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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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  • Agricultural chemicals

1995

CIS 98-1412
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Warfarin - Health and safety guide
Topics: blood coagulation disorders; containment of spills; disposal of harmful waste; fire protection; first aid; health engineering; health hazards; IPCS; legislation; permissible levels; rodenticides; storage; warfarin.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 24p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (CHF 3,50 in developing countries).

CIS 98-1411
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Difenacoum - Health and safety guide
Topics: blood coagulation disorders; difenacoum; containment of spills; disposal of harmful waste; fire protection; first aid; health engineering; health hazards; IPCS; legislation; permissible levels; rodenticides; storage.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 25p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (CHF 3.50 in developing countries).

CIS 98-751 Lander F., Rønne M.
Frequency of sister chromatid exchange and hematological effects in pesticide-exposed greenhouse sprayers
Topics: blood cytology; chromosome changes; crop protection; cross-sectional study; cytotoxic effects; Denmark; exposure evaluation; genetic effects; haematological effects; horticulture; pesticides; smoking.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.283-288. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 98-799
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Anticoagulant rodenticides
Environmental health criteria for anticoagulant rodenticides (WHO), 1995. Topics: agricultural chemicals; anticoagulants; antidote treatment; blood coagulation disorders; criteria document; ILO; IPCS; latency; literature survey; poisoning; rodenticides; skin absorption; teratogenic effects; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 121p. 242 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries).

CIS 98-792
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Methyl bromide
Environmental health criteria for methyl bromide (WHO), 1995. Topics: agricultural chemicals; methyl bromide; chemical burns; criteria document; exposure tests; fumigants; functional respiratory disorders; ILO; IPCS; irritants; latency; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; poisoning; pulmonary oedema; renal damage; skin absorption; skin injuries; toxic effects; toxicology; UNEP; visual function disorders; WHO.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1995. 324p. Illus. 492 ref. Price: CHF 47.00 (32.90 CHF in developing countries).

CIS 97-194 Thomas, P.T.
Pesticide-induced immunotoxicity: Are Great Lakes residents at risk?
In this literature review several organophosphate and organochlorine compounds are considered, including pesticides commonly found in the Great Lakes basin of North America. These substances have a high immunotoxic potential. Residents and workers in the area may inadvertently be exposed to these compounds through food chain biomagnification. Evidence is quoted from laboratory animal data and occupational exposure studies suggesting immunotoxicity. A significant threat to the human immune system that is sufficient to predispose residents of the Great Lakes basin to increased disease cannot be ruled out when making risk assessment decisions.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1995, Vol.103, Supplement 9, p.55-61. 78 ref.

CIS 96-1811 Castro Córdoba R.
Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
Diagnostic study of legislation on pesticides in Costa Rica
Estudio diagnóstico sobre la legislación de plaguicidas en Costa Rica [in Spanish]
This study surveys the impact of pesticide legislation on actual pesticide use in Costa Rica. Contents: the general legal framework; specific regulations; restricted-use and prohibited pesticides; recognized responsible experts (regentes); other relevant legislation; criminal and civil liability; conclusions.
Ministerio de Salud, Departamento de Sustancias Tóxicas y Medicina del Trabajo, San José, Costa Rica, 31 Jan. 1995. 69p.

CIS 96-1267
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Guidelines for health surveillance
These guidelines are intended for appointed medical practitioners when planning and implementing a programme of health surveillance within enterprises. Such programmes should be instituted when a workplace assessment of health risks, conducted according to the National Model Regulations for the Control of Workplace Hazardous Substances (NOHSC 1005: (1994), see CIS 95-274), has determined that workplace exposure represents a significant risk to health. Contents of the 18 booklets: 1 - Introduction (basic aspects of health surveillance, extracts from the Model Regulations and the National Code of Practice (NOHSC: 2007 (1994), see CIS 95-274 as well), list of substances subject to control, criteria for determining whether a substance should be scheduled as requiring health surveillance). 2 - sample respiratory questionnaires to be administered to workers. 3-18: Specific substances (for each substance: information on health surveillance at time of employment, during exposure to a process where the substance is present and at termination of employment; data sheet with information on substance in question). The substances are: acrylonitrile, inorganic arsenic, asbestos, benzene, cadmium, inorganic cadmium, creosote, isocyanates, inorganic mercury, MOCA, organophosphate pesticides, pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, crystalline silica, thallium, vinyl chloride.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995-1996. 18 booklets in a ring binder. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/481CF3F5-8C4B-4BCC-AF65-3FDBA031D43B/0/HealthSurveillance.pdf [in English]

