Cadmium and compounds - 296 entries found
Your search criteria are
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR
Biological monitoring methods in occupational medicine
Biologische Kontrollmethoden in der Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Manual for occupational health care personnel and inspectors. Chapters cover: the value of laboratory diagnosis to the occupational physician; biological exposure tests as a component of medical surveillance of workers exposed to harmful substances; toxicological bases of exposure assessment; exposure to substances in the general environment as a part of total exposure; principles of genetics applicable to the evaluation of exposure tests; recognition and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and embryotoxic substances; variations in the pollution of workplace air; sampling; the analytical laboratory; assessment of the reliability and validity of biological exposure tests; properties, analysis and monitoring of 21 substances or groups of substances.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Silver brazing. Hazards related to cadmium exposure
Brasage fort ŕ l'argent - Risques liés au cadmium [in French]
The note deals with the industrial hygiene aspects of brazing: exposure limit values, regulations in various countries (including product labelling), preventive measures, including the use of cadmium-free alloys. Atmospheric concentrations of cadmium in several typical workshops are given. The principle of informative labelling of silver brazing materials has been accepted by all French manufacturers and has been effective since May 1987.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st Quarter 1988, No.130, Note No.1663-130-88, p.69-75. 43 ref.
Soldatenkova N.A., Priluckaja L.L.
Determination of cadmium, nickel and lead present together in urine
Opredelenie v moče rabotajuščih kadmija, svinca i nikelja pri sovmestnom prisutstvii [in Russian]
A method of urine ashing for cadmium, nickel and lead determination was developed. The limit of detection of cadmium and lead was 0.3µg; for nickel, 0.5µg. The range of measurable concentrations for lead and cadmium was 0.03-10µg/mL, for nickel 0.1-4µg/mL.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1987, No.2, p.53-55. 8 ref.
Kawada T., Koyama H., Suzuki S.
Urinary cadmium, NAG activity and β2-microglobulin of cadmium pigment workers
Because N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and β2-microglobulin (BMG) are proteins of the renal tubule that are releaded into the urine when the tubule is damaged, it was thought that they might be useful indicators of cadmium exposure in pigment production workers. Measurements of urinary cadmium NAG, BMG and creatinine showed that almost all of the cadmium levels were under 4µg/g creatinine, that NAG and BMG levels were in the normal range, and that there was no correlation between cadmium and NAG or cadmium and BMG.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, May 1987, Vol.29, No.3, p.214-215. Illus. 3 ref.
Mortality from lung cancer among a cohort of nickel cadmium battery workers: 1946-84
The lung cancer mortality of a cohort of 3,025 workers of a nickel-cadmium battery factory during the period 1946-84 was investigated. Occupational histories were described in terms of 75 jobs: 8 with "high", 14 with "moderate", and 53 with "minimal" exposure to cadmium oxide (hydroxide) dust. The Mantel-Haenszel technique applied to prospective studies was used to compare the estimated cadmium exposures of those dying from lung cancer with those of matching survivors in the same year of follow-up. Among workers first employed during the period 1923-46, there was some evidence of an association between the risk of dying from lung cancer and duration of employment in "high or moderate" exposure jobs. Among workers first employed during the period 1947-75, there was no evidence whatsover of such an association.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1987, Vol.44, No.12, p.803-809. 12 ref.
Soldering fluxes type 2
Flussmedel och lodpastor typ 2 [in Swedish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Solutions, powders or pastes. They emit vapours of hydrofluoric acid and other gases when heated. Risk of pulmonary oedema as well as metal fume fever. Long-term exposure can cause chronic bronchitis and changes in tooth enamel and in bones. In combination with cadmium there is a risk of kidney damage, blood changes (anaemia) and cancer. Contact with the skin can lead to eczema. Ingestion can cause unconsciousness and kidney damage. Exposure limits (fluorides, including hydrofluoric acid ) = 2mg/m3; (hydrofluoric acid) ceiling value = 1.7mg/m3; (cadmium and unorganic compounds) = 0.05mg/m3 (for dust) and 0.02mg/m3 (respirable dust) (Sweden, 1984). Carcinogenic, belonging to group C in directive AFS 1984:5 (see CIS 84-1631).
Kemikontorets Förlag, Box 5501, 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden, July 1986. 2p.
