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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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CIS 01-519
Health and Safety Executive
Medical aspects of work-related exposures to organophosphates
This guidance note is to inform doctors and other health professionals about the health effects of exposure to organophosphates and the role of biological monitoring and health surveillance of exposed workers. Main topics covered: routes of absorption and potential occupational sources of exposure; pharmacology and toxicology; clinical manifestations of organophosphate poisoning; requirements of COSHH; biological monitoring (measurement of urinary metabolites as an index of exposure and measurement of cholinesterase activity as an index of uptake and effect); health surveillance; management (acute and chronic toxicity); notification of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Mar. 2000. 8p. 10 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.

CIS 01-509
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1999/2000
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between April 1999 and March 2000. 254 incidents were investigated; 83 of these alleged ill health, while 171 environmental and other complaints did not allege ill health. Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and 7 case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2000. 25p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 01-151 Boman A., Montelius J., Rissanen R.L., Lidén C.
Sensitizing potential of chlorothalonil in the guinea pig and the mouse
Chlorothalonil is extensively used for the protection of horticultural and fruit crops against fungal infections. It is also used in wood preservation and as a preservative in paints. Clinical experience has shown chlorothalonil to be a contact allergen and several cases of allergic contact dermatitis attributed to chlorothalonil have been described. Two previous guinea pig maximization test studies have shown the sensitizing potential of chlorothalonil to be high. The sensitizing property of chlorothalonil was studied with the predictive test methods, the local lymph node assay and the cumulative contact enhancement test. In the local lymph node assay, chlorothalonil induced a dose-dependent increase in proliferation with a maximal stimulation index of 19.2 and 27.2. In the cumulative contact enhancement test, a dose-dependent high sensitization rate was seen with a maximal sensitization rate of 100%. In conclusion, chlorothalonil is an extremely potent contact allergen, inducing sensitization simply from topical exposure on intact skin.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2000, Vol.43, No.5, p.273-279. Illus. 35 ref.

CIS 00-1258 Boehncke A., Koennecker G., Mangelsdorf I., Wibbertmann A.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
2-Nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol are used as intermediates in the synthesis of a number of organophosphorus pesticides and some medical products. 2-Nitrophenol is slightly irritant to the skin. In acute toxicity studies on animals 4-nitrophenol was found to be more toxic than 2-nitrophenol. Workers may be exposed to 2- and 4-nitrophenol via inhalation and skin contact. Animal tests showed no carcinogenic effects nor significant reproductive effects. The appropriate International Chemical Safety Card (ICSC) is given. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 39p. 165 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries). [in English]

CIS 00-479 Ohayo-Mitoko G.J.A., Kromhout H., Simwa J.M., Boleij J.S.M., Heederik D.
Self reported symptoms and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity among Kenyan agricultural workers
The objective was to assess health hazards posed by pesticides on agricultural workers in Africa. Complete data were available for 256 exposed subjects and 152 controls from four regions in Kenya, who were given a structured questionnaire. Prevalence ratios were estimated for symptoms with changes in cholinesterase activity in serum. A significant change in symptom prevalence was found in the controls with a higher prevalence in the low-exposure period. Analysis of the relation between cholinesterase inhibition and symptoms showed that prevalence ratios were significantly >1 for respiratory, eye and central nervous system symptoms for workers with >30% inhibition. The results suggest a relation between exposure and acetylcholinesterase inhibition, acetylcholinesterase activity, and respiratory, eye, and central nervous system symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2000, Vol.57, No.3, p.195-200. 33 ref.


CIS 03-694 Bargieł H.
Use of personal protective equipment in the agricultural sector
Środki ochrony indywidualnej do stosowania w rolnictwie [in Polish]
Contents of this booklet on personal protective equipment in the agricultural sector: dangerous chemicals to which agricultural workers are exposed; methods of choosing personal protective equipment; types and use of personal protective equipment; methods of maintenance and storage. It also includes a list of the different types of personal protective equipment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 118p. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 03-789 León M.C.
Respiratory risks of wood production processes
Riesgos respiratorios en los procesos productivos de la madera [in Spanish]
Respiratory risks due to various wood production processes are listed. Exposure to wood dust is associated with sinusitis, asthma, infectious respiratory diseases and irritation of the respiratory tract leading to rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Exposure to wood impregnation or treatment products (ammonia, phenolic resins, organic solvents and fungicides) induces a series of disorders. The importance of wearing protective gloves and clothes as well as respirators is emphasized.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.45, No.268, p.24-29. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 03-305 Somavía J., He F., Chen S., Nguyen A.N., Dang Q.N., Saiyed H.N., Bhatnagar V.K., Kashyap R., Maroni M., Colosio C., Fait A., Visentin S., Kangas J., Tuomainen A., Lehtinen S., Fulekar M.H.
This issue is primarily devoted to the theme of pesticides. Contents: health effects of pesticide exposure and approaches to prevention; good practices in the use of pesticides in agricultural production; impact of pesticide use in India; health effects of occupational exposure to pesticides in developing countries and strategies for prevention; occupational exposure and biological monitoring of pesticides. Other topic: problems relating to the import of hazardous wastes and their handling in ports in India.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 1999, Vol.6, No.3, p.59-83 (whole issue). Illus. 77 ref.