CIS 96-1385 London L., Thompson M.L., Sacks S., Fuller B., Bachmann O.M., Myers J.E.
Repeatability and validity of a field kit for estimation of cholinesterase in whole blood
This study evaluated a spectrophotometric field kit (Test-Mate-OP) for repeatability and validity in comparison with reference laboratory methods and to model its anticipated sensitivity and specificity based on these findings. Some 76 farm workers between the age of 20 and 55, of whom 30 were pesticide applicators exposed to a range of organophosphates in the preceding 10 days, had blood taken for plasma cholinesterase (PCE) and erythrocyte cholinesterase (ECE) measurement by field kit or laboratory methods. Field kit repeatability for PCE was much poorer and for ECE slightly poorer than that of laboratory measures. Field kit ECE estimation seems to be sufficiently repeatable for surveillance activities, whereas PCE does not. Repeatability of both tests seems to be too low for use in epidemiological dose-response investigations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.52, No.1, p.57-64. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-1437 Milne G.W.A.
CRC handbook of pesticides
This compilation provides information on 386 commonly used pesticide chemicals. Data includes: structural and molecular formula; CAS Registry Number and Merck Index Number; synonyms and trade names; physical properties; acute toxicity data (LD50 values for various animal species).
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA, 1995. vi, 402p. 4 ref. Index. Price: GBP 85.00.

CIS 96-885 Olsen G.W., Bodner K.M, Stafford B.A, Cartmill J.B., Gondek M.R.
Update of the mortality experience of employees with occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)
The mortality experience of a cohort of 548 workers involved in the production of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane from 1957 to 1975 was followed to 1989. There were 68 total observed deaths (compared with 72.1 expected), 19 deaths from all malignancies (19 expected), and seven deaths from lung cancer (6.6 expected); among the 81 workers with direct exposure direct for one or more years, there were three lung cancer deaths (0.9 expected). While the study does not suggest an increased risk for all malignant neoplasm mortality, conclusions are limited by the size of the cohort and duration of follow-up.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.28, No.3, p.399-410. 36 ref.

CIS 96-860 Weinbaum Z., Schenker M.B., O'Malley M.A., Gold E.B., Samuels S.J.
Determinants of disability in illnesses related to agricultural use of organophosphates (OPs) in California
Data on reported occupational illness related to organophosphate (OP) exposure in California were examined for the period 1984-1988. 878 cases of systemic illness and 199 cases of skin disease or eye injury were identified. Factors associated with severe systemic illness were identified as: contact with OP residue on commodities or in the field; mixing, loading and application activities; increased numbers of OPs per exposure; exposure to diethyl rather than dimethyl compounds. Results highlight factors to be targeted in the prevention or reduction of OP exposures.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.257-274. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-859 de Cock J., Heederik D., Hoek F., Boleij J., Kromhout H.
Urinary excretion of tetrahydropht[h]alimide in fruit growers with dermal exposure to captan
Uptake of captan by pesticide applicators was measured by urinary monitoring of its metabolite, tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). Respiratory and dermal exposures were estimated by personal air sampling and skin patches. Dermal exposure showed a clear relation to THPI in urine when exposure was estimated from skin pads on the ankles and neck. No relation was found for total dermal exposure or for respiratory exposure. Protection of the skin by using a cabin on the tractor and wearing rubber boots resulted in a lower uptake of captan. Results indicate that the skin is the major route of absorption and that there is an apparent contribution of specific body areas.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.245-256. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-950 Recommendations on the safe use of pesticides in ships
Recomendações sobre segurança no uso de pesticidas a bordo dos navios [in Portuguese]
Contents of this guidance document, translation of a publication by the International Maritime Organization (IMO): prevention of infestation by insects aboard ships; chemical insecticides and their utilization; prevention of infestation by rodents; national and international regulations of the use of pesticides in ships; safety precautions (pesticides; spaces and surfaces where pesticides have been sprayed; fumigation; particular precautions when insecticides are sprayed in cargo and cereal storage areas; exposure to toxic pesticides). In annex: appropriate pesticides for use in ships; TLVs for fumes of certain pesticides; warning sign for fumigation.
Direcção-Geral de Portos, Navegação e Transportes Marítimos, Inspecção de Navios e Segurança Marítima, Lisboa, Portugal, 1995. 41p. Illus.

