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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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  • Agricultural chemicals

1977

CIS 78-1101 Malathion.
Malathion. [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on regulation of compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); precautions in use (U.S. and Soviet exposure limits, mixers and applicators, flagmen in aerial operations); entry into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.29, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 9p. 8 ref.

CIS 78-774 Conso F., Neel P., Pouzoulet C., Efthymiou M.L., Gervais P., Gaultier M.
Acute poisoning by halogenated hydroxybenzonitrile derivatives in man (ioxynil, bromoxynil).
Toxicité aiguë chez l'homme des dérivés halogénés de l'hydroxybenzonitrile (ioxynil, bromoxynil) [in French]
Description of 4 cases of acute poisoning in workers at the drying stage in the production process for these herbicides. The biochemical action of 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile or bromoxynil, and 3,5,-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile or ioxynil is the same as that of 2,4-dinitrophenol and dinitro-o-cresol: disturbance of the cellular oxidative phosphorylation processes, giving rise to pathological sweating followed by thirst, emaciation and functional renal insufficiency. Poisoning was due in a large measure to a considerable increase in production without a parallel increase in the ventilation capacity of the workshop. Factors favouring poisoning: heat, long working hours, neglect of hygiene rules (shower after work, wearing of mask).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, July-Aug. 1977, Vol.38, No.7-8, p.674-677.

CIS 78-817 Malen'kij V.P.
Histological changes in laboratory animals due to soil dust, chemical fertilisers and toxic chemicals
Gistologičeskie izmenenija v organah ėksperimental'nyh životnyh vyzvannye počvennoj pyl'ju, himičeskimi udobrenijami i jadohimikatami [in Russian]
Histopathological studies in the bronchial and pulmonary tissues of white rats given combinations of mixed mineral and vegetable dusts, fertilisers and organophosphate pesticides by inhalation or ingestion. These combinations simulated the atmospheric pollutants to which drivers of agricultural equipment are exposed during their work. Changes observed: desquamative capillary bronchitis, peribronchitis and perivascularitis, interstitial pneumonia, bronchiectasis, diffuse fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema, protein dystrophy in other parenchymatous organs. Some of these changes are attributed to synergistic effects.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1977, No.6, p.15-18. 6 ref.

CIS 78-816 Trichlorfon.
Trichlorfon. [in French]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as fungicide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects; mammalian and human toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in manufacture and use (Soviet TLV, personal protective equipment for mixers, applicators and other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance methods; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.27, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 10p. 2 ref.

CIS 78-444 Bajnova A., Burkova T., Mihajlova A.
Determination of percutaneous toxicity of the herbicide Ramrod
Opredeljane na dermalnata toksičnost na Ramroda [in Bulgarian]
Studies in white rats to assess skin absorption and local irritant action of Ramrod. There is no poisoning hazard via the skin provided that basic hygiene precautions are taken during use. Massive application (50 to 500mg/kg) produced liver function disorders after 90 and 21 days, respectively. The threshold dose for chronic exposure was 25mg/kg. The concentrations of Ramrod present in solutions prepared ready for application (0.5-1%) have no toxic effects.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, May 1977, Vol.20, No.3, p.234-240. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 78-439 Kagan Ju.S.
Toxicology of organophosphorus pesticides
Toksikologija fosfororganičeskih pesticidov [in Russian]
Contents of this practical manual: physical and chemical properties, toxicity, cumulative properties; mode of action and toxicodynamics; toxicokinetics and selective toxicity; pathogenesis of poisoning (effects on: the central nervous system, the neuromuscular synapses, respiratory and cardiovascular functions, the smooth muscle and external secretion organs, liver and kidney function, etc.); clinical picture and pathology of acute and chronic poisoning; sequelae (embryotoxic, teratogenic, gonadotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects); thereapy (first aid, administration of anticholinergic preparations, cholinesterase reagents etc.); occupational hygiene and preventive medicine in the manufacture and use of organophosphorus pesticides.
Izdatel'stvo "Medicina", Petroverigskij per. 6/8, Moskva, USSR, 1977. 296p. Illus. 266 ref. Price: Rbl.2.14.