CIS 02-367 Obiols Quinto J.
Organophosphorus pesticides (I): General aspects and toxicokinetics
Plaguicidas organofosforados (I): aspectos generales y toxicocinética [in Spanish]
Main topics covered in this information note on organophosphorus pesticides: major chemical properties; groups of persons potentially exposed; routes of exposure (skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion); effectiveness of protective clothing; exposure levels in various agricultural tasks; toxicokinetics, including induced muscarinic and nicotinic effects; main urinary metabolites (see also CIS 02-368).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 02-307 Pomorska K.
General evaluation of risk associated with the use of pesticides and other chemical substances on animal breeding and plant production farms
The general characteristics of chemical risk on farms in Poland are presented. The paper describes the risk associated with the natural occurrence of chemicals (such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) in the process of animal breeding and the risk connected with the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are briefly described taking into consideration toxicity classes and toxic effects. Exposure to pesticides is presented for individual methods and related activities. Finally, the risk of exposure to pesticides in orchards and greenhouses is discussed.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.449-457. 17 ref.

CIS 01-1477 Michalak H., Hahn A., Begemann K., Heinemeyer G., Gundert-Remy U.
Health impairment upon exposure to products predominantly containing organophosphates and pyrethroids - Comparative evaluation of notifications of poisoning by physicians
Gesundheitliche Beeinträchtigungen bei Expositionen mit überwiegend Organophosphat- und Pyrethroid-haltigen Produkten - Vergleichende Auswertungen der ärztlichen Mitteilungen bei Vergiftungen [in German]
A total of 474 cases of exposure in Germany to insecticides containing organophosphates (OP) and/or pyrethroids (PY) were evaluated. Symptoms were analysed and attributed to acute and chronic exposure. Acute OP exposure produces typical known symptoms: miosis, dyspnoea, arrhythmia, shock and possibly coma. Acute PY exposure produces skin and eye irritation, and respiratory disturbances. It is concluded that acute exposure to OP and PY leads to effects that can be explained as acute poisoning. After chronic exposures, the symptoms developed may be induced by different processes.
Umweltmedizin in Forschung und Praxis, June 1999, Vol.4, No.3, p.134-143. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 01-1319 Flutolanil
Flutolanil [in French]
Flutolanil [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Decomposition on burning giving rise to toxic and corrosive fumes. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1317 Flocoumafen
Flocoumafen [in French]
Flocoumafen [in Spanish]
International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: haematological effects (impairment of blood clotting); effects may be delayed. No TLV has been established.
On the Internet site cts/icsc/index.htm ; Spanish version also from: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p.

