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CIS 02-1518 Commission Directive 2002/64/EC of 15 July 2002 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC to include cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, metalaxyl-M and picolinafen as active substances [European Union]
Directive 2002/64/CE de la Commission du 15 juillet 2002 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en vue d'y inscrire les substances actives cinidon-éthyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, métalaxyl-M et picolinafène [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2002/64/CE de la Comisión, de 15 de julio de 2002, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo a fin de incluir las sustancias activas cinidón-etilo, cihalofop-butilo, famoxadona, florasulam, metalaxilo-M y picolinafeno [Unión europea] [in Spanish]
This Directive adds six new substances to the list of authorized active plant protection products (PPPs) introduced by Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). The substances include 4 herbicides (cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, florasulam and picolinafen) and 2 fungicides (famoxadone and metalaxyl-M). In annex: table presenting details about the substances, including specific provisions for their safe use.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 18 July 2002, Vol.45, No.L 189, p.27-32. [in English] [in French] [in Spanish]

CIS 02-1841 Samuel O., St-Laurent L., Dumas P., Langlois E., Gingras G.
Pesticides in greenhouses - Characterization of the exposure of workers and evaluation of re-entry times
Pesticides en milieu serricole - Caractérisation de l'exposition des travailleurs et évaluation des délais de réentrée [in French]
Botanical garden workers are subject to health hazards resulting from their exposure to pesticides in confined spaces such as greenhouses. In this study, the behaviour of foliar residues was evaluated for several representative pesticides between the time of application and of the re-entry of workers in the greenhouses. Skin exposure risks were evaluated by a hand washing method as well as through the use of a fluorescent marker. Workers' total exposure was determined by measuring urinary metabolites excreted over a post-exposure period of 24 hours. Cholinesterase activity variations were measured in cases where organophosphorus insecticides were applied. Results show that workers remain exposed when returning to greenhouses the day after applying pesticides. However, the levels of exposure measured are generally low. Use of gloves would allow to further decrease the level of exposure. Several other preventive measures are proposed.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 116 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1809 Nordin R.B., Araki S., Sato H., Yokoyama K., Wan Muda W.A.M.B., Win Kyi D.
Effects of safety behaviours with pesticide use on occurrence of acute symptoms in male and female tobacco-growing Malaysian farmers
The effects of safety behaviours associated with pesticide use on the occurrence of acute symptoms in 395 male and 101 female tobacco-growing farmers in Malaysia were studied. A 15-question checklist on safe pesticide-use behaviours and a 25-question checklist on acute symptoms reported shortly after spraying pesticides were used. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that no smoking while spraying, good sprayer condition and changing clothes immediately after spraying significantly prevented occurrence of acute symptoms just after pesticide spray in male farmers; in female farmers, only wearing a hat while spraying significantly prevented the symptoms. Safety behaviours in pesticide use in male and female tobacco-growing farmers are discussed in the light of these findings.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 02-1410 Carol Llopart S.
Study of the accident that occurred in Toulouse on 21 September 2001
Estudio del accidente ocurrido en Toulouse el 21 de septiembre de 2001 [in Spanish]
This article describes the accidental explosion which occurred in Toulouse, France, on 21 September 2001 in an ammonium nitrate warehouse of a fertilizer plant. The explosion caused 29 fatalities and 650 injuries and was the most severe accident having occurred during the last 25 years in industrialized countries. The information on the cause of the accident not being available at the time of writing, the article reviews similar accidents, describes the physical and chemical properties of ammonium nitrate and analyses the mechanism of the reaction which probably caused the explosion. Finally, it presents a theoretical model of the consequences of accidents based on the explosion behaviour of trinitrotoluene (TNT).
Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.8-17. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 02-869 Ramwell C.T., Johnson P.D., Boxall A.A.B., Rimmer D.
Health and Safety Executive
Exposure to pesticide residues on agricultural spraying equipment
To assess the longer-term exposure to pesticide deposits that remain on the spraying equipment well after spraying operations have been carried out, a study was carried out at thirteen farms. Swab samples were taken from various parts of the spray equipment. In addition, cotton gloves were used to evaluate possible exposure through hand contact when entering or working in the tractor cab and during contact with the external surface of the spray equipment. There was a wide variation in the quantities of pesticides detected. Highest levels were observed on the boom, nozzles, and, to a lesser extent, the spray tank. Pesticides were detected at higher levels and more frequently on the mudguards compared to the rest of the tractor body. Quantities of pesticides measured on the cotton glove samples were reported as multiples of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). 17% of the gloves contained levels equivalent to more than one ADI. Sampling inside the farmers' nitrile gloves detected pesticides in all cases, with one pair containing the equivalent of 17 ADIs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 50p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.