Chemical safety information sheet. Prolonged exposure to cadmium fume may cause ulceration of the nose, emphysema, kidney damage and mild anaemia. An increased incidence of cancer of the prostate has been observed. Inhalation of large amounts may cause delayed pulmonary oedema. Exposure limits (Ontario, proposed): 8h TWA = 0.05mg/m3; 1h ceiling limit = 0.25mg/m3.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1986. 2p.
Airborne cadmium and carcinogenesis of the respiratory tract
This literature review covers human exposure to cadmium and its compounds, respiratory cancer incidence in humans, animal studies, extrapolation of pulmonary effects from animals to man, populations at risk, interaction with other pollutants, biological and pathogenic mechanisms, and research needs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.523-537. Illus. 107 ref.
Cadmium: health and safety precautions
Description; exposure limits; industrial uses; health effects (irritation, renal damage); assessment of risk; air monitoring; preventive measures; welfare facilities; instruction, training and supervision; health surveillance; statutory requirements.
Health and Safety Executive, General Enquiry Point, St Hugh's House, Stanley Precinct, Bootle, Merseyside L20 3QZ, United Kingdom, June 1986. 8p. 10 ref.
Biological monitoring for heavy metals: Practical concerns
Some of the practical concerns associated with performing routine analyses of heavy metals (cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic) in various biological matrices are the selection of the biological matrix for monitoring, the sample collection, sample storage and shipment, and sample preparation and analysis. Other factors that affect the quality of the analytical values include contamination of sampling materials, blood drawing procedures, methods of obtaining urine samples, sample homogeneity, instrument calibration and performance, and laboratory quality control programmes. A total system quality control approach is necessary to obtain accurate analyses of metals in biological samples, just as it is in all analytical situations.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1986, Vol.28, No.8, p.615-618. 2 ref.
Greenberg A., Parkinson D.K., Fetterolf D.E., Puschett J.B., Ellis K.J., Wielopolski L., Vaswani A.M., Cohn S.H., Landrigan P.J.
Effects of elevated lead and cadmium burdens on renal function and calcium metabolism
Epidemiologic study of 38 industrial workers exposed to cadmium and lead for 11 to 37 years, aimed at assessing the pathophysiological significance of increased body burden of the 2 elements. Individuals with a high lead burden had a slight decrease in mean serum phosphorus but no accompanying phosphaturia. There was no abnormality of serum calcium. 22% of subjects were hypercalciuric and 2 had low vitamin D levels, but these abnormalities bore no relation to heavy metal burden. In this carefully characterised group of men with chronic lead and cadmium exposure, definite, if subclinical, effects on renal function and serum phosphorus but not calcium or vitamin D metabolism were demonstrable.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1986, Vol.41, No.2, p.69-76. Illus. 36 ref.
Aspects covered in this data sheet: properties and uses; hazards from inhalation of cadmium-containing dusts; personal protective equipment; ventilation; symptoms of poisoning and toxicity; exposure limits (ACGIH-TLV is 0.05mg/m3 for metal dust and soluble salts); medical examinations; waste disposal.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 2p. 3 ref.
Regulation concerning cadmium [Sweden]
Förordning om kadmium [in Swedish]
Swedish regulation concerning the safe use of cadmium in the workplace.
In: Kemiska produkter - Lag och förordningar, Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 3rd ed., 1989, p.75.
Chemical safety information sheet. Exposure limits: OSHA PEL (TWA) = 0.2mg cadmium/m3, ceiling limit = 0.6mg cadmium/m3, TWA limit for cadmium oxide fume = 0.11mg/m3; ACGIH (1980) TLV = 0.05mg/m3 (dust and cadmium oxide), ceiling limit for cadmium oxide fume = 0.05mg/m3; IDLH (NIOSH/OSHA, 1978) = 0.04mg cadmium/m3. Lethal exposure for man has been established at 50mg cadmium/m3 for 1h for cadmium oxide dust and for 30min for the fume. These concentrations may be inhaled without sufficient discomfort to warn workers of exposure. Toxic effects: tracheobronchitis, pneumonitis, pulmonary oedema, kidney and lung damage.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.
Ghezzi I., Toffoletto F., Sesana G., Fagioli M.G., Micheli A., Di Silvestro P., Zocchetti C., Alessio L.
