Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Kostanecka I., Mańkowska W., Sawicka A.
Study of the protective efficiency of sorbent-filter respirators and combined sorbent-particulate filter respirators against liquid organophosphorus insecticides
Badania przydatności pochłaniaczy i filtropochłaniaczy jako ochron stosowanych przy pracach z płynnymi insektycydami fosforoorganicznymi [in Polish]
Study of the relative merits, as means of protection against liquid organophosphorus insecticides, of 4 sorbent filter respirators and 6 combined sorbent-particulate filter respirators manufactured in East Germany, West Germany, Italy and Poland. The parameters compared were: weight of respirator; weight and volume of sorbent material; breathing resistance; relative filtration efficiency of the respirators for different insecticides. The comparative analysis of the results indicates that the combined sorbent-particulate filter respirator is superior to the plain sorbent filter respirator. Numerous comparative tables are given.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1974, Vol.24, No.80, p.21-37. Illus. 12 ref.
Trinh Van Bao, Szabó I., Ruzicska P., Czeizel E.
Chromosome studies in persons poisoned with phosphoric acid esters (pesticides)
Kromoszóma-vizsgálatok heveny foszforsav-észter (peszticid) mérgezettekben [in Hungarian]
Results of chromosome studies performed on cultures of peripheral blood from persons suffering from acute phosphoric acid ester poisoning. Blood samples had been taken both during the period of intoxication and 1 and 6 months later. The rate of chromatid breaks, acentric fragments and stable chromosome aberrations (deletions, translocations) was significantly high during the intoxication phase and 1 month later. No definite correlation was found between the frequency of chromosome alterations and the severity of clinical manifestations. Chromosome aberrations were most frequent in cases of thiophosphate poisoning.
Egészségtudomány, 1974, Vol.18, No.4, p.348-360. Illus. 26 ref.
An autoradiographic study on the distribution of the herbicide 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid in pregnant mice.
The toxicity of the phenoxy herbicides has been reported to be moderate but teratogenic effects have been produced in rodents by 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) derivatives and 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid ethyl ester (MCPA). The distribution of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D in experimental animals has already been investigated. In this study whole-body autoradiography was used to ascertain the distribution of radioactivity after injection of MCPA in pregnant mice. The distribution of MCPA was found to be very similar to that observed for 2,4,5-T and 2,4-D. The results indicate a teratogenic mode of action for MCPA similar to that postulated for 2,4,5-T, i.e. inhibition of the embryotrophic nutrition.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Nov. 1974, Vol.30, No.2, p.227-236. Illus. 20 ref.
Smith P., Heath D.
Paraquat lung: a reappraisal.
Poisoning by paraquat commonly leads to the development of pulmonary fibrosis often described as being interstitial in nature and regarded by many as an example of fibrosing alveolitis. However, the experimental evidence from rats, together with observations on 4 human cases presented here, suggest that the basic pathological change in the human lung due to paraquat poisoning is a diffuse, cellular intra-alveolar fibrosis and not fibrosing alveolitis. It is shown to be associated with pulmonary vascular pathology. In assessing the histopathology of the lung in paraquat poisoning, a history of oxygen therapy must be taken into account as prolonged exposure to this gas may in itself induce pulmonary fibrosis.
Thorax, Nov. 1974, Vol.29, No.6, p.643-653. Illus. 20 ref.
Burns J.E., Miller F.M., Gomes E.D., Albert R.A.
Haxachlorobenzene exposure from contaminated DCPA in vegetable spraymen.
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) blood residues were found in 19 of 20 vegetable spraymen exposed to HCB-contaminated dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate (DCPA). The mean level was 40± 63 parts per billion (ppb) with a range of 0-310ppb. No definite physical or biochemical effects of this exposure were discovered. Specifically there was no evidence of cutaneous porphyria. Although at the levels detected it appears that HCB has no short-term effects on humans, the possibility of long-term effects at the observed exposure cannot be excluded. The presence of HCB in any pesticide should be a warning of increased risk.
Archives of Environmental Health, Oct. 1974, Vol.29, No.4, p.192-194. 12 ref.
Axelson O., Sundell L.
Herbicide exposure, mortality and tumor incidence. An epidemiological investigation on Swedish railroad workers.