CIS 96-904 Findlay A.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
The assessment of respiratory and dermal exposure to pesticides: A review of current practice
This literature survey reviews current pesticide application technology and methods for the assessment of respiratory and dermal exposures. Contents: properties and behaviour of airborne particulates; particulates generated by different methods of pesticide application; particulates generated during harvesting; factors likely to increase the inhalation hazard; sampling of airborne particulate matter; assessment of dermal exposure to pesticides; the process of skin absorption; assessing dermal exposure.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Oct. 1995. xiii, 67p. Illus. 126 ref.

CIS 96-773 Potashnik G., Porath A.
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP): A 17-year reassessment of testicular function and reproductive performance
15 men with DBCP-induced testicular dysfunction, and whose last contact with DBCP (nemagon) was 17 to 22 years ago, were periodically evaluated since initial diagnosis in 1977. Sperm count recovery was evident within 36 to 45 months of the last exposure in 3 of the 9 azoospermic and in 3 of the 6 oligozoospermic men with no improvement thereafter. An increase in plasma follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone and a decrease in testosterone level were detected in the severely affected individuals. There was no increase in the rate of spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations among pregnancies conceived during or after exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1995, Vol.37, No.11, p.1287-1292. 18 ref.

CIS 96-827 Koo D., Goldman L., Baron R.
Irritant dermatitis among workers cleaning up a pesticide spill - California 1991
Among a group of 42 county jail inmates who removed dead fish from a river following a spill of metam sodium, 27 had dermatitis involving the feet and ankles. Dermatitis was associated with lower extremity water contact; attack rate increased with time spent in the water. Workers who changed to dry clothing after the clean-up did not report dermatitis. The river concentration of methylisothiocyanate (the decomposition product of metam sodium and a known skin irritant) measured 20-40ppb at the time of exposure. It is suggested that prolonged wetness, occlusive boots, friction and heat contributed to the irritation at this low concentration.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 1995, Vol.27, No.4, p.545-553. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-288
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Phenylhydrazine
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in October 1993: acute phenylhydrazine intoxication in humans causes methaemoglobinaemia, cyanosis and haemolysis; severe intoxication results in changes to the pupils, motor unrest and convulsions. Phenylhydrazine vapour is highly irritating (dry cough). The substance is readily absorbed through undamaged skin and is a skin irritant. All clinical symptoms are reversible. There is evidence of a sensitizing effect. Carcinogenic effects have been observed in experimental animals.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. xv, 112p. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.

CIS 96-287
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Aminofen
Conclusions of this criteria document, translation of a report finalized in October 1992: no data are available on the effects of aminofen (4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)aniline) in humans; no sensitization effects have been observed during its manufacture. Animal studies indicate that it is of low to moderate toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. xv, 52p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: DEM: 48.00.

CIS 96-15 Regulation for the registration and control of toxic substances and of toxic and dangerous products [Costa Rica]
Reglamento de registro y control de sustancias tóxicas y productos tóxicos y peligrosos [Costa Rica] [in Spanish]
This Regulation of Costa Rica (No.24099-S, dated and effective 22 Dec. 1994) concerns the importation, manufacturing, rebottling, sale, distribution or administration of substances, products and objects judged to be dangerous due to their radioactive, flammable, corrosive or irritant nature or for any other reason. Defined are: role of the Department for the Control and Registration of Toxic Substances and for Occupational Medicine of the Ministry of Health, and of the Department of Environmental Control; information to be provided by importers, manufacturers etc. of toxic and dangerous substances and products (name and address of the company; name, properties and toxicity information of the substance or product; first aid and other emergency instructions); labelling requirements; updating of information on chemicals; importation, handling, use and storage requirements; emission of permits; technological emergencies; technical advisory services; prohibitions.
La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 21 Mar. 1995, Year 117, No.57, p.4-10.

CIS 96-14
Secretaría de Salud
Official Standard. Pesticides. Products for agricultural, forestry, stockkeeping, gardening, urban and industrial use. Labelling [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana. Plaguicidas. Productos para uso agrícola, forestal, pecuario, de jardinería, urbano e industrial. Etiquetado [México] [in Spanish]
This Standard (dated 22 Aug. 1995, effective Apr. 1996) contains information on the appropriate labelling of pesticides for occupational use. Summary: definitions; general characteristics of labels (colour coding: red for extremely toxic, yellow for very toxic, blue for moderately toxic, green for lightly toxic; other symbols and proportions of labels); particular characteristics of labels for pesticides for agricultural, forestry, stockkeeping, urban, gardening or industrial use; dimensions of labels.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 20 Oct. 1995, p.23-30. 6 ref.