Behaviour of biological indicators of cadmium in relation to occupational exposure
Cadmium in blood (CdB), cadmium in urine (CdU) and β2-microglobulins (β2MU) were determined in 83 male workers exposed to cadmium fumes. CdU was measured both on 24h-urine samples and on spot samples. The behaviour of the biological indicators of cadmium was assessed in relation to degree of current exposure, length of exposure and cumulative exposure (computed as concentration of cadmium at the workplace multiplied by duration of exposure). When the population was divided according to level of current exposure, a close relationship was observed between CdB and CdU in all subgroups; nevertheless, for identical CdU values, the CdB values were higher in the subjects with heavier current exposure. Even if in all Cd workers the β2MU levels were in the range of reference values, the highest β2MU levels were found in the subjects with CdU 10µg/L. The data confirm that CdU is influenced mainly by the body burden of metal, but they also suggest that the CdB levels are not influenced solely by the intensity of current exposure but also depend to a considerable degree on the body burden.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.55, No.2, p.133-140. Illus. 12 ref.
Berlin A., Alessio L., Sesana G., Dell'Orto A., Ghezzi I.
Problems concerning the usefulness of adjustment of urinary cadmium for creatinine and specific gravity
There are some doubts as to the validity of creatinine as a parameter for adjusting the values of biological indicators determined on spot samples of urine, since it is subject to marked inter- and intraindividual variations. Since there is only a moderate correlation between creatinine levels and specific gravity, these two parameters cannot be used indifferently for adjustment. Nevertheless, it seemed advisable to verify whether correction of cadmium values determined from spot samples offers any practical advantages. For this purpose, 105 subjects with occupational exposure to cadmium were examined. They collected their 24h urine and spot samples separately at 8:00h. There was a close correlation between CdU/spot samples and CdU/24h. The correlation index was very similar both for CdU/spot values expressed in µg/L and for values adjusted according to creatinine or 1024 specific gravity. These results show that no particular advantages are offered by adjusting CdU according to creatinine or specific gravity.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.55, No.2, p.107-111. Illus. 11 ref.
Elinder C.G., Edling C., Lindberg E., Kĺgedal B., Vesterberg O.
Assessment of renal function in workers previously exposed to cadmium
Renal function was evaluated in 60 workers previously exposed to cadmium in a factory using cadmium-containing solders and in 32 controls. Tubular damage in the form of β2-microglobulinuria was found in 40% of the exposed workers, and urinary albumin and orosomucoid increased significantly with increasing urinary cadmium and increasing relative clearance of β2-microglobulin. There were no cases of typical glomerular proteinuria that could be related to cadmium. Renal stones were more common among workers with high urinary cadmium concentrations. Tubular dysfunction was noted in some of the exposed workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1985, Vol.42, No.11, p.754-760. Illus. 38 ref.
Liu Y., Huang J., Luo C., Xu B., Zhang C.
Effects of cadmium on cadmium workers
Epidemiologic study of 65 workers in a cadmium-refining plant in China. The average airborne cadmium oxide concentrations ranged from 0.004 to 0.187mg/m3 at most work stations. Except for some vague symptoms and reports of anosmia, no significant abnormalities were found in the clinical examinations. The majority of exposed workers had increased blood and urine cadmium levels. 9 cases (13.8%) with suspected or mild renal tubular damage were identified.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1985, Vol.11, Supplement 4, p.29-32. 9 ref.
Thorne B.D., Hewitt P.J.
Generation of cadmium fume from alloy surfaces
The theoretically calculated proportion of cadmium in metal fumes released into both air and an inert atmosphere from 9 different alloys heated to 700°, 800° and 900°C was compared with the observed proportion in experiments. The experimental values agreed closely with the predicted ones, suggesting that flux had little effect on metal fume composition and that a direct metal evaporation process was involved. There was also evidence of 2 other evaporation mechanisms: evaporation into bubbles created by the loss of volatile flux components and evaporation into bubbles created by the hydrogen generated by the reaction of acidic flux and alloy metals. The understanding of these mechanisms can contribute to effective fume emission control methods.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 2nd quarter 1985, Vol.29, No.2, p.181-189. Illus. 11 ref.
Armstrong B.G., Kazantzis G.
Prostatic cancer and chronic respiratory and renal disease in British cadmium workers: a case control study
This case-control study examined the possible association between certain diseases and intensity and duration of exposure to cadmium. The only clearly statistically significant association was between deaths due to bronchitis or emphysema and exposure to high levels of cadmium fume. There was suggestive evidence at the p=0.10 level of an increased risk of death from nephritis or nephrosis after high exposure. Marginally increased (but not statistically significant) risks were noted for death from prostatic cancer after high or medium exposure to cadmium.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1985, Vol.42, No.8, p.540-545. 12 ref.