An epidemiological investigation of tumour incidence and mortality among Swedish railroad workers exposed to different herbicides showed a significantly increased tumour incidence and mortality among workers exposed to amitrol (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole), and a normal tumour incidence and mortality among those exposed to phenoxy acids (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid). Exposure to amitrol was sometimes associated with exposure to 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (diuron) and 3-(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (monuron), which confuses the evaluation of the relationship between amitrol exposure and tumour incidence. Nevertheless, as the results are in agreement with those based on animal experiments, caution in using amitrol is advocated.
Work - Environment - Health, 1974, Vol.11, No.1, p.21-28. Illus. 15 ref.
Exposure to lindane and DDT and its effects on drug metabolism and serum lipoproteins.
Thesis reporting the results of investigations into the occupational exposure of various groups of Swedish workers to lindane and DDT. The author devised a gas-liquid chromatographic method for estimating values as low as 0.3ng/ml of lindane and 3ng/ml of DDT in human plasma. DDT levels in samples taken 8 months after exposure did not differ from those in samples taken during exposure. To elucidate the effect of lindane and DDT exposure on drug metabolism, plasma half-lives were determined for antipyrine, phenylbutazone and oxazepam. The plasma half-life of antipyrine was significantly reduced by lindane exposure. It is thought that lindane induces drug oxidation in man. An unusual change of the serum lipoprotein pattern was found in 12 of 34 insecticide-exposed men: hyper-alpha-lipoproteinaemia, which was confirmed by animal experiments.
Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1974. 48p. Illus. 125 ref.
Data on the evaluation of the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether/2,4,5-T
(Materialy k ocenke gonadotropnogo i mutagennogo dejstvija gerbicida butylovogo ėfira 2,4,5-T [in Russian]
Description and results of animal experiments designed to determine the systemic toxicity and the gonadotropic and mutagenic effects of the herbicide mixture butyl ether and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. The author establisehd a close correlation between the cytogenic effect and the dose; he situated the threshold dose in the region of 0.01mg/kg and the threshold of systemic toxicity in chronic exposure conditions at around 0.1mg/kg; the last-mentioned dose is also the threshold for the gonadotropic effect.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1974, No.4, p.24-27. 12 ref.
Neurotoxicological effect of small quantities of lindane - Animal studies.
The early effects of low doses of lindane (2.5 to 50 mg/kg) on the functions of the central nervous system were studied in rats by means of learning tests. The results showed that these functional tests are suitable for the early detection of slight impairments of the nervous system, whereas liver function tests and histological examinations performed at the same time were negative. Therefore, physiological examination of persons exposed to lindane is recommended as a preventive measure. The neuurotoxicological methods may detect minimal pesticide contamination in the reversible phase when other less sensitive tests are negative.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 10 July 1974, Vol.33, No.2, p.153-162. Illus. 17 ref.
Occupational pathology in superphosphate production
Professional'naja patologija v superfosfatnom proizvodstve [in Russian]
Describes the special features of the clinical picture of occupational diseases found in the superphosphate industry, due to the irritant, caustic and toxic effects of hydrogen fluoride, sulfuric acid aerosols, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. These effects apply especially to the respiratory system, nervous system, buccal cavity and skeleton. Superphosphate workers' fluorosis appears to consist of 4 phases, including one pretoxic phase for which periodic medical examinations and therapeutic and prophylactic measures are recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.38-39. 5 ref.
Some organochlorine pesticides.
A series of 12 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 22-29 Oct. 1973). Individual monographs are devoted to: aldrin, Aramite, BHC (technical grades) and lindane, chlorobenzilate, DDT and associated substances, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, methoxychlor, mirex, quintozene (pentachloronitrobenzene) and terpene polychlorinates (Strobane).
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.5. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France, 1974. 241p. 932 ref. Price: SF.18.00.
Kagan Ju.S., Trahtenberg I.M., Rodionov G.A., Lukaneva A.M., Voronina L.Ja., Verič G.E.
Influence of pesticides on pathogenesis and evolution of certain pathological processes
Vlijanie pesticidov na vozniknovenie i razvitie nekotoryh patalogičeskih processov [in Russian]
It is an established fact that many pesticides containing organochlorine, organophosphorus and organomercury compounds or carbamates are cardiotoxic and hepatotoxic. This article presents and analyses the results of histopathological research on animals demonstrating that these pesticides aggravate certain pathological disorders of the cardiovascular system (coronary deficiency, myocarditis, atherosclerosis); they also (this is particularly true of chlorophos) aggravate liver damage caused by carbon tetrachloride.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1974, No.3, p.23-27. Illus.
