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Cadmium and compounds - 296 entries found

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CIS 11-0675 Boffetta P., Fontana L., Stewart P., Zaridze D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska N., Janout V., Bencko V., Foretova L., Jinga V., Matveev V., Kollarova H., Ferro G., Chow W.H., Rothman N., van Bemmel D., Karami S., Brennan P., Moore L.E.
Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel, and renal cell carcinoma: A case-control study from Central and Eastern Europe
The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in Central and Eastern Europe in relation to exposure to known and suspected carcinogenic metals. During 1999-2003, a hospital-based study was conducted in the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia, including 1097 cases of RCC and 1476 controls. Occupational exposure to arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel was assessed by teams of local industrial hygiene experts, based on detailed occupational questionnaires. The odds ratios (ORs) for RCC were 1.55 for exposure to lead and 1.40 for exposure to cadmium. No clear monotonic exposure-response relation was apparent for either duration of exposure or cumulative exposure to either metal, although the OR for the highest category of cumulative exposure to lead was 2.25. Exposure to other metals did not entail an increased risk of RCC.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2011, Vol.68, No.10, p.723-728. 37 ref.


CIS 11-0232 Beveridge R., Pintos J., Parent M.E., Asselin J., Siemiatycki J.
Lung cancer risk associated with occupational exposure to nickel, chromium VI, and cadmium in two population-based case-control studies in Montreal
Nickel, chromium VI and cadmium have been identified as lung carcinogens in highly exposed cohorts. The purpose of this study was to examine the etiological link between lung cancer and these metals in occupations that usually entail lower levels of exposure than those seen in historical cohorts. Two population-based case-control studies were conducted in Montreal, from 1979 to 1986 and from 1996 to 2001, comprising 1,598 cases and 1,965 controls. A detailed job history was obtained to evaluate lifetime occupational exposure to many agents, including nickel, chromium VI and cadmium compounds. Lung cancer odds ratios were increased only among former or non-smokers: 2.5 for nickel exposure, 2.4 for chromium VI and 4.7 for cadmium. The metals did not increase risk among smokers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, Vol.53, p.476-485. 45 ref.


CIS 09-1318 Miura N.
Individual susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and metallothionein gene polymorphisms: With references to current status of occupational cadmium exposure
This article describes the strategy used for analyzing individual susceptibility to cadmium toxicity and genetic polymorphisms of metallothionein, with reference to the current status of occupational cadmium exposure.
Industrial Health, Sep. 2009, Vol.47, No.5, p.487-494. Illus. 89 ref. [in English]


CIS 09-394 Szyman£ka-Chabowska A., Antonowicz-Juchniewicz J,, Andrzejak R.
The concentration of selected cancer markers (TPA, TPS, CYFRA 21-1, CEA) in workers occupationally exposed to arsenic (As) and some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) during a two-year observation study
Molecular epidemiology studies have lately been focused on occupational cancer associated with exposure to chemical carcinogens in the work environment. A two-year observation study was designed to investigate the relationship between arsenic, lead and cadmium concentrations and the levels of cancer markers: TPA (tissue polypeptide antigen), TPS (tissue polypeptide specific antigen), CYFRA 21-1 and CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) in 69 male workers occupationally exposed to As and Pb, and environmentally exposed to Cd via tobacco smoking. Significant correlations were found between CEA and blood Cd concentrations or between CEA and the duration of work under exposure. All the metals examined were found to have an influence on the concentration of cancer markers, except for CYFRA 21-1. Other findings are discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2007, Vol.20, No.3, p.229-239. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 08-1389 Kalahasthi R.B., Rajmohan H.R., Rajan B.K., Karuna Kumar M.
Urinary N-acetyl-beta -D-glucosaminidase and its isoenzymes A and B in workers exposed to cadmium at cadmium plating
This case-control study was carried out to determine the effect of cadmium exposure on urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and its isoenzymes A and B among cadmium plating workers. It involved 100 workers of a telephone manufacturing plant in India, including 50 cadmium plating workers and an equal number of age and sex matched unexposed administrative staff. A significant increase of urinary total NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were noted in exposed group compared to controls. The levels of urinary NAG and its isoenzymes A and B were significantly correlated with cadmium levels in urine. Other findings are discussed. It is concluded that urinary NAG could be used as a biomarker for exposure to cadmium.
Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, July 2007, Vol.2, No.5, 7p. 28 ref.


