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Cadmium and compounds - 296 entries found

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CIS 94-1597 Murata M., Takigawa H., Sakamoto H.
Teratogenic effects of noise and cadmium in mice: does noise have teratogenic potential?
The teratogenicity of combined exposure to noise and cadmium was studied in mice. Although combined treatment with cadmium and noise resulted in an increase in total percentages of malformed foetuses compared to the same dose of cadmium alone, the interactions between cadmium and noise showed no synergistic effect on teratogenicity. The magnitude of teratogenicity due to noise is much weaker than that of cadmium, and is therefore easily masked by that of cadmium in statistical tests of the significance of differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1993, Vol.39, No.2, p.237-245. 25 ref.

CIS 94-1163 Cadmium fume
Humo de cadmio [in Spanish]
Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: delayed effects; irritation of the upper respiratory tract; anosmia; ulceration of the nasal mucosa; anaemia; emphysema; pulmonary oedema; renal dysfunction; probable human carcinogen: may cause lung and prostatic cancer.
Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 1993, Vol.55, No.11. 4p. Insert.

CIS 94-1331
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry
This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 February 1993. IARC final classifications: beryllium and beryllium compounds and cadmium and cadmium compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). In the glass manufacturing industry, the manufacture of art glass, glass containers and pressed ware entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) while occupational exposures in flat-glass and special glass manufacture are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1993. 444p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 75.00.


CIS 96-946 Maroni M.
Threshold limit values for chemicals in the workplace
Valori limite di esposizione ad agenti chimici negli ambienti di lavoro [in Italian]
Data sheets and toxicological profiles are presented for benzene, pentachlorophenol, arsenic, vanadium, tetraethyllead, tetramethyllead, xylene, toluene and cadmium. The information includes teratogenicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenic effects and threshold limit values (including those for the US and Italy) taken from the reviewed literature.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sep. 1992, Vol.4, No.3, p.39-73. 69 ref.

CIS 94-298 Chia K.S., Tan A.L., Chia S.E., Ong C.N., Jeyaratnam J.
Renal tubular function of cadmium exposed workers
A study was made of renal tubular dysfunction among a group of 92 cadmium exposed workers from a nickel-cadmium battery factory and a control group. The urinary excretion of N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), beta-2-microglobulins (β2m) and alpha-1-microglobulins (α1m) was measured from morning spot urine samples. Excretion of NAG and α1m showed an increasing trend with rising urinary cadmium levels and with increasing length of exposure; levels were significantly raised when the urinary cadmium was above 5µg Cd/g creatinine. Results indicate that renal tubular dysfunction is present among cadmium exposed workers with levels below the current critical concentration (10µg Cd/g creatinine).
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, Nov. 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.756-759. 25 ref.

CIS 94-314 Mueller P.W., Paschal D.C., Hammel R.R., Klincewicz S.L., MacNeil M.L., Spierto B., Steinberg K.K.
Chronic renal effects in three studies of men and women occupationally exposed to cadmium
Sensitive indicators of renal damage were measured in three different populations occupationally exposed to cadmium. The degree of variation in damage and the relative sensitivity of different types of indicators were also examined. The three studies included: (1) men exposed in a cadmium recovery plant; (2) men exposed in a nickel/cadmium battery plant; and (3) women exposed in the latter plant. Renal damage was indicated by three categories of urinary protein. These tests indicate that exposed groups with higher urine cadmium levels had varying degrees of renal damage. All exposed groups showed evidence of renal damage when compared with control groups. Highly significant dose-response relationships for all of the urinary protein tests, including fractional clearances, were found. All of the tests were more sensitive in detecting evidence of subclinical renal damage than serum creatinine, a commonly used indicator of renal function.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, July 1992, Vol.23, No.1, p.125-136. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 94-285 Waalkes M.P., Coogan T.P., Barter R.A.
Toxicological principles of metal carcinogenesis with special emphasis on cadmium
Metals are an important and emerging class of carcinogens. Considering that the list of known human carcinogens of any type is very small, it becomes clear that metals make up a substantial proportion of the list. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the topic of metal carcinogenesis. Although no clear mechanisms of action have emerged in the area of metal carcinogenesis, it has become apparent that they are anything but simple. Metal carcinogens possess several unique characteristics including a remarkable target site specificity. Detection of the mechanism(s) of metal carcinogenesis has proven elusive, however, partly because of a wide diversity of metallic carcinogenic agents and the intricate nature of metal interactions in biological systems. This review explores this broad topic, with special emphasis on toxicological principles including dose-response relationships and potential mechanisms.
Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 1992, Vol.22, No.3-4, p.175-201. Illus. 171 ref.

CIS 94-59 Cadmium
Cadmium [in French]
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes; corrosive to the respiratory tract; delayed effects. Long-term exposure effects: renal damage; pulmonary diseases; probably carcinogenic in humans. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2570 (6.1, special provisions 44 and 109).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1992. 2p. Illus.