Holmes J.H., Starr H.G., Hanisch R.C., Von Kaulla K.N.
Short-term toxicity of mevinphos in man.
A report of 2 cases of acute poisoning by mevinphos. The symptomatology was similar to that previously reported for exposure to other organophosphate compounds. Blood coagulation studies showed marked fibrinolysis in one case and marked hypercoagulability in the other. Haematuria persisted in one patient for more than 8 days. Because of the recent development of techniques for the measurement of alkyl phosphate ester excretion, it was possible to study the excretion pattern of dimethylphosphate in both cases. Both patients responded well to treatment by atropine sulfate.
Archives of Environmental Health, Aug. 1974, Vol.29, No.2, p.84-89. Illus. 20 ref.
Copland G.M., Kolín A., Shulman H.S.
Fatal pulmonary intra-alveolar fibrosis after paraquat ingestion.
A report of a fatal case of paraquat poisoning with some unusual histological features. The clinical course was of renal toxicity followed by progressive respiratory failure. Extensive intra-alveolar avascular fibrosis was found at autopsy in all lung sections examined, with no interstitial fibrosis, indicating that the original damage was not strong enough to injure the more deeply situated capillary endothelium and basal membrance. A list of paraquat-containing herbicides is given.
New England Journal of Medicine, 8 Aug. 1974, Vol.291, No.6, p.290-292. Illus. 16 ref.
Occupational cancer risk for pesticide workers.
An assessment of the range of materials with carcinogenic potential to which pesticide workers may be exposed has been made by reviewing the literature; 175 relevant papers were found. Their review discloses that many pesticides possess at least low levels of carcinogenic activity for laboratory animals. It has also been established that some carriers and vehicles of pesticide chemicals are carcinogenic or co-carcinogenic in man. There is some evidence of synergistic action between ingredients of particular preparations, but no indication of additive carcinogenic potential among the pesticides studied.
Environmental Research, Apr. 1974, Vol.7, No.2, p.243-271. 176 ref.
Dési I., Gönczi L., Simon G., Farkas I., Kneffel Z.
Neurotoxicologic studies of two carbamate pesticides in subacute animal experiments.
2 pesticides, carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) and arprocarb (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) were tested for neurotoxic effects in subacute experiments on rats. The authors examined the process of learning and performance of a previously learned task, and studied EEG patterns under resting conditions and under rhythmic light stimulation. The cholinesterase activity of the blood and of various parts of the brain was recorded. The findings in these animal experiments suggest that the early signs of possible subacute intoxication may be measured in humans by EEG and objective tests of psychological performance.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Mar. 1974, Vol.27, No.3, p.465-476. Illus. 19 ref.
Soman and sarin: Clinical manifestations and treatment of accidental poisoning by organophosphates.
Description of 4 cases of accidental exposure to the potent cholinesterase inhibitors sarin (isopropylmethylphosphonofluoridate) and soman (pinacolylmethylphosphonofluoridate). An account is given in each case of the initial clinical manifestations, the therapy instituted and the reactions to therapy. It was observed that: (1) there were psychiatric sequelae in the 2 most severe cases; (2) scopolamine, which disrupts mental performance in normal subjects, ameliorated the mental condition in the patient to whom it was administered, indicating that this drug deserves further evaluation under similar circumstances; (3) the soman-inhibited circulating cholinesterases in one case were refractory to reactivation by pralidoxime chloride, confirming that the effectiveness of the oxime varies with the inhibitor.
Clinical Toxicology, Feb. 1974, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-17. Illus. 20 ref.
Carter M.K., Maddux B.
Interaction of dichlorvos and anticholinesterases on the in vitro inhibition of human blood cholinesterases.
The in vitro interaction of several anticholinesterase pesticides and chlorpromazine with dichlorvos on the inhibition of human blood cholinesterase was investigated. The data presented indicate that in vitro combinations of dichlorvos with selected anticholinesterases usually result in less inhibition when compared to the calculated summed individual inhibitions. Only in the case of the combination of chlorpromazine with dichlorvos, using human red blood cells as a source of cholinesterase, was the combined inhibition greater than the summed individual inhibitions. Explanations are offered for the increased inhibition of cholinesterase that is reported here for dichlorvos and chlorpromazine and the increased toxicity reported by others for other organophosphate agents and chlorpromazine.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1974, Vol.27, No.2, p.456-463. Illus. 24 ref.
Feldman R.J., Maibach H.I.
Percutaneous penetration of some pesticides and herbicides in man.