CIS 04-682 Seillan H., Repussard J., Cochet Y., Andurand R., Khéliff J., Cérézuelle D., Charbonneau S.
Toulouse - Special feature
Toulouse - Les données de la catastrophe [in French]
On the 21st of September 2001, a violent explosion occurred in a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, causing 21 deaths, hundreds of injuries and serious material damage. This special feature on the disaster consists of a collection of articles covering the following aspects: data on the disaster (details of the industrial site, the product involved, namely ammonium nitrate, damage caused); French and European regulations on nitrate and nitrogen-rich fertilizers; analysis and comments on the plant safety manuals; statements on industrial hazards by politicians; uses and hazards of ammonium nitrate, including short summaries of earlier disasters; changes resulting from this disaster.
Préventique-Sécurité, Nov.-Dec. 2001, No.60, p.4-32. Illus.

CIS 04-547
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Worker's magazine: Accidents linked to pesticides (modules 1 and 2) - Manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly areas - Manual Harvesting of sugar cane - Work in potteries - Peroxydizable substances - Forestry work - Benzene - Agricultural tractors - Cashew nuts
Revista do trabalhador: Acidentes com agrotóxicos (Módulos 1 e 2) - Corte manual de cana em região amorrada - Corte manual de cana-de-açúcar - Trabalho em olarias - Substâncias peroxidáveis - Trabalhos na atividade florestal - Benzeno - Tratores agrícolas - Castanha de caju [in Portuguese]
These ten tapes are part of a collection entitled "Worker's magazine" published by the Fundacentro covering various occupational safety and health issues related to pesticides and other chemicals, as well as other agriculture and forestry-related activities. Topics covered: accidents due to pesticides (prevention of hazards among users and during production, and interviews of researchers and managers of occupational safety and health institutions, two cassettes); manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly regions; manual harvesting of sugar cane; work in potteries; peroxydizable substances; forestry work; benzene; tractors used in agriculture; cashew nut industry.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, no date. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 17min 50sec; 17min 11sec; 13min 42sec; 14min 31sec; 16min 13sec; 12min 46sec; 14min 05sec; 18min 52sec, 13min 20sec; 12min 45sec. Price: BRL 20.00 (each tape).

CIS 04-177 Obiols Quinto J., López Crespi F.
Pesticides: Risks in indoor applications
Plaguicidas: riesgos en las aplicaciones en interior de locales [in Spanish]
This information note covers the factors to be taken into account during the application of pesticides inside premises. Contents: types of exposure and effects (acute and chronic); observed effects; routes of exposure (inhalation, skin penetration, ingestion); hazard evaluation (dangerousness of the product used, mode of application, application system, formulation type, concentration of the active ingredient); preventive measures; factors to be taken into account during the application of pesticides within enterprise premises.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 7p. 12 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1766 Van Hemmen J.J., Van der Jagt K.E.
Innovative exposure assessment of pesticide uses for appropriate risk assessment
An international workshop on the theme "Innovative exposure assessment of pesticide uses for appropriate risk assessment" was held on 20-22 September 2000, in The Hague, The Netherlands. The international experts represented industry, academia, specialized consultancy agencies and regulatory authorities in Europe, North America and Australia. The workshop was organized around four themes: toxicology studies that are relevant for worker risk assessment; probabilistic exposure assessment is essential for appropriately assessing risks; importance of field use information for assessing the risk of exposure; and appropriate terms for residential exposure. The main goal was to reach international consensus on the harmonization of exposure and risk assessment approaches, and the development of guidance elements for the various bodies in our society that deal with risk assessment for pesticide registration purposes in occupational and residential settings.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Apr. 2001, Vol.45, Suppl.1, p.S1-S174 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-64
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for methyl parathion (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of methyl parathion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurological effects due the inhibition of the activity of acetylcholinesterase (tremor, convulsions, death); arrhythmia; cardiovascular lesions; miosis (pinpoint pupils). Neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported after chronic exposure.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2001. xix, 226p. Illus. Approx. 770 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-339
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluations through 2001
The goal of IPCS activities in the field of pesticides is to identify the type and extent of potential risks to human health arising from the manufacture, transport, use, storage and disposal of pesticides, or the consumption of pesticide residues. For each of the approximately 200 pesticides that have been evaluated to date, the following information is provided (where it exists): CAS registry number; chemical class; use (insecticide, acaricide, herbicide, fungicide, soil fumigant, etc.); reference to IPCS Environmental Health Criteria documents, IPCS Health and Safety Guides, WHO/FAO Data Sheets, IARC reports, WHO Specifications for pesticides used in public health and WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality; prior evaluations by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Replaces CIS 99-1628.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. 59p.