CIS 01-1124 Tuomisto J., Hagmar L.
Environmental health in the east Baltic region - Pesticides and persistent organic compounds
Exposure to, and the potential effects of, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the East Baltic region are reviewed. Exposure of the average population to chlorinated compounds seems lower than in most of western Europe and current pesticide use is very low. The low exposure of the general population is indicated by low concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in milk fat. However, some organic pesticides have been found at higher concentrations in Baltic countries and the St Petersburg area than in Norway. Thus the overall risk caused by pesticide residues and persistent organic compounds in the Baltic countries and northwestern Russia is low, but local sites of concern exist.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.65-71. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 01-624 Official Mexican Standard - Agricultural activities - Use of plant protection products, pesticides and fertilizers - Safety and health conditions [Mexico]
Norma Oficial Mexicana: actividades agrícolas - Uso de insumos fitosanitarios o plaguicidas e insumos de nutrición vegetal o fertilizantes - Condiciones de seguridad y higiene [México] [in Spanish]
This standard (entry into force: 28 June 2000) outlines the conditions for the safe use in agriculture of dangerous substances, such as plant protection products, pesticides and fertilizers.
Diario Oficial de la Federación, 28 Dec. 1999, Vol.45, No.20, p.39-51. 18 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 01-187
Health and Safety Executive
Dermal exposure to non-agricultural pesticides - Exposure assessment document
Skin can be an important route to systemic dose and may be a target organ itself. This exposure assessment document presents data on dermal exposure to non-agricultural pesticides such as public hygiene insecticides, remedial biocides, industrial timber preservatives and antifouling preparation. Topics covered: exposure measurements; design of exposure studies; dermal exposure data; risk assessment; modified seven patch method for determining occupational dermal exposure.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. iv, 46p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 01-259
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a bacterium that has the ability to produce protein parasporal cystalline inclusions, which are toxic to the larvae of certain insect species. It is also a source of genes for transgenic expression of pest resistance. Bt is used in some pesticide formulations, resulting in respiratory and skin exposure to agricultural workers. Field studies indicate no adverse health effects from Bt exposure, and given the mode of action of Bt products, they are unlikely to pose any hazard to humans and vertebrates, or to non-target invertebrates. Contents include: biological properties and analytical methods; mode of action on target insects; habitats; commercial production; effects on animals; exposure and effects on humans; evaluation of human health risks and effects on the environment. Summaries in French and in Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. xv, 105p. Approx. 320 ref. Price: CHF 27.00 (CHF 18.90 in developing countries).

CIS 01-176 Rambourg Schepens M.O.
Fongicides [in French]
Topics: amines; arsenic and compounds; carbamates; captan; folpet; 2,4,5,6-tetrachloroisophthalonitrile; dinocap; methyl bromide; potassium permanganate; quintozene; biphenyl; chromium and compounds; crop protection; data sheet; diazines; encyclopaedia; food industry; France; fungicides; guanidines; health hazards; mercury and compounds; organotin compounds; permissible levels; poisoning; preservatives; quinones; triazines; warehousing.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1999, No.122, 7p. 57 ref.

CIS 00-1702
Health and Safety Executive
Safe use of rodenticides on farms and holdings
Topics: agriculture; data sheet; rodenticides; safe working methods; storage; toxic substances; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Jan. 1999. 4p. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1688
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1998/99
Topics: accident descriptions; agriculture and forestry; case study; enforcement; occupational accidents; pesticides; report; severity rates; statistical trends; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1999. 26p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1273 Prado Alves Filho J., Garcia Garcia E.
The worker's ABC - Accident prevention when using pesticides
Cartilha do trabalhador - Prevenção de acidentes no uso de agrotóxicos [in Portuguese]
This booklet aimed at agricultural workers gives basic guidance on how to avoid health hazards when using agricultural chemicals. Main topics covered: different classes of agricultural chemicals (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, raticides, acaricides, nematocides); exposure routes (skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion); symptoms and action in the case of intoxication; safe handling of agricultural chemicals (personal protective equipment, recommendations for application); personal hygiene; label colours for different toxicological classes.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1999. 12p. Illus.

CIS 00-1318 Persson B., Fredrikson M.
Some risk factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
This study is a pooled analysis of two earlier methodologically similar case-referent studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Exposure information was obtained by mailed questionnaires to the subjects. Exposure to white spirits, thinners and aviation gasoline as well as work as a lumberjack were connected with increased odds ratios significant at the 95% CI level, whereas no increased risk was noted for benzene. Logistic odd ratios (LORs) were significantly greater than 1 for exposure to phenoxy herbicides and plastic and rubber chemicals, and for contact with unusual pets. Office employment and housework showed significantly decreased LORs. This study indicates the importance of investigating exposures not occurring very frequently. Solvents were studied as a group of compounds but were also separated into various specific compounds. The present findings suggest that the carcinogenic property of solvents is not only related to aromatics or benzene, but also to other types.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.12, No.2, p.135-142. 13 ref.

CIS 00-1072 Krüger E., Straube E.
Exposure of pesticide applicators as a basis for risk assessment
Expositionsumfang bei Pflanzenschutzmittelapplikatoren als Grundlage für die Abschätzung der Belastung [in German]
The number of hours of exposure and the types of pesticides sprayed by workers on twelve farms in the Land of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, were determined. These data were collected for 28, 27 and 30 workers in the years 1995, 1996 and 1997. The total hours of exposure in those years ranged from 28 to 727 in 1995, from 4 to 906 in 1996 and from 1 to 983 in 1997. With an average of 56 hours of exposure in the 3 years, pesticides containing pyrethroids as active ingredients were applied the most often. They were followed by carbamate pesticides with an average of 48 hours of exposure over the 3 years and the organophosphorus pesticides with an average 3-year exposure of 38 hours. Only a small proportion of the applied pesticides belonged to the highly toxic or toxic groups. Herbicides were the most frequently used pesticides. From the widely varying extent of individual exposures and types of pesticides used by each worker it is concluded that personal sampling is needed to find the true exposure of each worker.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 1999, Vol.49, No.10, p.367-372. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 00-967
Health and Safety Executive
Reporting incidents of exposure to pesticides and veterinary medicines
Topics: agriculture and forestry; industrial physicians; legal aspects; legislation; notification of occupational accidents; pesticides; pharmaceutical products; responsibilities of employers; training material; United Kingdom; veterinary assistants; veterinary services.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Feb. 1999. 16p. Illus.

