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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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  • Agricultural chemicals

1994

CIS 96-861 Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 96-268 Teschke K., Hertzman C., Fenske R.A., Jin A., Ostry A., van Netten C., Leiss W.
A history of process and chemical changes for fungicide application in the western Canadian lumber industry: What can we learn?
The article examines historical changes in anti-sapstain fungicide application in the western Canadian lumber industry. Modifications have included (1) changes in fungicide formulations, (2) substitution with new fungicides, and (3) changes in application technology. The data were collected during three related epidemiologic studies. It was discovered that chlorophenate formulations and application technology were changed without systematic collection of data to evaluate their impact on worker exposure. It was also found that substitution of new fungicide active ingredients occurred before a full package of toxicological data was available about the substitutes. Active targeting of chemicals requiring substitution, establishing systematic rules for the introduction of new chemicals into the workplace, and inclusion of all affected stakeholders in the decision-making process may help to ensure that future substitutions are made on the most rational basis possible.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 1994, Vol.9, No.12, p.984-993. 34 ref.

CIS 95-2193 Saleh M.A., Blancato J.N., Nauman C.H.
Biomarkers of human exposure to pesticides
Occupational or environmental exposure to pesticides can be revealed either by the presence of a substance or its metabolites in urine, blood or some other easily sampled medium, or by the observation of a biochemical effect such as enzyme inhibition, reaction with proteins such as receptors or antibodies or mutation. A general review is followed by 17 separately authored papers under the headings "molecular characterization", "biomarker measurement methods" and "data analysis and application to risk assessment". Compounds and compound classes covered include nitriles, dioxins, organophosphorus insecticides, 2,5-hexanedione, p-nitrophenol, and chlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides.
American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street N.W., Washington, DC 20036, USA, Nov. 1993. x, 326p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 79.95.

CIS 95-1815 Ware G.W.
The pesticide book
Contents of this book: damage caused by pests and a chronology of pesticide use; pesticide formulations; chemicals used to control invertebrates (insecticides, molluscicides, nematicides), vertebrates (rodenticides, avicides, piscicides, repellents), plants (herbicides, plant growth regulators, defoliants, desiccants) and microorganisms (fungicides, bactericides, algicides, disinfectants); modes of interaction with pesticides; hazards of pesticide use (safe handling and storage, legislation); pesticides of the future. Includes lists of common, trade and chemical names.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 4th ed., 1994. xii, 384p. Illus. 86 ref. Index.

CIS 95-1813 Cutkomp L.K., Eesa N.
A glossary of pesticide toxicology and related terms
This glossary lists over 700 terms related to pesticide toxicology along with their definitions. Appendices include a chronology of significant events in the development of insecticides and other measures for pest control, a list of acronyms and abbreviations and examples of pesticide labels.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 1994. 74p. 53 ref.

CIS 95-1736 Brouwer D.H., Brouwer E.J., van Hemmen J.J.
Estimation of long-term exposure to pesticides
An exposure index was developed to estimate long-term dermal and inhalation exposure of bulb farmers to pesticides. The proposed index consists of generic levels of exposure specific to the method of application and is further determined by farm-related parameters such as acreage and number of pesticide applications. Ranking of 127 bulb farmers according to calculated lifetime dermal exposure correlated only moderately to ranking based on duration of exposure. The proposed index could provide a useful estimate of long-term exposure to a mixture of pesticides in epidemiological investigations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 1994, Vol.25, No.4, p.573-588. 26 ref.

CIS 95-1424 Guivant J.S.
Perception by Florianópolis vegetable farmers of the health hazards caused by pesticides
Percepção dos olericultores da grande Florianópolis (SC) sobre os riscos decorrentes do uso de agritóxicos [in Portuguese]
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.22, No.82, p.47-57. 17 ref. ###

CIS 95-1401 Kennedy E.R., Abell M.T., Reynolds J., Wickman D.
A sampling and analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiple organophosphorus pesticides in air
A sampling and analytical method for organophosphorus pesticides was developed using a combined filter/XAD-2 sorbent sampler and gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The method was evaluated for 19 organophosphorus pesticides based on joint OSHA/NIOSH criteria. Samples were stable for 30 days of storage under either ambient or refrigerated conditions. The 19 compounds studied can be determined over a range of 0.1 to 2 times their exposure limits with an accuracy of ±25% of the true value 95 times out of 100.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1172-1177. 18 ref.