CIS 08-378 Manzanaro Arana R., Apellániz González A.
Toxicology of cadmium - Literature survey
Toxicología del cadmio: revisión bibiográfica [in Spanish]
Contents of this literature survey on the toxicology of cadmium: physical and chemical properties of cadmium; utilization; contamination sources; physiopathology; clinical effects of acute poisoning by ingestion (gastrointestinal effects, migraine, muscular pain) and by inhalation (bronchopulmonary changes, dyspnoea, cyanosis, migraine, vertigo and pulmonary oedema), as well as of chronic poisoning (yellow colouring of the teeth, respiratory disorders, renal disorders); medical treatment; prevention and limitation of exposure.
Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2006, No.178, p.38-47. Illus. 48 ref.


CIS 06-137 Gawęda E.
Occupational exposure to carcinogenic metals and metalloids in refining of heavy metals
Narażenie zawodowe na rakotwórcze metale i metaloidy w procesach rafinacji metali ciężkich [in Polish]
Concentrations of carcinogenic metals (cadmium, nickel) and metalloids (arsenic) were measured in workplace air during heavy metals refining processes. The tests were conducted in two large Polish plants, a copper smelter and a non-ferrous metals smelter, at workstations for the refining of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead and silver and the production of nickel sulfate and selenium. The presence of arsenic in the workplace air was found in both plants. Exposure to cadmium occurred only in the non-ferrous metals smelter. The highest exposure was found at workstations in the lead and cadmium refining processes. The presence of nickel was found only at workstations with nickel sulfate production. The results highlight the need for routine measurements of arsenic concentrations at all workstations in the production of metals with a high degree of purity.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.2, p.161-165. 8 ref.


CIS 07-866 Garçon G., Leleu B., Zerimech F., Marez T., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D., Shirali P.
Biologic markers of oxidative stress and nephrotoxicity as studied in biomonitoring of adverse effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium
This study examined the impregnation levels of workers occupationally exposed to lead and cadmium, the usefulness of early urinary markers of nephrotoxicity and the occurrence of oxidative stress as the underlying mechanism involved in adverse effects induced by lead or cadmium. Levels of lead and cadmium in blood and urine were measured in 35 male workers in a nonferrous metal smelter. Relations between oxidative stress markers and exposure levels, on the one hand, and early urinary markers and exposure levels, on the other hand, were evaluated. Mean exposure levels were moderate. Findings suggest the use of α-glutathione S-transferases excretion in urine as an indicator of early changes in the proximal tubular integrity that could later lead to clinical disease if exposure is not reduced.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1180-1186. 35 ref.

CIS 06-121 Jakubowski M., Abramowska-Guzik A, Szymczak W., Trzcinka-Ochocka M.
Influence of long-term occupational exposures to cadmium on lung function test results
Pulmonary function was assessed in 79 workers previously exposed to cadmium in a battery plant. The unexposed control group of 159 workers was selected among the inhabitants of the same town. Among battery workers, measurements of blood cadmium concentrations had been performed regularly since 1983. The data on cadmium concentrations in the air were obtained from the plant's files covering the period of 1981-1999. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their cumulative cadmium exposure indices as indicated by determinations in air (Cd-A) or blood (Cd-B). Results were subjected to statistical analysis. Only the group with the highest Cd-B exposure level had a significantly decreased lung function values compared to the group with the lowest Cd-B exposure. The highest Cd-A exposure group showed a significantly decreased maximum midexpiratory flow rate (MEF) at 50% together with decreased FEV1, however statistically not significant.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.3, p.361-368. 19 ref.

CIS 05-17 Cruz Nogueira A.F.
Metals - Hazards from occupational exposure
Metais - Riscos de exposição profissional [in Portuguese]
This information booklet, which is primarily intended for employers and employees of small enterprises, explains how to avoid or reduce the risks due to exposure to metals. After a general introduction on exposure to metals and its effects, it goes on to describe in detail the risks related to exposure to cadmium, lead and hexavalent chromium, covering the following aspects for each of these substances: physical and chemical properties; uses and occupations that present risks; metabolism; acute and chronic toxicity and effects on health; recommendations and protective measures; current legislation; determination in workplace air.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, March 2004. 40p. Illus.