CIS 00-1095 Farm chemicals handbook '99
Update of a manual on fertilizers and pesticides, previously abstracted as CIS 95-270. Topics: agricultural chemicals; biological insecticides; crop protection; directory; environmental pollution; fertilizers; first aid; legislation; list of chemical substances; pesticides; safe working methods; toxic effects; USA; uses.
Meister Publishing Company, Annuals Department, 37733 Euclid Avenue, Willoughby, OH 44094, USA, 1999. Vol.85, 969p. Illus. Price: USD 92.00.

CIS 00-1050 Leng G., Lewalter J.
Role of individual susceptibility in risk assessment of pesticides
This study presents criteria for assessing the individual pesticide burden of workers in the chemical industry. A group of 1003 workers exposed to methylparathion or ethylparathion (alkyl phosphates), propoxur (carbamate) or cyfluthrin (pyrethroid) was investigated. After exposure, plasma concentrations of the products or their metabolites, p-nitrophenol concentration in urine, and activities of cholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase were measured. At the same propoxur concentration, only workers with a low individual acetylcholinesterase activity reported symptoms. Workers who metabolized cyfluthrin rapidly reported fewer symptoms than workers with a lower rate of metabolism. This tendency was also evident in cases of mixed exposure (cyfluthrin and methylparathion). In the assessment of exposure to pesticides, susceptibility of the individual person has to be considered.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1999, Vol.56, No.7, p.449-453. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 00-1071 Quandt S.A., Austin C.K., Arcury T.A., Summers M.E., Saavedra R.M.
Agricultural chemical safety training materials for farm workers: Review and annotated bibliography
Preventing or reducing exposure to agricultural chemicals is an important focus for health educators serving migrant and seasonal farmworkers and their families. The development of the US Environmental Protection Agency Worker Protection Standard requiring that farmworkers receive pesticide-related training created a demand for culturally appropriate and effective training materials, yet no compendium of such materials exists. This paper reports the results of a search for and evaluation of training materials designed for use with farmworkers. There is considerable redundancy in the training materials currently available to health educators. Few items address the health issue of chemical residues in the fields, an important source of low-level chronic chemical exposure for farmworkers. There are no published evaluations of the effectiveness of any of the materials. This review suggests the need for further development and testing of appropriate training materials to reduce the exposure of farmworkers to agricultural chemicals.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.1, p.3-24. 19 ref.

CIS 00-724 Cantor K.P., Silbermann W.
Mortality among aerial pesticide applicators and flight instructors: Follow-up from 1965-1988
A retrospective cohort mortality study of male aerial pesticide applicators was extended beyond a previous study (1965-1979) through December 31, 1988. Rate ratios (RRs) were used to compare directly adjusted mortality rates between applicators and a comparison cohort of flight instructors. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for comparisons with the U.S. white male population. In both groups, aircraft accidents were the major cause of death. Compared with flight instructors, aerial applicator pilots were at significantly elevated risk for all causes of death (risk ratio = 1.34) and for malignant neoplasms (1.18), non-motor vehicle accidents (1.71), motor vehicle accidents (1.69) and stroke (1.91). Pancreatic cancer (2.71) and leukaemia (3.35) were significantly elevated. Applicators were at lower risk of colon cancer (0.51) and multiple myeloma (0.23) mortality. Based on U.S. rates, the SMR for all causes of death among applicators was 111 and among instructors, 81.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1999, Vol.36, No.2, p.239-247. 42 ref.