CIS 95-1400 Guidotti T.L., Yoshida K., Clough V.
Personal exposure to pesticide among workers engaged in pesticide container recycling operations
Environmental exposure monitoring and biological monitoring were carried out among workers engaged in pesticide container recycling at three regional collection sites, a central collection and washing facility and at a steel mill. Exposure levels were highly variable, partly owing to work practices and lapses in protection. Highest levels of exposure were observed for metal washing, metal crushing and metal shredding; sorting and plastic shredding were intermediate and metal melting was associated with very little exposure. Recommendations are proposed for the protection of workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1154-1163. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 95-1423 Chirewa D.
Health hazards of pesticides
The major hazards of pesticide use in Africa are surveyed (lack of information, increasing use of pesticides, misuse of pesticides, exposure to pesticides). The number of compensated cases of pesticide poisoning in Zimbabwe in 1992, 1993 and 1994 (Jan.-Mar.) is provided. The health hazards of exposure are listed, and how to recognize poisoning by pesticides is explained. A table provides information on annual pesticide expenditure and number of pesticide poisonings in 11 African countries (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda and Zimbabwe).
On Guard, Dec. 1994, Vol.3, No.1, p.13-14. 3 ref.

CIS 95-1422 Lin S., Marshall E.G., Davidson G.K.
Potential parental exposure to pesticides and limb reduction defects
The effects of the potential pesticide exposure of parents on the risk of limb reduction defects in their offspring was studied in a case-control study utilizing New York State Congenital Malformation Register data. Persons with limb reduction defects and controls were compared in terms of parental occupations and counties of residence. Parental occupations and industries reported on birth certificates were qualitatively rated by industrial hygienists to estimate potential pesticide exposures. Residential exposures were estimated from agricultural census data according to county of residence. Neither parental exposure to pesticides nor farming occupation had an effect on the risk of total limb reduction defects. Those persons with limb reduction defects who had additional defects showed weak but consistent elevated risks in relation to parental occupational pesticide exposure. Cases of limb reduction defect with additional malformations appear to be associated with parental occupational pesticide exposure. In appendix: detailed data on potential pesticide exposure based on hygienists' assessments.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.166-179. 40 ref.

CIS 95-1421 Meisner Y.
Pest control in agriculture - Occupational safety and health aspects
Betichut vegihut taasukatit behadbarat mezikim bechaklaut [in Hebrew]
The use of synthetic pesticides in agriculture, and in particular in glasshouses and in aerial spraying, constitutes a major occupational hazard. Solutions such as the wearing of full respiratory, head and body protective equipment could be very effective, but are rather impractical because of the relatively high cost and the reluctance of workers to use such equipment, particularly in warm, humid climates. A new approach based on the use of alternative, less-hazardous pesticides was studied. The neem tree provides a number of active natural pesticides. One of these is azadirachtin, a terpenoid which disrupts the metamorphosis of insect larvae, inhibits molting, and thus eliminates insects by stopping their growth. It also acts as a repellent which protects plants by keeping insects away. Toxicity tests show a negligible effect on humans, warm-blooded animals, bees and most other species useful to people; the substance is non-mutagenic, with no adverse immune response, and is non-irritant to skin or eyes. Tests in Israeli glasshouses have shown its efficiency in the protection of plants of many types.
Betichut, Feb. 1994, No.228, p.5-7. Illus.