CIS 03-343 Garcia Garcia E.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Safety and health in rural work: The problem of pesticides
Segurança e saúde no trabalho rural: a questão dos agrotóxicos [in Portuguese]
This document reports on the current safety and health situation in agricultural pesticide usage in Brazil. It analyses the impact of pesticides on farming communities, the environment and public health, and highlights the need of informing and training users. Measures for controlling hazards at different levels are reviewed: measures applicable to individuals (personal protective equipment, good work practices and training, limitation of exposure); collective measures (medical surveillance, use of more reliable equipment, limiting the use of pesticides, integrated pest management); legal and economic control measures (government policies, restrictions or prohibitions of use, control of economic factors which influence the consumption of pesticides). Recommendations are made for implementing these measures at various levels.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 182p. 170 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 02-1931 Belisario A., Cipolla C., Nucci C., Auletti G., Nobile M., Raffi G.B.
Four-year follow-up of a group of workers with allergic sensitization employed in breeding of insects for biological pest control
Follow-up di 4 anni in un gruppo di lavoratori con sensibilizzazione allergica addetti alla produzione di insetti per la lotta biologica [in Italian]
As a follow-up to preventive measures (semi-closed cycles, gloves, masks, overalls and sunglasses) implemented after previous reports of sensitization, workers employed in insect breeding were monitored through allergy and respiratory function tests. A decrease in skin sensitization for insects and a decrease in allergic conditions (rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma) were found. The application of preventive measures is vindicated.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1342 Yamano Y., Kagawa J., Ishizu S., Harayama O.
Three cases of acute methyl bromide poisoning in a seedling farm family
Three patients of a same Japanese farming family (39-year-old man, 34-year-old woman, 5-year-old girl) exhibited almost the same initial symptoms, i.e., severe vomiting, tonic convulsions and clouding of consciousness. Subsequent inquiry revealed that 27 cans of methyl bromide had been stored in the building that the patients lived in, and that the cans had been damaged a few days before the onset of the patients' illness. Inspection revealed that all the cans of methyl bromide had passed the expiry date and were corroded. Even though none of the cans had been used, three cans with a capacity of 750g were found to be empty. Plasma bromide ion concentrations were found to be high (72.9µg/mL, 67.8µg/mL and 91.5µg/mL; normal level <5µg/mL), and acute methyl bromide poisoning was diagnosed 8 days after admission of the patients to the hospital. Haemodialysis (peritoneal lavage in the case of the child) was performed immediately, after which the plasma bromide ion concentrations returned to normal and the general condition of the patients gradually improved.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.353-358. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1394 Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluation through 2000
This inventory summarizes evaluations of pesticides that have been performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), as well as other assessments of pesticides by IPCS and other WHO programmes. The introduction briefly describes the pesticide activities that are summarized in the inventory, and the inventory itself lists relevant documents that have been published and summarizes the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) and provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDI) that have been established by JMPR.
International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. 67p. 91 ref.

CIS 02-1381 Testud F., Garnier R., Delemotte B.
Human toxicology of plant protection chemicals - Volume I: General principles, Insecticides, Fungicides and Fumigants
Toxicologie humaine des produits phytosanitaires - Tome I: Principes généraux, Insecticides, Fongicides et Fumigants [in French]
This publication is aimed at emergency ward physicians, clinicians and forensic surgeons faced with cases of acute and chronic pesticide poisoning, as well as at occupational physicians involved with the evaluation, prevention and medical supervision of toxic hazards linked to the occupational exposure to these products. Contents: general principles; toxicology of major classes of pesticides; insecticides; fungicides; fumigants.
Editions ESKA, 12 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75002 Paris, France, 2001. 272p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 53.36.

CIS 02-1352 Zheng T., Zahm S.H., Cantor K.P., Weisenburger D.D., Zhang Y., Blair A.
Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma
To explore the possible relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and carbamate insecticide use among farmers, a pooled analysis of three population-based case-control studies conducted in four mid-western states in the United States was conducted involving 985 white male subjects and 2895 matched controls. Compared with non-farmers, farmers who had ever used carbamate pesticides had a 30% to 50% increased risk of NHL, whereas farmers without carbamate pesticide use showed no increased risk. Analyses for individual carbamate pesticides found a more consistent association with Sevin but not carbofuran, butylate, or S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate plus protectant. Among farmers using Sevin, the risk of NHL was limited to those who personally handled the product, those who first used the product for >20 years before their disease diagnosis, and those who used the product for a longer period. These associations persisted after adjusting for other major classes of pesticides. These results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with carbamate pesticide use, particularly Sevin. Further investigation of the association is warranted.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.641-649. 33 ref.

CIS 02-1359 Arcury T.A., Quandt S.A., Cravey A.J., Elmore R.C., Russell G.B.
Farmworker reports of pesticide safety and sanitation in the work environment
Migrant and seasonal farm workers are at risk for occupational illnesses from pesticide exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pesticide safety regulations, to learn from farm worker safety experiences in the United States and to develop effective measures to improve agricultural workplace safety. Research included in-depth interviews with farm workers, farmers and health care providers, including interviews with 270 minority farm workers during 1998, and 293 during 1999. It was found that farm workers and farmers held different beliefs concerning pesticide safety, which affects sanitation practices. Farm workers report that farm owners do not adhere to regulations mandating training and basic sanitation facilities. Several points of intervention are proposed for improving pesticide safety and sanitation. In particular, the emphasis for intervention must include educating farmers as well as farm workers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2001, Vol.39, No.5, p.487-498. 34 ref.

CIS 02-794 Deshpande A.V.
Pesticide warehouse safety at Bayer
The safety policy and safety management system adopted by a large pesticide producer in India to ensure the minimization of hazards during warehousing are summarized. Aspects referred to include the safety training of warehouse managers, regular warehouse inspections, safety equipment in warehouses, safety information and safety audits. Check lists to be followed during safety inspections and safety audits are included.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.XXXII, No.3, p.35-40.