CIS 96-13
Secretaría de Salud
Official Standard. Filling and packaging. Requirements for storage of pesticides in containers [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana. Envase y embalaje. Requisitos para contener plaguicidas [México] [in Spanish]
This Standard came into effect in Feb. 1996. Contents: definitions; requirements for filling pesticide containers (general, liquid pesticides, solid pesticides); requirements for packaging.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 23 Aug. 1995, p.63-66. 3 ref.

CIS 96-233 Sanderson W.T., Biagini R., Tolos W., Henningsen G., MacKenzie B., Ringenburg V.
Biological monitoring of commercial pesticide applicators for urine metabolites of the herbicide alachlor and evaluation of inhalation and skin exposure
Urine samples were collected at the beginning and end of the work shift and the morning after exposure from 20 herbicide applicators and seven hauler-mixers. Similar urine metabolite concentrations were observed for both groups, suggesting similar exposures to alachlor. Inhalation exposure, measured using personal air samplers, ranged from 0.32 to 6.4µg/m3. Skin deposition, estimated by patch sampling, hand- and glove-washes and surface wipes inside application vehicles, was highly variable; the hands were frequently exposed. Results indicate that commercial pesticide applicators encounter substantial exposures to alachlor and that proper precautions for reducing exposures are not always followed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1995, Vol.56, No.9, p.883-897. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 96-291 Pesticide incidents investigated in 1994/95
This report describes incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Division of the Health and Safety Executive in 1994-1995. Details provided include the activity in progress, the chemical being used, the number of people affected and a summary of the nature of the incident or complaint, including adverse health effects where applicable. Details of enforcement action are also provided.
Health and Safety Executive, Crop and Pesticides National Industry Group, Birkbeck House, Trinity Square, Nottingham NG1 4AU, United Kingdom, 1995. 73p.

CIS 96-267 Popendorf W., Selim M., Lewis M.Q.
Exposure while applying industrial antimicrobial pesticides
Assessments were made of dermal and/or inhalation chemical exposure while applying industrial antimicrobial pesticide products. Inhalation exposure was usually below the chemical limit of detection. Dermal exposure was assessed using dermal gauze dosimeters. Geometric mean total daily equivalent doses deposited on the skin were 1.8mg of product while pouring liquids, 3.4mg while pumping liquids, and 5.4mg while pouring solids (powder or flake products). Just as in the case of agricultural pesticides, the dermal route of exposure for these industrial pesticides is more important than the inhalation route; hand exposure can play a major role in dermal dose.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1995, Vol.56, No.10, p.993-1001. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 96-295 Guidelines for aid agencies on pest and pesticide management
Lignes directrices établies à l'intention des organismes d'aide pour la lutte contre les parasites et la gestion des pesticides [in French]
Contents of these guidelines: current situation on pesticide use, side-effects, pesticide management capabilities and the role of aid agencies in developing countries; promoting integrated pest management as the preferred approach to pest control; strengthening pesticide management policies and capabilities; ensuring good practices when providing pesticides under aid programmes. In annex: background information on integrated pest management and pesticide management.
OECD Publications, 2 rue André Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1995. 48p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-2149 Ilan O., Rishpon J.
Biosensor applications for pesticide monitoring. Part 1. Combined electrochemical-microgravimetric biosensor and its application for pesticides detection and measurement
A combined electrochemical-microgravimetric system based on the use of enzymatic reactions (employing the acetyl cholinesterase enzyme) was able to measure an organophosphorus insecticide (DDVP or Dichlorvos) at concentrations much lower than the ACGIH-recommended Threshold Limit Value. For instance, good reproductibility was obtained at 50% enzyme inhibition, and the sensitivity for DDVP was as low as 1x10-5 mole/L in an aqueous phase. The enzyme electrode showed good regeneration behaviour, and the use of the combined method greatly improved the reliability of the measurements. The use of enzyme-electrode measurements in occupational hygiene measurements is discussed.
Israel Journal of Occupational Health, 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.57-74. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 95-2156 Sharpe C.R., Franco E.L., Camargo B., Lopes L.F., Barreto J.H., Johnsson R.R., Mauad M.A.
Parental exposure to pesticides and risk of Wilms' tumor in Brazil
Wilms' tumour is one of the most common abdominal childhood malignancies. The authors collected information on relevant occupational exposures by interviewing the parents of 109 Wilms' tumour cases admitted to hospitals in 4 Brazilian cities. Also interviewed were the parents of 218 age- and sex-matched control children admitted to the same or nearby hospitals. Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for income and education were calculated by conditional logistic regression. Consistently elevated risks were seen for farm work involving frequent use of pesticides by both the father (OR=3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-9.0) and the mother (OR=128.6, 95% CI 6.4-2,569). These risk elevations were restricted to cases diagnosed after 2 years of age (ORs > 4), for paternal exposure, and after 4 years of age (OR=14.8, 95% CI 2.2-98.8), for maternal exposure. Risk elevations were also more pronounced among boys than among girls.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1 Feb. 1995, Vol.141, No.3, p.210-217. 27 ref.