CIS 95-1431 Teschke K., Marion S.A., Jin A., Fenske R.A., van Netten C.
Strategies for determining occupational exposures in risk assessments: A review and a proposal for assessing fungicide exposures in the lumber industry
The main strategies for determining exposures for risk assessment were reviewed to select an exposure monitoring protocol for assessing the occupational risks of fungicides in the lumber industry. The methods of application and opportunities for exposure were analyzed in a survey of lumber industry worksites using fungicides. This review illustrates some of the problems with each method and indicates some of the issues that should be investigated in order to determine the optimal strategy for a specific exposure scenario. It suggests that potential for bias must be assessed for each of the strategies that do not entail population-based sampling.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.443-449. 45 ref.

CIS 95-1427 Fenske R. A., Lee C.
Determination of handwash removal efficiency: Incomplete removal of the pesticide chlorpyrifos from skin by standard handwash techniques
To develop standard procedures for evaluating the removal efficiency of handwash techniques, a known amount of the insecticide chlorpyrifos was transferred to volunteers' hands, which were then washed by standard techniques. Time between exposure and washing, the amount of washing solvent and skin loading were measured. Prewashing with ethanol increased removal efficiency; removal efficiency immediately following contact decreased for lower skin loading levels. Substantial amounts of the insecticide were either absorbed or adsorbed through the skin, and pesticide residue levels recovered by standard handwashing techniques did not represent accurate estimates of dermal exposure. Appropriate laboratory-based removal efficiency studies should be conducted prior to field investigations if handwashing is to be used to estimate dermal exposure in the workplace.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.425-432. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 95-1013 Ueda A., Aoyama K., Manda F., Ueda T., Kawahara Y.
Delayed-type allergenicity of triforine (Saprol)
In a study of chrysanthemum growers exposed to triforine (1,4-bis (2,2,2-trichloro-1-formamidoethyl) piperazine), the highest rate of positive patch test reaction was seen to triforine among the seven pesticides and chrysanthemum extracts tested. A higher prevalence of work-related skin symptoms was seen in subjects with a positive patch test reaction to triforine than in those with negative reactions to all allergens tested. The study indicates that delayed-type allergy may be induced among chrysanthemum growers by triforine and other pesticides, as well as by chrysanthemum itself.
Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 1994, Vol.31, No.3, p.140-145. 21 ref.

CIS 95-1021 Aprea C., Sciarra G., Sartorelli P., Ceccarelli F., Maiorano M., Savelli G.
Assessment of omethoate and fenitrothion absorption in greenhouse workers using personal protective equipment in confined areas
Valutazione dell'assorbimento di ometoato e fenitrothion durante lavorazioni eseguite con l'uso di mezzi personali di protezione in ambienti confinati [in Italian]
Sprayers and workers engaged in manual operations in a greenhouse were monitored for exposure to omethoate and fenitrothion. Urinary dialkylphosphates (dimethylthiophosphate and dimethylphosphate) were used as the biological indicators of exposure to the two chemicals. Residues of fenitrothion on foliage were measured as well as levels of fenitrothion and omethoate in air samples collected in the breathing zone (personal sampling) and in the workplace near the entrance and the end of the greenhouse (static sampling). Skin exposure was estimated from pads placed on the thorax under overalls and from hand washing liquid at the end of the workshift. Sprayers wore respiratory and skin protection during the workshift. Workers engaged in manual operations did not wear respiratory protection. Re-entry to the greenhouse was permitted 48h after spraying. Levels of omethoate and fenitrothion in air samples, on pads and on the hands, during manual operation on ornamental plants, were very low. Urine analysis showed no significant difference between levels of urinary dialkylphosphates in the control group and exposed workers. Cholinesterase activity (acetyl and butyryl) showed no significant reduction at the end of the workshift compared with baseline values.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1994, Vol.85, No.3, p.242-248. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 95-1007 Assini R., Fracchiolla F., Ravalli C., Nava C.
Allergic disease due to pesticides - Three case reports
Allergopatie da pesticidi - Descrizione di tre casi [in Italian]
Most studies of pesticides have focussed on their acute or chronic toxicity. However, at present exposure levels severe intoxication is rare and it is appropriate to look more closely at their sensitizing power. Three cases are reported - one case of urticaria/angio-oedema, one of asthma and one of oculorhinitis. Only one subject was atopic. The substances to which sensitization was found were Cynoxamil, Mancozeb, Tiofanate, Seccatutto for the first case, Paraquat for the second and Dodine for the third. The need to extend allergological tests to pesticides also when workers show clinical signs with suspected immunological pathogenesis is highlighted. Furthermore, in order to reduce the number of new cases of pesticide allergy, closer monitoring of subjects exposed to low doses is also proposed.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1994, Vol.85, No.4, p.321-326. 11 ref.