CIS 02-835 Wesseling C., Van Wendel de Joode B., Monge P.
Pesticide-related illness and injuries among banana workers in Costa Rica: A comparison between 1993 and 1996
Reported occupational injuries and illness among banana workers in Costa Rica during 1993 and 1996 were analysed. Between 1993 and 1996, an overall 35% decrease in injuries was observed, attributable to a marked decline in topical injuries (3.3 compared to 1.9 per 100 workers), whereas systemic poisonings remained the same (0.7 per 100 in both years). In both years, paraquat was the pesticide most frequently associated with injuries, mostly skin and eye lesions. Workers at highest risk per unit time of exposure were nematocide applicators, herbicide applicators, and cleaners of packing plants. Despite control measures, further reduction of systemic illness had not been achieved. The decrease of topical injuries may be partly explained by improved work conditions, but possible underreporting hinders interpretation.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.90-97. 25 ref.

CIS 02-860
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 2000/01
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the Health and Safety Executive between April 2000 and Mars 2001. 170 incidents were investigated, 71 of which alleged ill health. Recent trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and seven case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 27p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 02-540 Commission Directive 2001/36/EC of 16 May 2001 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market [European Union]
Directive 2001/36/CE de la Commission du 16 mai 2001 portant modification de la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques [Union européenne] [in French]
This Directive amends Annexes II and III of Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). Changes to Annex II: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing the information that must be supplied for micro-organisms (incl. viruses) used in plant protection products (PPPs): identity; biological properties; further information; analytical methods; effects on human health; residues; fate and behaviour in the environment; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact. Changes to Annex III: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing data requirements for the authorization of PPPs based on the preparation of micro-organisms (incl. viruses): identity; physical, chemical and technical properties of the PPP; data on application; further information on the PPP; analytical methods; efficacy data; effects on human health; residues; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 20 June 2001, Vol.44, No.L 164, p.1-38 (whole issue). [in English] [in French]

CIS 02-834 Ngowi A.V.F., Maeda D.N., Wesseling C., Partanen T.J., Sanga M.P., Mbise G.
Pesticide-handling practices in agriculture in Tanzania: Observational data from 27 coffee and cotton farms
The practices of pesticide handling in agriculture were surveyed in 1991-1993 in Tanzania. The study involved 23 coffee farms with 246 persons exposed to hazardous practices, and four cotton farms with 45 exposed. A greater variety of pesticide formulations were used for coffee than for cotton, and by individual rather than cooperative farms. Coffee farms more often had unlabelled pesticide containers and missing mixing instructions. Cotton pesticides were found to be stored in bedrooms, near food and near open fires. Hazardous practices were more pronounced on individual than cooperative farms, with significant differences in pesticide storage areas, as well as in the use of unlabelled and non-original containers. The study demonstrated the need to train farmers in pesticide safety, strengthen advisory and regulatory services, and extend protection to farm workers' families.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.326-332. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-833 Kunstadter P., Prapamontol T., Sirirojn B.O., Sontirat A., Tansuhaj A., Khamboonruang C.
Pesticide exposures among Hmong farmers in Thailand
Farmers of the Hmong ethnic minority in Thailand have abandoned shifting cultivation of subsistence crops and turned to chemical-intensive cultivation of permanent field cash crops. Three Hmong communities were studied. Most study participants applied chemicals, primarily to control insects, weeds, and fungus, by backpack and machine sprays and by hand. Hmong women have less Thai language skill than men and less information concerning hazards of exposure or use of protective clothing. Most Hmong know of the health hazards, but many fail to use adequate protective clothing to prevent exposure. Screening revealed a high proportion of Hmong adults with unsafe levels of cholinesterase inhibition, an indicator of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Exposure rates were as high among those not directly applying pesticides, suggesting that exposure also occurs by other routes.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.313-325. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-832 Das R., Steege A., Baron S., Beckman J., Harrison R.
Pesticide-related illness among migrant farm workers in the United States
Medical surveillance data show that pesticide-related illness is an important cause of acute morbidity among migrant farm workers in California. A few categories (organophosphates, carbamates, inorganic compounds, and pyrethroids) account for over half of the cases of acute illness. Skin effects dominate the illnesses, although ocular and systemic effects are also common. Pesticide hazards should be ranked based on acute toxicity, chronic toxicity (including reproductive risks), carcinogenic potency, volume applied, and magnitude of worker poisonings. Risk prevention should focus on substitution of safer compounds, establishing effective protections, and ensuring that these measures are enforced. Improved education for health care providers should be a priority. Growers should be educated about alternative forms of pest control and incentives should be provided to encourage their use.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.303-312. 79 ref.