CIS 00-481 Tielemans E., Louwerse E., de Cock J., Brouwer D., Zielhuis G., Heederik D.
Exposure to fungicides in fruit growing: Re-entry time as a predictor for dermal exposure
Dermal exposure to the fungicides captan and tolylfluanid was measured among workers in the fruit-growing sector using cotton gloves (12 persons) and skin pads on several body parts (12 persons). For harvesting activities, re-entry time appeared to be an important determinant of dermal exposure to captan and tolylfluanid. For captan, calculated half-life times from the most recent exposure survey were lower (glove data: 5 days; pad data: 6 days) compared with half-life times based on another study conducted recently (11 days). Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed. For tolylfluanid, estimated half-life times during harvesting were 2 and 3 days, based on pad and glove data, respectively. Prediction of captan exposure during other crop activities appeared to be far more difficult, although the estimated half-life time was comparable with that for harvesting.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.789-793. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 00-480 Simcox N.J., Camp J., Kalman D., Stebbins A., Bellamy G., Lee I.C., Fenske R.
Farmworker exposure to organophosphorus pesticide residues during apple thinning in central Washington State
The exposure of twenty workers from three work sites to azinphos-methyl over an entire apple-thinning season was studied. Exposure potential was estimated by foliar residue measurements, and individual exposures were estimated by biological monitoring through urinary metabolites. Measurable azinphos-methyl residues were found on apple foliage at all sites throughout the six-week sampling period, indicating continuous exposure potential (median residue level of 0.5µg/cm2). Measurable levels of the urinary dialkylphosphate metabolite, DMTP, were found in virtually all urine samples, with concentrations differing significantly across the three sites (0.53, 0.29 and 0.90µg/ml), and with intraindividual variability much greater than interindividual differences. Group mean DMTP concentrations at each site fluctuated according to foliar residue levels.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.6, p.752-761. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 00-163 Ngowi A.V.F., Partenen T., Mbakaya C.F.L, Ohayo-Mitoko G., Mfitumukiza D., Yousefi V.O., Maroni M., Colosio C, Fait A., Visentin S., Kangas J., Tuomainen A., Lekei E.E., Mndeme R.R.
Topics: Africa; control of issue of dangerous materials; developing countries; enforcement; fungicides; harmful substances; herbicides; insecticides; licensing of undertakings; medical supervision; notification of dangerous substances; personal protective equipment; pesticides; qualifications; South Africa; statistics; Tanzania, United Rep. of.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 1999, Vol.9, No.1, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-166 Compston J.E., Vedi S., Stephen A.B., Bord S., Lyons A.R., Hodges S.J., Scammell B.E.
Reduced bone formation after exposure to organophosphates
In an earlier study, agricultural workers with chronic exposure to organophosphates (OPs) through sheep-dipping showed lower bone mineral density compared to normal values. In this study, bone biopsy samples were obtained from 24 agricultural workers seeking litigation for ill-health caused by chronic exposure to OPs, and compared with 24 controls, both groups having participated in the earlier study. Histomorphometric analysis showed significantly lower bone formation at tissue and cellular level than in healthy controls. The presence of acetylcholinesterase in the bone matrix provides a possible explanation for the OP-induced effects in bone.
Lancet, Nov. 1999, Vol.354, No.9192, p.1791-1792. 5 ref.

CIS 99-1628 Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluations through 1998
Topics: ecotoxicology; food contamination; IPCS; list of chemical substances; pesticides; threshold limit values; toxicity evaluation; toxicology.
International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. 61p. 85 réf.

CIS 99-1583 Panemangalore M., Dowla H.A., Byers M.E.
Occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals: Effect on the activities of some enzymes in the blood of farm workers
Eight volunteers who were working on a small tobacco farm were monitored over a period of two years along with a comparable urban unexposed group. Activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was depressed by 30% after 1 day and there was no further decrease in ALAD activity after 30 days of field work. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in contrast, declined by 29% and 50% after 1 day and 30 days, respectively, as compared with 0-day activity and that of the urban control, which was similar to 0-day activity. Plasma cholinesterase activity declined by 19% after both 1 and 30 days of exposure/field work. The activities of all three enzymes were restored to urban control or pre-exposure levels during post-exposure. Plasma cadmium levels were high in the samples taken after 30 days as compared with the pre-exposure levels. Respiratory nicotine exposure was highest after 30 days of field work. This preliminary study suggests that erythrocyte SOD is a sensitive indicator of exposure to agricultural chemicals in tobacco field workers. Topics: agricultural chemicals; ALAD; blood monitoring; maleic acid hydrazide; orthene; nicotine; cadmium; cholinesterase monitoring; cholinesterase; determination in blood; enzyme activity; exposure evaluation; metabolism of blood constituents; pesticides; smoking; superoxide dismutase; tobacco farming.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 1999, Vol.72, No.2, p.84-88. 27 ref.