Engvall J., Perk J.
Prevalence of hypertension among cadmium-exposed workers
Retrospective study of 311 male workers in an alkaline battery factory aimed at investigating the relationship between cadmium oxide exposure and hypertension. Blood pressure measurements were available for a 30 year period. When age-matched groups of hypertensive and normotensive workers were compared, employment time was significantly longer in the hypertensive group. This indicates a possible relationship between cadmium oxide exposure and the development of hypertension.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1985, Vol.40, No.3, p.185-190. Illus. 33 ref.
Ellis K.J., Cohn S.H., Smith T.J.
Cadmium inhalation exposure estimates: their significance with respect to kidney and liver cadmium burden
A time-weighted cumulative exposure index (TWE) was calculated from cadmium exposure data and history of each of 82 industrially exposed workers. The cadmium body burden for each worker was measured directly in vivo (left kidney and liver) by neutron activation. A significant correlation was observed between the TWE and the liver cadmium burden of active workers and between the TWE and the percentage of workers with renal abnormalities.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1985, Vol.15, No.1, p.173-187. Illus. 18 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Cancer of prostate among nickel-cadmium battery workers
This letter to the editor provides an analysis of prostate cancer incidence among 2559 men who worked for at least 1 month in a nickel-cadmium factory in the period 1923-1975. When the 248 workers with heaviest exposure (at least 1 year) are excluded, only 11 cases of prostate cancer were observed, against an expected 10.67. There is no excess risk of prostate cancer among workers exposed to cadmium compounds.
Lancet, 23 Feb. 1985, Vol.1, No.8426, p.459. 6 ref.
Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP)
Review of potentially harmful substances - Cadmium, lead and tin
This review concentrates on the effects of cadmium, lead and tin in the marine environment, and on the human health effects of marine pollution. Approximately 5% of ingested cadmium is absorbed, with the main concentration being in the kidneys. Cadmium intoxication leads to a dysfunction of the kidneys. About 10% of ingested lead is absorbed, with higher levels reported for infants. Main target tissues for damage are the haematopoietic and nervous systems. Gastrointestinal absorption of inorganic tin is low, with the highest concentrations being found in bones and lungs. Toxicity of organotin compounds shows wide variation. Food is the main source of exposure for all 3 metals, but under normal circumstances it is thought that marine food is unlikely to contribute greatly to the total daily intake. The Report is also available in French, Russian and Spanish from the sponsoring agencies of GESAMP.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 114p. Illus. Bibl.
Cherian M.G., O'Heany J., Kusiak R.A.
Health effects of cadmium and its inorganic compounds
Conclusions of this report, which was prepared to serve as a basis for setting a cadmium exposure limit in Ontario: the predominant effects of low-level chronic exposure to cadmium in workers are renal and pulmonary damage; the data for human carcinogenicity is still inadequate. It is recommended that the time weighted average (TWA) exposure limit for total cadmium dust and fume should not exceed 0.02mg/m3 of air and that the limit for a short-term exposure of <1h be established at 0.25mg/m3.
Health Studies Service, Special Studies and Services Branch, Ontario Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Dec. 1984. 72p. 187ref.
Rogenfelt A., Elinder C.G., Järup L.
A suggestion on how to use measurements of cadmium in blood as a cumulative dose estimate
The individual cumulative cadmium dose was estimated for 44 smelter workers in a cadmium-copper alloy plant. 2 different principles were used: cumulative respiratory dose and cumulative average annual blood-cadmium dose. Out of 8 workers with a cumulative respiratory dose exceeding 500mg Cd per h/m3, 2 had signs of a cadmium-induced renal dysfunction. These 2 men were the only workers that had a cumulative average annual blood cadmium dose exceeding 200µg Cd per year/L The results suggest that measurements of cadmium in the blood can be used as indicators of the cadmium exposure of each individual and that, in order to prevent renal dysfunction, the average blood-cadmium concentration should not exceed 10µg Cd/L over periods of many years (decades).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.55, No.1, p.43-48. Illus. 14 ref.
Sheehy J.W., Mortimer V.D., Jones J.H., Spottswood S.E.
Control technology assessment: Metal plating and cleaning operations
A control technology assessment of electroplating and cleaning operations was conducted by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Walk-through surveys were conducted at about 30 electroplating plants and 9 in-deph studies at 8 plants. Air sampling and ventilation data and other control information were collected for 64 plating and cleaning tanks. 31 of these were hard-chrome plating tanks, but cadmium, copper, nickel, silver and zinc plating tanks were also evaluated. Worker exposures were found to be controlled below existing and recommended standards.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIOSH, Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Dec. 1984. 106p. Illus. 71 ref.