CIS 02-831 Aragón A., Aragón C., Thörn Å.
Pests, peasants and pesticides on the Northern Nicaraguan Pacific plain
The objective of this study was to explore possible reasons for dangerous work practices during pesticide handling among small-scale farmers in the Pacific plain of Nicaragua. Areas of focus included personal protective equipment, information and farmers' perceptions with respect to their crops, the economy, pests, and pesticide hazards. Factors such as poverty, the inadequacy of protective devices and environmental factors were found to lead to dangerous work practices. Cultural factors also affected the farmers' attitudes in ways that favored hazardous work procedures. This finding, which had not been anticipated, has important practical implications. To be effective, the design, language, execution and materials of education and training courses on occupational health should be culturally relevant and appropriate.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.295-302. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-830 Wesseling C., Aragón A., Castillo L., Corriols M., Chaverri F., de la Cruz E., Keifer M., Monge P., Partanen T.J., Ruepert C., van Wendel de Joode B.
Hazardous pesticides in Central America
The use of pesticides in Central America increased significantly between 1985 and 1999. Exposure levels are high, and acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. Regulation based on local working conditions data is lacking. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include: developing multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; developing sustainable non-chemical agricultural technologies; evaluating the effectiveness of programmes; extending and sharing expertise within the region; strengthening unions and communities; redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.287-294. Illus. 72 ref.

CIS 02-829 Wesseling C., van Wendel de Joode B., Ruepert C., León C., Monge P., Hermosillo H., Partanen T.J.
Paraquat in developing countries
The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and most regulatory bodies worldwide. This may not be the case, however, under the conditions of exposure which persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure conditions, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.275-286. Illus. 117 ref.

CIS 02-101 Fait A., Iversen B., Tiramani M., Visentin S., Moroni M., He F.
International Centre for Pesticide Safety
Preventing health risks from the use of pesticides in agriculture
The use of pesticides may pose health risks to farm workers, often as a consequence of improper or careless handling. This booklet provides advice on how these health risks can be reduced. It gives a short introduction on pesticides and on labelling and classification systems, a description on how exposure can occur and information on related health problems, first aid and personal protective equipment. It also provides practical advice on proper working procedures for mixing, loading, application, transport, storage and disposal of pesticides and includes answers to frequently-asked questions.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. 35p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 02-308 Wesseling C., Hogstedt C., Fernandez P., Ahlbom A.
Time trends of occupational pesticide-related injuries in Costa Rica, 1982-1992
To evaluate time trends of occupational pesticide-related injuries in Costa Rica, accidents reported among wage-earning workers during the months of June of the years 1982, 1987, and 1992 were analysed. The overall incidence rates were 1.8, 2.7, and 2.5 per 1,000 agricultural workers, respectively. Rates among female workers increased (3.1, 3.7, 5.4) and were elevated as compared with male workers (1.7, 2.6, 2.3). The trend for topical lesions was upgoing (1.2, 1.4, 2.1), consistent with an increased use of fungicides and lack of safety measures for pesticides with low acute toxicity. Systemic poisonings peaked in 1987 (0.6, 1.2, 0.5), declining in 1992 with increased use of biologic pest control and pyrethroid insecticides less toxic than cholinesterase inhibitors, and improved safety during nematocide applications on banana plantations.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-274 Petrelli G., Lauria L., Figà-Talamanca I.
Occupational exposures and male fertility: Results of an Italian multicentre study in exposed populations
Esposizioni occupazionali e fertilità maschile: Risultati di uno studio italiano multicentrico tra popolazioni esposte [in Italian]
Report on a study on the fertility of couples where the men were occupationally exposed to three different kinds of toxic substances with effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couples. Data were collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers, as well as from comparable non-unexposed groups of workers. Results suggest that workers exposed to metals, solvents and the agricultural and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy, although the delay was statistically significant (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.2-5.1) only for greenhouse workers with heavy exposure (>100hrs of application time per year) to pesticides.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.307-313. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1777 Edworthy J, Hellier E., Lambell N., Grey C., Aldrich K., Lee A.
Health and Safety Executive
The effectiveness of labelling of pesticides
In most cases, safety information on labels is presented as an instruction, rather than as a hazard or consequence statement. An evaluation of the effectiveness of different presentations enabled the specification of the most easily-understood phrase for expressing safety information on a range of different topics, and to identify the linguistic variables that generally produced effective and ineffective safety phrases. Experimental studies on direct compliance behaviour investigated the effect of the location of safety information. Effective and ineffective means of linguistic expression were combined with effective and ineffective locations for safety information. It was revealed that for all categories of users, presenting safety information in the "directions for use" section resulted in the highest levels of compliance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 148p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.