CIS 93-2007 Lundberg P.
Scientific basis for Swedish occupational standards - XIII
Vetenskapligt underlag för hygienska gränsvärden. 13 [in Swedish]
Consensus reports of the Criteria Group of the Swedish National Institute of Occupational Health on diethanolamine, ethanolamine, catechol, resorcinol, acetamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethyl chloride, dioxane, chloromethane, methylhydrazine, hydrazine, cadmium and pyridine. An appendix lists consensus reports appearing in previous volumes of Arbete och Hälsa.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 85p. (Eng.); 152p. (Swe.). 496 ref.

CIS 93-1678 Beije B., Lundberg P.
Criteria documents from the Nordic Expert Group 1992
English translations of five criteria documents published previously as individual documents in Swedish: CIS 93-1673 (inorganic acid aerosols), CIS 93-1674 (aluminium), CIS 93-1675 (cadmium), CIS 93-1676 (inorganic lead), CIS 93-1677 (selenium).
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 267p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1675 Nordberg G.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 101. Cadmium
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 101. Kadmium [in Swedish]
Review and evaluation of relevant literature. Cadmium is used in dry cells and storage batteries, and in some alloys. Many other uses (in pigments, coatings and plastic products) are limited by law in Sweden and other countries. Exposure occurs mainly by inhalation. Lung damage occurs, and inhaled cadmium is carried by the blood to the kidney, where it accumulates and produces tubular damage on prolonged exposure. It produces lung cancer in animals, and there is evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer in exposed workers.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 60p. Illus. 138 ref.

CIS 93-1298 Nordberg G.F., Herber R.F.M., Alessio L.
Cadmium in the human environment - Toxicity and carcinogenicity
This book is the product of a symposium held in Gargnano, Italy, in September 1991. Papers are presented under the following headings: introduction (application of the critical effect and critical concentration concept to human risk assessment for cadmium; studies on cadmium and health in Belgium and Japan); human exposure (biological monitoring, quantitative analyses); ecotoxicology; metabolism and toxicology (occupational exposure to cadmium and lung function; effects on female nickel-cadmium battery workers); renal damage and related effects (integrated index of occupational exposure to cadmium as a predictor of kidney dysfunction); experimental and epidemiological evidence for carcinogenicity.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 1992. xii, 469p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 60.00.

CIS 93-946
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Cadmium - Environmental aspects
This book evaluates the threat to ecosystems posed by contamination of the environment from natural and industrial sources of cadmium. Cadmium is readily accumulated by many organisms, particularly by microorganisms and molluscs. It is toxic to a wide range of microorganisms, the main effects being on growth and replication. Recommendations for protecting the environment include reduction of cadmium emissions from smelters, incinerators, sewage sludge applied to the land, phosphate fertilisers and cadmium-containing manure. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1992. 156p. ca.360 ref. Price: CHF 19.00 (developing countries: CHF 13.30).

CIS 93-945
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
High inhalation exposure to cadmium oxide fume results in acute pneumonitis with pulmonary oedema, which may be lethal. Long-term occupational exposure to cadmium has caused severe chronic effects, in particular, lung changes, primarily characterised by chronic obstructive airway disease, and renal tubular dysfunction. Other effects include disturbances in calcium metabolism, hypercalciuria and formation of renal stones. There is evidence that long-term occupational exposure to cadmium may contribute to the development of lung cancer, although observations are difficult to interpret because of confounding factors. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1992. 280p. ca.750 ref. Price: CHF 31.00 (developing countries: CHF 21.70).

CIS 93-959 Occupational exposure to cadmium
This booklet provides a guide to compliance with OSHA's rule establishing a new permissible exposure limit (PEL) for cadmium of 5µg/m3 along with other protective provisions. Guidance is given on the provisions of the rule (exposure limits, exposure monitoring, medical surveillance, regulated work areas) and methods of compliance (written compliance programme, engineering and work practice controls, personal protective equipment, respirators, hygiene facilities, housekeeping practices, training programme).
OSHA Publications Office, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW, Room N3101, Washington, DC 20210, USA, 1992. 24p. 12 ref.