CIS 03-1295 Peltier A., Elcabache J.M.
Used battery waste processing: A study in specialized undertakings
Traitement des déchets des piles et accumulateurs usagés - Enquête dans des entreprises spécialisées [in French]
Occupational exposures of 380 workers in fifteen enterprises specialized in the recycling of electrochemical batteries was evaluated. The survey shows that there is a high risk of lead exposure during the shredding and melting of lead batteries, a potential risk of mercury poisoning during pyrometallurgical processing, and that during the treatment of Ni-Cd batteries, air purification is not effective. The constant wearing of air purifying respirators is a measure that must remain temporary. Cadmium smoke and dust emissions need to be captured at the source. Appendices include schedules of occupational diseases caused by lead, mercury, cadmium and their compounds.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2003, No.192, p.5-19. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 02-1789 Yamada H., Koizumi S.
DNA microarray analysis of human gene expression induced by a non-lethal dose of cadmium
Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal affecting many cellular functions, but little is known on cellular defense mechanisms. This article describes a study of a Cd-induced gene expression profile. Messenger RNA was prepared from HeLa cells exposed to a non-lethal dose of CdSO4, and analysed by the use of an array consisting of 7075 human cDNAs. Many stress response genes including those coding for metallothioneins and heat shock proteins were observed to be induced by Cd. The cellular metabolism inclined toward the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione after Cd exposure. Anti-oxidant genes also appeared to be induced to protect cell components and to quench reactive oxygen species. Ubiquitin pathway was activated as well probably to degrade proteins which might not be renatured. These data suggest that human cells mobilize every genomic resource to overcome cytotoxicity caused by Cd.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.159-166. 57 ref.


CIS 02-819 Bar-Sela S., Reingold S., Richter E.D.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a battery-factory worker exposed to cadmium
A 44-year-old patient died from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after nine years of heavy exposure to cadmium (Cd) in a nickel-cadmium battery plant. Two years after starting work, he and co-workers had experienced pruritus, loss of smell, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, cough, shortness of breath, severe headaches, bone pain, and proteinuria. Upper back pain and muscle weakness progressed to flaccid paralysis. EMG findings were consistent with motor neuron disease. Cd impairs the blood-brain barrier, reduces levels of brain copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and enhances glutamate uptake in glial cells. High levels of methallothionein, a sign of exposure to heavy metals, have been found in brain tissue of deceased ALS patients. The effects of Cd on enzyme systems that mediate neurotoxicity and motor neuron disease suggest a relationship between Cd and ALS in this worker.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.109-112. 49 ref.

CIS 02-783 Breton R.A., Vyskocil A.
Smoking and blood cadmium concentrations in young pre-employees
Smoking is the main source of cadmium, a known human carcinogen, among young adults. The objective of this study was to determine blood and urine cadmium levels of young adults occupationally exposed to cadmium in relation to number of cigarettes smoked and sex. Data were gathered for 132 young adults (smokers and non-smokers, men and women) by means of a questionnaire and blood and urine analyses. There were no statistical differences between smokers and non-smokers in urine cadmium concentrations, whereas blood cadmium levels in young adult smokers were 11 times higher than in non-smokers. An increase in blood cadmium without any changes in urine cadmium could be explained by the accumulation of cadmium in tissues. After 20 to 40 years of smoking, and without exposure to any other source of cadmium, it is expected that smokers would reach the urinary level of 5µg/g creatinine that would warrant job reassignment away from cadmium exposure. Further thought needs to be given to reassignment policies and work practices for smokers and non-smokers with respect to cadmium exposure.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.22-25. 7 ref.

CIS 02-362 Vergoustraete V., Bernard A.
Cadmium [in French]
Cadmium is a by-product of the zinc and lead industries, metals to which it is closely associated in nature. The wide variety of industrial applications have facilitated its environmental dispersion. It has a very high half-life and accumulates in the body. The inhalation for a brief period of high concentrations of cadmium smoke or dust damages the respiratory tract, a condition not to be confused with metal fume fever. In cases of chronic exposure to moderate concentrations, the target organs are the kidneys. Recently, it has been suggested that cadmium could be responsible for bone lesions among moderately-exposed subjects. Cadmium is generally considered to be a lung carcinogen. The diagnosis of cadmium poisoning is based on medical history, a search for tubular proteinuria and the evidence of excessive levels of the metal in blood and/or urine. In France, the compensation of diseases caused by cadmium or its compounds is regulated.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 5p. 46 ref.


CIS 01-1353
Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction
Cadmium and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification
Recommendations for the classification and labelling of cadmium (Cd) and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: R64 (may cause harm to breastfed babies). Safe level of Cd in (human) breast milk: 5µg/L. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 52p. 96 ref. [in English]

CIS 00-709 Elliott P., Arnold R., Cockings S., Eaton N., Järup L., Jones J., Quinn M., Rosato M., Thornton I., Toledano M., Tristan E., Wakefield J.
Risk of mortality, cancer incidence, and stroke in a population potentially exposed to cadmium
The English village of Shipham has very high concentrations of cadmium in the soil. A previous cohort study of residents from 1939 to 1979 showed overall mortality below that expected, but a 40% excess of mortality from stroke. This study extends the follow up of the cohort to 1997. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios were estimated with regional reference rates. Comparisons were made with the nearby village of Hutton. All-cause mortality was lower than expected in both villages, although there was excess cancer incidence in both Shipham and Hutton. There was an excess of mortality from hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, and nephritis and nephrosis, of borderline significance, in Shipham. In a geographical study, all-cause mortality in Shipham was also lower than expected. There was an excess in genitourinary cancers in both Shipham and Hutton. In conclusion, no clear evidence of health effects from possible exposure to cadmium in Shipham was found despite the extremely high concentrations of cadmium in the soil.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2000, Vol.57, No.2, p.94-97. 22 ref.

