Cadmium and compounds - 296 entries found
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Delage C., Gualde N., Malinvaud G., Guichard C.
Identification of a genetic marker of predisposition to cadmium accumulation
Mise en évidence d'un marqueur génétique prédisposant au stockage du cadmium. [in French]
Development of an atomic absorption technique for determining cadmium levels in biological fluids, especially blood, and its use in persons with non-occupational exposure (mean values: 5.5 ± 3.5mg/ml) and in workers employed in the manufacture of cadmium-rich dyes (mean value: 25 ± 20ng/ml). HLA phenotypes in the subjects examined were determined to study possible relations between specific phenotypes and predisposition to blood accumulation of cadmium. A3 group subjects have a particularly high predisposition to cadmium fixation in blood. In-vitro studies confirmed this predisposition.
Annales pharmaceutiques françaises, 1979, Vol.37, No.9-10, p.475-482. 18 ref.
Long-term sampling of airborne cadmium dust in an alkaline battery factory.
389 stationary and 190 mobile measurements were made. The dust consisted mainly of respirable particles. There was no cyclic variation over time. The type of work affected the concentration of airborne Cd dust. The average level of Cd had decreased from approximately 500µg/m3 in 1946 to approximately 10µg/m3 in 1976.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1979, Vol.5, No.3, p.178-187. 43 ref.
Lauwerys R., Vos A., Roels H., Buchet J.P., Bernard A.
Follow-up of a worker removed from his job after diagnosis of cadmium-induced kidney damage
Surveillance d'un travailleur écarté de son poste de travail suite ŕ la découverte de lésions rénales induites par le cadmium. [in French]
Study carried out with the financial assistance of the Commission of the European Communities, concerning a worker who was removed from his job after 23.5 years of exposure to cadmium oxide dust and fume. At the time of his removal from exposure the subject was found to have biological evidence of kidney damage (complex proteinuria suggesting the existence of glomerular and tubular lesions). 3 years later there was still no sign of any reversibility of the lesions.
Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygične, médecine du travail et médecine légale - Belgisch Archief van Sociale Geneeskunde, Hygiëne, Arbeidsgeneeskunde en Gerechtelijke Geneeskunde, Mar. 1979, Vol.37, No.3, p.137-146. Illus. 11 ref.
Di Ferrante E.
Commission of the European Communities
Trace metals: Exposure and health effects.
These are the proceedings of a seminar held in Guildford, United Kingdom, on 10-13 July 1978. Subjects dealt with: biochemistry of trace metals; research on trace metals in member states of the European Community; lead; cadmium; mercury; arsenic; nickel; chromium; interaction of metals; food contamination by metals; behaviour as a sentry of metal toxicity; carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of As, Cd, Hg, Ni; research needs and Community priorities.
Published by Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 OBW, United Kingdom, 1979. 262p. Illus. 966 ref. Price: Ł15.00.
Elimination of health hazards during zinc and cadmium plating
Ĺtgärder mot hälsorisker vid elektrolytisk förzinkning och kadmiering [in Swedish]
Problems considered: processes using cyanide zinc plating baths; 3 alternative cyanide-free plating processes (alkaline non-cyanide, neutral, and weak acid); hydrogen cyanide emission from plating baths; handling of cyanide salts; possible inhalation of cyanide dust when adding cyanides to plating baths. Preventive measures: reduction of cyanide content of plating bath; rim exhaust slots; personal protection. As regards cadmium, this health hazardous metal can often be replaced by Zn; use of Cd in surface treatment will probably be prohibited in Sweden in future.
IVF-resultat 79503, Sveriges Mekanförbund, Box 5506, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, June 1979. 21p. 17 ref. Price: Swe-cr. 15.00.
Kjellström T., Friberg L., Rahnster B.
Mortality and cancer morbidity among cadmium-exposed workers.
269 cadmium-nickel battery factory workers and 94 cadmium-copper alloy factory workers with >5 years' cadmium exposure, and 328 controls were studied. Battery factory workers employed since before 1948 had increased general mortality and renal disease mortality. Cancer incidence was not increased. In the alloy factory there was a non-significant increased mortality from prostatic cancer. An association between cadmium exposure and prostatic cancer is postulated.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 1979, Vol.28, p.199-204. 32 ref.
Early detection of health impairment in occupational exposure to health hazards.
The hazards dealt with in this report are organic solvents (benzene, carbon tetrachloride, ketones, trichloroethylene, xylene) and metals (cadmium, lead, manganese, mercury). Aspects covered in each case are: properties, uses and hazards; recognised maximum permissible limits; pharmacokinetics; effects on health; early effects; relations between exposure and early indication of health impairment; relations between exposure and biological parameters; relations between biological parameters and early indications; methods; gaps in knowledge, recommendations, conclusions.