CIS 93-909 Rose C.S., Heywood P.G., Costanzo R.M.
Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure
Fifty-five workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation were examined. Cadmium body burden was estimated and cadmium-induced renal damage was assessed. Olfactory function was quantified using a standardised test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odour identification, and workers were compared with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic; 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odour detection threshold. The findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1992, Vol.34, No.6, p.600-605. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 93-554 Zwennis W.C.M., Franssen A.C.
Assessment of occupational exposure to cadmium in the Netherlands, 1980-1989
One thousand five hundred fifty urine samples and 1,295 blood samples, collected from 919 workers, were analysed for cadmium (Cd). The workers were employed at 16 different types of workplaces. In about 7.5% of the samples, the concentration of Cd exceeded the biological limit values (CdU = 5µg/g creatinine; CdB = 5µg/L) proposed by the Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards. Levels higher than these values were measured in both urine samples and blood samples of workers involved in electrochemical plating, in production of Cd stabilisers and enamels, and in soldering with silver-cadmium solder. Significantly higher concentrations of β2-microglobulin (MG) were found in urine samples with CdU >10µg/g creatinine. Cd levels in urine increased with age.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1992, Vol.21, No.6, p.793-805. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 93-237 Gambini G., Leurini D.
Cadmium exposure and Wegener's granulomatosis - Case report
Case report of a patient with heavy past exposure to cadmium (urinary and blood Cd levels of 67µg/L and 52µg/L, respectively, at the time of exposure). The patient developed asthenia, weight loss, a cough and antibiotic-resistant fever. Eventually he died of renal and cardiocirculatory failure and pneumonia. The clinical, laboratory and histological data suggest that the patient died of Wegener's granulomatosis, possibly due to aberrant hypersensitivity to an unknown antigen. The immunosuppression that is behind this hypersensitivity might well be a result of cadmium poisoning.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.349-351. 8 ref.

CIS 92-1950 Chettle D.R., Ellis K.J.
Further scientific issues in determining an occupational standard for cadmium
This contribution responds to the recent paper of Thun et al. (American Journal of Industrial Medicine 20:629-642, 1991, see CIS 92-530) on an occupational standard for cadmium. The contribution of non-invasive in situ measurements of cadmium in liver and in kidney to the study of cadmium industrial toxicology is reviewed in particular. It is contended that clear scientific grounds do not exist for recommending an occupational standard for cadmium in air below 10µg/m3, and that other arguments would need to be adduced to support a recommendation for a lower level. Last, a number of unanswered questions are identified and the need for further work is highlighted.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1992, Vol.22, No.1, p.117-124. 29 ref.


CIS 93-571 Magos L.
Epidemiological and experimental aspects of metal carcinogenesis - Physicochemical properties, kinetics, and the active species
The carcinogenic properties of selected metals and their compounds are reviewed to provide a useful reference for existing knowledge on relationships between physical and chemical forms, kinetics and carcinogenic potential and between epidemiology, bioassays, and short-term tests. Extensive consideration is given to arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel. Other metals such as antimony, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, and zinc are discussed briefly.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Nov. 1991, Vol.95, p.157-189. 284 ref.

CIS 92-1535 Partanen T., Heikkilä P., Hernberg S., Kauppinen T., Moneta G., Ojajärvi A.
Renal cell cancer and occupational exposure to chemical agents
A case-referent study of occupational risk indicators of renal cell adenocarcinoma was conducted. Each incident case in Finland in 1977-1978 was matched with two population referents. Lifelong job histories were collected and translated into indicators of industry, occupation, and occupational exposures. The analyses of 338 sets of cases and referents revealed elevated risks for a history of employment in: white-collar occupations; the printing industry; the chemical industry; the manufacture of metal products; mail, telephone, and telegraph services; metalworking. A decreased risk was observed for male farmers. An elevated risk and an exposure-response relationship were found for gasoline exposure. The excess risk was highest at a latency period of approximately 30 years. The findings support the hypothesis that exposure to some constituent(s) of gasoline increases the incidence of renal adenocarcinoma in humans. Suggestions of elevated risks appeared for exposures to inorganic lead, cadmium, and nonchlorinated solvents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1991, Vol.17, No.4, p.231-239. 47 ref.

CIS 92-1254 Vahter M., Berglund M., Lind B., Jorhem L., Slorach S., Friberg L.
Personal monitoring of lead and cadmium exposure - a Swedish study with special reference to methodological aspects
Methods for determining personal exposure to lead and cadmium were tested in Stockholm in 1988. Lead and cadmium in breathing-zone air, 24-h duplicate diets, and faeces of 15 nonsmoking women (27-46 years of age) were studied. Blood was collected at the beginning of and immediately after the test period (seven consecutive days). Most technical problems were encountered in the 24-h collection of airborne particles. The pumps were noisy, and the batteries had to be recharged every 6-8h. The lead and cadmium levels in faeces were found to be useful indicators of the total ingested amounts of these metals. Because of the large day-to-day variation in the dietary intake of lead and cadmium, the sampling period for duplicate diets and feces should be at least 5-6d.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1991, Vol.17, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 92-919 Bernard A., Roels H., Cardenas A., Buchet J.P., Lauwerys R.
Toxicological assessment of the no-effect dose of cadmium - Results of epidemiologic studies among workers and the public at large
Evaluation de la dose sans effet toxique du cadmium - Résultats d'études épidémiologiques parmi les travailleurs et la population générale [in French]
Cadmium (Cd), the biological half-life of which is fairly long in man (10-30yrs), has a harmful effect principally on the liver and the kidneys. In this study of the development and testing of new markers of nephrotoxicity, 37 workers with an average length of exposure to Cd of 11.3yrs were compared with 43 age-matched controls. The threshold limit of 5µgCd/g creatinine, recently recommended by the ACGIH, seems to be reasonable if all early and/or subtle harmful effects of Cd on the kidneys are to be avoided, even if there is no proven connection between such effects and the eventual development of kidney disease. If only clinically significant markers, predictive of a deterioration in kidney function, are taken into consideration, the limit can be kept at 10µgCd/g creatinine.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1991, Vol.28, No.4, p.285-289. Illus.