CIS 00-470 Viaene M.K., Masschelein R., Leenders J., De Groof M., Swerts L.J.V.C., Roels H.A.
Neurobehavioural effects of occupational exposure to cadmium: A cross sectional epidemiological study
The aim of this cross-sectional study of 89 adult men (42 exposed to Cd and 47 control workers) was to investigate the toxic potential of chronic occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd) on neurobehavioural functions. Subjects were given a computer assisted neurobehavioural test, a validated questionnaire to assess neurotoxic complaints and a self-administered questionnaire to detect neuropathy and dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Historical and current data on biomonitoring of exposure to Cd and on microproteinuria were also available. Results show that the slowing of visuomotor functioning on neurobehavioural testing and increase in complaints consistent with peripheral neuropathy, complaints about equilibrium, and complaints about concentration ability were dose dependently associated with urinary Cd.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2000, Vol.57, No.1, p.19-27. Illus. 62 ref.


CIS 01-1123 Skerfving S., Bencko V., Vahter M., Schütz A., Gerhardsson L.
Environmental health in the Baltic region - Toxic metals
Recent reports on concentrations of lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic and nickel in some biological media in populations of the Baltic region are reviewed. In particular, children in parts of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany have uptakes of lead sufficient to cause adverse effects on the central nervous system and kidneys. Cadmium exposure is also high in Poland. Methylmercury uptake is dependent upon the intake of fish in Sweden and Finland, as well as along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. There are some indications of immunotoxic effects. However, fish also contain other immunomodulating agents. Exposure to arsenic seems to be low everywhere in the Baltic region. There is high nickel exposure in northern Russia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.40-64. Illus. 199 ref.

CIS 00-1099
Health and Safety Executive
Cadmium in silver soldering or brazing
Topics: cadmium oxide; cadmium; chemical pneumonitis; data sheet; exposure tests; health hazards; irritants; limitation of exposure; permissible levels; silver brazing; soldering and brazing; United Kingdom; welding fumes.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1999. 4p. 13 ref.

CIS 00-58
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for cadmium: Update
Topics: anaemia; cadmium and compounds; carcinogenic effects; cadmium chloride; cadmium sulfate; cadmium oxide; cadmium sulfide; cadmium carbonate; cadmium; chromosome changes; criteria document; exposure evaluation; gastric disorders; glossary; health hazards; irritation; limitation of exposure; literature survey; lung cancer; nephrotoxic effects; osteoporosis; respiratory diseases; staining of teeth; toxic effects; toxicity evaluation; toxicology; USA.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, July 1999. xix, 397p. Illus. approx. 1180 ref.

CIS 99-1764 Commission Directive 1999/51/EC of 26 May 1999 adapting to technical progress... Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC... relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (tin, PCP, cadmium) [European Communities]
Directive 1999/51/CE de la Commission du 26 mai 1999... adaptation... de l'annexe I de la Directive 76/769/CEE du Conseil... relative à... certaines substances et préparations dangereuses (étain, pentachlorophénol (PCP) et cadmium) [Communautés européennes] [in French]
For Council directive 76/769/EEC, see CIS 92-22. Topics: cadmium; tin; pentachlorophenol; directive; European Communities.
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 5 June 1999, Vol.42, No.L 142, p.22-25.


CIS 99-1249 Rydzewski B., Sułkowski W., Miarzyńska M.
Olfactory disorders induced by cadmium exposure: A clinical study
The purpose of this study was to evaluate olfactory disorders in workers occupationally exposed to cadmium. In addition to medical history and medical examinations, blood and urine tests were taken and olfactometry performed. The quantitative and qualitative olfactory disorders were evaluated on the basis of the established odour detection threshold and odour identification threshold. The examinations revealed numerous cases of hyposmia and parosmia and one case of anosmia. In the majority of people with olfactory disorders, hypertrophic changes in the nasal mucosa, dependant on the duration of employment, were identified. Statistically significant relationship between olfactory impairment and cadmium concentration in blood, urine and the workplace air was observed. However, such a relationship was not found in regard to the duration of employment. The results of these examinations could be the ground to perform certain preventive and therapeutic procedures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; determination in blood; determination in urine; long-term exposure; loss of smell; odour threshold; olfaction; olfactometry; smoking.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1998, Vol. 11, No.3, p.235-245. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 99-911 Järup L., Bellander T., Hogstedt C., Spång G.
Mortality and cancer incidence in Swedish battery workers exposed to cadmium and nickel
In a long-term study of battery workers exposed to nickel hydroxide and cadmium oxide, there was an increased overall risk for lung cancer. No exposure-response relation was observed between cumulative exposure and risk of lung cancer. There was a highly significant risk of cancer of the nose and nasal sinuses, which may have been caused by exposure to nickel or cadmium or a combination of both exposures. Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; cancer; nickel; cohort study; latency; length of exposure; lung cancer; morbidity; mortality; nasal cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1998, Vol.55, No.11, p.755-759. 24 ref.