CIS 95-2023 Rojas Trejos J.F.
Manual on the prevention of hazards during the utilization of pesticides
Manual de prevención de riesgos en el uso de plaguicidas [in Spanish]
Teaching manual on the safe use of pesticides. Contents: general information on pesticides and their hazards; toxicity of pesticides; hazards of use (toxicity, exposure period and concentration, ways of entry into the organism, individual susceptibility); preventive measures; first aid. In annex: recommendations for the cleaning of protective clothing; table presenting pesticides of various chemical classes, together with their effects on the health and the environment; formulation codes.
Instituto Nacional de Seguros, San José, Costa Rica, 1995. 25p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 95-2022 Ortega Vincenzi D., Soto Brenes C.M.
Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura
Environmental and agricultural education: Practical didactic guide for teachers - Pesticides
Educación ambiental y agropecuaria: Guía didáctica para el docente - Plaguicidas [in Spanish]
Illustrated teacher's guide to pesticide safety. Vol.I contains teaching material for grades 1-3, while Vol.II contains teaching material for grades 4-6. Also included is information on: labelling of pesticides; use of pesticides in Costa Rica; relevant legislation in Costa Rica; registration and control; diagnosis and treatment of poisoning by pesticides; glossary of terms used.
Cámara Insumos Agropecuarios, Apdo.:691 - 2150 Moravia, San José, Costa Rica, 1991 (I), 1995 (II). 2 vols. 106+121p. Illus. 17+26 ref.

CIS 95-1773 Lessenger J.E.
A rash and chemical burns in a cowboy exposed to permethrin
A case report is presented of a cowboy suffering from eczema and chemical burns on his arm and shoulder following misuse of a fly spray containing the pesticide permethrin. The patient used an underdiluted formulation and wore a long sleeve shirt which became soaked during the spraying. The case highlights the need to ascertain the history of a patient presenting with a rash and to ask about chemical exposure.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.3, p.25-28. 7 ref.

CIS 95-1778 Archibald B.A., Solomon K.R., Stephenson G.R.
Estimation of pesticide exposure to greenhouse applications using video imaging and other assessment techniques
Pesticide exposure in greenhouse applicators was measured using the video imaging technique to assess exposure (VITAE) along with dermal patches, air monitoring and biological assessment techniques. The exposure of 5 male workers to pesticides during high- and low-volume application methods was studied. The highest level of dermal tracer deposition occurred when there was failure to use precautionary handling methods during low-volume applications. In general, there was non-uniform deposition of tracer/pesticide mixtures on various body regions, which goes against the assumption of uniform deposition when assessing exposure with the dermal patch technique. Estimates of exposure to a pesticide (pirimicarb) using the VITAE method had a high correlation with the excretion of urinary metabolites. The immediate visual results obtained by the VITAE system were a powerful educational tool for persuading workers to adopt precautionary application techniques. The need to employ protective operating procedures was demonstrated, no matter how short the exposure period.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1995, Vol.56, No.3, p.226-235. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 95-1700 Maizlish N.A., Rudolph L.A., Dervin K.A.
A survey of California pest control advisers: Occupational health and safety implications
A survey of licensed pest control advisors in California was undertaken to investigate current practices and their implications for the health and safety of pesticide workers. Advisors ranked effectiveness of pest control and worker health and safety as the top concerns when selecting pest control materials; a need for more useful non-chemical alternatives was identified. Following the ban on the use of parathion, most advisors planned to substitute either insecticides of similar toxicity or less toxic organophosphates or carbamates. Large-scale expansion of integrated pest control management and substitution of chemical pesticides are recommended.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.41-55. 11 ref.

CIS 95-1740 Lessenger J.E.
Postulated interaction between hydroxychloroquine and cholinesterase enzyme activity: A case report
A case study is presented of a pesticide applicator with depressed cholinesterase levels which returned to normal following removal from organophosphate spraying. When the subject started taking hydroxychloroquine for treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, his serum cholinesterase levels were again low. In the absence of any other causes, it is postulated that the hydroxychloroquine was responsible for the depression of serum cholinesterase levels. Physicians should be aware of causes of cholinesterase activity depression other than organophosphate poisoning.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1995, Vol.2, No.2, p.5-12. 13 ref.