12 pesticides and herbicides (azodrin, ethion, guthion, malathion, parathion, baygon, carbaryl, aldrin, dieldrin, lindane, 2,4-D, diquat) labelled with carbon 14 were applied to the forearms of human subjects, and the urinary excretion of carbon 14 was determined. Data obtained after intravenous dosing was used to correct the skin penetration data for incomplete urinary recovery. The data indicate that all the pesticides and herbicides tested are absorbed. The least absorbed was diquat, and the greatest absorption was found with carbaryl.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Apr. 1974, Vol.28, No.1, p.126-132. 14 ref.
Wagner S.L., Weswig P.
Arsenic in blood and urine of forest workers as indices of exposure to cacodylic acid.
5 healthy forest workers exposed to cacodylic acid (dimethyl arsinic acid), a newly introduced herbicide, but observing safe procedures, were examined for evidence of accumulation of arsenic in the blood, the pattern of its urinary excretion and signs of clinical intoxication. The total urinary excretion of arsenic appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of exposure than arsenic concentration in blood or in random urine samples. None of the workers manifested signs of arsenic intoxication. Because there was no illness, no attempt was made to set threshold limits for excretion based on these studies. The possibility of the formation of arsine gas in treated forest areas is a potential hazard.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1974, Vol.28, No.2, p.77-79. 7 ref.
Menz M., Luetkemeier H., Sachsse K.
Long-term exposure of factory workers to dichlorvos (DDVP) insecticide.
In the course of the production and processing of a dichlorvos (DDVP) releasing product, 13 adult workers of both sexes were exposed to an average concentration of approximately 0.7 mg/m3 air. Extensive laboratory tests carried out on these persons during the course of a one-year exposure period showed moderate to slight inhibition of the cholinesterases only. The results of other tests and of regular medical examinations were entirely normal. It was concluded that the inhibition of the cholinesterases did not correspond with any untoward effect and that no health hazard existed.
Archives of Environmental Health, Feb. 1974, Vol.28, No.2, p.72-76. Illus. 12 ref.
Mayersdorf A., Israeli R.
Toxic effects of chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides on the human electroencephalogram.
Electroencephalograms were obtained from a sample of 73 workers continually exposed to BHC, DDT and benzilan in a chemical plant. Abnormal records were obtained in 16 cases (21.9%). None of those examined showed either abnormal neurological features or clinical convulsions. This study suggests high exposure of the workers examined. However, it is not sure whether abnormal EEG patterns alone are a sufficient indication to warrant closure of the whole plant, but exposure should be reduced.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar. 1974, Vol.28, No.3, p.159-163. Illus. 14 ref.
Agricultural Pesticides Rules, 1973 [Pakistan]
Regulations in application of the 1971 Ordinance on the same subject (CIS 00-326). Topics: agriculture; antidote treatment; approval; chemical hazards; data sheet; labour inspection; law; licensing new products; packing, filling; Pakistan; pesticides; sample processing; warning notices.
Photocopy, 34p. On file at CIS.
Government Regulation No.7 (1973) concerning the control of the sale, storage and use of pesticides [Indonesia]
Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia nomor 7 tahun 1973 tentang Pengawasan Atas Perederan, Penyimpanan dan Penggunaan Pestisida [in Indonesian]
Regulation outlining the system of permits necessary for the sale, storage and use of pesticides in Indonesia.
In: Labour Legislation in Indonesia, Department of Manpower, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1988, Vol.II, p.141-143 (Indonesian-language section), p.134-136 (English-language section). Also in: State Gazette No.12, 1973.
Wyman Dorough H.
Metabolism of carbamate insecticides.
The metabolic fate of aldicarb, carbaryl and carbofuran was investigated in biological systems, and the effects of other insecticides and monoamine oxidase inhibitors on carbaryl metabolism studied in rats. Metabolic determinations were also made of 3-hydroxycarbofuran, its glucoside and glucuronide, and naphthyl glucoside. In vitro methods were developed to study mechanisms of glycosylation in insects and mammals, using 1-naphthol as model. It is recommended that development of carbamate insecticides as commercial pest control agents be encouraged; as a group, they have exhibited (1) effective insect control; (2) relatively short residual life in the environment; (3) rapid excretion from the body; and (4) polar terminal residues formed by metabolic detoxication processes.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. PB-231 596/8WJ, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, Virginia 22151, USA, Sep. 1973. 255p. 85 ref. Price: Photocopy US-$6.50/Microfiche US-$1.45.