CIS 02-1063 Cadmium and its inorganic compounds
Cadmium et ses composés minéraux [in French]
Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-1435. Acute toxicity: strong emetic; renal damage; irritation of the respiratory tract; delayed symptoms; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: nephrotoxic effects; respiratory diseases (emphysema); bone diseases; lung and bronchial; staining of the teeth; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3; ceiling value = 0.05mg/m3 (cadmium oxide). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.048-010-00-5 (cadmium compounds), No.048-001-00-4 (cadmium sulfide), No.048-002-00-0 (cadmium oxide); T, R22, R40, R48/23/25, S22, S36/37, S45, 215-147-8 (cadmium sulfide); T, R49, R22, R48/23/25, S53, S45, 215-146-2 (cadmium oxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 00-314 Factories (Medical Examinations) (Amendment) Regulations 1997 [Singapore]
Topics: arsenic and compounds; arsenic; asbestos; benzene; bitumen; cadmium; tetrachloroethylene; pitch; lead; manganese; mercury; vinyl chloride; silica; trichloroethylene; compressed air; cotton industry; creosote; dust; exposure; law; lead and compounds; medical examinations; medical supervision; mercury and compounds; mists; noise; organophosphorus compounds; Singapore; smoke.
Photocopy, 13p. On file at CIS.

CIS 99-1245 Järup L., Persson B., Elinder C.G.
Blood cadmium as an indicator of dose in a long-term follow-up of workers previously exposed to cadmium
The tubular function of 46 workers initially examined in 1984 and heavily exposed to cadmium from 1955 to 1978 was investigated. Although cadmium exposure ceased in 1978, 40% of the workers showed signs of tubular dysfunction both in 1984 and 1993. The current cadmium in blood level (B-Cd) was the best dose indicator. Dose-response relationships were found for B-Cd and various tubular markers. Urinary excretion of protein HC (α1-microglobulin) appeared to be the most sensitive, as well as an early, indicator of cadmium-induced tubular dysfunction. A history of renal stones was significantly more common for workers with high B-Cd levels. Topics: cadmium; determination in blood; determination in urine; dose-response relationship; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; long-term exposure; long-term study; nephrotoxic effects; proteinuria; renal dysfunction; soldering and brazing; urinary lithiasis; urine monitoring.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1997, Vol.23, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 99-724 Swedish legislation on chemicals
Compilation of acts and ordinances in the area of chemicals control, as of May 1997. Topics: biological insecticides; cadmium and compounds; chemical products; compendium; directive; genetically modified organisms; law; mercury and compounds; motor fuel; neighbourhood protection; notification of dangerous substances; organic solvents; pesticides; polychlorinated biphenyls; Sweden.
Kemikalieinspektionen, Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, June 1997. 171p.

CIS 98-706 Hudák A., Náray M., Nagy I., Ungváry G.
Effect of the consumption of humic acid with bound complex micro elements in cases of occupational cadmium exposure
Topics: battery and dry cell manufacture; cadmium; chelation therapy; determination in blood; determination in urine; electroplating; prophylaxis.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.175-186. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 98-696 Spear T.M., Werner M.A., Bootland J., Harbour A., Murray E.P., Rossi R., Vincent J.H.
Comparison of methods for personal sampling of inhalable and total lead and cadmium-containing aerosols in a primary lead smelter
Topics: aerosols; cadmium; lead; evaluation of technique; filtration sampling; inhalation; particle size distribution; personal sampling; respirable dust; sampling and analysis; smelting plants; threshold limit values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1997, Vol.58, No.12, p.893-899. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 97-1941 Hudák A., et al.
Effect of the consumption of humic acid with bound complex microelements in cases of occupational cadmium exposure
Blood and urine cadmium concentrations were measured in nine workers in an alkaline battery production plant and in 22 workers in a metal plating workshop. Measurements were carried out before and after a six-week treatment involving daily consumption of humic acid with bound complex microelements (HME). Following the treatment, blood cadmium levels were lower in both groups; urine cadmium levels were increased in the battery workers only. In most cases, the initially abnormal serum iron levels and markers of liver and kidney function improved. Regular consumption of HME may contribute to the prevention of adverse health effects in cadmium-exposed workers.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1997, Vol.3, No.3, p.175-186. Illus. 38 ref.