CIS 92-845 Tennant C.J.
Potential contribution of dietary sources to urinary cadmium and β2-microglobulin excretion of occupationally exposed workers
To determine the potential contribution dietary cadmium may have toward total urinary excretion of cadmium and β2-microglobulin of occupationally exposed workers, 260 residents of the town of Walsall (England) who grew a proportion of their vegetable diet in urban garden soils were studied. Urinary excretions of cadmium were significantly elevated above those reported for the general population (p<.001). For nonsmoking, nonoccupationally exposed residents, urinary excretion of cadmium was found to be up to 34% of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index. In evaluating biological monitoring data of cadmium-exposed workers, the potential significance of dietary intake from urban grown produce should not be overlooked.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.11, p.1175-1179. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 92-530 Thun M.J., Elinder C.G., Friberg L.
Scientific basis for an occupational standard for cadmium
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has proposed a revised 8-hour permissible exposure limit (PEL) for cadmium in air of either 1 or 5µg/m3, based upon criteria for the prevention of lung cancer and kidney dysfunction. To evaluate the scientific basis for these alternative standards, OSHA estimates of risk, derived from mathematical modelling of selected studies, and empirical data on the incidence of lung cancer and kidney dysfunction in the published literature were compared. At least 7 epidemiologic studies examined renal tubular proteinuria due to cumulative cadmium exposure. Quantitative estimates of risk based on epidemiologic data provided lower and more plausible estimates of lifetime risk than did estimates from a rodent bioassay. The overall evidence suggests that the PEL for cadmium should not exceed 5µg/m3, in order to protect workers from kidney dysfunction and lung cancer over a working lifetime.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1991, Vol.20, No.5, p.629-642. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 92-525 Bache C.A., Lisk D.J., Scarlett J.M., Carbone L.G.
Epidemiologic study of cadmium and lead in the hair of ceramists and dental personnel
The cadmium and lead content of hair in 70 ceramists was studied, with a comparable group of 75 dental personnel used a control cohort. The median levels of both metals in the hair of the ceramists was significantly higher than among the dental personnel. Those ceramists whose studios were ventilated showed significantly lower levels of both metals in their hair. The use of protective masks or respirators was associated with significantly higher levels of cadmium in the hair of ceramists. A review of the literature on the subject is presented and the health significance of the results is discussed.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Dec. 1991, Vol.34, No.4, p.423-431. 26 ref.

CIS 92-381 Cadmium monoxide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of the respiratory tract and digestive tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the lungs and kidneys; probably carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-20 Council Directive of 18 June 1991 amending for the 10th time Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws ... relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 18 juin 1991 portant 10e modification de la directive 76/769/CEE concernant le rapprochement des dispositions législatives ... relatives ŕ la limitation de la mise sur le marché et de l'emploi de certaines substances et préparations dangereuses [CCE] [in French]
This directive contains a list of manufactured products and processes in which cadmium may not be used.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 12 July 1991, Vol.34, No.L.186, p.59-63.

CIS 91-1435 Cadmium and inorganic compounds
Cadmium et composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of respiratory tract; emetic effects; renal damage; delayed effects; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: lung diseases (emphysema); bone diseases; lung and upper respiratory tract cancer.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30, rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1991. 6p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 91-1622 Economic instruments of control in environmental policy: Nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium in phosphorus fertilizers
This document represents part of a report by a Swedish commission set up to analyse the possibilities for increased usage of economic instruments of control in environmental policy. Contents: 1. Nickel-cadmium batteries (environmental problems; production and use of cadmium and current measures against its spread; types of NiCd batteries and their application; collection of discarded batteries; alternative to the NiCd battery). 2. Cadmium in phosphorus fertilisers (general observations on cadmium input into Swedish arable land and the production of phosphorus fertilisers; alternative instruments of control and their evaluation). The Commission's proposals, including the introduction of an environmental charge, are summarised.
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, 171 85 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 33p. Illus.