OCH/79.3, World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1979. 128p. 446 ref.
Lundberg I., Sjögren B., Hallne U., Hedström L., Holgersson M.
Work environment problems in welding - Part 8. Work environment factors and cadmium uptake in brazing with silver solder
Arbetsmiljöproblem vid svetsning - Del 8. Arbetsmiljöfaktorer och kadmiumupptag vid hĺrdlödning med silverlod [in Swedish]
102 brazers working at least 10% of their day with cadmium-containing hard solders were studied. 31 had blood cadmium levels of 1µg/100ml or more. Blood levels were determined almost exclusively by the length of the joint. Age, sex, exposure time, smoking habits and brazing technique had no effect. There was a moderate relation between total dust and Cd concentrations in the breathing zone of 21 workers: total dust cannot be used as an index of Cd exposure. The relation between air and blood Cd levels was moderate in 21 brazers exposed for more than 3 months, and strong for 17 exposed for more than 6 months.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:21, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 42p. Illus. 21 ref.
Copius Peereboom J.W.
Cadmium: Absorption, body distribution, toxicity
Cadmium: opname, verdeling over het lichaam en toxiciteit [in Dutch]
The introduction to this literature survey takes stock of the uses, sources and biological effects of Cd. This is followed by in-depth study of human exposure to Cd (absorption with food and cigarette smoke, occupational exposure), of the formation of Cd metallothionein (a stable cadmium-protein complex), metabolism of this complex, metabolism of zinc and Cd, and the influence of other heavy metals on metabolism. A chapter is devoted to the consequences of toxic effects described for the purposes of establishing TLVs; in the author's opinion the Netherlands TLV for Cd (50µg/m3) is not low enough and should be decreased to 10 µg/m3.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 25 July 1979, Vol.57, No.15, p.488-501. Illus. 42 ref.
Peltier A., Demange M., Carton B.
Cadmium poisoning - Awareness of the hazard
Intoxication par le cadmium - Connaissance du risque. [in French]
This data sheet gives a roundup of the present state of the art concerning cadmium poisoning. The following aspects are considered: the problem of the increasing pollution of soil, water, and the food chain; physical and chemical properties, manufacture, industrial uses; toxicology of cadmium and its derivatives; methods and apparatus for sampling and analysis from the atmosphere and from body fluids; French regulations; occupational hygiene and health engineering aspects (personnel information, removal of dust and vapour by exhaust ventilation, substitution of other substances for cadmium, determination of cadmium in workplace air, personal hygiene and personal protective equipment ); medical aspects (pre-employment screening to exclude alcoholics and persons with respiratory impairment); TLVs; environmental protection.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1197-96-79, p.383-390. 34 ref.
Oberdoerster G., Baumert H.P., Hochrainer D., Stoeber W.
The clearance of cadmium aerosols after inhalation exposure.
The clearance of inhaled cadmium oxide (CdO) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) was studied in 2 groups of rats. The half-life of the long-term lung clearance rates was 67 days in each case. Initial clearance was faster for CdO, while that of CdCl2 was the same as its long-term clearance. The lung burden of CdCl2 was thus higher. CdCl2 also gave rise to higher liver and kidney concentrations due to the high resorption rate. Possible clearance mechanisms are discussed, including the formation in the lung of a metal complex independent of the original chemical form of the cadmium aerosols.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1979, Vol.40, No.6, p.443-450. Illus. 15 ref.
The main hazards of cadmium are inhalation of toxic fumes and dust of the element and the gases cyanogen and arsine from processing the metal. The data sheet contains sections on: properties; uses; personal protective equipment (proper respirators during welding; goggles); ventilation; poisoning symptoms; toxicity (gastro-enteritis); threshold limit values (0.2mg/m3 for metal dust and soluble salts; 0.05mg/m3 for cadmium oxide fumes); medical examinations; waste disposal.
National Safety News, Data Sheet 1-312-78, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 1979. Chicago, USA, Jan. 1979, Vol. 119, No.1, p.63-64.
Lerner S., Hong C.D., Bozian R.C.
Cadmium nephropathy - A clinical evaluation.
A case is presented of a worker exposed to cadmium for 9 years. There was evidence of mild proximal tubular and glomerular dysfunction, and he presented considerable weight loss and other symptoms. The value of monitoring urinary total protein as recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is discussed. Increased beta-2-microglobulin without proteinuria but with elevated blood and urine cadmium levels raises questions about which biological indicators will prove most effective in monitoring cadmium exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1979, Vol.21, No.6, p.409-412. 20 ref.
Dornemann A., Kleist H.