CIS 01-835 Ji B.T., Silverman D.T., Stewart P.A., Blair A., Swanson G.M., Baris D., Greenberg R.S., Hayes R.B., Brown L.M., Lillemoe K.D., Schoenberg J.B., Pottern L.M., Schwartz A.G., Hoover R.N.
Occupational exposure to pesticides and pancreatic cancer
To investigate the relationship between pancreatic cancer and exposure to pesticides, a case-control study was conducted in three separate areas of the United States, involving 484 cases aged 30-79 diagnosed in 1986-1989 and 2,095 controls drawn from a random sample of the general population. A job-exposure matrix (JEM) approach was used to estimate the level of occupational exposure to pesticides. A significant trend in risk with increasing exposure level of pesticides was observed, with odds ratios (OR) of 1.3 and 1.4 for low and moderate-high exposure levels, respectively. Excess risks were found for occupational exposure to fungicides (OR = 1.5) and herbicides (OR = 1.6) in the moderate-high level after adjustment for potential confounding factors. An increased risk for insecticide exposure was no longer significant after adjustment for fungicide and herbicide exposures. Results suggest that pesticides may increase the risk of pancreatic cancer, and highlight the need for further research to evaluate the risk of exposure to specific chemicals.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.92-99. 45 ref.


CIS 03-748 Brouwer D.H., Boeniger M.F., van Hemmen J.
Hand wash and manual skin wipes
Hand wash and skin wipes are major techniques that have been used for dermal exposure sampling. This paper reviews known methods and techniques, with an emphasis on sampling parameters and sampling efficiency. It was found that identified sampling protocols, including sampling techniques, deviate at possible key issues, which hampers comparisons of study results. It is recommended to conduct sampling efficiency studies prior to field sampling, under conditions that are similar with respect to exposure process, levels of skin loading and time of residence of the compound on the skin. Harmonization of sampling protocols is a first step in creating a database for better understanding the influence of sampling parameters on the performance of removal techniques to assess dermal exposure.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 2000, Vol.44, No.7, p.501-510. 39 ref.

CIS 03-192 García A.M., Orts E., Esteban V., Porcuna J.L.
Experts' assessment of probability and level of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers
The occupational history of the parents of 261 Spanish infants with congenital malformations and 261 matched controls was collected. Preceding the birth of their child, 183 of the parents had been involved in agricultural activities, 49% of them directly in the application of pesticides. Two experts assessed the probability and level of exposure to a number of pesticides. Inter-rater agreement was estimated. In the analysis of some categories of exposure (non-applicators, herbicides) there was very low inter-rater agreement. Since in epidemiological studies a detailed product-by-product assessment of pesticide exposure is needed for the investigation of the health effects of pesticides, there is clearly a need for research on the application of experts' judgments in this area.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.42, No.9, p.911-916. 24 ref.

CIS 03-277 Ryan J.J., Schecter A.
Exposure of Russian phenoxy herbicide producers to dioxins
Blood samples of workers who worked during the 1960s at a phenoxy herbicide plant in the Bashkortostan region of Russia were collected in 1992 and analysed by GC-MS. 34 workers who manufactured 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) had median blood lipid 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations of 166ng/kg and 1,2,3,7,8-pentachloro-p-dioxin (PnCDD) levels of 52ng/kg. These values are 10 to 30 times higher than contemporary normal levels from the Bashkortostan region and were at least 10-fold higher in the 1960s. Six workers who produced the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) also had elevated levels in 1992, with PnCDD levels higher than those of TCDD. Children of some of the workers and factory administrative personnel also had blood levels of TCDD higher than most general population groups from other parts of Russia or from other countries. No correlation was found between chloracne status in 1965 to 1967 and TCDD or toxic equivalent blood lipid concentrations in 1992. These phenoxy herbicide workers appear to have some the highest dioxins levels of any cohort studied to date.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.42, No.9, p.861-870. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1121 Pelfrène A.F.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) is used agriculturally as a larvicide, ovicide and insecticide as well as a potato haulm desiccant. It is also used as a polymerization inhibitor and as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Signs and symptoms of acute poisoning include restlessness, sensation of heat, flushed skin, sweating, thirst, deep and rapid respiration, tachycardia, severe increase of body temperature and cyanosis leading to collapse, coma and death. Effects are enhanced at high environmental temperature. Data from animal studies indicate that DNOC causes skin and eye irritation and skin sensitization.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. xvii, 87p. 150 ref. Price: CHF 26.00 (CHF 18.20 in developing countries).

CIS 02-673 Tüchsen F., Jensen A.A.
Agricultural work and the risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark, 1981-1993
This study examined the possible association between agricultural and horticultural work and subsequent incidence of Parkinson's disease. Cohorts of 2,273,872 men and women, aged between 20 and 59 years, identified in the Central Population Register of Denmark were followed. All first-time hospitalizations with Parkinson's disease were recorded. A high risk of Parkinson's disease was found for the men and women in agriculture and horticulture (134 cases, standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR) 132). Significantly high risks were found for farmers (79 cases, SHR 130) and for all men in agriculture and horticulture (109 cases, SHR 134).
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.359-362. 13 ref.

CIS 02-706 Engel L.S., O'Meara E.S., Schwartz S.M.
Maternal occupation in agriculture and risk of limb defects in Washington State, 1980-1993
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth records from the state of Washington (USA) for the years 1980 through 1993. The exposed group, consisting of 4466 births to mothers employed in agriculture, was compared with 2 reference groups. The outcome of interest was limb defects (syndactyly, polydactyly, adactyly, and "other limb reductions" as listed in the birth record). An elevated risk of limb defects was observed for the exposed group in comparison with the reference groups. These results support the hypothesis that maternal occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals may increase the risk of giving birth to a child with limb defects.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.193-198. 10 ref.