CIS 93-230 Mason H.J.
Occupational cadmium exposure and testicular endocrine function
A study was made of men who had worked for one or more years in a factory manufacturing copper-cadmium alloy. The effect of cadmium exposure on the pituitary-testicular endocrine axis was measured by serum testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicular-stimulation hormone (FSH). The lack of testicular endocrine effects was in contrast to significant dose-related changes in renal glomerular and tubular function demonstrated in the same population.
Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1990, Vol.9, p.91-94. 13 ref.

CIS 91-1640 Payne M.P., Delic J.I., Bell G.M.
Ammonia; 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (Epichlorohydrin); Carcinogenicity of cadmium and its compounds
Toxicity review of ammonia (NH3): main effect is concentration-dependent irritation or corrosion of mucous membranes; at concentrations above 1000ppm NH3 may be lethal in animals; chronic exposure at 100ppm or more may produce severe lesions in animals; in humans accidental exposure to high concentrations (>200ppm) may lead to severe respiratory tract, lung and eye damage and even death; at <200ppm reported effects in humans include skin, eye and upper respiratory tract irritation; no clear evidence of genotoxic, carcinogenic or embryotoxic effects. Toxicity review of 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane (epichlorohydrin, ECH), a colourless, volatile liquid at room temperature with a chloroform-like odour: moderate toxicity and irritation effects, with little or no evidence for genotoxic, carcinogenic or reproductive effects. Carcinogenicity review of cadmium and its compounds (update of a previous review, see CIS 84-505): though cadmium fume and aerosols can be highly toxic, there is no conclusive evidence of an association between cadmium exposure and cancer.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1990. 12p. + 30p. + 14p. 90 + 122 + 26 ref. Price: GBP 9.00.

CIS 91-1422 Chemical Substances Act - Cadmium Decree [Netherlands]
This Order (issued 12 October 1990), issued under authority of the Chemical Substances Act (CIS 88-373), prohibits the import of products containing cadmium into the Netherlands. It is also prohibited to make cadmium available to another party or to store cadmium as commercial stock. The prohibition does not apply to products in which cadmium is used for reasons of safety nor to certain other listed products. An explanatory memorandum describes the adverse health and environmental effects of cadmium, current legislation to control its use and expected commercial effects of the current Decree.
Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment, Netherlands, 1990. 25p.

CIS 91-1637 Udo de Haes H.A., Vonkeman G.H., Huppes G.
Cadmium policy: from prohibition to control
In this document the problems of cadmium are analysed using a material flow chart approach, a method which charts all flows of the substance through the environment and through the economy. On the basis of this analysis, a long-term control strategy is outlined. This includes restricting diffuse emissions (eg via artificial fertilisers or incinerating plants), stopping the use of cadmium for a number of non-essential applications (particularly in PVC), and collection of cadmium-containing products (in particular, batteries). Because cadmium also enters the economy as a contaminant in zinc and phosphorous ore, other measures are necessary, such as restricting the use of new zinc and phosphorous and not recycling cadmium-containing products.
Commissie Lange Termijn Milieubeleid, Prinses Margrietplantsoen 20, Postbus 90740, 2509 LS 'S-Gravenhage, Netherlands, 1991. 34p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 91-1185 Sjögren B., Ulfvarson U.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 90. Welding gases and fumes
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation - 90. Svetsgaser och svetsrök [in Swedish]
Many welding operations are related to the development of chronic bronchitis among welders with long exposure. Among shipyard welders airway obstruction has also been observed. Exposure to hexavalent chromium, isocyanate and ozone, and welding in epoxypainted steel, may result in reversible bronchial obstruction. Exposure to cadmium oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene may cause pulmonary oedema. Exposure to asbestos, chromium (VI) and nickel occuring in welders' working areas implies risk of lung cancer development. Exposure to lead, manganese and possibly aluminium may affect the nervous system.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 33p. Illus. 195 ref.