CIS 78-545 Health and safety guide for pesticide formulators.
This booklet describes safe practices in agreement with the U.S. health and safety regulations. Contents: health and safety guidelines (health and safety programme, employee training, chemicals handling, environmental control, control of exposure to hazardous substances, exposure hazards, contamination control, disposal of plant wastes, standards completion programme); frequently violated regulations (walking and working surfaces, exits and exit markings, ventilation, noise, hazardous materials handling and storage, personal protective equipment, sanitation, medical and first aid, fire extinguishers, machinery and machinery guarding, hand and portable power tools, welding, cutting and brazing, electrical safety, recordkeeping); check lists, information sources, pesticide information chart.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-100, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, May 1977. 102p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 78-498 Agricultural chemicals and pesticides - a subfile of the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.
A compilation of 2,190 substances used or proposed for use in agriculture. Names, properties, detailed toxicity data (dose, routes of entry, species, exposure, etc.), standards in force in the USA, and bibliography are included for the substances. Appendices contain the substances in the NIOSH criteria documentation programme, analytical methods lists, and health hazard evaluation rules and regulations.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.77-180, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1977. 227p. 1,120 ref.

CIS 78-496 Kolmodin-Hedman B., Hĺkansson M., Randma E., Bergman K., Swensson Ĺ.
Medical examination of personnel exposed to lindane and/or DDT during treatment of conifer plants - A comparative study
Yrkesmedicinsk kontroll av berörd personal vid lindan- resp DDT-behandling av barrträdsplantor - En jämförelse [in Swedish]
Exposure of workers dipping and tunnel or field spraying was determined as well as for workers handling the treated plants. The concentrations of the substances in personal air samples above the treated plants were also determined. The uptake was measured as concentration in the plasma. The exposure varied a great deal but the concentration of lindane or DDT in air was never higher than one-half the USA threshold limit value. No uptake of DDT (increased DDT in plasma) occurred. Working with lindane gave a small, variable but significant increase of the lindane concentration in plasma, which disappeared very rapidly when exposure stopped. The concentration of lindane in plasma never was high enough to cause liver enzyme induction. There were no symptoms related to the exposure.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:7, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1977. 63p. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 78-466 Muhtarova N.D.
Neuropathological sequelae of exposure to low concentrations of ethylmercury chloride
Otdalennye posledstvija patologii nervnoj sistemy, vyzvannoj vozdejstviem malyh koncentracij ėtilmerkurhlorida [in Russian]
Neurological and biochemical studies in 25 agricultural workers who had used fungicides based on ethylmercury chloride. Eighteen months and 3 years after exposure there was aggravation of the clinical picture, with functional disorders of the adreno-sympathetic system, cerebrovascular lesions, bone marrow irrigation disorders, angiospasm, diffuse nervous system damage (especially hypothalamic lesions), and in a few cases, mental disturbances.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1977, No.3, p.4-7. 7 ref.

CIS 78-186 Korsak R.J., Sato M.M.
Effects of chronic organophosphate pesticide exposure on the central nervous system.
Neuropsychological tests and EEG examinations were performed in 59 subjects occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, including many also exposed to organochlorine or carbamate compounds. An index of chronic exposure to these pesticides was developed. Chronic exposure to clinically non-toxic levels of organophosphates has definite quantifiable effects on asymptomatic subjects. There was a relation between higher levels of exposure and frontal lobe impairment.
Clinical Toxicology, 1977, Vol.11, No.1, p.83-95. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 78-143 Fodré Z., Sipos K., Berencsi G.
Irritant and allergic effects of the defoliant Gramoxone in guinea-pigs
A Gramoxone irritáló és allergizáló hatásának vizsgálata tengerimalacokon [in Hungarian]
No irritation was observed after scarification of the skin and application of Gramoxone in concentrations up to 1%. Higher concentrations and intracutaneous administration of 0.5% Gramoxone caused lesions. Gramoxone is not a contact allergen, but can provoke allergy in workers presenting microtrauma of the hands.
Egészségtudomány, 1977, Vol.21, No.3, p.244-249. 14 ref.