CIS 95-974 Wagner S.L.
Allergy from pyrethrin or pyrethroid insecticides
A brief review of the chemistry, use and toxic effects of pyrethrins and pyrethroid insecticides is presented. Three case studies involving allergic reactions following the use of such insecticides are also described. Reported health effects include eczema, urticaria and respiratory complaints. The importance of the recognition and management of possible allergy from these commonly used insecticides is stressed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.1, p.39-45. 12 ref.

CIS 95-973 Schneider E.F., Dickert K.J.
Health costs and benefits of fungicide use in agriculture - A literature review
Acute and chronic health effects associated with six major chemical categories of fungicides are described. Effects include allergic dermatitis and skin or mucous membrane irritation. Some fungicides also show carcinogenic and mutagenic effects in animals. Since unopposed fungal growth may lead to the formation of mycotoxins in food and other substances, judicious use of fungicides is required in order to obtain a balance between adverse effects from fungicides and mycotoxins.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.1, p.19-37. 61 ref.

CIS 95-494
Health and Safety Executive
Sheep dipping
Videotape on the hazards of exposure to sheep dipping chemicals (pesticides).
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1994. Videotape. Length: 22min. Price: GBP 11.49 (hire), GBP 38.30 (sale). ###

CIS 95-677
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Glyphosate
Data on the effects of glyphosate in humans are limited. Three irritation/sensitization studies in human volunteers indicated no effect. The herbicide formulation Roundup containing glyphosate is acutely toxic to humans when ingested intentionally or accidentally. Animal studies show that glyphosate is not carcinogenic, mutagenic or teratogenic. Detailed abstracts in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 177p. approx. 360 ref. Price: CHF 27.00.

CIS 95-396 Pesticides [Sweden]
Bekämpningsmedel [in Swedish]
This notification (coming into force on 1 Jan. 1995) is an amendment of AFS 1988:5 (CIS 90-1417). It specifies pesticides that are subject to notification and the obligations relating to the training of staff working with the products.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 15 June 1994. 7p.

CIS 95-633 Morrison H.I., Semenciw R.M., Wilkins K., Mao Y., Wigle D.T.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and agricultural practices in the prairie provinces of Canada
The aim of this study was to provide an update of a cohort study (1971-1985) that previously reported a significant risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among male Saskatchewan farm operators (see CIS 92-1589) according to fuel-oil expenditures and herbicide spraying for farms less than 100 acres (2570 hectares) by including two additional Canadian prairie provinces, two additional years of follow-up, and data from the 1981 Census of Agriculture. The addition of a further two years of follow-up resulted in lower risk estimates associated with herbicide spraying for Saskatchewan. A significantly increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma according to acres sprayed with herbicides was observed for the three provinces combined when the herbicide spraying data from the 1991 Census of Agriculture was used. Although the current results are not entirely consistent with the original Saskatchewan analysis, they support the overall finding of an association between herbicides and risk of fatal non-Hodking's lymphoma.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1994, Vol.20, No.1, p.42-47. 28 ref.