Fumigation with hydrocyanic acid
Fumigación con ácido cianhídrico [in Spanish]
This data sheet describes the fumigating methods used in fruit farming, using covers to enclose the trees, and indicates the precautions to be used for each method. The symptoms of hydrocyanic acid poisoning are listed and emergency treatment described.
Hoja informativa n°32, National Occupational Safety and Health Programme, Provincial Technical Service (Plan nacional de higiene y seguridad del trabajo, Gabinete técnico provincial), Valencia, Spain, Mar. 1973. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
Jirásek L., Kalenský J., Kubec K.
Chloracne and porphyria cutanea tarda in herbicide production
Acne chlorina a porphyria cutanea tarda při výrobě herbicid [in Czech]
Detailed description of 78 cases (2 of which were fatal) of chloracne involving in some cases liver damage, impairment of the metabolism of porphyrins, lipids and proteins, and nervous and psychic complications, observed between 1965 and 1968 among workers of various ages employed in a plant where chlorinated organic substances (pentachlorophenol and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were used in the manufacture of herbicides. It was found that these disturbances were due to the action of the 2,3,6,7-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin which is formed on alkaline hydrolysis of tetrachlorobenzene to produce sodium trichlorophenolate. To prevent the formation of this compound, hydrolysis should be carried out at 153°C (instead of 190°C). The paper includes a wide literature survey on the effects of poisoning by chlorinated organic compounds, especially dermatitis.
Československá dermatologie, Oct. 1973, Vol.48, No.5, p.306-317. 49 ref.
Landa K., Fejfušová J., Nedomlelová R.
Hazards of organotin compounds used as fungicides in industry
Riziko organických sloučenin cínu použivaných jako fungicidní prostředky při některých aplikacích v průmyslu [in Czech]
Describes a case of nasal mucosa irritation and damage in a woman spraying latex paint containing trialkyl tin compounds (bis(tri-n-butyltin) oxide). The concentrations measured were below 0.05mg/m3 air, but the conditions under which the measurements were carried out were atypical. In view of the development of organotin paints, a maximum allowable concentration must be set for Czechoslovakia (the East German value is 0.1mg/m3); it is also important to lay down conditions governing the use of these substances and to develop appropriate methods for their determination.
Pracovní lékařství, Oct. 1973, Vol.25, No.9, p.391-394. 6 ref.
Dehne H., Wozniak K.D.
Toxic and sensitising properties of substances containing trichloromethylmethanol
Toxische und sensibilisierende Eigenschaften von substituierten Aryl-trichlormethylcarbinolen [in German]
A review of the specific biologically harmful properties linked to the structure of substances containing trichloromethylmethanol, followed by an account of cases of skin lesions noted during the manufacture of these substances. The evolution and clinical picture of these skin disorders correspond to those of contact eczema of allergic origin. Concentrations of 0.1% are considered sufficient to produce an epicutaneous sensitisation; concentrations of 10% are sufficient to produce skin lesions.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, July 1973, Vol.19, No.7, p.535-538. Illus. 17 ref.
Identification and determination of organophosphorus and carbaryl insecticides on ready-made thin-layer plates
Identifizierung und Bestimmung von phosphororganischen Insektiziden sowie Carbaryl auf Dünnschicht-Fertigplatten [in German]
Study of the possibilities of using chromatography on plates with thin layers of "Silufol" (layers of silica gel on reflecting strips of aluminium) for the identification and determination of organophosphorus and carbaryl insecticides. The method may be used for the quick semi-quantitative determination of the above insecticides during occupational health checks in agriculture. Detection levels and measurement limits are tabulated for various substances.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, July 1973, Vol.19, No.7, p.509-510. 11 ref.
Research on the possibilities of differential diagnosis available to occupational hygienists in the presence of subnormal cholinesterase levels
Untersuchungen über die differentialdiagnostischen Möglichkeiten bei subnormalen Cholinesterasewerten unter arbeitshygienischen Aspekten [in German]
Account and discussion of a method which makes it possible to differentiate, with a minimum time lapse, between a lowering in cholinesterase levels following exposure to organic phosphoric acid esters and lowering due to other causes. This method of differential diagnosis is based on the reactivation of the cholinesterases by Obidoxime. The author stresses its usefulness for routine checks.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, July 1973, Vol.19, No.7, p.505-508. 21 ref.
Israeli R., Mayersdorf A.