CIS 99-1234 Cable G.G., Doherty S.
Acute carbamate and organochlorine toxicity causing convulsions in an agricultural pilot: A case report
Agricultural pilots face many risks, not least of which is exposure to the agricultural chemicals that they spray. There are few reports of post-crash exposure to carbamate and organochlorine insecticides. This report documents the case of a professional agricultural pilot who, following an emergency landing, was soaked with Methomyl (a carbamate) and Endosulfan (an organochlorine) leaking from his aircraft. He developed cholinergic symptoms within an hour of the accident, which settled spontaneously, but suffered a tonic-clonic seizure some six hours later while in the hospital. The seizure was attributed to exposure to the organochlorine, however, subsequent EEG recordings demonstrated a non-specific epileptiform focus in the frontal lobes. The pilot made a full recovery and has remained seizure-free without treatment. The pathophysiology of carbamate and organochlorine poisoning is reviewed, and the differential diagnoses of seizures in this pilot discussed. The difficulty facing a licensing authority in determining the aeromedical disposition of a pilot who has suffered a provoked seizure is also highlighted. Topics: acute poisoning; aircraft pilots; carbamates; endosulfan; methomyl; case study; chlorinated organic compounds; convulsions; crop protection; epilepsy; insecticides; pesticide poisoning; pesticide spraying; vomiting.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.70, No.1, p.68-72. 35 ref.

CIS 99-1273 Feming L.E., Bean J.A., Rudolph M, Hamilton K.
Mortality in a cohort of licenced pesticide applicators in Florida
In this retrospective cohort study, analysed by general standardised mortality ratio, licenced pesticide applicators in Florida were compared with the general population of Florida. A cohort of 33,658 (10% female) licenced pesticide applicators assembled through extensive data linkages yielded 1874 deaths with 320,250 person-years from 1 January 1975 to 31 December 1993. Consistent with previous publications on farmers but at odds with current theories about the protective effects of vitamin D, male prostate cancer was significantly increased in these pesticide applicators. Female cervical cancer and breast cancer were not increased despite theories linking risk of breast cancer with exposure to oestrogen disruptors, such as the organochlorines. The lack of cases of soft tissue sarcoma is at odds with previous publications associating the use of the phenoxy herbicides with an increased risk of these cancers. Topics: agriculture; breast cancer; vitamin D; chlorinated organic compounds; cohort study; frequency rates; mortality; pesticide spraying; pesticides; prostatic cancer; sex-linked differences; uterine cancer.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.56, No.1, p.14-21. 57 ref.

CIS 99-1232 Griffin P., Mason H., Heywood K, Cocker J.
Oral and dermal absorption of chlorpyrifos: A human volunteer study
An oral dose of chlorpyrifos was readily absorbed and almost all of the dose was recovered as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites. Chlorpyrifos was also absorbed through the skin. Excretion was delayed compared with the oral dose. Only a small proportion of the applied dose was recovered during the course of the experiment. The best time to collect urine samples for biological monitoring after dermal exposure is before the shift the next day. The amounts of chlorpyrifos used did not depress acetyl cholinesterase activity but could be readily detected as urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites indicating that the urinary assay is a more sensitive indicator of exposure. Topics: acetylcholinesterase; chlorpyrifos; determination in blood; determination in urine; exposure evaluation; ingestion; insecticides; metabolic process; skin absorption; urinary metabolites.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.56, No.1, p.10-13. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 99-918 Prudhomme J.C., Bhatia R., Nutik J.M., Shusterman D.J.
Chest wall pain and possible rhabdomyolysis after chloropicrin exposure
Three cases are summarized in which persistent chest wall pain and elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CK) levels occurred after exposure to chloropicrin vapour in an agricultural chemicals facility. Both the severity of the symptoms and the degree of biochemical abnormality appeared to follow a dose-response relationship. Myoglobinuria, on the other hand, was not found. Elevation of CK after chloropicrin exposure has not previously been reported and may represent low-grade rhabdomyolysis. Workups performed after symptomatic chloropicrin exposure should include CK-level determination. Topics: agricultural chemicals; biochemical substances; chloropicrin; case study; enzyme activity determination; eye irritation; health hazards; muscular atrophy; muscular diseases; physiology of muscle; short-term exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.41, No.1, p.17-22. 23 ref.