Biological monitoring of cadmium workers
This letter to the editor suggests that, when monitoring for cadmium exposure, both blood and urine cadmium levels should be measured. A long-term study of cadmium levels in the blood and urine of 2 men working with molten metal in a scrap-metal processing plant shows that sudden increases in cadmium exposure levels might only result in increases in blood cadmium concentration.
Lancet, 22/29 Dec. 1984, Vol.2, No.8417/8, p.1467-1468.
Trevisan A., Bonadonna A.
On a case of cadmium nephropathy
Su di un caso di nefropatia conclamata da cadmio [in Italian]
Case study of a tool-repair brazer who worked with metal alloys with high cadmium content and who developed cadmium nephropathy exhibiting a Fanconi-like syndrome. Elevated tubular enzymuria and microproteinuria of marked tubular origin were also present. Biological fluids had a high cadmium content. There were no signs of irreversible kidney damage. Further medical monitoring of the subject is suggested.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.322-327. Illus. 26 ref.
Chiesura P., Trevisan A., Gori G.P., Buzzo A., Calzavara V.
On the risk of cadmium poisoning in brazing operations
Sul rischio di intossicazione da cadmio nella saldobrasatura [in Italian]
4 small workshops were investigated where special-steel cutting tools are repaired by brazing with metal alloys with a high cadmium content. Environmental cadmium concentrations were high (0.15-1.16mg/m3). The TLV for cadmium was exceeded for other jobs in the same area. There was good correlation between length and intensity of exposure in the 16 exposed workers and cadmium concentration in blood and urine. 1 case of clinical cadmium nephropathy was found. 2 other subjects showed high urinary β2 microglobulin levels. In most other workers urinary excretion of enzymes of tubular origin, particularly angiotensin converting enzyme, was above normal levels. Use of local exhaust ventilation and of full-face respirators are recommended for better prevention.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1984, Vol.75, No.4, p.300-305. 7 ref.
Fernández Grandía A., Fernández Conradi L.
Cadmium and its compounds
Cadmio y sus compuestos [in Spanish]
Contents: industrial uses; exposure; analytical determination; physiological response in man (acute and chronic poisoning, carcinogenic effects); prevention of exposure. The provisions of the relevant Spanish law (Order of 12 Jan. 1963 of the Ministry of Labour), including diagnostic features of poisoning, are given.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Jan. 1983-Mar. 1984, Vol.31, No.121, p.65-70.
Falck F.Y., Keren D.F., Fine L.J., Smith R.G., McClatchey K.D., England B., Annesley T.
Protein excretion patterns in cadmium-exposed individuals: High resolution electrophoresis
High-resolution electrophoresis was used to evaluate protein excretion patterns in 6 cadmium-exposed individuals with proteinuria, 7 subjects with non-specific nephropathies and 4 normal unexposed subjects. The electrophoretic results were consistent with the quantitative results for the cadmium-exposed workers. The excretion pattern associated with Cd exposure could be glomerular or mixed glomerular-tubular, and it is different from non-specific nephropathies in that no gamma band exists.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1984, Vol.39, No.2, p.69-73. Illus. 11 ref.
Lundberg I., Sjögren B., Hallne U., Hedström L., Holgersson M.
Environmental factors and uptake of cadmium among brazers using cadmium-containing hard solders
Study covering 102 brazers working at least 10% of their shift with cadmium-containing brazing alloys. Blood cadmium concentrations varied between <1 and 113µg/l. The only factor that could be related to the level of cadmium was the length of the splice. Other factors such as age, sex, exposure time, smoking habits and brazing methods were not significant.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1984, Vol.45, No.6, p.353-359. Illus. 14 ref.
Petržela K., Hůzl F., Senft V.
Chronic poisoning by cadmium in women in the manufacture of alkaline storage batteries
Chronické otravy kadmiem u žen při výrobě alkalických akumulátorů [in Czech]
Forty women and 2 men exposed to dust containing cadmium oxide in a storage battery factory were examined. Two cases fitting the criteria of chronic cadmium poisoning according to Czechoslovak regulations were found. There was kidney damage, an increase in the ratio of microproteins to macroproteins in the urine, and an increase in the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in the blood. The observations are consistent with the results of previous in-vitro and in-vivo experiments.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1983, Vol.35, No.8, p.335-339. Illus. 35 ref.