Pathological EEG changes in workers exposed to halogenated insecticides
Pathologische EEG-Veränderungen bei Arbeiten mit halogenhaltigen Insektiziden [in German]
This article reviews a number of communications on EEG anomalies observed in persons exposed to halogenated insecticides, and analyses the results of examinations carried out by the authors on 73 workers; pathological EEG anomalies were observed in 29.9% of them, and the occupational exposure was comprised between 7 months and 19 years. Hypotheses are made concerning the biological phenomena occurring in the human brain as a result of exposure to halogenated insecticides. The EEG reverted to normal only several months after cessation of exposure.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, Nov. 1973, Vol.23, No.11, p.340-344. Illus. 20 ref.
Sundell L., Rehn M., Axelson O.
An epidemiological study concerning herbicides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). A preliminary study of 324 Swedish railway workers spraying herbicides on railway tracks between 1957 and 1971 showed 2 lung cancer cases in excess of predictable statistics (1 adenocarcinoma and 1 oat-cell cancer). Although the number of subjects and especially the number of cancers were small, the possibility that amitrole (1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-amine) and the combined action of this substance and smoking might have caused the lung cancers cannot be ruled out.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.375-380. Illus. 20 ref.
Protective measures concerning the use of pesticides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). Describes how hazards could be reduced if certain rules were observed (education of pesticide users, advisory services, regulations, protective equipment, alternatives to pesticides). Refers to a research project on the use of pesticides being conducted by the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.367-373.
Svetličić B., Wilhelm K.
Methods of measuring exposure to anticholinesterase insecticides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). Many methods for cholinesterase activity determination have been suggested and compared, but only a few have been found suitable for the routine monitoring of occupational exposure to anticholinesterase compounds. The factors determining the choice and applicability of a method are discussed, with particular reference to the differences between organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Results of studies on volunteers and workers exposed to anticholinesterases are also presented.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.357-365. Illus. 27 ref.
Clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment of poisoning by organophosphate insecticides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). Discussion of the general aspects of this type of poisoning, routes of entry, chemistry of organophosphates, physiological action, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment (skin and eye decontamination, antidotal therapy by means of atropine and oximes).
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.341-355. Illus. 52 ref.
Kalić-Filipović D., Dodić S., Savić S., Prodanović M., Arsenijević M., Guconić M., Vidaković A.
Occupational health hazards in the production and application of pesticides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). The results of a long-term survey of working conditions and health status of workers in a pesticide manufacturing plant in Serbia are presented. The survey is supplemented by ophthalmological findings and a description of 10 cases of poisoning among workers applying pesticides. The difficulties in assessing health hazards in the course of simultaneous exposure to products known to have toxicodynamic properties are pointed out. The article suggests how preventive measures can be further improved and recommends more systematic monitoring of the combined effects of pesticides, including ophthalmological examinations.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.333-339.
Organic mercurials used as fungicides.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). The results of comparative toxicological investigations of methyl, ethyl and methoxyethyl mercury compounds are presented. The differences in absorption, distribution and elimination of each group of compounds as well as the clinical aspects of poisoning are indicated. On the basis of prolonged field experience, the author concludes that occupational exposure to organo-mercury fungicides can be maintained within safe limits. This can be achieved by appropriate technical and medical control measures.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.307-316. Illus.
The effect of DDT on muscle dystrophy and its role in producing rest tremor.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972), describing a number of animal experiments which were conducted to discover and study the mechanism of tremor provoked by DDT and to elaborate a model of such tremor for further research. The results show that DDT significantly improves muscular function in an experimental model of muscular dystrophy; further research into the pharmacological effects of DDT might lead to its wider use as a therapeutic agent.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.297-302. 38 ref.
Changes in drug metabolism and lipoproteins in workers occupationally exposed to DDT and lindane.
Communication to the Swedish-Yugoslav symposium on pesticides (Milocer, Yugoslavia, 4-8 Dec. 1972). In 26 men occupationally exposed mainly to lindane and DDT, antipyrine had a significantly shorter plasma half-life than in 33 control subjects. 22 men exposed mainly to lindane and DDT and 38 unexposed healthy males were studied with regard to their fasting serum lipid levels and the amounts of lipids in the 3 ultracentrifugally separated lipoprotein families. Plasma levels of lindane, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were determined in 42 spraymen exposed to lindane and 23 nursery workers with a low and intermittent exposure to DDT. The plasma lindane levels of the exposed groups differed significantly from those of the control groups. The plasma DDE and DDT values of the exposed persons did not differ from those controls with only low dietary exposure to DDT.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.4, p.289-296. Illus. 15 ref.