CIS 95-577 Houeto P., Abiola F.A., Diatta F.
Cholinesterase activity of Senegalese applicators exposed to organophosphates (fenitrothion)
Exposition au fénitrothion et activité cholinestérasique chez des applicateurs de pesticides au Sénégal [in French]
Among the pesticides currently used in agriculture, organophosphates occupy a dominant position. They have a specific action in inhibiting enzymes, namely cholinesterases. Given the number of cases of human poisoning in agriculture, it is important to measure levels of cholinesterases to evaluate the risks. Cholinesterase activity was measured with Ellman's colorimetric method in whole blood, erythrocytes and plasma of workers exposed to Sumithion (fenitrothion 500g/L U.L.V. and C.E.) in Senegal, which is one of the most commonly used organophosphate insecticides in that country, and as a function of the spraying equipment used and of the type of application. Prevention of cases of poisoning calls for medical, technical and hygienic measures, and, above all, for the health education of workers. A systematic determination of globular and plasma cholinesterases is recommended at the time of the initial medical examination of workers, the results of which can then be used for comparison purposes during later tests.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.2, p.119-123. 7 ref.

CIS 95-240 Avory G., Coggon D.
Determinants of safe behaviour in farmers when working with pesticides
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1994, Vol.44, No.5, p.236-238. 8 ref. ###

CIS 95-235 Littorin M., Hansson M., Rappe C., Kogevinas M.
Dioxins in blood from Swedish phenoxy herbicide workers
This brief communication presents the results of a follow-up study of 5 workers employed between 1964 and 1978 in a Swedish factory which produced chlorophenoxy herbicides and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Blood plasma analysis indicated that the workers had much higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) than did five referents. A relationship was observed between employment time and values of TCDD. Values of other dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and of non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also higher in the workers.
Lancet, 27 Aug. 1994, Vol.344, No.8922. p.611-612. 5 ref.

CIS 95-270 Farm chemicals handbook '94
This directory contains information on agricultural chemicals, supplies, equipment and services in the USA. Contents: fertilizers (materials and processes used in fertilizer manufacture, application, products and suppliers); pesticides and biochemical, microbial and biological pest control agents (uses, safe handling and emergency guidelines, suppliers); overview of Federal and State legislation; guidance on safe storage and use of farm chemicals; environmental safety; buyers' guide and company addresses.
Meister Publishing Company, Annuals Department, 37733 Euclid Avenue, Willoughby, OH 44094, USA, 1994. 866p. (+guide 14p.). Price: USD 69.00 plus USD 5.00 shipping and handling.

CIS 95-224 Linz D.H., Suskind R.R., Lockey J.E., Keebler P.J., Shukla R., Rice C.H., Pflaumer J.E., McKay R.T., Livingston G.K., Albert R.E.
Health status of pesticide applicators with attention to the peripheral nervous system
A health status survey was carried out on 102 pesticide applicators employed for over nine years and potentially exposed to a variety of fertilizers, herbicides and fungicides. As a group, the applicators were healthy save for abnormalities in nerve conduction studies in 29 subjects. Further studies revealed no evidence of exposure-related peripheral neuropathic symptoms or nerve conduction study effects and no significant differences in these endpoints between the pesticide applicators and a control group. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1994, Vol.1, No.3. p.23-42. 24 ref.

CIS 95-216 Brosset A., Marquet P., Lachâtre G., Merle L.
Methyl bromide - Use and hazards for applicators and consumers
Bromure de méthyle, son emploi, son danger pour l'applicateur et le consommateur [in French]
Methyl bromide is a widely used fumigant and soil disinfectant which is cheap, efficient and quite easy to apply. In exposed people, lung, skin, gastro-intestinal tract and, in particular, central nervous system toxicities have been reported. Methyl bromide is potentially highly dangerous because: it is colourless and almost odourless, so that severe exposure could occur unknowingly; toxic manifestations are delayed and could develop hours after the exposure; there is no known antidote; repeated exposures to low concentrations may be harmful (neurological and psychiatric sequelae have been described). Safety regulations about its use should be strictly followed and enforced. Applicators should be properly trained.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.3, p.189-196. 28 ref.

CIS 94-2101
Health and Safety Executive
Use of All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) fitted with spray equipment
This data sheet lists some of the hazards associated with the use of ATVs for the spraying of pesticides and provides advice for manufacturers, suppliers and users on how to eliminate and reduce them. Risk of operator contamination may be reduced by good equipment design, the provision of an instruction manual and the use of suitable spray techniques.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, July 1994. 2p. Illus.