CIS 78-142 Nehéz M., Selypes A., Páldy A.
Mutagenicity of pesticides containing dinitro-o-cresol
Dinitro-0-krezol tartalmú növényvédőszer mutagenitásának vizsgálata [in Hungarian]
Results of studies in vitro with human lymphocytes and in vivo with bone marrow of mice, on the chromosomal effects of the pesticide Krezonit E, which contains 50% dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC). An average of 61% of 596 mitoses in human leucocyte cultures treated with 0.02, 0.2 or 2.0µg/ml of the pesticide, showed chromosome aberrations (2.5% of control cultures). The frequency of affected calls was even higher in vivo: 76% with 1mg/kg and 95% with 10mg/kg DNOC. German translation may be obtained from Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, VEB Verlag Volk und Gesundheit, Neue Grünstrasse 18, DDR-1020 Berlin.
Egészségtudomány, 1977, Vol.21, No.3, p.237-243. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 78-200 Safe use of pesticides - Guidelines.
In these guidelines for agricultural use of pesticides, prepared in consultation with FAO and WHO, and with the assistance of the ILO Panel of Consultants in Agriculture (representing government, employer and worker circles), general principles are followed by detailed safety requirements for application methods and medical aspects. Contents: general considerations (duties of manufacturers, sellers, employers, supervisors and workers, safety and health supervision, education and information); safe practices (handling, transport, storage, use, disposal, spillage); personal protective clothing, equipment and hygiene; particular situations (ships, aerial application, farms, greenhouses, toxic baits, fumigation, vector control); medical aspects (absortion, preventive measures, symptoms, first aid).
Occupational Safety and Health Series No.38, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, 1977. 42p. Price: SF.10.00.

CIS 78-51 Morey P.R., Bethea R.M., Williamson E.B., Garner W.E., Battigelli M.C.
Effect of chemical defoliation on leaf and bract content in raw cotton.
Chemical defoliants are applied to approx. 40% of U.S. cotton acreage. Defoliation lowered the leaf content of raw cotton by a maximum of 50%. The bract content was unaffected. Non-defoliated plants contain a high proportion of green leaf trash, while defoliated plants are mainly non-green. The relations between the colour of the leaf and the presence of potential byssinosis agents were studied. The histamine content in green leaf trash was 10 times that of non-green leaf trash. Thus plant trash may contain varying amounts of potential byssinosis agents depending on time of harvest and state of the plant at harvest.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1977, Vol.38, No.8, p.364-370. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 78-164 Zaninović M.
Agranulocytosis following use of insecticides
Agranulocitoza kao posljedica upotrebe insekticida [in Serbocroatian]
A case of agranulocytosis due to exposure to malathion, carbaryl, dimethoate and other insecticides, which are known to have a rare haematotoxic effect, is described. Results of haematological examinations on admission to hospital and 5 and 10 days later are given.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1977, Vol.28, No.1, p.43-47. 7 ref.

CIS 77-2020 Spear R.C., Popendorf W.J., Leffingwell J.T., Milby T.H., Davies J.E., Spencer W.F.
Fieldworkers' response to weathered residues of parathion - Worker poisonings due to paraoxon residues.
The first study (p.406-410) investigated the route of exposure of orange harvesters to parathion residues, the important toxic constituents of the foliar residue, and the residue levels that produced a biochemical response. Methods and results are described in detail. Mechanisms of parathion residue poisoning appeared to involve exposure of the whole body to paraoxon residues, which are absorbed through the skin in sufficient quantities to lead to intoxication. On p.411-414 the backgrounds to 3 cases of poisoning are decribed and the events interpreted.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1977, Vol.19, No.6, p.406-414. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 77-2018 Hexachlorobenzene.
Hexachlorobenzčne. [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as fungicide and insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; unintended effects; mammalian and human toxicology (no reported cases of occupational poisoning); recommendations for competent authorities on regulations for the compound (restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; labelling); precautions in manufacture and use; safe disposal and decontamination of containers and neutralisation of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheets on pesticides No.26, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 9p. 8 ref.