CIS 02-80
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for endosulfan (Update)
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of endosulfan is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurotoxic effects (convulsions, tremor), respiratory effects (dyspnoea); genotoxic effects induced in animals. (Update of CIS 96-2214).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 284p. Illus. Approx. 680 ref.

CIS 02-288 Cebulska-Wasilewska A., Wierzewska A., Dyga W., Drąg Z., Siffel C., Horváth M., Au W.
Induction of DNA and cytogenic damage in lymphocytes of Polish workers exposed to pesticides
This paper presents preliminary data from the Polish subgroup of a joint research program (Greece, Hungary, Poland, and Spain) investigating the relationship between exposure to agrochemicals and the induction of genotoxicity in human cells. Blood samples were collected from male donors (50 persons in a reference group and 50 persons in a group occupationally exposed to pesticides). The collected samples were analysed for the induction of DNA strand breaks and of chromosome damage. Analysis of the data from the interviews revealed that the occupationally exposed group showed significantly higher frequency of some health problems (cardiovascular disorders, kidney, neurological and dermatological problems, infections). The exposed group also had higher levels of DNA damage and sister chromatid exchanges compared to the reference group. It was also found that cigarette smoking played an important role influencing the biomarker response. Although the farmers in Poland have been using safety devices when handling pesticides, more rigorous procedures need to be employed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.272-287. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-186 Petrelli G., Figà-Talamanca I., Taggi F.
Recall of reproductive history in agricultural workers
The relationship between reproductive damage and occupational and environmental toxic substances has been investigated in retrospective epidemiological studies by means of time to pregnancy. This measure has been validated in several studies conducted on working populations, in particular among women. This paper attempts to evaluate the agreement between recalls of the husband and wife on reproductive history among agricultural workers. The study was carried out in an agricultural area of central Italy and involved 164 farmers, aged 20-55, licensed to handle pesticides, and their wives. Detailed data on reproductive history were collected by personal interview. Subsequently the farmers' wives were interviewed by telephone. On the basis of the results, it can reasonably be affirmed that the male's recall can be considered as acceptable to study the reproductive history in this agricultural population.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.265-271. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 02-169 Alguacil J., Kauppinen T., Porta M., Partanen T., Malats N., Kogevinas M., Benavides F.G., Obiols J., Bernal F., Rifa J., Carrato A.
Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain
Cases of pancreatic cancer and controls among hospital patients free of pancreatic cancer were identified during their stay in hospital. Occupational history was obtained by direct interviews with the patients. Occupational exposures to 22 suspected carcinogens associated with pancreatic cancer in previous studies were evaluated. Increased odds ratios (OR) were apparent in all pesticide groups, highest for arsenical pesticides (OR = 3.4) and "other pesticides" (OR = 3.17). ORs were also higher for high-intensity exposure to aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments. ORs above 3 were observed for pesticides, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, volatile sulfur compounds, and sedentary work. Results lend support to the hypothesis of an association between exposure to some pesticides and pancreatic cancer. Suggestive increases in risk from aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments, and benzo(a)pyrene also deserve further study.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.391-403. 72 ref.

CIS 02-282 Garrod A.N.I., Guiver R., Rimmer D.A.
Potential exposure of amateurs (consumers) through painting wood preservative and antifoulant preparations
This article presents data for work patterns, inhalation and potential dermal exposure for amateurs painting wood preservatives to garden structures, and antifoulants to leisure boats. The results are quoted as rates of in-use product deposition or time-weighted inhaled product concentrations. Inhalation exposure was detected in about 40% of the surveys, being about 100 times higher for wood preservatives. The maximum airborne wood preservative concentration was 8.03mg/m3, measured over the period of painting. Regarding potential dermal exposure, the processes are only broadly comparable. Most of the data appear to fall into relatively narrow distributions, with median values around 5mg/min (for preservatives) and around 16mg/min (for antifoulants). About half of the deposit on clothing was found to occur below the waist. The data comparing gloved and bare hand working indicate that even simple gloves offer a degree of protection for skin.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.421-426. 8 ref.

CIS 02-278 Pontal P.G.
Herbicides [in French]
Herbicides represent roughly 50% of the pesticides used in agriculture. The effect most frequently observed in animal studies is hepatic enzyme induction, possibly associated with hepatoxicity at high doses. Apart from accidental poisoning or suicides, the most common findings in human studies are allergic or irritant skin effects. Despite numerous epidemiological studies attempting to establish a link between exposure to pesticides and cancers or reproductive disorders, there were no conclusive findings. Herbicide contamination can occur during their manufacture, in agricultural operations or at the consumer level, due to the possible existence of residues or metabolites in treated plants. For each contamination path and for each product or formulation, specific rules indicate the acceptable exposure limits, conditions of use and labelling requirements.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.127, 10p. 57 ref.