CIS 99-901 Bernard A.
Biomarkers in surveillance of workers exposed to cadmium
Topics: cadmium and compounds; determination in biological matter; determination in blood; determination in urine; enzyme activity determination; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; medical supervision; nephrotoxic effects.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.2, No.3, Supplement, p.S33-S36. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 97-892 Shaham J., Meltzer A., Ashkenazi R., Ribak J.
Biological monitoring of exposure to cadmium, a human carcinogen, as a result of active and passive smoking
Levels of blood cadmium and urine cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) were determined as biological markers of exposure to cigarette smoke in a group of workers comprising 47 active smokers, 46 passive smokers, and 65 unexposed nonsmokers. The mean blood cadmium levels in the active and passive smokers were significantly higher than in the unexposed nonsmokers. The mean cotinine level was significantly higher in active smokers than in the passive smokers or nonsmokers. Exposure to cigarette smoke is harmful in both active and passive smokers and is a confounder to be taken into account in epidemiologic studies and surveillance programmes on cadmium-exposed workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.38, No.12, p.1220-1228. 64 ref.

CIS 97-158 McDiarmid M.A., Freemand C.S., Grossman E.A., Martonik J.
Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers
Measurements of cadmium in blood and urine were obtained for more than 100 workers at a battery production facility over an 18 month period. Changes in biological parameters are reported for a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure following elevations in some biological parameters, and for a group of 15 workers in the platemaking area, where airborne cadmium exposures were being reduced through the use of engineering and work practice controls. Results indicate that both medical removal from cadmium exposure and exposure abatement measures generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.1019-1023. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 96-1770 Morvai V.
Cardiovascular effects of metals
Studies of the toxic cardiovascular effects of metals in animals and humans are reviewed, in particular those of arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, nickel and vanadium. Despite the numerous data available, the exact mechanism of metals in the aetiology of cardiovascular disease remains obscure. Future research needs are outlined.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.2, p.115-145. 194 ref.


CIS 97-179 Nishijo M., Nakagawa H., Morikawa Y., Tabata M., Senma M., Miura K., Takahara H., Kawano S., Nishi M., Mizukoshi K., Kido T., Nogawa K.
Mortality of inhabitants in an area polluted by cadmium: 15 year follow-up
Follow-up study for 15 years (from 1974-5 to 1991) carried out on 2408 inhabitants of the Kakehashi River basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. The inhabitants had been the subjects of the health impact survey in 1974-5 to evaluate (by measurement of urinary retinol binding protein (RBP)) renal dysfunction induced by cadmium. Analysis of mortality was performed by dividing subjects into a urinary RBP positive group and RBP negative group. After adjustment for age, RBP positive group showed a significant relation to mortality in both sexes. When the standardized mortality ratios according to causes of deaths in the RBP positive group were compared with those of the RBP negative group or the overall Japanese population, increases of this ratio for cardiovascular diseased, especially heart failure, and renal diseases were found in both sexes. The results suggest that the prognosis of the exposed inhabitants with renal tubular dysfunction is unfavourable and the increase of mortality is due to heart failure and renal diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.181-184. 22 ref.

CIS 96-1267
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidelines for health surveillance
These guidelines are intended for appointed medical practitioners when planning and implementing a programme of health surveillance within enterprises. Such programmes should be instituted when a workplace assessment of health risks, conducted according to the National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances (NOHSC 1005: (1994), see CIS 95-274), has determined that workplace exposure represents a significant risk to health. Contents of the 18 booklets: 1 - Introduction (basic aspects of health surveillance, extracts from the Model Regulations and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC: 2007 (1994), see CIS 95-274 as well), list of substances subject to control, criteria for determining whether a substance should be scheduled as requiring health surveillance). 2 - sample respiratory questionnaires to be administered to workers. 3-18: Specific substances (for each substance: information on health surveillance at time of employment, during exposure to a process where the substance is present and at termination of employment; data sheet with information on substance in question). The substances are: acrylonitrile, inorganic arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, inorganic cadmium, creosote, isocyanates, inorganic mercury, MOCA, organophosphate pesticides, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crystalline silica, thallium, vinyl chloride.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995-1996. 18 booklets in a ring binder. Bibl.ref. [in English]