CIS 95-1185 Pesticides - The Plant Protection Products Regulations 1995 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations implement in Great Britain various directives of the European Communities relating to plant protection products, of which 91/414/EEC (variously modified) is the most important. The sale of plant protection products is tied to an authorization system, whose rules have been made uniform within the European Economic Area (EEA). The inclusion of active substances (i.e. plant protection products) which were already on the market on 26 July 1993 are subject to a rolling review programme and they may be placed on the market until they are reviewed. Authorizations may also be granted for short periods in the event of an emergency or for purposes of testing. Provisions are made for data protection and confidentiality safeguards, as well as for the sharing of information between applicants and holders of previous authorizations of the same products in order to avoid duplication of animal tests. Requirements for labelling and packaging are stated. The Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-23) shall not apply to products approved under these Regulations. In annex: information that may not be treated as confidential by the authorities from which authorization is requested; labelling requirements (in detail).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 22p. Price: GBP 4.15.

CIS 95-1451 Thomson W.T.
Agricultural chemicals (I: Insecticides; II: Herbicides; III: Miscellaneous agricultural chemicals; IV: Fungicides)
Four-volume manual of basic data on agricultural chemicals, with information on those available commercially, as well as on many still undergoing experimental investigation. The chemicals are listed in groups of related compounds. For each substance, the following information is provided: names (common/trade names as well as the chemical name); structural and chemical formula; origin (the company that has done most of the development work on the substance or preparation; year of patenting or placing on the market); toxicity (LD50, usually in mg/kg in white rats, lowest value found in the literature); formulation; phytotoxicity; uses (EPA listing in the US); recommended usage rates (lower and upper limits, on a per-acre or per-ha basis, with concentrations given per 100 gallons (380L) of water); important diseases/pests controlled or prevented; application (general guidance only); precautions; related mixtures or compounds. In annex: information on sprayer calibration; useful formulae for spraying; conversion tables for units of measure; addresses of manufacturers. Contents of the volumes: I - insecticides; II - herbicides; III - fumigants, growth regulators, seed safeners, repellents, fish and bird toxicants, pheromones, rodenticides, etc.; IV - fungicides.
Thomson Publications, P.O. Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA, 1993 (Vols. II and IV), 1994 (Vol.I), 1995 (Vol.III). 4vols. (xxii, 278p. + xxi, 308p. + xx, 209p. + xvi, 226p.). Illus. Indexes.

CIS 95-946 Carvalheiro M.F., Peterson Y., Rubenowitz E., Rylander R.
Bronchial reactivity and work-related symptoms in farmers
Work-related respiratory symptoms and bronchial reactivity were studied in 76 never-smoking farmers and in a control group not exposed to organic dusts. The farmers were divided into those working with vegetables or grain crops, with animals but not swine, and with swine. The extent of symptoms was evaluated with a specific organic dust questionnaire. Bronchial reactivity was assessed with the methacholine challenge test. An increased incidence of organic dust toxic syndrome, mucous membrane irritation (MMI) and chronic bronchitis (CB) was found among farmers working with swine or other animals. Pulmonary function baseline values were normal. Bronchial reactivity was increased and related to subjective symptoms of MMI and CB. There was also a relation between fatigue at work and bronchial reactivity.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.65-74. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 95-1065
Health and Safety Commission
The safe use of pesticides for non-agricultural purposes - Approved Code of Practice
This code of practice provides guidance on the control of exposure to pesticides at work with respect to the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-19). Contents: scope, application, interpretation and definitions; duties; hazard assessment; prevention or control of exposure; use and maintenance of control measures; monitoring exposure; health surveillance; information, instruction and training; record keeping. An appendix provides guidance on the safe disposal of pesticides. Updates previous edition (see CIS 91-1975).
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. v, 46p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 6.95.

1994

CIS 99-1768 Royal Decree 443/1994 of 11 Mar. 1994 amending the technical and health regulation on the manufacture, sale and use of pesticides [Spain]
Real Decreto 443-1994, de 11 de marzo, por el que se modifica la reglamentación técnico-sanitaria para la fabricación, comercialización y utilización de los pesticidas [España] [in Spanish]
For Royal Decree of 30 Nov. 1983, see CIS 96-1190. Topics: agricultural chemicals; law; licensing new products; pesticides; Spain; toxic substances.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 30 Mar. 1994, No.76, p.10135-10136.