CIS 99-921 Gomes J., Lloyd O.L., Revitt D.M.
The influence of personal protection, environmental hygiene and exposure to pesticides on the health of immigrant farm workers in a desert country
A questionnaire was used to collect information on the use of protective measures and the practice of safety and hygiene among immigrant farm workers in a semi-desert region. Blood pressure and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured in the exposed and the unexposed populations. Protective equipment was worn by a minority of farm workers - gloves by 35%, work coveralls by 36%, a scarf to cover the nose and mouth by 39%, and work shoes by 79%. With regard to personal hygiene measures, 83% of the workers changed clothes after work and the same proportion took a shower after work; 63% drank and 46% ate while at work; and 11% used articles of domestic use in the preparation of pesticides on the farm. AChE depletion was found to be negatively associated with the use of gloves, of work coveralls, and of a scarf to cover the nose and mouth and withthe implementation of safety and hygiene procedures on the farm. AChE depletion was positively associated with the frequency of pesticide spraying. Topics: acetylcholinesterase; crop protection; desert climate; developing countries; face and eye protection; foreign workers; information of personnel; overalls; personal hygiene; personal protective equipment; pesticides; protective gloves; state of health.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 1999, Vol.72, No.1, p.40-45. Illus. 30 ref.


CIS 02-882 Beware of pesticides
This videotape is aimed at the managers and workers of greenhouse farms, instructing them on the safe use of pesticides. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on persons applying the pesticides. It is now recognized that persons handling agricultural products are also at risk. The video includes advice on protection against pesticide exposure.
General Workers Union, Kampmannsgade 4, Box 392, 1740 København V, Denmark, 1998. Video in VHS/PAL format, duration: 14 min.

CIS 00-1701 Testud F., Pulce C.
Synthetic pyrethroids and other insecticides
Pyréthrinoïdes de synthèse et insecticides divers [in French]
Topics: agriculture; amitraz; dazomet; dichloropropene; rotenone; data sheet; encyclopaedia; France; horticulture; insecticides; irritants; pyrethrins; skin diseases.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 1998, No.121, 8p. Illus. 78 ref.

CIS 00-1677 de Vreede J.A.F., Brouwer D.H., Stevenson H., van Hemmen J.J.
Exposure and risk estimation for pesticides in high-volume spraying
During twenty applications with a spray pistol of methomyl to chrysanthemums, inhalation exposure as well as potential and actual dermal exposure were monitored using the "whole-body" method. On the basis of exposure data, the health risk from methomyl and thirteen other pesticides frequently used in flower horticulture was evaluated. From the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) in animal experiments an Indicative Limit Value (ILV) was derived. The ILV is considered indicative of the limit of daily exposure which probably has no adverse health effects. This value is only a rough approximation, as it is based on limited data. The database for a proper assessment of such a value is generally incomplete. To reduce dermal exposure levels below the ILV, exposure of the hands in particular has to be reduced, for example by using impermeable gloves.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 1998, Vol.42, No.3, p.151-157. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 00-1390 London L., Myers J.E.
Use of a crop and job specific exposure matrix for retrospective assessment of long term exposure in studies of chronic neurotoxic effects of agrichemicals
The long term exposure of farm workers based on a job exposure matrix (JEM) developed for use in a study of the neurotoxic effects of organophosphates was estimated and the repeatability and validity of the JEM was evaluated. A JEM was constructed with secondary data from industry and expert opinion of the estimate of agrichemical exposure within every possible job activity in the JEM to weight job days for exposure to organophosphates. Cumulative lifetime and average intensity exposure of organophosphate exposure were calculated for 163 pesticide applicators and 84 controls. Repeat questionnaires were given to 29 participants three months later to test repeatability of measurements. The ability of JEM based exposure to predict a known marker of organophosphate exposure was used to validate the JEM. Cumulative lifetime exposure as measured in kg organophosphate exposure, was significantly associated with erythrocyte cholinesterase concentrations, controlled for a range of confounders. Repeatability and average lifetime intensity of exposure was adequate.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1998, Vol.55, No.3, p.194-201. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 00-1094 Van Valkenburg W., Sugavanam B., Khetan S.K.
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
Pesticide formulation - Recent developments and their applications in developing countries
Topics: agricultural chemicals; chemical safety; crop protection; design of equipment; developing countries; directive; ecotoxicology; environmental pollution; pesticide production; pesticides; plant safety organization; safety by design; safety guides; UNIDO; waste disposal.
New Age International (P) Limited, 4835/24, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, New Delhi 110 002, India, 1998. xiii, 472p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.