CIS 91-1214 Zimmermann K.F.
New "Technical Rules on Hazardous Substances" make the use of cadmium-containing hard solder more difficult
Die neuen "Technischen Regeln für Gefahrstoffe" erschweren die Verwendung cadmiumhaltiger Hartlote [in German]
This comparison of various cadmium-free and cadmium-containing hard solders shows that no cadmium-free hard solder matches the low silver content and operating temperature of cadmium-containing hard solder. It is concluded that conversion to cadmium-free solder is only feasible at a higher cost. Continued use of cadmium-containing solder will also lead to higher costs because of the classification of cadmium as a carcinogen by the new rules on dangerous substances in the Federal Republic of Germany (more extensive protective measures will be needed).
Schweissen und Schneiden, 1990, Vol.42, No.10, p.520-522. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 91-895 Apostolli P., Brandi F., Toffoletto F., Alessio L.
Validity of urinary tests in the study of renal effects of cadmium (considered singly or combined)
Validitŕ di alcuni tests urinari, considerati singolarmente o in associazione, nello studio degli effetti renali del cadmio [in Italian]
A number of indicators of renal effect (N-acetyl-glucosaminidase, retinol binding protein, beta-2-microglobulin, albuminuria) were measured in 42 cadmium-exposed workers divided into 3 subgroups on the basis of the results of the last 10 years' biological monitoring (<3, 3-10, >10µg/L). An increase in the first 3 indicators was observed, particularly in the 3rd subgroup. Taking the indicators singly, the marked increase in RBP and beta-2-microglobulin in the heavily exposed subjects was confirmed, along with an increasing sensitivity for NAG, while albuminuria levels were unchanged. Assessment of the "degree of association" of the altered tests demonstrated that the number and type of "association" varies between the subgroups in relation to the exposure conditions: in the 1st group there were no associations between the altered tests, whereas there were 2 duplicates in the 2nd and 2 duplicates, 2 triplicates and 3 quadruplicates in the heavily exposed group. In the study of the renal effects of cadmium, it is therefore advisable to use several indicators and assess their behaviour both singly and combined, and also analyse the altered tests on the basis of the number and type of "association".
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1990, Vol.81, No.2, p.147-156. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 91-547 Roels H.A., Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A.M., Lijnen P., Van Houte G.
Urinary kallikrein activity in workers exposed to cadmium, lead, or mercury vapour
A significant reduction of kallikrein activity in urine (assayed by its amidolytic activity) was found in 64 normotensive workers who had been exposed to cadmium for 11 years on average and whose cadmium concentrations in urine ranged from 2.2 to 33.1µg/g creatinine. The mean (geometric) urinary kallikrein acitivity (in U/g creatinine) amounted to 0.52 in the control group (n = 193) against 0.39 in the cadmium group. A reduction of aldosterone release (aldosterone in urine) associated with an increased natriuresis was also observed. This might constitute a compensatory mechanism maintaining blood pressure in the normal range. This study indicates that cadmium can induce an irreversible toxic effect in the distal nephron. It also suggests that an excessive cadmium body burden alone may not be sufficient to induce hypertension, but in individuals whose blood pressure regulation may be impaired by other factors cadmium could stimulate the development of hypertension. This study also supports the recommendation to prevent hypertensive subjects from being exposed to cadmium. There was no indication that moderate exposure to mercury vapour was associated with a reduction of kallikrein production by the kidney.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1990, Vol.47, No.5, p.331-337. 35 ref.

CIS 90-1449 Cadmium
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritates the eyes; corrosive to the respiratory tract; delayed effects. Long-term exposure effects: renal damage; pulmonary diseases; probably carcinogenic in humans. United Nations number and hazard class: UN 2570 (6.1, special provisions 44 and 109).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, 1990. 2p. Illus.

CIS 90-1638 Nilsson R.
Cadmium - An analysis of Swedish regulatory experience
Review of the various actions taken by Swedish government authorities in order to control exposure of man and of the environment to cadmium. The author also provides a background to these actions in terms of information which provided the justification for control, given the social and political pressures existing at that time. Finally, attempts have been made to assess the impact of the regulations and some general conclusions from the experience derived from large scale chemicals management are also presented.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1990. 124p. Illus. 88 ref. Price: SEK 80.00.


CIS 90-1071
Cadmium [Sweden]
Kadmium [in Swedish]
This ordinance (effective 1 April 1989) applies to work using materials with more than 1% cadmium content, if there is a possibility of exposure to cadmium. If, however, the temperature of the material exceeds 100°C the provisions apply down to 0.01% cadmium content. The ordinance includes rules concerning labelling, equipment and premises, cleaning, personal protective equipment, working clothes, personnel facilities, workplace monitoring and medical surveillance. It supersedes the earlier provisions on cadmium (Anvising, No.123, CIS 78-1354) from 1978. Detailed commentaries are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 11 May 1989. 25p.

