards in industry and methods of detecting this substance. Recalls French regulations on the subject. Health engineering and medical prevention.
Université Paris VI, Faculté de médecine Saint-Antoine, Paris, France, 1972. 86p. 215 ref.
Düngemann H., Borelli S., Wittmann J.
Copper and cadmium contact eczema in welders, polishers, electroplaters and similar workers
Über Kupfer- und Kadmium-Kontaktekzeme bei Schweissern, Schleifern, Galvaniseuren und ähnlichen Berufsgruppen [in German]
A review of previous systematic studies (see CIS 64-975) is followed by a report on the skin testing of 256 metalworkers, with particular reference to cadmium sensitization. Clinical findings and medical histories in 9 positive reactions to cadmium sulfate are described, and 5 positive reactions to copper sulfate are analysed. Sensitization is due primarily to exposure to dust and, in the case of cadmium, to contact with cadmium metal or cadmium-containing liquids. Cadmium and copper should form part of the skin test battery whenever metal allergy is suspected. Potential exposure areas in industry are tabulated.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Arbeitshygiene, Apr. 1972, Vol.7, No.4, p.85-93. 42 ref.
Role of cadmium in human and experimental hypertension
Laboratory investigations were conducted on animals, human controls, and patients with hypertension in order to investigate the role of Cd on the vascular tissue and in renal pathophysiology. Cd is predominantly deposited in the kidney and liver of hypertensive animals, and to lesser extent in the blood vessels. The results of in vivo and in vitro experiments are presented and interpreted.
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Apr. 1972, Vol.22, No.4, p.267-270. Illus. 6 ref.
Vens M.D., Lauwerys R.
Simultaneous determination of lead and cadmium in blood and urine by a combination of ion-exchange resin chromatography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry
Détermination simultanée du plomb et du cadmium dans le sang et l'urine par le couplage des techniques de chromatographie sur résine échangeuse d'ions et de spectrophotométrie d'absorption atomique [in French]
Some elements such as lead and cadmium form Werner-type complexes with chloride ions in a hydrochloric acid medium over certain concentration ranges. Negative charging of these complexes permits fixation on an anionic resin. The authors fixed blood and urine lead and cadmium on a strong anionic resin and then exploited the affinity of perchlorate ion for strong basic resins by using a perchloric acid solution for wash-out. The lead and cadmium in the wash solution are measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The method was tested on 49 workers in a cadmium plating shop and on 44 controls. The technique is simple, rapid, flexible, selective and sensitive.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Mar. 1972, Vol.33, No.3, p.97-195. Illus. 16 ref.
Lead and cadmium hazards to pottery painters
In a study of the health hazards of lead and cadmium in pottery glaze of pigments, physical examinations were carried out on 283 pottery painters. Urinary concentrations of lead and cadmium were higher than in controls, suggesting abnormal but slight accumulation of these metals within the body. High urinary lead concentrations were accompanied by low haematocrits and haemoglobin levels. Workers with high urinary concentrations of both lead and cadmium presented particularlymarked anaemia, and it is suggested that these metals may exert a synergic action.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, June 1972, Vol.27, No.2, p.259-266. Illus. 22 ref.
Method of collection and analysis of air samples, interferences (thallium) and sensitivity (0.03mg/m3).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1972, Vol.33, No.2, p.120. 4 ref.
Griffin R.M., Matson W.R.
The assessment of individual variability to trace metal insult: Low-molecular-weight metal complexing agents as indicators of trace metal insult
A study of the time distribution of cadmium, and subsidiarily lead and copper, in the red blood cells and small-molecular weight serum fractions of rats which had been given repeated sub-acute doses of cadmium chloride, with a view to detecting early adverse effects of heavy metal insult. The analytical procedure is described in detail, and the results presented and discussed. It was found that trace metals entering the circulatory system are initially bound by intermediate- and low-molecular-weight serum components, and then transferred or transported to complexing materials of high molecular weight (e.g. albumin, globulins and ceruloplasmin). Information was also obtained as regards trace metal interactions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1972, Vol.33, No.6, p.373-377. Illus. 11 ref.
Changes in the buccal cavity in workers exposed to cadmium compounds
Otnosno săstojanieto na ustnata kuhina u rabotešti v kontakt s kadmievi săedinenija [in Bulgarian]
Symptoms found in certain structures of the buccal cavity are of great importance in the diagnosis of cadmium poisoning, in particular a golden yellow colouring of the teeth due to cadmium sulfide, and the cadmium line at the base of the incisors, which is considered a decisive early symptom. The author examined 47 workers (31 men and 16 women) employed in the cadmium department of a Bulgarian non-ferrous metals plant, aged 18-55 years (with up to 12 years' exposure). In most cases, the pathological processes were not specific either clinically or morphologically. Their great prevalence and their simultaneous appearance with other paraclinical divergencies confirmed the influence exerted by the toxic substance. The yellow cadmium line at the base of the teeth occurs on exposure to even small concentrations of cadmium at the workplace. For specific diagnosis, it is necessary to use hystochemical methods for detecting tissue cadmium.
Naučni trudove na NIOTPZ - Razdel uši-nos-gărlo i stomatologija, June 1971, Vol.18, p.267-271. 10 ref.
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