CIS 00-1076
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and Guidelines to classification 1998-1999
Part 1 of this document describes the basis of the WHO system for the classification of pesticides according to their acute risk to health. The classification is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to the rat (LD50 values). A table shows LD50 values for each class of pesticide: extremely hazardous, highly hazardous, moderately hazardous, and slightly hazardous. The application of the criteria for classification is explained along with the effects of classification on labelling. Part 2 provides lists of products in the 4 hazard classes and a list of pesticides considered unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use. Further tables are provided for determining the hazard class of a formulation. Update of CIS 97-945.
World Health Organization (WHO), Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1998. 61p. Index.

CIS 00-319 Basic law on the regulation and control of pesticides and of toxic, dangerous and similar substances [Nicaragua]
Ley básica para la regulación y control de plaguicidas, sustancias tóxicas, peligrosas y otras similares [Nicaragua] [in Spanish]
Topics: approval; dangerous substances; law; licensing new products; Nicaragua; penalties; pesticides; public OSH institutions; toxic substances.
In: Compendio de Leyes, Reglamentos y Normativas para el Registro de los Agroquímicos y Sustancias Afines, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Gobierno de Nicaragua, 1998, 11p.

CIS 00-476 Fayomi B., Lafia E., Fourn L., Akpona S., Zohoun T., Forget G.
Knowledge and behaviour of pesticide users in Benin
Connaissance et comportement des utilisateurs de pesticides au Bénin [in French]
Topics: agriculture; assessment of knowledge; behaviour study; Benin; cross-sectional study; developing countries; food contamination; information dissemination; occupational hygiene; personal hygiene; pesticides; questionnaire survey; risk factors; safety and health training; solubility in lipids; supply of information.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 1998, Vol.8, No.2, p.44-47. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 00-185 Gomes J., Lloyd O., Revitt M.D., Basha M.
Morbidity among farm workers in a desert country in relation to long-term exposure to pesticides
Subclinical morbidity patterns among male established migrant farm workers were compared with referents and with new migrant farmworkers in a desert country. Erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity and haemoglobin-adjusted erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity were significantly depleted, and results of aiming and digit symbol tests were significantly lower for the established workers. Irritated conjunctiva, watery eyes, blurred vision, dizziness, headache, muscular pain, and weakness were reported by established workers in statistically significantly higher numbers than by the referents and new workers. Morbidity patterns, such as the health complaints and objective parameters suggested in this study, would be suitable as criteria for identifying farm workers most at risk from pesticide toxicity and as criteria for initiating measures to control and reduce exposure.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1998, Vol.24, No.3, p.213-219. 31 ref.

CIS 99-1977 Karr C.J., Keifer M.C., Miller M.E.
Field-based monitoring of agricultural workers for overexposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides: Evaluation of a trial program
A field cholinesterase test kit was used to monitor orchard pesticide applicators and field workers. The kit utilizes blood obtained by finger-stick sampling, is extremely portable, battery powered and very simple to operate. Compared to baseline values obtained prior to the start of exposure, at each visit, approximately 7-8% of monitored workers were identified as having cholinesterase activity level changes consistent with significant inhibition. Applicators had significantly lower levels than field workers. With a few technical corrections, the kit holds the promise of being a simple, rapid, accurate method for testing cholinesterase in the field. Topics: agriculture; cholinesterase monitoring; crop protection; determination in blood; evaluation of equipment; exposure evaluation; haemoglobin monitoring; orchards; pesticides.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1998, Vol.5, No.4, p.35-47. 15 ref.

CIS 99-1475 Briosa F.
Agricultural operations: Agricultural tractors and machinery
Trabalho agrícola: tractores e máquinas agrícolas [in Portuguese]
Abstract in English and in French. Training awareness manual aimed at farmers and operators to help them make safe use of agricultural equipment and follow appropriate instructions regarding safety and health risks. The manual focuses on milk and mixed farming, mainly forage production as a case study. Main risk factors are tractors, walking tractors, soil tillage equipment, fertilizers, sowing and planting equipment, pest control equipment (including handling and use of phytopharmaceutical products), equipment for forage harvesting, transporting equipment for agricultural use. Topics: agricultural chemicals; agricultural equipment; fertilizer spreaders; harvesting machinery; mechanical hazards; Portugal; preventive maintenance; safe working methods; safety devices; safety guides; toxic substances; tractors; training material.
Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho, Lisboa, Portugal, 1998. 171p. Illus. 40 ref.

CIS 99-1299
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1997/98
Topics: case study; crop protection; enforcement; environmental pollution; forestry; handling and storage; home accidents; horticulture; minor accidents; occupational accidents; pesticides; report; rodenticides; statistical trends; statistics; United Kingdom; wood preservatives.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 22p. Illus. 4 ref.

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