Cadmium determination in whole blood
Bestimmung von Kadmium im Vollblut [in German]
The blood cadmium level is used as an index of cadmium exposure, and is thus of great interest for prevention. The literature on normal concentrations and determination methods is reviewed, and an optimum method of determination described (interferences, calibration, techniques, apparatus, reagents, procedure). Its efficacy is confirmed by statistical evaluation of results. The method comprises chelation of cadmium with hexamethyleneammonium hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, extraction with a xylene-diisopropyl ketone mixture, and determination by atomic absorption spectrometry with electrochemical atomisation.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, June 1978, Vol.28, No.6, p.165-168. 14 ref.
Hygiene evaluation of vacuum cadmium vapour plating and development of health measures
Gigieničeskaja ocenka processa termovakuumnogo kadmirovanija i obosnovanie ozdorovitel'nyh meroprijatij [in Russian]
In this process, the cadmium is melted, sublimated and precipitated on the workpiece in a vacuum chamber. Cadmium aerosols from in the chamber and escape when it is opened, contaminating the workplace. Cadmium concentrations of 0.049 to 0.228mg/m3 were measured during loading and unloading of the chamber. They were moderately toxic (LD50 1,365mg/kg in rats, 815mg/kg in mice). Protective measures proposed: use of thermal evaporation instead of cathode spraying, which is more likely to give rise to cadmium oxide aerosols on account of the lower vacuum used; local exhaust ventilation; centralisation of operations in order to improve mechanisation, etc.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1978, No.5, p.6-8. 10 ref.
Criteria (dose/effect relationships) for cadmium.
This report of the working party of experts (Luxembourg, 28-29 Jan. and 14-15 Oct. 1976) contains a long summary and chapters on the chemical and physical properties of cadmium and its compounds; occurrence, production, uses and sources of environmental pollution; concentration in air, food and water; metabolism (intake, absorption, distribution, excretion, body burden and biological indices of exposure or body burden); toxic effects (acute, short-term and long-term exposure, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, genetic effects); guides and standards for environmental levels; needs for further research; proposal for a no-effect level for long-term exposure.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1978. 202p. Illus. 560 ref.
Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Roels H., Bernard A., Hubermont G.
Study of population groups and workers exposed to heavy metals
Etude de groupes de la population générale et des travailleurs exposés aux métaux lourds. [in French]
4 studies undertaken at the industrial and medical toxicology unit at Louvain Catholic University (Belgium) are reported. Exposure was not occupational in 2 of these: children living near a lead foundry; levels of lead, mercury and cadmium in 500 pregnant women and their infants. In the 2 studies dealing with exposed workers, renal function was determined in workers exposed to lead, mercury or cadmium, and plasma α1-antitrypsin activity in cadmium-exposed workers. Results are briefly reported. The hypothesis of Chowdhury and Louria regarding an inhibitory action of cadmium on plasma α1-antitrypsin was not confirmed in vivo.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, June 1978, Vol.15, No.2, p.113-118. 11 ref.
Roels H., Bernard A., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R., Masson P., Seminck T.
Response of β2-microglobulin and other proteins in workers exposed to cadmium, lead or mercury.
Workers exposed to these metals or combinations of them were compared with a control group. There was a significant increase in urinary excretion of low and/or high molecular weight proteins only in those exposed to cadmium or to lead + cadmium. On account of its high specificity, increased β2-microglobulin excretion is a valid indicator of cadmium-induced tubular proteinuria. Discussion centres on elucidating this latter condition.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1978, Vol.14, No.1, p.78-92. Illus. 12 ref.
β2-microglobulin in the diagnosis of chronic cadmium poisoning.
The renal effects of cadmium (Cd) are discussed. Determination of urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-m) is a powerful tool for diagnosis of chronic Cd poisoning, and screening of Cd-exposed workers. Urinary pH should always be determined, since the β2-m concentration may vary with the pH. Renal damage, once it has set in, is irreversible, and Cd levels in both blood and urine should be monitored for prevention of Cd-induced renal tubular dysfunction.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor bedrijfsgeneeskunde, Mar. 1978, Vol.14, No.1, p.69-77. 14 ref.
Devulder B., Martin J.C., Plouvier B., Le Bouffant L., Tacquet A., Furon D.
Ultrastructural appearances of human and experimental cadmium nephropathy
Les aspects ultrastructuraux de la néphropathie cadmique humaine et expérimentale. [in French]
Highly toxic at the cellular level, cadmium (Cd) exerts its action specifically by disturbing mitochondrial energy production mechanisms. The ultrastructural appearance of experimental Cd nephropathy is mainly tubular atrophy with an intense collagen reaction in the neighbouring interstitium, thickening of the glomerular basal layer and marked changes in endothelial cells and podocytes (especially spreading of the pedicels) and vacuolisation of the distal tubular cells with calcium deposits evidencing nephrocalcinosis. In man, high urinary Cd may be the only biological indication of nephropathy that is already well advanced histologically, shown by electron microscope studies to involve the glomeruli. Thus regular determination of urinary Cd should be done in addition to protein in regular screening of Cd workers.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Jan.-Feb. 1978, Vol.39, No.1-2, p.35-43. Illus. 11 ref.