CIS 90-217 Roels H.A., Lauwerys R.R., Buchet J.P., Bernard A.M., Vos A., Oversteyns M.
Health significance of cadmium induced renal dysfunction: A five year follow up
To assess the health significance of early renal changes after chronic exposure to cadmium, 23 workers removed from exposure because of the discovery of an increased urinary excretion of β2-microglobulin or retinol binding protein, or both, have been examined once a year for five years. Eight of these workers had also an increased level of albuminuria. These workers had been exposed to cadmium for 6-41.7 years (mean 25 years). It was confirmed that proteinuria induced by cadmium is irreversible. The most important finding, however, is a significant increase of creatinine and β2-microglobulin concentrations in serum with time, indicating a progressive reduction of the glomerular filtration rate despite removal from exposure. Serum alkaline phosphatase activity also increases significantly with time. In conclusion, the present study indicates that early renal changes induced by cadmium should be regarded as adverse effects; they are predictive of an exacerbation of the age related decline in the glomerular filtration rate.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1989, Vol.46, No.11, p.755-764. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 90-210 Thun M.J., Osorio A.M., Schober S., Hannon W.H., Lewis B., Halperin W.
Nephropathy in cadmium workers: Assessment of risk from airborne occupational exposure to cadmium
To assess the quantitative relation between exposure to airborne cadmium (Cd) and various markers of renal tubular and glomerular function, 45 male workers employed at a plant that recovers Cd from industrial waste and 32 controls were examined. Cumulative external exposure to airborne Cd was estimated from historical air sampling data, adjusted for respirator use. Increasing Cd dose was associated with multiple renal tubular functional abnormalities, including reduced reabsorption of β-2-microglobulin, retinol binding protein (RBP), calcium, and phosphate. Serum creatinine concentration also increased with Cd dose, suggesting impaired glomerular function. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in the Cd workers than in the unexposed, but only systolic blood pressure was significantly associated with Cd dose in multivariate analyses. Cd dose remained the most important predictor of serum creatinine concentration after controlling for age, blood pressure, body size, and other extraneous factors. Logistic regression to model the probability (prevalence) of various renal abnormalities with increasing dose of Cd was used. The probability of multiple tubular abnormalities and raised serum creatinine concentration increased sharply at cumulative exceeding 300mg/m3 days, corresponding to working for 4.3 years at the current US exposure limit for Cd dust.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1989, Vol.46, No.10, p.689-697. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 89-1262 Chia K.S., Ong C.N., Ong H.Y., Endo G.
Renal tubular function of workers exposed to low levels of cadmium
Cadmium induced renal tubular effects were examined in 65 female workers in a factory manufacturing nickel cadmium batteries. Urinary β2-microglobulin (β2m), urinary N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase activity (NAG), and serum creatinine and serum urea concentrations were used to assess the renal effects. Only urinary NAG showed a significant deterioration in renal function among the exposed group. NAG detects the largest proportion of abnormalities among the exposed group. Abnormal urinary β2m is detected in only 15.4% of the workers, half of whom have blood cadmium above 10µg/L. The proportion of abnormalities detected by urinary NAG differs significantly from the proportion of abnormalities detected by urinary β2m (p<0.01). The age adjusted mean urinary NAG excretion showed a significant rise with urinary cadmium of above 3µg/g creatinine. Urinary β2m failed to show any significant rise. With blood cadmium concentrations, the age adjusted mean urinary NAG excretion showed a rise from 1µg/L of blood cadmium followed by a plateau between blood cadmium concentrations of 3-10µg/L. No significant rise in mean urinary excretion of β2m was seen until blood cadmium concentrations exceeded 10µg/L.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1989, Vol.46, No.3, p.165-170. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 89-852 Kawada T., Koyama H., Suzuki S.
Cadmium, NAG activity, and β2-microglobulin in the urine of cadmium pigment workers
Cadmium (Cd), N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, β2-microglobulin (BMG), and creatinine (cr) in urine were measured during April and September 1986 in workers exposed to cadmium pigment dust (maximum exposure 3.0µg/m3/8h for respirable dust). In April and September urinary Cd ranged from 0.2 to 9.5 and from 0.5 to 7.0µg/g cr with a geometric mean of 0.7 and 1.2µg/g cr, respectively. The correlation coefficient between Cd and NAG was 0.261 (n = 61) in April and 0.389 (n = 50) in September. The correlation coefficient between Cd and BMG was 0.241 (n = 63) in April and 0.115 (n = 50) in September. It appears that urinary Cd concentrations have a closer relation with urinary NAG than urinary BMG, even when urinary Cd concentrations are less than 10µg/g cr. It is concluded that NAG is a more sensitive indicator of Cd absorption than BMG even at urinary Cd concentrations of less than 10µg/g cr.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1989, Vol.46, No.1, p.52-55. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 90-186 Nekrasova S.V., Tašči P.V.
Polarographic determination of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese in atmospheric air
Poljarografičeskoe opredelenie medi, svinca, kadmija, nikelja, zinka i marganca v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
An alternating-current polarographic method for the determination of 6 metals without prior separation is proposed. The method is based on reducing ions of copper, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc and manganese at a dropping mercury electrode with a supporting electrolyte of acetic acid and ammonium acetate. Samples are collected and prepared by pumping measured volumes of air through APHA filters, ashing the filters, treating the ash with concentrated hydrochloric acid and taking up the residue in electrolyte. Detection limits are 0.04µg/mL for copper, lead, cadmium and manganese and 0.08µg/mL for nickel and zinc. Iron and chromium do not interfere with the determination. Analysis after dissolving the sample takes about 30 minutes.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1988, No.5, p.48-49. 2 ref.