CIS 77-1913 Some fumigants, the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, chlorinated dibenzodioxins and miscellaneous industrial chemicals.
Data in 18 monographs reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 8-15 Feb. 1977): 1,2-bis(chloromethoxy)ethane; 1,4-bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene; chlorinated dibenzodioxins; copper 8-hydroxyquinoline; 2,4-D and esters; 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane; trans-1,4-dichlorobutene; dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone); dimethoxane; eosin and eosin disodium salt; ethylene dibromide; hexamethylphosphoramide; isopropyl alcohol and isopropyl oils; methyl iodide; p-quinone; succinic anhydride; 2,4,5-T and esters; 1,2,3-tris(chloromethoxy)propane. Supplementary corrigenda and a substance cumulative index to IARC monographs (Volumes 1-14) are appended.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.15. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1977. 354p. Illus. 829 ref. Price: SF.50.00.

CIS 77-1380 Fjeldstad P., Wannag A.
Human urinary excretion of the herbicide 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid.
To see if urinary 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) excretion could be used to estimate MCPA exposure, 4 healthy males ingested 5mg MCPA. The MCPA in the urine was extracted and analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography. About 50% of the ingested dose was detected in the urine within 48h. On the fifth day after intake the MCPA concentration in the urine was below the level of detection, 0.2µg/ml. The MCPA did not increase those serum enzymes indicating liver cell damage (S-alanine-aminotransferase, S-alkaline-phosphate). Some creatine kinase (CK) and S-aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) values were pathological, but, as all CK values were normal in 2 persons and all ASAT values were normal in 3 persons, it is not likely that MCPA had a toxic effect on muscle cells. MCPA in urine seems to be a useful indicator of MCPA intake in humans. All the urine passed within 48h of MCPA exposure must be collected.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1977, Vol.3, No.2, p.100-103. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 77-954 Berteau P.E., Biermann A.H.
Respiratory deposition and early distribution of inhaled vegetable oil aerosols in mice and rats.
These aerosols were studied in order to determine the occupational hazards of pesticide formulations. Mice or rats were exposed to radio-labelled heptadecane in soya-bean oil and the amounts inhaled were determined from estimates of average respiratory minute volumes of the animals and the duration of exposure. The deposition and early distribution were calculated from the radioactivity. The amounts for mice and rats were, respectively: head 9.1, 3.1%; lung 3.8, 9.9%; stomach 59, 13%; esophagus 4.7, 0.4%; and duodenum 7.0, 1.9%. The amounts in the trachea were negligible in both species.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Feb. 1977, Vol.39, No.2, p.177-183. 14 ref.

CIS 77-1119 Lefčvre J.P., Gil R.
Encephalopathy due to organomercury compounds
Encéphalopathie par organomercuriels. [in French]
Description of a case of severe encephalopathy with an oneiric confusional state, stato-kinetic cerebellar syndrome, intention tremor and generalised epileptic seizures, in a farm worker who had treated cereal seedlings with methoxyethylmercury silicate, containing 1.5% mercury, one month previously. General review of mercury salts (among which the alkyl derivatives are the most toxic); symptoms of poisoning; time of exposure to poison; severity of occupational poisoning and therapeutic efficacy of dimercaprol; pathological anatomy of encephalic lesions. Strict observance of the rules for handling organic mercury compounds are necessary until they can be replaced by other fungicides.
Semaine des hôpitaux, 1977, Vol.53, No.3, p.165-171. Illus. 32 ref.