Cadmium 77 - Edited proceedings, First International Cadmium Conference.
Organised jointly by the Cadmium Association, London, United Kingdom, the Cadmium Council, New York, USA, and the International Lead Zinc Research Organization, New York, USA, the conference was held in San Francisco, USA, from 31 Jan. to 2 Feb. 1977, and attended by 240 experts from 13 countries. Papers were read under the following main heads: the cadmium scene; cadmium uses and technology; industrial sources of cadmium; standards and regulations (action of the European Communities in the environmental field and health criteria; cadmium and the World Health Organization (WHO); environmental health criteria for cadmium (WHO); occupational health standard for cadmium (USA); analysis of cadmium in organic matrices); cadmium in the environment; cadmium toxicology (toxicology studies; health study of cadmium workers; renal effects of cadmium; cadmium, lead and hypertension; pulmonary effects; Itai-Itai disease); criteria for health standards. The list of participants is appended.
Metal Bulletin Ltd, Park House, Park Terrace, Worcester Park, Surrey KT4 7HY, United Kingdom, Jan. 1978. 265p. Illus. 629 ref. Price: Ł30.00.
Directives and rules for health protection in work with cadmium and material containing cadmium
Anvisningar och föreskrifter till skydd mot hälsorisker vid arbete med kadmium eller kadmiumhaltigt material [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 Jan. 1979) apply to all work processes where there is a hazard of exposure to cadmium (dust, fumes, or in solution). Contents: health hazards (ways of entry, metabolism, toxic effects); reference to Swedish legislation on toxic substances; replacement of cadmium by less toxic substances; occupational hygiene and determination of cadmium airborne dust concentrations; precautions to be taken at the workplace (dust control, enclosure of processes and local exhaust ventilation, worker information to develop awareness of toxic hazards, etc.); medical supervision; special changing rooms for cadmium workers and separate canteens; ventilation of working premises, exhaust ventilation of dust and fume; regular cleaning of premises; use of respirators in case of massive exposure. Appendices: dust measurement method; instructions and forms for medical examinations, etc.
Anvisningar nr 123, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, Apr. 1978. 31p.
Accumulation and renal effects of cadmium in man - A dose-response study.
This thesis was undertaken to evaluate the protection against long-term cadmium (Cd) exposure which was afforded to workers by the threshold limit values in use in 1971. A metabolic model was designed and dose-response relations calculated to determine when the Cd concentration in kidney cortex reached critical values. In addition, epidemiological studies were made to measure early tubular damage. For the metabolism model, Cd was determined in food and faeces; it appeared that, while only 5% of ingested Cd is absorbed, the element accumulates in the body. Urinary Cd excretion is a good indicator of body burden, and blood Cd can indicate intake over a period of months. Dose-response relations indicated that the critical concentration is 150-300µg/g. The author's opinion is that the standards do not adequately protect exposed people.
Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, 104 01 Stockholm, Sweden, 1977. 80p. 239 ref.
Devulder B., Plouvier B., Furon D., Martin J.C.
La néphropathie cadmique. [in French]
Study covering the following aspects of this question: mechanisms of renal toxicity of cadmium (direct cellular toxic action through the agency of metallothionein; indirect toxic action of vascular origin); clinical and biological aspects (acute poisoning; chronic poisoning (particularly proteinuria)); biological and ultrastructural aspects of cadmium nephropathy (lesions can be detected by electronic microscope as from the 15th day of poisoning, etc.); problem of arterial hypertension in chronic poisoning; therapeutic aspects (attenuation of cadmium toxicity by sodium nitrilotriacetate, etc.).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.983-992. 62 ref.
Steibert E., Urbanovicz H.
Experimental cadmium poisoning in rabbits - Lipid metabolism and influence of zinc
Experimentální intoxikace kadmiem u králíků. Metabolismus lipidů a jeho ovlivnění zinkem [in Czech]
1mg/kg cadmium (Cd) daily was administered parenterally to rabbits for 6 weeks. Total liver and renal lipid levels were significantly lower than in controls, and the relative proportions of the main lipid fractions were altered. These changes did not occur when the animals were given 1.2mg/kg zinc (Zn) in addition. Administration of Cd reduced, in absolute terms, the fatty acids of the main lipid fractions, while Cd plus Zn changed the proportions of unsaturated acids and certain saturated acids. These changes show Cd to produce lipogenesis disorders, attributed to reduced insulin excretion by the pancreas following Cd accumulation. The protective role of Zn was demonstrated.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1977, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.161-165. 15 ref.