Analytical techniques for heavy metals in biological fluids
Lectures given during a course held at the Ispra Establishment of the Joint Research Centre of the European Communities (Italy, 22-26 June 1981) within the framework of programmes relating to OSH and to environmental protection, and with the cooperation of the Health and Safety Directorate (Luxembourg) and the WHO. The main toxic metals considered are lead, arsenic, nickel and cadmium. The techniques described include the monitoring of biological indicators (internal sampling), analysis of trace elements, atomic absorption spectrometry and various applications of voltammetry.
Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Molenwerf 1, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1983. 288p. Illus. Bibl.
Human biological monitoring of industrial chemicals series: Benzene, cadmium, chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, lead, manganese, titanium, toluene
The information provided for each substance includes physico-chemical properties, health effects, metabolism, biological indicators, biological monitoring techniques and their evaluation, conclusions and research needs. Biological monitoring for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents covers monochloromethane, monobromoethane, dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, vinyl chloride, anaesthetics (halothane, methoxyflurane).
Commission of the European Communities, Directorate-General Information Market and Innovation, Jean Monnet Bldg, Luxembourg, 1983. 188p. Bibl.
Andersson K., Elinder C.G., Hogstedt C., Kjellström T., Spĺng G.
Mortality in cadmium- and nickel-exposed accumulator workers
Dödsorsaker bland kadmium- och nickelexponerade ackumulatorarbetare [in Swedish]
525 men exposed for at least a year between 1940 and 1980 were studied. From early levels of approximately 1mg/m3, exposure concentrations were gradually lowered to an 8h TWA of 0.02mg/m3. General mortality was no higher than expected. Deaths from nephritis and nephrosis were significantly increased. In workers with exposure of >5 years to Cd concentrations of >0.3mg/m3 there were non-significant excesses in cancer of the lung, prostate and bladder. In workers exposed for <15 years there was an excess from chronic obstructive lung disease.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 22p. 26 ref.
Germanň D., Saija A., Padovano I., Costa G.
Toxicity of cadmium and the pituitary-adrenal axis
Tossicitŕ da cadmio ed asse ipofisi-surrene [in Italian]
Cadmium chloride was administered orally to rats. Plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels were decreased in a dose-dependent fashion at 2 and 7 days after administration. The highest dose (150mg/kg) maintained the decrease in these levels for 14 days. There was no significant change in adrenal corticosterone levels or pituitary ACTH release. The effect on pituitary-adrenal function is probably related to interference with cholinergic cerebral systems.
Rivista di medicina del lavoro ed igiene industriale, July-Sep. 1983, Vol.7, p.189-197. 24 ref.
Chiesura Corona P., Trevisan A., Buzzo A., Moretto A.
Biological monitoring of exposure of workers in the cadmium metallurgy
Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione in addetti alla metallurgia del cadmio [in Italian]
24 workers classified according to exposure to cadmium during electrolytic extraction were studied. Cadmium exposure was presumed very high in 1975-77 and was near TLV concentrations in 1980, after technical improvements had been undertaken. Blood and urinary cadmium concentrations correlated with cumulative and with current exposure. Urinary proteins, β2-microglobulins and tubular reabsorption of β2-microglobulins showed statistically significant changes in the most exposed group, but there were no clear signs of kidney damage. Urinary enzymes, especially angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), correlated well with increasing cadmium load. Urinary loss of a ACE appears to be an early sign of tubular involvement. Results confirm that the biological TLVs (10µg/l Cd in the blood and 10µg/g creatinine for Cd in urine) provide reliable protection.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1983, Vol.74, No.5, p.404-413. Illus. 18 ref.
Castoldi M.R., Calzaferri G., Odone P., Dell'Orto A., Zocchetti C., Alessio L.
Behaviour of cadmium biological indicators in subjects living in the Milan area
Cadmium concentration in blood (CdB) and in urine (CdU) and β2-microglobulin in urine (β2MGU) were determined in 268 healthy adults, none with past exposure to cadmium. Mean values: CdB - 0.68µg/l, CdU - 0.56µg/g creatinine, β2MGU - 67µg/g creat. 95% of the subjects had values below 2µg/l (CdB), 1.75µg/g creat.(CdU), 250µg/g creat. (β2MGU). These values are suggested as reference values for biological monitoring in the Milan area. CdB levels were not significantly affected by sex or age, while CdU levels were higher in women and older people. Both CdB and CdU levels increased with smoking. β2MGU levels showed no significant correlations.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1983, Vol.74, No.6, p.442-452. Illus. 30 ref.