Lukaneva A.M., Rodionov G.A.
Experimental data concerning the effects of DDT and Sevin on the pathogenesis of cholesteric atherosclerosis
Nekotorye eksperimental'nye dannye o vlijanii DDT i sevina na razvitie holesterinovogo ateroskleroza [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments carried out to elucidate the physiological and biochemical mechanisms (lipid metabolism) which form the pathogenic basis of atherosclerosis caused by the pesticides DDT and Sevin (1-naphthyl-N-methylcarbamate). The comparative study of the morphopathological and histochemical changes in the aorta and coronary heart vessels showed that the evolution of atherosclerosis is strongly accelerated by the presence of these pesticides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1973, No.9, p.41-45. Illus. 2 ref.
Pleština R., Svetličić B.
Toxic effects of two carbamate insecticides in dogs.
The authors observed a difference in duration of plasma cholinesterase inhibition in workers exposed to propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) and promecarb (3-methyl-5-isopropylphenyl-N-methylcarbamate). To find out whether this difference is due to the enzyme-inhibitor interaction or to differences in absorption, they administered equitoxic doses of the 2 carbamates to dogs by intravenous and intramuscular injections. While a difference in inhibition duration was found only after intramuscular injection, the enzyme activity recovery was similar for both carbamates after intravenous injection. The delayed plasma cholinesterase recovery after promecarb administration was due to the much slower absorption of the compound after intramuscular injection.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.3, p.217-225. Illus. 19 ref.
Simeon V., Reiner E.
Comparison between inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase by some N-methyl- and NN-dimethyl-carbamates.
The authors established second order rate constants (ka) for the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and cholinesterase in various media (human and animal sera and erythrocytes) by 7 N-methylcarbamates and 2 NN-dimethylcarbamates; the values obtained are tabulated. A comparison between the 2 enzyme activities in pre-steady state (based on ka values) and in steady state (based on apparent equilibrium constants for enzyme and inhibitor) showed that the difference in degree of inhibition by the same compound in the steady and pre-steady states is proportional to the difference in stability of the carbamylated enzymes.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.3, p.199-206. 21 ref.
Conditions for application and toxicological properties of a mixture comprising Kelthane, chlorophos and copper oxychloride
Sanitarno-gigieničeskie uslovija primenenija i toksikologičeskie svojstva smesi, sostojaščej iz kel'tana, hlorofosa i hlorokisi medi [in Russian]
The author examined 152 persons (tractor drivers, market gardeners and farm workers) who had applied a mixture of insecticides during periods of 4 to 5 days with intervals of 15 to 20 days. The duration of daily exposure had been 8 to 10 h. The most significant symptoms of poisoning related to the blood (erythropenia, lowering of haemoglobin concentration, neutropenia, eosinophilia and leucopenia). It is recommended to make tractor cabins impervious and to supply them with purified and cooled air. The preparation of the mixture should be as fully mechanised as possible to avoid all contact with the pesticide.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.101-103. 4 ref.
Burkackaja N.E., Matjušina V.I., Ivanova Z.V.
Evaluation of the health hazards of N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester, a new insecticide and acaricide
Gigieničeskaja ocenka novogo insekticida i akaricida - dikrezilovogo ėfira N-metilkarbaminovoj kisloty [in Russian]
N-methylcarbamic acid dicresyl ester (Dicresyl) is a promising insecticide and acaricide, particularly for the veterinary protection of livestock. Its toxicity, however, requires special precautions in storage, transportation and applications in agriculture and veterinary medicine. The inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity (around 24 to 43% after exposure of 1 to 2 days) is an early symptom of poisoning. In the light of data from animal experiments, the authors recommend a TLV of 0.5 mg/m3 for Dicresyl in the working environment.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1973, No.8, p.99-101. 4 ref.
Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of bromophos-ethyl.
This report is intended to facilitate the handling of the insecticide bromophos-ethyl (0-(4-bromo-2,5-dichlorophenyl)-0,0-diethyl phosphorothioate) and to indicate suitable antidotes in case of poisoning. Tests were carried out on mice, rats and other animal species with a view to determining acute toxicity, mucosal compatibility, neurotoxicity, antagonism and synergism, and inhibition of cholinesterase. Results indicate that bromophos-ethyl is among the phosphorus acid esters showing moderate toxicity. In combination with certain organic phosphorus acid esters, toxicity is increased; chlorinated hydrocarbons reduce the toxicity. Reactivation of the cholinesterase is possible with oximes (obidoximechloride, trimedoximebromide) especially in combination with atropine.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, June 1973, Vol.25, No.2, p.180-189. Illus. 17 ref.