Hansén L., Kjellström T., Vesterberg O.
Evaluation of different urinary proteins excreted after occupational Cd exposure.
55 male workers at an alkaline battery factory were examined for renal effects after several years' exposure to cadmium. Total urinary protein was determined using a biuret method. To separate the individual proteins, isoelectric focussing was done in flat beds of polyacrylamide gel. The proteins were then stained and evaluated by densimetry. Duration of exposure was taken as a measure of the dose. There was a dose-effect relation between Cd and some urinary proteins. The most pronounced relative increases occurred in the zones containing albumin and β2-microglobulin. Albumin showed the largest quantitative increase. The method appears suitable for evaluating the renal effects of cadmium.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 22 Dec. 1977, Vol.40, No.4, p.273-282. Illus. 22 ref.
British Occupational Hygiene Society Committee on Hygiene Standards: Subcommittee on Cadmium.
Hygiene standard for cadmium.
Having consulted its members by questionnaire, the British Occupational Hygiene Society reviewed the current hygiene standards for cadmium in the light of the growing concern with the role of cadmium as an environmental hazard and of recent research on the tendency of cadmium to accumulate in the body. Introductory sections of the resulting recommendations deal with: Cd in the human body; acute Cd fume poisoning; chronic renal effects and their detection; chronic respiratory effects; minimal exposure levels for chronic effects; other effects; atmospheric sampling; Cd compounds encountered in industry. Recommendations proper relate to: medical surveillance; a special short exposure limit for Cd oxide fume (2mg/m3 for a maximum single exposure of 10min); a hygiene standard (8-h day, 40-h week) of 0.05mg/m3 for the respirable fraction of all Cd compounds and of 0.2mg/m3 for the portion of the total dust sample soluble in 0.1N hydrochloric acid.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1977, Vol.20, No.3, p.215-228. 54 ref.
Shiroishi K., Kjellström T., Kubota K., Evrin P.E., Anayama M., Vesterberg O., Shimada T., Piscator M., Iwata T., Nishino H.
Urine analysis for detection of cadmium-induced renal changes, with special reference to β2-microglobulin.
An analysis of total protein β2-microglobulin, glucose, and cadmium was performed on urine samples from people with Itai-itai disease and glomerular kidney disease, as well as on samples from a reference group. The use of 3 different methods of electrophoresis of urine proteins verified that the proteinuria in Itai-itai disease is tubular. On an average, urinary β2-microglobulin excretion among Itai-itai disease patients was 100-300 times higher than among the reference group, whereas total protein excretions was only 7-17 times higher. In a group of women with different degrees of cadmium exposure urinary excretion of proteins was evaluated with qualitative determination of protein, electrophoresis, and radioimmunoassay of β2-microglobulin. At slightly elevated β2-microglobulin excretion the first two methods gave negative results and it was concluded that radioimmunoassay of β2-microglobulin in urine is a sensitive indicator of cadmium-induced proteinuria.
Environmental Research, June 1977, Vol.13, No.3, p.407-424. 37 ref.
Welinder H., Skerfving S., Henriksen O.
Cadmium metabolism in man.
Report on occupational hygiene and medical studies in 21 high-frequency (HF) and 4 gas solderers. Exposure was up to 18 years. In the HF solderers Cd levels ranged from <10 to 440nmol/l in the blood and from <0.5 to 27µmol/mol creatine in the urine. Blood levels varied more than urine levels. Urinary Cd increased significantly with increasing exposure. Corresponding levels in the gas solderers were 45-150nmol/l and 2-20µmol/mol creatinine. There was a considerable decay in blood Cd after cessation of exposure, down to a steady state. Half-lives were 25-146 days. Urinary concentrations decreased very slowly if at all. They were significantly higher in those subjects whose post-decay levels in the blood were higher. Urinary β2-microglobulin was significantly increased 11-15 months after cessation of exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.221-228. Illus. 14 ref.
Clausen J., Rastogi S.C.
Heavy metal pollution among autoworkers. I. Lead - II. Cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, and nickel.
Reports on controlled studies in 216 automobile repair workers. Blood lead levels (p.208-215) were raised in 59% and >80µg/100ml in 9%. Sources of airborne lead were lead particulates and high-pressure-resistant lubricants containing lead naphthenate. There was a significant relation between raised PbB levels and reduced ALAD activity. Results of blood analyses and medical examinations are also given. The lead content of various unused and used oils is listed. Part II (p.216-220) reports normal cadmium and copper levels and significantly raised chromium and nickel levels in the blood of exposed workers. Heavy metal content of the workshop air is given, and sources of pollution discussed in the light of the literature.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1977, Vol.34, No.3, p.208-220. Illus. 63 ref.