CIS 96-731 Conroy L.M., Menezes Lindsay R.M., Sullivan P.M.
Lead, chromium, and cadmium emission factors during abrasive blasting operations by bridge painters
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.266-271. 26 ref. ###

CIS 96-893
Dutch Expert Committee on Occupational Standards (Werkgroep van Deskundigen ter Vaststelling van MAC-waarden)
Cadmium and inorganic cadmium compounds: Health based recommended occupational exposure limit
In this report the Dutch Committee on Occupational Standards discusses the consequences of occupational exposure to cadmium (Cd) and its inorganic compounds. This assessment is an update of the criteria document published by the committee in 1980 (RA 5/80). Attention is given to: present guidelines and standards; chemical and physical characteristics; environmental and biological monitoring; toxicodynamics (including: non-tumorigenic effects on the respiratory tract, lung cancer risks, effects on the kidneys, and miscellaneous effects); previous evaluations by national and international bodies; evaluation of human health risk; recommendations for research. Based on the data available the committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for cadmium and its inorganic compounds of 5µg/m3 (as Cd) as an eight-hour TWA. Epidemiological data show that below this level no increased lung tumour incidence is to be expected. For biological monitoring purposes, the committee recommends to use a concentration of 4µg Cd/g creatinine in urine as an upper limit. Summary in Dutch.
Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 90517, 2509 LM Den Haag, Netherlands, 1995. 92p. 98 ref.

CIS 96-259 Savolainen H.
Cadmium-associated renal disease
The metabolism, toxicity and renal effects of cadmium are reviewed. The long half-life of cadmium in the human organism causes its accumulation in the liver and kidneys. Renal effects include early tubular dysfunction manifested by proteinuria, amino aciduria, glucosuria, phosphaturia and calcium wastage. Chronic effects include decrease in the glomerular filtration rate and increased rate of kidney stone disease. Biological monitoring of cadmium absorption includes determination of urinary cadmium and of low molecular weight marker proteins.
Renal Failure, 1995, Vol.17, no.5, p.483-487. 30 ref.

CIS 95-1458
Health and Safety Executive
Cadmium: Health and safety precautions
Contents of this data sheet: occurrence, properties and use of cadmium and cadmium compounds; sources of exposure; health effects (emphysema, renal damage, irritation, may cause cancer in humans); risk assessment; prevention and control of exposure; maintenance, examination and testing of control methods; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; training, instruction and information; statutory requirements. Replaces previous edition (CIS 87-71).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Feb. 1995. 6p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.


CIS 96-1962 Cadmium
Data sheet. Cadmium is a carcinogen and a teratogen; it may cause reproductive damage. When inhaled, cadmium may irritate the lungs; may cause lung oedema. Repeated low exposure may affect the kidneys, cause anaemia and loss of smell. High exposure may cause nausea, salivation, vomiting, cramps and diarrhoea. May cause a flu-like illness.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1994. 6p.

CIS 95-2158 Frenkel K., Karkoszka J., Cohen B., Barański B., Jakubowski M., Cosma G., Taioli E., Toniolo P.
Occupational exposures to Cd, Ni, and Cr modulate titers of antioxidized DNA base autoantibodies
The study determined whether occupational exposures to derivatives of carcinogenic metals evoke inflammatory immune responses, as determined by the presence of elevated titres of antibodies (Ab) that recognize oxidized DNA bases. The oxidized thymidine [5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU)] coupled to bovine serum albumin was used as an antigen. Titres of anti-HMdU Ab were significantly elevated in the high cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) exposure groups (18.3 ± 3.2 vs. 10.8 ± 2.1 A492/µL). The Ab titres present in the sera of controls for Cd and Ni exposures appear to be constant regardless of the protein content. In contrast, both lightly and heavily exposed subjects exhibited Ab titres that increased with increasing protein content. The anti-HMdU titres of 12 workers wearing personal monitors showed a significant difference between the groups with light and heavy exposures to Cd (9.8 ± 3.7 vs. 22.1 ± 3.7 A492/µL) and Ni (11.7 ± 1.4 vs. 31.0 ± 1.8)
Environmental Health Perspectives, Sep. 1994, Vol.102, Suppl.3, p.221-225. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1744 Bonilla J.V., Milbrath R.A.
Cadmium in plastic processing fumes from injection moulding
Laboratory tests were carried out on five thermoplastic resins with cadmium pigment loadings in the range 1.43-1.82%. Air samples were collected during the moulding of each material. Thermal processing of these plastic resins formulated with medium to high levels of cadmium pigments did not generate workplace cadmium concentrations above the level of 2.5µ/m3. The inorganic pigments did not volatilize at the temperatures recommended for processing these resins. Processors should be aware of other potential sources of cadmium in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1994, Vol.55, No.11, p.1069-1071. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 95-1054 Risk reduction monograph No.5: Cadmium - Background and national experience with reducing risk
World production of cadmium in 1993, excluding economies in transition, was about 15,000 tonnes. It is an unavoidable by-product of zinc production. Most (60%) is used in rechargeable dry cells, followed by paints, pigments and alloys. Its primary chronic effect is kidney damage, although it is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Of the 25 OECD countries surveyed, 13 have workplace exposure limits. Measures to reduce or ban the use of cadmium in products vary greatly among the countries.
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Environment Directorate, Environmental Health and Safety Division, 2 rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1994. 195p. Illus. 120 ref. Gratis.