CIS 99-1081 Order of 4 Feb. 1994 prohibiting the sale and use of pesticides for environmental use containing certain dangerous active ingredients [Spain]
Orden de 4 de febrero de 1994 por la que se prohibe la comercialización y utilización de plaguicidas de uso ambiental que contienen determinados ingredientes activos peligrosos [España] [in Spanish]
Topics: agricultural chemicals; dangerous substances; law; pesticides; prohibition of use; Spain.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 17 Feb. 1994, No.41, p.5132.

CIS 99-1080 Royal Decree 280/1994 of 18 February establishing maximum limits for pesticide residues and their control in certain products of vegetable origin [Spain]
Real Decreto 280/1994, de 18 de febrero, por el que se establecen los límites máximos de residuos de plaguicidas y su control en determinados productos de origen vegetal [España] [in Spanish]
Annex II concerning definitions and maximum limits of pesticide residues has been modified by the Orders of 26 August 1997 (CIS 99-1082) and of 25 September 1997 (CIS 99-1083). Topics: agricultural chemicals; food contamination; law; limitation of exposure; pesticides; plant products; Spain.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 9 Mar. 1994, No.58, p.7723-7726. + Annexes, supplement to No.58, p.1-109.

CIS 99-1079 Royal Decree 2163/1994 of 4 November establishing the Community harmonized system of authorization for the sale and use of crop protection products [Spain]
Real Decreto 2163/1994, de 4 de noviembre, por el que se implanta el sistema armonizado comunitario de autorización para comercializar y utilizar productos fitosanitarios [España] [in Spanish]
Topics: agricultural chemicals; approval; crop protection; information of personnel; law; notification of dangerous substances; pesticides; Spain; supply of information; warning notices.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 18 Nov. 1994, No.276, p.35452-35463.

CIS 98-1402
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Amitrole
Summaries in French and Spanish. Topics: agricultural chemicals; aminotriazole; carcinogenic effects; criteria document; IPCS; literature survey; thyroid disorders; toxic effects; toxicology.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 123p. Illus. Approx. 270 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries).

CIS 98-1401
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Carbaryl
Summaries in French and Spanish. Topics: agricultural chemicals; carbaryl; central nervous system; cholinesterase monitoring; criteria document; IPCS; literature survey; neurotoxic effects; skin absorption; toxic effects; toxicology; urinary metabolites.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. 358p. Illus. Approx. 700 ref. Price: CHF 51.00 (CHF 35.70 in developing countries).