Fell G.S., Ottaway J.M., Hussein F.E.R.
Application of blood cadmium analysis to industry using an atomic fluorescence method.
A flame photometric method using atomic fluorescence for cadmium (Cd) estimation is described. The system employs a modified, low-cost atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a high intensity Cd light source. The method permits 1 in 5 dilution of blood for analysis, and processing of 25 duplicates/h, with acceptable precision. In tests in general categories of worker (blood Cd:65.2nmol/l) demolition workers (137.9nmol/l) and shipbreakers (105.9nmol/l) there was a relation between increases in blood Cd and in blood Pb, which was statistically significant for the shipbreakers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1977, Vol.34, No.2, p.106-109. 9 ref.
Eller P.M., Haartz J.C.
A study of methods for the determination of lead and cadmium.
Variations on the dithizone, flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), tantalum boat AAS, extraction/aspiration, and graphite furnace AAS methods of determining lead in blood and cadmium and lead on filters were studied. The variables included type and amount of acid, ashing procedure, size of aliquot, and time. Accuracy was acceptable in all cases. Tantalum boat AAS showed wide variability and is unsuitable for use in routine analysis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1977, Vol.38, No.3, p.116-124. 17 ref.
Kjellström T., Evrin P.E., Rahnster B.
Dose-response analysis of cadmium-induced tubular proteinuria - A study of urinary β2-microglobulin excretion among workers in a battery factory.
The study covered 240 male and female workers exposed to cadmium oxide and nickel hydroxide dust in a Swedish battery factory. The control group comprised 87 unexposed males. Air samples from the plant showed the present exposure level to be about 50µg Cd/m3 air. Cadmium-induced effects were studied by measuring urinary β2-microglobulin excretion. Urinary β2-microglobulin concentration followed a log-normal distribution in the reference group with a geometric mean of 84µg/liter (adjusted to a specific gravity of 1.023). In the group of 185 persons continuously exposed to cadmium dust in the work environment, the prevalence of excess urinary β2-microglobulin excretion increased with employment time. The prevalance was 19% for the workers with 6-12 years of exposure to about 50µg Cd/m3 as compared to 3% for those in the reference group. Smokers had about 3 times higher prevalence than non smokers.
Environmental Research, Apr. 1977, Vol.13, No.2, p.303-317. 21 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Sep. 1976.
Principles for preventive medical examinations - Hazards of cadmium and its compounds
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch Cadmium oder seine Verbindungen [in German]
These principles serve as a basis for preventive medical examinations and early detection of poisoning by cadmium and its compounds. They deal with the content of preemployment and periodical examinations, physicochemical characteristics and concentration limits in air, hazard sources, absorption and mode of action, clinical picture of acute and chronic poisoning, prohibition of employment of young people and pregnant women, transfer to other work, determination and concentrations of urinary cadmium.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Dec. 1976, Vol.11, No.12, p.307-309. 8 ref.
Literature survey of cadmium (text)
Literaturbericht Kadmium - Textteil [in German]
Evaluation of 346 publications (not listed) from 1950-1974 under the headings of: ecological significance of cadmium, physiological and biochemical effects, toxic effects in animal experiments (by organ system), occupational exposure, acute and chronic poisoning, subjective symptoms, treatment, prophylaxis, occupational hygienic and other standards.
Arbeitsmedizin-Information, 1976, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.49-60.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to cadmium.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational disease due to cadmium and its compounds. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 40µg/m3 over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is 200µg/m3 for any 15min period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data and development of the standard. Research needs are defined and procedures for sampling and analysis are detailed; useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-192, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1976. 86p. 287 ref.
The chronic toxicity of cadmium.
This literature survey covers occupational poisoning, poisoning via food, effects on the kidney of humans and animals (proteinuria), effects of cadmium on zinc metabolism and utilisation and on bones, and further research needs (cell and enzyme changes, endocrine and liver functions).
In "Trace Elements in Human Health and Disease", Vol.II: "Essential and Toxic Elements", edited by A.S. Prasad. Academic Press, New York, USA, 1976. p.431-441. 28 ref.
Perry H.M., Thind G.S., Perry E.F.
The biology of cadmium.
This review covers: the demonstrated biological effects of cadmium (human toxicity; animal toxicity of injected, ingested, and inhaled cadmium; in vitro effects); the human body burden and its sources; hypertension; emphysema.
Medical Clinics of North America, July 1976, Vol.60, No.4, p.759-769. Illus. 68 ref.