Falck Jr. F.Y., Fine L.J., Smith R.G., Garvey J., Schork A., England B., McClatchey K.D., Linton J.
Metallothionein and occupational exposure to cadmium
53 men occupationally exposed to Cd were studied. Urinary metallothionein (MT) excretion, serum MT levels and serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in subjects with abnormal renal function who had been exposed to Cd. MT excretion was linearly related to protein excretion, β2-microglobulin excretion, and cumulative dose. It was a better predictor of dose than either β2-microglobulin excretion or Cd excretion. MT is a potential biological monitor for chronic Cd exposure which would be useful for preventing Cd-induced nephropathy.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.305-313. Illus. 23 ref.
Sorahan T., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Mortality study of nickel-cadmium battery workers by the method of regression models in life tables
Mortality was studied in 3,025 workers for 1946-81. Occupational histories were categorised into 8 jobs with high, 14 with moderate or slight, and 53 with minimal exposure to cadmium oxide. Criteria taken into account were duration of employment, sex, year and age at start of employment. An increased risk of mortality from cancer of the prostate had already been reported in 1967 and no new evidence of an association with cadmium oxide was found. There was some indication of an increased risk of mortality from cancers of the respiratory system for those first employed before 1940.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.293-300. Illus. 14 ref.
Järup L., Rogenfelt A., Elinde C.G., Nogawa K., Kjellström T.
Biological half-time of cadmium in the blood of workers after cessation of exposure
5 men were followed up for 10-13 years. The data best fitted a two-compartment model. Half-lives were 75-128 days for the fast component and as much as 7.4-16 years for the slow component. Results are similar to those of earlier studies using different methods.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1983, Vol.9, No.4, p.327-331. Illus. 11 ref.
Sorahan T., Adams R.G., Waterhouse J.A.H.
Analysis of mortality from nephritis and nephrosis among nickel-cadmium battery workers
3025 workers were studied. Observed deaths from nephritis and nephrosis and all (non-cancer) diseases of the genito-urinary system were not significantly different from those of the general population of England and Wales. No significant association between cadmium exposure and mortality emerged from a comparison between exposures of those who had died from these causes and of survivors. Separate analysis of 39 workers with cadmium nephropathy (proteinuria) showed a just-significant difference in obsered and expected deaths for all cancers, and a mortality for non-cancers close to expectation.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.25, No.8, p.609-612. 10 ref.
Roels H., Lauwerys R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A., Garvey J.S., Linton H.J.
Significance of urinary metallothionein in workers exposed to cadmium
Blood cadmium (CdB), urinary cadmium (CdU) and urinary metallothionein (MtU) and β2-microglobulin (β2mU) were studied in 73 workers currently exposed to cadmium (group C) and 21 removed from exposure or retired (group R), also grouped according to renal status (66 with normal β2mU, 28 with β2mU >200µg/g creatinine). MtU is directly correlated with CdU, but not with CdB or duration of cadmium exposure. The association of CdU and MtU is independent of renal function status and current exposure. When there is long-term exposure to moderate Cd concentrations, CdU levels are primarily a reflection of total body burden rather than of recent exposures.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1983, Vol.52, No.2, p.159-166. Illus. 14 ref.
Fielder R.J., Dale E.A., Sorrie G.S., Bishop C.M., Van Den Heuvel M.J., Pryde E., Fletcher A.P.
Cadmium and its compounds
Subjects discussed are metabolism, toxicity to animals, toxicity to man. Metabolism of Cd in man is similar to that of rodents and other mammals. Cd compounds are poorly absorbed orally but are well absorbed through the lungs. Cd is very efficiently retained in the body, and only very small amounts are excreted, the retained material being deposited mainly in the liver and kidneys. Excretion is mainly via the urine, in very small quantities which increase with duration of exposure and reflect the renal Cd concentration and thus total body burden unless kidney dysfunction is present, when urinary Cd increases markedly. Studies of exposed workers in the United Kingdom, USA, Japan, Sweden, and Belgium are reviewed. The results of numerous animal experiments from the literature are tabulated.
Health and safety Executive, Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom, 1983. 88p. 323 ref.
Armstrong B.G., Kazantzis G.