CIS 95-641 Srikanth R., Khanam A., Rao V.
Cadmium levels in the urine of male sewage sludge farmers of Hyderabad, India
Urinary cadmium levels of 45 non-smoking sewage sludge farmers of different age groups and exposure were found to be significantly higher than those of the non-smoking general population of similar age group with no occupational exposure. Mean concentrations of urinary cadmium among the farmers varied from 2.92µg/L for those with 10 years exposure to 7.07µg/L for those with 25 years exposure. Further studies are required to determine any long-term effects of exposure to cadmium-containing sludge.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Sep. 1994, Vol.43, No.1, p.1-6. 18 ref.

CIS 95-651 Schaller K.H., Schiele R., Weltle D., Breitstadt R., Angerer J.
Studies on the exposure and occurrence of proteinuria among employees of the pigment industry with long-term exposure to cadmium
Untersuchungen zur Belastung und zur Proteinurie bei langjähriger Cadmiumexposition in der Pigmentindustrie [in German]
Cadmium levels in blood and urine samples of 152 workers with long-term exposure to cadmium in 2 plants producing cadmium pigment and cadmium glaze frits were not significantly different from those in 214 members of the control group. Neither were the early indicators of proteinuria such as total protein, albumin, beta-2-micro-globulin, transferrin and alpha-1-microglobulin in urine significantly different from the control group. Increased levels occurred only among employees whose exposure dated back to the 1970s. With today's exposure levels of 5µg cadmium/m3 no elevated internal cadmium levels are found.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, Nov. 1994, Vol.29, No.11, p.464-466, 468. Illus.

CIS 94-2040
Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory
Cadmium and inorganic compounds of cadmium in air
This method for the determination of cadmium and inorganic compounds of cadmium in air updates and replaces MDHS 10 (see CIS 81-1958). The method is suitable for sampling over periods in the range 15min to 8h. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn through a filter mounted in an inhalable or respirable dust sampler, the filter and collected sample are treated with nitric acid and the resultant solution is analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrometer. Detection limits correspond to cadmium in air concentrations of 1.2µg/m3 and 4µg/m3 for flame atomic absorption spectrometry and 0.024µg/m3 and 0.08µg/m3 for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, June 1994. 12p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 3.00.

CIS 94-1332 Dewell P.
British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS)
Concentrations of cadmium in air and urine in an alkaline battery works - A case study
Historical data on concentrations of cadmium in air and of cadmium in urine and blood and β2-microglobulin in urine are examined for exposed workers in an alkaline battery factory. Using simple statistical methods, annual data sets have been analyzed by department, job or other classification. Summary results show a steady annual reduction of cadmium in air with a sudden decrease during the two years covered by a major change in the production method; no such sudden decrease was noted for cadmium in urine. Results indicate that the current maximum exposure limit of 50µg/m3 for airborne cadmium hydroxide is sufficiently low to keep cadmium in urine concentrations below the presently used medical guidance level.
H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 35p. 40 ref. Price: GBP 11.00 surface mail (GBP 15.00 airmail).


CIS 96-2221
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for cadmium: Update
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation; lung damage; renal damage; osteoporosis; probable carcinogenic effects (lung cancer).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 1993. 171p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1597 Murata M., Takigawa H., Sakamoto H.
Teratogenic effects of noise and cadmium in mice: does noise have teratogenic potential?
The teratogenicity of combined exposure to noise and cadmium was studied in mice. Although combined treatment with cadmium and noise resulted in an increase in total percentages of malformed foetuses compared to the same dose of cadmium alone, the interactions between cadmium and noise showed no synergistic effect on teratogenicity. The magnitude of teratogenicity due to noise is much weaker than that of cadmium, and is therefore easily masked by that of cadmium in statistical tests of the significance of differences.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, June 1993, Vol.39, No.2, p.237-245. 25 ref.

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