Association of cadmium with renal cancer.
64 cases of renal cancer were compared in terms of occupation, smoking habits and diet with 2 control groups (colon cancer; non-cancerous gastrointestinal disease). Only occupation showed a statistically significant higher incidence of renal cancer. There appeared to be a synergistic effect between occupational exposure to cadmium and smoking. Discussion.
Cancer, Apr. 1976, Vol.37, No.4, p.1782-1787. 31 ref.
Bernard A., Roels H., Hubermont G., Buchet J.P., Masson P.L., Lauwerys R.R.
Characterization of the proteinuria in cadmium-exposed workers.
The concentration of several proteins and of total amino acids was determined in the urine of 18 cadmium-exposed workers (averge exposure 28 years) and controls. The results were compared with the electrophoretic pattern of urinary proteins on agarose gel. The previous observation was confirmed that in the majority of cadmium-exposed workers with an abnormal electrophoretic pattern or increased total proteinuria, not only low-molecular-weight proteins (β2-microglobulin) but also high-molecular-weight proteins (albumin, transferrin) are excreted in greater amounts. Proteinuria is more closely related to the concentrations of albumin and orosomucoid than that of β2-microglobulin. The change in the total amino acid concentration in urine was less marked than that of protein. Determination of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins is recommended for detecting renal damage due to cadmium.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 21 Oct. 1976, Vol.38, No.1, p.19-30. 14 ref.
Effects of administration of cadmium sulfate on the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis in the rat
Effets de l'administration de sulfate de cadmium sur l'axe hypothalamo-hypophyso-testiculaire du rat. [in French]
MD thesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cadmium-induced early lesions are limited to the testis or can spread to other levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis, and thus contribute to the development or maintenance of peripheral gonadal lesions. A general section on cadmium and its toxicity (metabolism, clinical signs and symptoms of poisoning, reproductive effects) is followed by a report on experiments comprising a single abdominal subcutaneous injection of 3.74mg/kg cadmium sulfate to 24 rats. Cadmium sulfate produces massive testicular lesions, involving both the germinal epithelium and Sertoli's cells and the interstitium. These lesions are related to histological changes in the gonadotrophic cells of the anterior pituitary, indicating either a functional effect secondary to the toxic testicular one, or a direct action of cadmium on these cells. Blood levels of gonadotrophin A (FSH) and B (LH) fell considerably in the first days, to increase significantly after a week. Blood testosterone fell greatly after a week.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Necker - Enfants malades, Paris, France, 1976. 50p. Illus. 91 ref.
Kidney, liver, hair and lungs as indicators of cadmium absorption.
The cadmium content was measured in samples of kidney, liver, hair and lungs obtained from 50 autopsies. All correlations were positive. The best correlations (in descending order) were: kidney-liver, kidney-hair, kidney-lung (all p<1%), liver-hair (p<5%).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1976, Vol.37, No.11, p.617-621. 18 ref.
Proteinuria of cadmium workers.
Results of almost 10 years' observation of 16 cadmium workers, including 5 subjects of a previous study (CIS 242-1968, Cek Gsy Qem), since when hygiene conditions in the plant were improved. Cadmium-induced proteinuria was reversible in some workers. The relation between urinary cadmium and proteinuria after cessation of exposure is not clear. Anaemia and other biochemical changes may be reversible if exposure is reduced. Reduction of air cadmium to approx. 20µg/m3 remarkably improved workers' general health.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1976, Vol.18, No.7, p.463-466. Illus. 6 ref.
Kopp S.J., Hawley P.L.
Factors influencing cadmium toxicity in A-V conduction system of isolated perfused rat heart.
At pH 7.2, progressive P-R interval increase with partial Type I A-V block occurred in 6 of 8 hearts exposed to 3 x 10-2mM Cd2+, and in 1 of 5 exposed to 1/10 of this concentration; at pH 6.8 and 7.0, complete A-V block occurred in all hearts perfused with the former dose, and in 5 of 8 hearts at pH 7.4 and 7.6. Atrial activity persisted in all cases of A-V block. Concentrations of >3 x 10-4mM cadmium significantly reduced heart rate. Cadmium appears to be a specific depressant of A-V conduction and its effects are more rapid and less reversible as the pH decreases. Metal mercaptide formation via sulfhydryl binding at the membrane surface may be involved in the effect.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Sep. 1976, Vol.37, No.3, p.531-544. 51 ref.
Scott R., Mills E.A., Fell G.S., Husain F.E.R., Yates A.J., Paterson P.J., McKirdy A., Ottoway J.M., Fitzgerald-Finch O.P., Lamont A., Roxburgh S.
Clinical and biochemical abnormalities in coppersmiths exposed to cadmium.