CIS 01-1782 Pilkington A., Cowie H.A., Kidd M., Lancaster R.J., Buchanan D.
Health and Safety Executive
Risk perception of sheep dippers
This study is a follow-up to an earlier study of farm workers involved in sheep dipping sessions, which suggested that certain tasks and behaviours were associated with high body intake of organophosphorus compounds (OPs) as measured by urinary metabolites. The study was designed to explore the factors which determine behaviour during sheep dipping, and involved 60 farmers who had participated in the earlier study. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires on knowledge about OPs, safe working practices, perception of risk and attitudes towards risk taking. It was found that lack of knowledge on the safe handling of concentrate, routes of exposure and effective personal protective equipment were the most important factors contributing towards unsafe behaviour. The implications of these findings are discussed, in particular with respect to training needs.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 41p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.00.

CIS 01-1085 Abell A., Juul S., Bonde J.P.E.
Time to pregnancy among female greenhouse workers
This study examined the possibility that work in greenhouses with potential exposure to pesticides entails a risk for reduced fecundity in terms of increased time to pregnancy. 1,767 female members of the Danish Gardeners Trade Union were interviewed by telephone, and data were obtained on the 492 most recent pregnancies among women who were employed at the time when they stopped contraception. The pregnancies were classified according to job characteristics. The adjusted fecundability ratio for workers in flower greenhouses compared to other union members was 1.11. Among workers in flower greenhouses, the handling of cultures many hours per week, the spraying of pesticides, and the non-use of gloves was related to reduced fecundability.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2000, Vol.26, No.2, p.131-136. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 01-790 Sprince N.L., Lewis M.Q., Whitten P.S., Reynolds S.J., Zwerling C.
Respiratory symptoms: Associations with pesticides, silos, and animal confinement in the Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project
A population-based study was carried out in the state of Iowa (United States) in order to assess associations between symptoms of airway disease and several farm exposures, including to pesticides, grain dust, substances encountered in connection with animal confinement and in silos. A total of 385 farmer participants provided questionnaire responses concerning demographic, respiratory symptom, smoking and exposure information. The most frequently reported respiratory symptoms were flu-like symptoms in connection with dusty work (22%), dyspnoea (21%) and phlegm (15%). Applying pesticides to livestock was associated with significantly increased odds of phlegm (OR=1.91), chest ever wheezy (OR=3.92) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.93). Conventional vertical silos were significantly associated with increased odds of chest ever wheezy (OR=2.75) and flu-like symptoms (OR=2.40). There were also significant associations between several respiratory symptoms and the presence of animal confinement facilities on the farm.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.455-462. 19 ref.

CIS 01-316 Commission Regulation (EC) No.451/2000 of 28 February 2000 laying down the detailed rules for the implementation of the second and third stages of the work programme referred to in article 8(2) of Council Directive 91/414/EEC [European Communities]
Règlement n°451/2000 de la Commission du 28 fév. 2000 établissant les modalités de mise en œuvre des deuxième et troisième phases du programme de travail visé à l'article 8, paragraphe 2, de la Directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil [Communautés européennes] [in French]
This Commission Regulation concerns the procedures for the evaluation of active substances. It requires the establishment of a system of notification of the Commission for the inclusion of active substances in Annex 1 of Council Directive 91/414/eec (see CIS 95-1942).
Journal officiel des Communautés européennes - Official Journal of the European Communities, 29 Feb. 2000, Vol.43, No.L 55, p.25-52.

CIS 01-491 de la Iglesia Huerta A., Delgado Cobos P.
Pesticides: Neurotoxicity and heath surveillance
Plaguicidas: Neurotoxicidad y vigilancia de la salud [in Spanish]
Spain is the fifth largest consumer of crop protection products in Europe, of which 80% are organophosphorus compounds. The aetiology and pathogenesis of this class of compounds is described. The most important mode of poisoning is through skin absorption, while ingestion is mainly by accident or a result of poor hygiene, and inhalation risk is a function of the products' volatility. The immediate effects of poisoning are muscarinic and nicotinic effects, as well as neurological effects. Neurotoxic effects may be delayed, and can appear several days or weeks after the poisoning. For this reason, regular medical checks and biological monitoring are necessary, in particular the determination of plasmatic acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase, and the detection of possible urinary metabolites, in order to evaluate exposure. Use of the Peradeniya scale, which assigns ratings to five organophosphorus poisoning symptoms, enables the determination of the severity of the poisoning.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2000, No.8, p.4-14. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 01-519
Health and Safety Executive
Medical aspects of work-related exposures to organophosphates
This guidance note is to inform doctors and other health professionals about the health effects of exposure to organophosphates and the role of biological monitoring and health surveillance of exposed workers. Main topics covered: routes of absorption and potential occupational sources of exposure; pharmacology and toxicology; clinical manifestations of organophosphate poisoning; requirements of COSHH; biological monitoring (measurement of urinary metabolites as an index of exposure and measurement of cholinesterase activity as an index of uptake and effect); health surveillance; management (acute and chronic toxicity); notification of incidents.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Mar. 2000. 8p. 10 ref. Price: GBP 5.50.

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