Jabłońska B., Kopczyńska T., Łotach H.
Assessment of the usefulness of protective clothing for workers in contact with powdered mineral fertilisers
Ocena przydatności odzieży pyłoochronnej do prac z pylistymi nawozami mineralnymi [in Polish]
For the purposes of this assessment, the authors investigated the properties of several types of material, the efficiency of methods (beating and washing) for the removal of the dust deposited on the surface of these materials, the effects of the quantity of dust deposited and of washing on their imperviousness and air permeability, as well as the physiological consequences of wearing protective clothing made of one of the materials examined. A detailed account is given of the tests carried out and of checks of the thermoregulatory processes and of stress on the circulatory system performed in the laboratory on 10 subjects tested on a bicycle ergometer. The increase in the quantities measured was found to be significant; nevertheless, not even the largest deviations exceeded the organism's capacity. Conclusions are drawn from this regarding the manufacture of the tested clothing, as well as on the duration of work and rest periods for wearers of this type of clothing.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1973, Vol.23, No.77, p.99-119. 18 ref.
Safe use of pesticides - Twentieth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Insecticides.
Sécurité d'emploi des pesticides - Vingtičme rapport du Comité OMS d'experts des insecticides. [in French]
Report of a meeting held at Geneva (Switzerland) from 10-16 Oct. 1972. Sections are devoted to: insecticides in public health (DDT: WHO programme for evaluation and testing of new insecticides; ultra-low-volume application (operator hazards and hazards to third parties); aircraft disinsection and alternative methods of insect control); molluscicides in public health (hazards to operators, the general population and other organisms; compounds of immediate interest; studies of new molluscicides); rodenticides in public health; health aspects of pesticides not directly associated with vector control (data sheets, classification of pesticides, medical services and emergency aid, education in toxicology, and protective clothing); progress in diagnosis and treatment. An annex gives a summary of treatment of poisoning with insecticides (carbamates, organophosphorus and organochlorine compounds).
Technical Report Series No.513, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, 1973. 54p. 10 ref. Price: Ł0.40; US-$1.00; SF.4.00.
Wilhelm K., Pleština R., Svetličić B.
Blood cholinesterase activity in workers exposed to the organophosphorus insecticide Ekatin
Aktivnost kolinesteraza u krvi radnika izloženih organskom fosfornom insekticidu Ekatinu [in Serbocroatian]
To evaluate the exposure level in a pesticide formulating plant, 16 workers engaged in the production of Ekatin, a 20% solution of thiometon (S-[2-(ethylthio)ethyl]0,0-dimethyl ester), were medically supervised for 6 weeks. The acute toxicity of thiometon had been determined in preliminary animal experiments and its inhibitory action on human blood cholinesterase examined in vitro. The results, which are tabulated, were used to evaluate the hazard to which pesticide workers are exposed and to select appropriate methods for measuring blood cholinesterase activity.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1973, Vol.24, No.2, p.107-116. 15 ref.
Toxicology of pesticides: Recent advances.
Recent advances in the toxicology of pesticides are reviewed under the following headings: production and control legislation; general toxicity considerations; organic phosphates and carbamates with special reference to perinatal effects and endocrine activity; chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, including endocrine aspects and potential perinatal activity; pesticides containing mercury; bi-pyridyl herbicides; toxicology of captan; carcinogenic aspects of pesticides vehicles and carriers; distribution of pesticides in the environment.
Environmental Research, June 1973, Vol.6, No.2, p.202-243. 324 ref.
A review of agricultural pesticide incidents in man in England and Wales, 1952-1971.
Analysis of the cases of poisoning attributed to pesticides in England and Wales during the period 1952-1971. There were 9 fatal cases, of which only 3 were occupational in origin. There were 222 non-fatal incidents affecting 296 persons. The main problems in the use of pesticides in England and Wales today are: illicit decanting of concentrate from the manufacturers' labelled containers; hoarding of incompletely used containers; disposal of empty containers; importation of pesticides in indadequately labelled containers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1973, Vol.30, No.3, p.253-258. Illus. 6 ref.
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