Findings in 27 coppersmiths exposed to cadmium fumes during brazing operations were compared with a control group. Renal stones were found in 5 them (18.5%). The exposed group showed evidence of renal impairment, a greater tendency to liver damage, and a higher incidence of restrictive airways disease. Comments by Morgan W.K.C. on this paper appear in Lancet, 11 Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.7985, p.585-586.
Lancet, 21 Aug. 1976, Vol.2, No.7982, p.396-398. 24 ref.
Patwardhan J.R., Finckh E.S.
Fatal cadmium-fume pneumonitis.
Case report of a man who developed acute respiratory distress some hours after welding cadmium-plated drums without respiratory protection. The symptoms worsened and he died. Histological examination of the lungs showed changes of acute cadmium-fume pneumonitis, and the lungs and liver showed considerable cadmium absorption. The toxic effects of cadmium represent a considerable hazard, since, even with acute forms of poisoning after inhalation of metallic fumes, there is little warning of impending disaster, and ill effects become manifest only after several hours. Until substitutes for cadmium can be found, appropriate safety measures against metal-fume poisoning must be stressed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 19 June 1976, Vol.1, No.25, p.962-963 and 966. Illus. 13 ref.
Cadmium, nickel, some epoxides, miscellaneous industrial chemicals and general considerations on volatile anaesthetics.
A series of 25 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 9-11 Dec. 1975 and 3-9 Feb. 1976). Individual monographs are devoted to: cadmium and cadmium compounds; nickel and nickel compounds; diepoxybutane; diglycidyl resorcinol ether; epichlorohydrin; 1-epoxyethyl-3,4-epoxycyclohexane; 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexylmethyl 3,4-epoxy-6-methylcyclohexanecarboxylate; cis-9,10-epoxystearic acid; ethylene oxide; fusarenon-X; glycidaldehyde; glycidyl oleate; glycidyl stearate; propylene oxide; styrene oxide; triethylene glycol diglycidyl ether; benzyl chloride; β-butyrolactone; γ-butyrolactone; dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine; 1,4-dioxane; ethylene sulfide; trichloroethylene; and 4-vinylcyclohexene. A chapter is devoted to volatile anaesthetics. Supplementary corrigenda and a substance cumulative index to IARC monographs (Volumes 1-11) are appended.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.11. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1976. 306p. 770 ref. Price: SF.34.00.
Chowdhury P., Louria D.B.
Influence of cadmium and other trace metals on human α1-antitrypsin: an in vitro study.
The effect of trace metals on plasma α1-antitrypsin was studied in vitro by adding known concentrations of trace metals, either alone or in combination, to plasma. Cadmium was the only one that reduced the concentration of α1-antitrypsin and depressed the trypsin inhibitory capacity. No effects were found with divalent lead, mercury, nickel, iron and zinc ions. These effects offer a plausible explanation for the emphysema that occurs in industrial workers exposed to cadmium.
Science, 6 Feb. 1976, Vol.191, No.4226, p.480-481. 18 ref.
Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Roels H.
The relationship between cadmium exposure or body burden and the concentration of cadmium in blood and urine in man.
Blood (Cd-B) and urinary (Cd-U) cadmium were determined in 120 cadmium-exposed workers and a control group. The relations between these concentrations and the length of service or intensity of exposure were studied. Cd-U and CD-B were correlated with the intensity but not with the duration of exposure. The results are discussed together with the contradictory findings of other authors. It is suggested that Cd-B reflects current exposure but that Cd-U may reflect the body burden of cadmium when exposure is low (environmental pollution) and current exposure in industrial situations.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9 Mar. 1976, Vol.36, No.4, p.275-285. Illus. 19 ref.
Benvenuti F., Paolucci V., Strollo G., Ventrone I.
Il cadmio [in Italian]
This technical data sheet provides information on: physical and chemical properties; preparation; production statistics; industrial applications; toxicology (routes of entry, distribution in the body, elimination, pathology); preventive measures; monitoring of environment (determination methods, TLV); monitoring of personnel.
Nota tecnica, Ente Nazionale Prevenzione Infortuni, via Alessandria 220E, 00198 Roma, Italy, undated. 25p. 23 ref.
On a preventive medical examination for workers exposed to cadmium
Zur Vorsorgeuntersuchung Kadmiumexponierter [in German]
After discussion of the methods for determination of urinary albumin, the author shows comparative results of 6 different determinations from 51 people exposed to cadmium. Since there have been very frequent cases of proteinuria observed in non-exposed persons, the author concludes that it is impossible to draw conclusions from proteinuria in exposed persons independently of clinical symptoms and the presence of cadmium in urine and air.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Dec. 1975, Vol.25, No.12, p.363-366. 9 ref.
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