CIS 94-1927 Abell A., Ernst E., Bonde J.P.
High sperm density among members of organic farmers' association
In a Danish study of reproductive effects of pesticides in male greenhouse workers, an unexpectedly high sperm density was found in members of an association of organic farmers who manufacture their products without the use of pesticides or chemical fertilizers. This is in contrast to a world-wide decreasing trend of sperm density in the general population. No hypotheses are put forward to explain this finding.
Lancet, 11 June 1994, Vol.343, No.8911, p.1498. 3 ref.

CIS 94-843
World Health Organization
Multilevel course on the safe use of pesticides and on the diagnosis and treatment of pesticide poisoning
Modular training manual aimed at those who manufacture or formulate chemical pesticides, as well as at doctors, health-care and first-aid personnel, public interest groups and trainers themselves. The modules are not meant to be read to or by participants of training courses - rather, their contents are meant to be adapted by trainers to the needs of those taking the course. Modules are presented at a basic, intermediate and advanced/technical level. Main topics covered: absorption and effects of pesticides; personal protection; protection of others; chemical types and modes of action of pesticides; first-aid and medical treatment of pesticide poisoning; other related subjects. Course evaluation. Glossary.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, Feb. 1994. 1 vol. 41 ref. Index.

1993

CIS 01-1375 Safety and health in the use of agrochemicals: A guide
Guía sobre seguridad y salud en el use de productos agroquímicos [in Spanish]
Spanish translation of a the publication analysed under CIS 91-792. Contents of this training manual, aimed primarily at workers in developing countries: safety and health aspects (how dangerous substances enter the body, classification, labelling and identification, safe handling and use, disposal of waste, operational control and use of personal protective equipment); poisoning by agrochemicals, its management and emergency responses (types and symptoms of poisoning and injury, first-aid treatment, role of poison information centres, effects of temperature and fire emergencies); roles and responsibilities of manufacturers, government agencies, retailers, employers, workers and the public; education and training; case histories illustrating accidents resulting from improper use of agrochemicals in developing countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1993. xi, 89p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: CHF 25.00.

CIS 00-329 Decree No.32-93 establishing the National Commission for Agrochemicals [Nicaragua]
Decreto N° 32-93 sobre la creación de la Comisión Nacional de Agroquímicos [Nicaragua] [in Spanish]
Topics: agricultural chemicals; law; licensing new products; Nicaragua; public OSH institutions.
In: Compendio de Leyes, Reglamentos y Normativas para el Registro de los Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Gobierno de Nicaragua, 1998, 2p.

CIS 99-1773 Decree No.34-93 of 1993 on the establishment of a central register of agricultural chemicals and related substances [Nicaragua]
Decreto núm. 34-93 de 1993 sobre la creación del Registro Central de Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines [Nicaragua] [in Spanish]
Topics: agricultural chemicals; law; licensing new products; Nicaragua; notification of dangerous substances; pesticides.
In: Compendio de Leyes, Reglamentos y Normativas para el Registro de los Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Gobierno de Nicaragua, Nicaragua, Feb. 1998. p.31-32.

CIS 99-1072 Order of 4 Aug. 1993 concerning initial requirements for authorizing the placing of pesticides on the market [Spain]
Orden de 4 de agosto de 1993 por la que se establecen los requisitos para solicitudes de autorizaciones para comercializar los productos fitosanitarios [España] [in Spanish]
This Act transposes into national legislation the requirements of Council Directive 91/414/EEC of 15 July 1991 concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market (CIS 95-1942). See also CIS 99-1073. Topics: agricultural chemicals; approval; chemical analysis; law; notification of dangerous substances; pesticides; Spain; supply of information; warning notices.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 10 Aug. 1993, No.190, p.9251-9265.