CIS 97-568 Maroni M., Bersani M.
The role of biotransformation in assessing the toxicological risk from pesticides
Ruolo della biotrasformazione nella valutazione del rischio tossicologico da pesticidi [in Italian]
The knowledge of metabolic processes and the measurement of metabolites of pesticides are fundamental for the evaluation of their toxic effects and of their persistence in the environment and biological tissues. In this review atrazine is discussed as an example of an environmental pollutant undergoing biotransformation processes.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1994, Vol.85, No.1, p.49-54. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 97-234 Kundiev Y.
Health, safety and ergonomic aspects in use of chemicals in agriculture and forestry
These proceedings of an international symposium held on 8-11 June 1993 in Kiev, Ukraine, deal with pesticide use in agriculture and forestry. Some topics discussed in the 29 papers: international perspectives in the safe use of pesticides; trends in the development of new pesticides; the IRPTC databank; safe use of pesticides in forestry; ergonomics in agrarian reform; metabolic degradation of pesticides; EC rules for pesticides and their residues; mechanisms of acute poisoning of agricultural workers by pesticides after re-entry; cardiac work-load on pesticide workers; pesticide residues after spraying in greenhouses; holistic approach to exposure risk assessment; pre-screening methods for the evaluation of pesticide carcinogenicity; delayed neurotoxic effects of combinations of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides; morbidity and mortality among alachlor manufacturing workers; pesticide biomonitoring; evaluation of hazard from the combined effects of triazine herbicides and sodium nitrite using cytochromes P-450; combined action of pesticides; modifying effect of formulation components on δ-methrin activity; health effects of polymers used in forestry; detoxication of organochlorine compounds in agrobiocenosis; chromatographic methods for the determination of microquantities of organic substances; membrane toxicity as a marker of adverse effects.
Institute for Occupational Health, 75, Saksagansky St., Kiev, Ukraine, 1994. v 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-2201 Knopp D.
Assessment of exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid in the chemical industry - Results of a five year biological monitoring study
There is little information on individual exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in the herbicide manufacturing industry. In general, the only method used for exposure evaluation is air monitoring, which cannot provide an exact measurement of personal absorption of the product, some of which is through the skin. This study is a report on the measurement of urinary excretion of 2,4-D in 27 men and 18 women who had been exposed to the herbicide during its manufacturing process for 5 years. It is shown that immunochemical determination of 2,4-D in urine is a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive method for evaluating human exposure to this product.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1994, Vol.51, No.3, p.152-159. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 96-812 Scassellati Sforzolini G., Moretti M., Villarini M., Angeli G., Pasquini R., Monarca S., Scarselli R., Crea M.G., Leonardis C.
An evaluation of toxic and genotoxic risk from work-related exposure to chemical compounds
Valutazione del rischio tossico e genotossico da eposizione professionale a composti chimici [in Italian]
A series of investigations was conducted to test the genotoxic and enzyme-inducing activity of deltamethrin (decamethrin), in order to contribute to its risk assessment in occupational exposure to pesticides. Using in-vitro methods, its mutagenic activity was tested on procaryotic cells (Ames test) and eucaryotic cells (cytogenetic tests, DNA damage). With in-vivo experiments on rats, various enzyme activities were determined to investigate the capability of deltamethrin to act as "co-mutating/co-cancerogenous" agent and/or "promoter" of carcinogenic processes. The results allow to state that pure deltamethrin, while negative in the Ames test, is capable of damaging the DNA and increasing the frequency of micronuclei in human lymphocytes, requiring therefore the monitoring of such an indicator in the exposed workers. Both the pure and commercial product are able to alter cell metabolism in various ways, with a potential "indirect" genotoxic risk.
Prevenzione oggi, Oct.-Dec. 1994, Vol.6, N°4, p.125-138. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 96-862 de Cock J., Westveer K., Heederik D., Te Velde E., Van Kooij R.
Time to pregnancy and occupational exposure to pesticides in fruit growers in the Netherlands
This explorative study investigates the relation between exposure of the fruit grower to pesticides and fecundability (probability of pregnancy) in a population of fruit growers. The analysis was based on self-reported data and included 91 pregnancies during 1978-1990 of 43 couples. Cox' proportional hazards model was used to analyze time to pregnancy after correction for gravidity and consultation with a physician for fertility problems. Application of pesticides solely by the owner was associated with a long time to pregnancy, resulting in a fecundability ratio of 0.46. Similarly a low spraying velocity resulted in a fecundability ratio of 0.47 and was associated with the use of older spraying techniques and tractors without a cabin. The effect of high exposure was mainly apparent if the couple had intended to become pregnant in the period from March-November (fecundability ratio 0.42). In the high exposure group 28% of the pregnancies had been preceded by consulting a physician because of fertility problems, compared with 8% in the low exposure group. These findings indicate that an adverse effect of exposure to pesticides on fecundability is likely.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1994, Vol.51, No.10, p.693-699. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 96-529 Health risks in pesticide formulation facilities
Riesgos para la salud en plantas de formulación de plaguicidas [in Spanish]
Training guide to the safe formulation of pesticides. Contents: generalities; types of pesticides (by application, specific effect, acute toxicity, chemical group); health hazards; relevant standards in Spain and the European Communities and exposure limits; formulation of pesticides; study of current conditions in pesticide formulation facilities; results of the study: the questionnaire study, control of hygienic conditions (ventilation, personal protection), final products (active ingredients, toxicological categories, chemical groups, toxicity, pesticidal properties, physical state of the product, labelling, formulation procedures); basic safety procedures.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 177p. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 96-861 Methner M.M., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide exposure during greenhouse applications. Part I: Dermal exposure reduction due to directional ventilation and worker training; Part II: Chemical permeation through protective clothing in contact with treated foliage
Workers conducted benchtop handgunning spray operations in commercial greenhouses with the ventilation system either on or off. Both video-imaging analysis and patch sampling indicated that when spray painting occurred with ventilation on rather than off, dermal exposure was reduced for experienced applicators, but increased for inexperienced applicators. No difference was observed between the two groups with ventilation off. Protective clothing performance was evaluated with particular reference to the hazard of contact with wet or treated foliage. Breakthrough times for four commercially available garments are reported. It was concluded that none of the garments can be considered chemical resistant under the use conditions observed. Contact with treated foliage represents a special hazard during greenhouse applications, and many chemical protective clothing products in current use are inadequate for worker protection. These products should be redesigned and field-tested.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 1994, Vol.9, No.8, p.560-574. Illus. 49 ref.

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