The mortality of cadmium workers
6,995 men exposed for at least one year at 19 major plants in England were studied. 1,902 men aged under 85 had died, compared with 1,968 expected. A statistically significant excess of deaths due to bronchitis showed strong relation to duration and intensity of exposure, being predominantly in the small group of men with heavy past exposure to cadmium. There was no excess of deaths due to prostatic cancer, cerebrovascular disease or renal disease. There were marginally more deaths (not related to exposure levels) from lung cancer.
Lancet, 25 June 1983, Vol.1, No.8339, p.1425-1427. 19 ref.
Gompertz D., Fletcher J.G., Perkins J., Smith N.J., Chettle D.R., Mason H., Scott M.C., Topping M.D., Blindt M.
Renal dysfunction in cadmium smelters: Relation to in-vivo liver and kidney cadmium concentrations
Biochemical indicators of renal dysfunction were compared with liver and kidney Cd levels in 37 cadmium smelters. Higher than normal concentrations of Cd in the liver reflect past exposure: they were associated with evidence of renal dysfunction in workers exposed to Cd for >10 years. 6 workers exposed for a mean of 4.6 years had high hepatic Cd concentrations but normal renal function. The rapid accumulation of Cd in the liver of these workers is a cause for concern. Monitoring strategies should be designed to obtain maximum information concerning the Cd status of individual workers and their renal function.
Lancet, 28 May 1983, Vol.1, N.8335, p.1185-1187. 4 ref.
Piechotta W., Witting U., Miebs T., Witting C., Krieg V., Kollmeier H., Seemann J., Wittig P.
Carcinogenic, mutagenic and immunological effects of heavy metals
Cancerogene, mutagene und immunsystem-bezogene Wirkungen von Schwermetallen [in German]
The 1st of these 3 reports summarises present knowledge of the harmful effects of lead, cadmium and mercury and reviews the relevant literature: animal experiments, epidemiological studies, in-vitro studies, occupational exposure, defenses against infection, humoral and cellular immunity. Results are summarised in tables. The 2nd report analyses the literature on malignant tumours of occupational origin. Results are tabulated according to the organs and tissues affected: blood and lymphatic tissue, respiratory tract, mesothelioma, digestive system, liver and pancreas, urogenital system, brain, skeleton, skin; occupations and harmful substances are also identified. The 3rd report is a review of various methods of sampling and sample preparation in order to complex and extract heavy metals for flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The metals concerned are: cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and zinc in human pulmonary, hepatic, splenic and renal tissue. Preferred methods are presented.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Unfallforschung, Postfach 170202, 4600 Dortmund 17, Federal Republic of Germany, 1983. Vol.1: 264p. 300 ref. Price: DM.34.00. Vol.2: 347p. 535 ref. Price: DM.42.00. Vol.3: 93p. 172 ref. Price: DM.20.35.
Timár M., Kabai J., Horkay F., Groszmann M., Ormos G., Süveges M., Grónai É., Barna T.
Exposure to cadmium and its effect on kidney function
Kadmium expozíció, hatása a veseműködésre [in Hungarian]
Cadmium concentration in blood (CdB) and urine (CdU), and total protein and β2-microglobulin in urine were determined in 3 groups of workers (100 agricultural workers not exposed to cadmium, 204 industrial workers not exposed to cadmium, 39 exposed industrial workers). CdB in unexposed industrial workers was 3-4 times higher than in agricultural workers, but still below the WHO-recommended TLV of 1µg/100ml. In the exposed group, all 4 measurements yielded significantly higher results than in the unexposed industrial group; this means that renal dysfunction occurred, though no other clinical symptoms of cadmium poisoning were observed.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1983, Vol.29, No.7-9, p.147-151. 22 ref.
Odone P., Bertelli G., Dell'Orto A., Castoldi M.R., Alessio L.
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium
Monitoraggio biologico dei lavoratori esposti a cadmio [in Italian]
A survey of the biological monitoring methods used to measure cadmium exposure in workers: measurement of cadmium levels in urine (CdU) and in blood (CdB); beta2-microglobulin concentration in urine; retinol-binding protein presence in urine; metallothionein presence in urine. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to cadmium is recommended to be annual if fewer than 5% of the subjects have CdU levels above 2.8µg/g creatinine, semi-annual if 5-20% of the subjects have such CdU levels and three times a year if over 20% have them.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1983, Vol.74, No.3, p.182-190. 57 ref.
< previous | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 | next >