CIS 99-1123 García García J.F.
Evaluation of hazards from urban pest control campaigns
Evaluación de riesgos asociados al control ambiental de plagas urbanas [in Spanish]
Topics: acaricides; chemical hazards; disinsectization; hazard evaluation; health hazards; insecticides; labelling; medical examinations; pesticides; rodenticides; Spain; storage; training manuals; training material.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, Oct. 1993. 129p. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 97-963 Savolainen K.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits. 108. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates and ethylenethiourea
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 108. Etylenbisditiokarbamater och etylentiourinämne [in Swedish]
A critical survey of the literature relevant to the discussion of an occupational exposure limit for ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC) fungicides (maneb, mancozeb and zineb) and ethylenethiourea (ETU) is given. The critical effects of exposure to EBDCs are toxic effects on the thyroid gland, and their sensitizing, cross sensitizing and cross-reactivity properties. Mancozeb is also a possible carcinogen. The critical effects of ETU are directed towards the thyroid gland, where ETU induces thyroid hyperplasia and follicular carcinomas at low doses. The occupational exposure limits for EBDCs are based on their sensitizing properties, on their effects on the thyroid gland and their possible carcinogenic effects in rodents. The main emphasis in the occupational exposure limit for ETU is on its goitrogenic and thyroid carcinogenic properties. There is a need to emphasize the significance of biological monitoring, and to reduce exposure to EBDCs and ETU rather than develop more detailed occupational exposure limits. It is important, therefore, to delineate dermal absorption, and the metabolic pathways of EBDC fungicides and ETU for the development of biological monitoring methods. Moreover, an understanding of the effects of these fungicides on the thyroid is crucial for adequate risk assessment.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 44p. 165 ref.

CIS 97-727 Regulations on certain active substances (pesticides) [Sweden]
These regulations concern the approval of pesticides. In appendixes: list of substances which may not be used as active ingredients in approved pesticide products; list of substances which may not be used as active ingredients in approved plant protection products; list of substances whose use is severely restricted.
Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, Solna, Sweden, 1993. 11p.

CIS 97-195 Benvenuti F., Spagnoli G.
Pesticide exposure risks in greenhouse operations
Definizione dei rischi di esposizione ad antiparassitari nelle lavorazioni e nell'impiego degli stessi nelle coltivazioni in serra [in Italian]
This study describes the risks of pesticide use in greenhouse agricultural operations. Crop diseases and the chemicals used for their management are reviewed. The TLVs of the most common products are given. Risks of exposure and prevention criteria are discussed, including the re-entry times after pesticide application that are required to avoid hazards to workers. Types of greenhouses in the Italian Lazio region are described. The use of personal protection equipment is recommended together with the adoption of biological solutions in order to reduce exposure to pesticides. Relevant Italian legislation is discussed.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1993, Vol.V, No.1, p.129-152. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 96-1265 Guidelines for the safe formulation and packing of pesticides
These guidelines, prepared by the international agrochemicals industry association, are aimed at all those involved in the formulation and packing of crop protection products. Contents: hazards of pesticides (health hazards, fire and explosion hazards, hazards due to combustible dusts and flammable liquids, hazards to the environment, product hazard data, hazard classification); organization and management (responsibilities, documentation, training, OSH, quality control etc.); location and buildings (include. tank farms for bulk storage); formulation and packing facilities (formulation of liquids, solids; packing facilities, materials and equipment); occupational health, hygiene and personal safety (housekeeping, PPE, laundry facilities, medical supervision, fire and explosion prevention, emergency planning); environmental protection (avoidance and minimization of risk, treatment and disposal of contaminated air and water, treatment and disposal of contaminated waste). In annex: check list; definitions (glossary).
International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products (GIFAP), ave. Louise 143, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1993. 107p. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-2200 Official report - Pesticide poisoning
Reporte oficial - Intoxicaciones por plaguicidas [in Spanish]
Report on pesticide poisoning during 1993 in Costa Rica. Poisoning cases are classified by the following: province; month and attending institution; age and sex; occupational or non-occupational occurrence; occupation; route of entry; type of pesticide. Data are illustrated with graphics. Annexes 1 and 2 include graphics of cases according to various parameters. A decree on the notification of pesticide poisoning and the notification form prepared by the Ministry of Health are also attached.
Ministerio de Salud, División de Saneamiento Ambiental, Depto. Sustancias Tóxicas y Medicina del Trabajo, San José, Costa Rica, 1993. 44p. Illus.