CIS 89-1273 Vaskövi B., Szívós K., Kertész M., Horváth A., Bácskai G.
Role of tobacco smoking in interior cadmium exposure
A dohányzás szerepe a belsőtéri kadmium-expozícióban [in Hungarian]
The cadmium (Cd) content of 4 different types of Hungarian-made cigarettes was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. The measured values were 0.46-1.64µg/g. The aerosol concentration of smoke resulting from the simultaneous burning of 6 cigarettes was also evaluated in a room with cubic capacity of 14m3. This aerosol concentration decreased exponentially with time, reaching approx. background levels after 2h. Cd contamination of the air in the room was in the range of 0.033-0.100µg/m3, a level that would contribute significantly to the total Cd exposure of people working in rooms of similar size, including that of non-smokers (passive smoking).
Egészségtudomány, 1988, Vol.32, p.14-19. 17 ref.

CIS 89-868 Nomiyama K.
Allowable daily intake of cadmium (1) - Recent studies
Kadomiumu no kyoyō sesshuryō - (1) Kenkyū no genjō [in Japanese]
Recent studies were critically reviewed for establishing the allowable daily intake of cadmium in the general population. Epidemiological studies, however, failed to estimate the allowable daily intake, because available data indicated different dose-response relationships even in several cadmium-polluted areas in Japan. Mathematical models were not successful either, because of the high variability of many factors, such as critical concentration, biological half time and intestinal absorption of cadmium. The following studies are necessary to establish a reliable allowable daily intake: 1) determination of the biological significance of elevated urine β2-microglobulin, 2) determination of the critical concentration of "active" cadmium in the renal cortex, and 3) long-term experiments on health effects using monkeys or dogs.
Food Sanitation Research, Feb. 1988, Vol.38, No.2, p.7-16. 35 ref.

CIS 89-844
Ministerstvo cvetnoj metallurgii SSSR
Safety rules for lead and zinc production
Pravila bezopasnosti pri proizvodstve svinca i cinka [in Russian]
Safety rules for the construction and operation of installations for lead and zinc production. Contents: preparation of furnace charges; roasting lead-ore concentrates; smelting; preparation of coal dust; granulation of slag; ladles; lead refining; roasting zinc-ore concentrates and charges; hydrometallurgical reduction; electroprecipitation of zinc; rotary kilns; cadmium production; cooling of metallurgical equipment; waste-heat boilers and evaporative cooling; heating of metallurgical equipment; responsibilities in case of non-observance of these rules.
Izdatel'stvo "Metallurgija", 2-j Obydenskij per., d.14, 119857, GSP, Moskva G-34, USSR, 1988. 16p. Price: SUR 0.05.

CIS 89-906 Davision A.G.
Cadmium fume inhalation and emphysema
Lung function and chest radiographs of 101 men who had worked for 1 or more years manufacturing copper-cadmium alloy were compared with those of a referent group matched for age, sex, and employment status. Cigarette consumption was similar in the two groups. The cadmium workers had an excess of abnormalities of lung function and of radiographic changes consistent with emphysema. Classification of the cadmium workers by exposure categories based on either estimated cumulative cadmium exposure or liver cadmium measured by neutron activation analysis showed that abnormalities of lung function were greatest in those with the highest cumulative cadmium exposure or liver cadmium. The difference in the transfer coefficient (KCO) between cadmium workers and referents increased linearly with increasing cumulative exposure without evidence for a threshold. The estimated mean decrement in KCO for a cadmium worker employed 5 or more years with a cumulative exposure of 2000 yr.µg/m3 (exposure to the current UK control limit of 50µg/m3 for a working lifetime of 40yr) lies between 0.05 and 0.3mmol/min/kPa (95% confidence interval). This decrement is consistent with the functional and radiological changes of emphysema observed in this group of workers.
Lancet, 26 March 1988, Vol.I, No.8587, p.663-667. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-597 Schmidt P.
Zentralinstitut für Arbeitsmedizin der DDR
Biological monitoring methods in occupational medicine
Biologische Kontrollmethoden in der Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Manual for occupational health care personnel and inspectors. Chapters cover: the value of laboratory diagnosis to the occupational physician; biological exposure tests as a component of medical surveillance of workers exposed to harmful substances; toxicological bases of exposure assessment; exposure to substances in the general environment as a part of total exposure; principles of genetics applicable to the evaluation of exposure tests; recognition and evaluation of carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and embryotoxic substances; variations in the pollution of workplace air; sampling; the analytical laboratory; assessment of the reliability and validity of biological exposure tests; properties, analysis and monitoring of 21 substances or groups of substances.
VEB Volk und Gesundheit, Berlin, German Democratic Republic, 1988. 464p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

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