CIS 95-1964 Fonofos
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); inhibition of blood cholinesterase. Long-term exposure effects: depression of blood cholinesterase; cumulative effects. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.1mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1961 Demeton-s-methyl
International chemical safety card. Tradename: metasystox 55. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 0.5mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 0.1mg/m3 P (USSR).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-2020 Matarrita L., Dehaney I., Aguilar L.
The safe handling of pesticides in the home - Instructor's manual
Manejo seguro de plaguicidas en el hogar - Manual instructores [in Spanish]
Teacher's manual for a 6-day course on pesticide safety. The course is aimed primarily at housewives responsible for the application of pesticides in agricultural households. Main topics covered: role of women as household managers in the handling of pesticides; storage and labelling of pesticides; preventive measures; use and cleaning of protective clothing; pesticide poisoning and first-aid measures; household pests and their control. Glossary.
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.:691 - 2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 1993. 129p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 95-622 He F.
Biological monitoring of occupational pesticides exposure
Two methods are used in monitoring occupational exposure to pesticides: measurement of the unchanged pesticide or its metabolites in biological samples such as blood or urine and measurement of a biochemical effect such as the inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity. The method measuring a biochemical effect has mostly been used for exposure evaluation and determination of dose-response relationships of acute levels of organophosphates and carbamates in humans. The method of measuring the unchanged pesticide or its metabolites has been used to confirm exposure or estimate the internal dose. It provides no information on the potential health risks.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, Suppl.1, p.S69-S76. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 95-103 Fonseca J., Matarrita L.
Training programme on the safe handling of pesticides - Formulations and additives
Programa de educación. Manejo seguro de plaguicidas - Formulaciones y aditivos [in Spanish]
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.: 691-2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 2nd ed., 1993. 12p. 3 ref. ###

CIS 95-101 Training programme on the safe handling of pesticides - Guide to the safe handling of pesticides
Programa de educación. Manejo seguro de los plaguicidas - Guía para el manejo seguro de plaguicidas [in Spanish]
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.: 691-2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 1993. 45p. Illus. ###

CIS 95-219 Wesseling C., Castillo L., Elinder C.G.
Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica
A descriptive epidemiologic study conducted in Costa Rica investigated the incidence of pesticide poisoning with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from 3 national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986, 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times more frequent, respectively, among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1993, Vol.19, No.4, p.227-235. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 95-230 Garnier R., Prince C., Reygagne A., Azoyan P., Dally S., Efthymiou M.L.
Contact dermatitis from dazomet: Seven cases
Dermite de contact au dazomet: 7 cas [in French]
Dazomet is used as a soil disinfectant which acts by hydrolytic release of methylisothiocyanate. In spite of its resulting high toxicity, cases of contact dermatitis and/or systemic poisoning have rarely been published. Seven cases of contact dermatitis from dazomet are reported here. Lesions were observed on hands and forearms (5 cases), feet and legs (6 cases), face (1 case), trunk (1 case) and buttocks (1 case); in all cases but one they were bullous. No case of systemic poisoning was identified in this series, but biological tests were performed in only two patients. Contact dermatitis from dazomet generally results from mishandling and can be easily prevented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.649-651. 5 ref.

CIS 94-1928 Krüger E., Werth B.
Studies of pesticide contamination in root-crop farming
Untersuchungen zur Pestizidkontamination bei Hackfruchtpflegearbeiten in Landwirtschaftsbetrieben [in German]
Dermal exposure pads were attached to the skin of the chest, arms and legs of 61 farm workers spraying root crops with pesticides. The pesticide concentrations found on the pads of workers wearing protective clothing were low. However, concentrations as much as 77.2% in excess of the tolerable dermal dose were found when no protective clothing was worn. Of the 61 workers, 24 had health problems such as headache (23), vision disturbances (11) and dermatitis (2).
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1993, Vol.28, No.1, p.9-12. 34 ref.

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