1976

CIS 79-520 Collection of data sheets on toxicology of herbicides
Datensammlung zur Toxikologie der Herbizide [in German]
This loose-leaf collection is published under the auspices of the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Comments on the criteria used for toxicological evaluation are followed by monographs on various herbicides (uses, human and animal toxicity, metabolism, transformation in plants, in soil and in water). Each monograph is completed by a toxicological evaluation and bibliographical references. The 32 monographs cover the pesticides: amitrole, atrazine, barban, chlorbufam, chlorpropham, cycluron, dalapon, diallate, dicamba, dichlobenil, dichlorprop, dinoseb, dinoseb acetate, diuron, DNOC, linuron, MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, monalide, monolinuron, monuron, sodium chlorate, pentanochlor, phenmedipham, prometryn, propazine, propham, simazine, triallate, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB. Appendix: list of manufacturers with addresses.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1st and 2nd instalments, 1974 and 1976. 320p. 767 ref. Price: DM.156.00

CIS 77-2003 Pilinskaja M.A.
Genetic hazards in manufacture of the fungicide zineb
O genetičeskoj opasnosti fungicida cineba v proizvostvennyh uslovijah [in Russian]
Results of cytogenetic studies of lymphocytes from the peripheral blood of 24 chemical workers exposed to zineb and 10 controls. There was a definite excess of chromosome aberrations in the exposed group, with an average of 5.5%. No relation between duration of exposure and cytogenic effect was noted.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1976, No.12, p.26-29. 9 ref.

CIS 77-1926 Stepančenko N.G.
Determination of the herbicide Asulam in air by thin-layer chromatography
Opredelenie asulama v vozduhe metodom hromatografii v tonkom sloe [in Russian]
Description of studies of the chromatographic behaviour of Asulam (methyl N-(4-aminobenzenesulfonyl)carbamate). A colour reaction was obtained with ammoniated silver, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and potassium permanganate, or by azo coupling of the decomposition products of Asulam with α-naphthol. The minimum quantity of Asulam detectable by chromatography is 3-10µg. Data on microdetermination of Asulam in air.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.82-84. 2 ref.

CIS 77-1689 Ribarova F., Vasileva L.
Changes in enzyme activity in rats due to acute poisoning with Unden
Promeni v aktivnostta na njakoi enzimi u plăhove pri ostra intoksikacija s Unden [in Bulgarian]
Results of 2 series of experiments on white rats. Subacute exposure for 4 days (doses: 1/20 and 1/4 of LD50) provoked a marked increase in glutamicpyruvic(GP)-transaminase, with lowered lactic dehydrogenase activity. Chronic exposure (up to 90 days) brought about changes in some liver dehydrogenase activities, which rose during the first days of exposure, then fell and returned to normal after 15 days' recovery following exposure. The most noticeable changes were observed in succinic dehydrogenase.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.51-60. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 77-1688 Burkova T., Bajnova A., Ivanova L.
Anatomo-pathological and enzymo-histological changes in white rats following long-term continuous and intermittent exposure to Pyrimor pesticide
Patologoanatomični i enzimohistohimični promeni v organizma na beli plăhove pri hronična intermitirašta intoksikacija s pesticida Pirimor [in Bulgarian]
Prolonged use of certain pesticides gives rise to resistant pest species, so they have to be used intermittently. The authors observed certain differences in the severity of pathological disturbances due to a new pesticide, Pyrimor, depending on whether it was used continuously or intermittently on crops. Pyrimor is a carbamate widely used in agriculture. The results of morphological and histochemical examinations of the principal parenchymatous organs of animals to which Pyrimor was administered showed marked deviations between the effects of continuous and of intermittent exposure. A twofold dose administered at weekly intervals per os caused less damage than a single daily dose per os. Non-intermittent application of the same pesticide would therefore appear to increase the hazard of health damage to farm workers.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.45-50. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 77-1697
Health Commission of New South Wales, Lidcombe.
Poisoning by pesticides.
Brief chapters on the safe handling of pesticides, their aerial application, routes of absorption into the body, and general first-aid and treatment, are followed by details of symptoms, investigation measures and treatment of poisoning by some 60 substances under the following group heads: insecticides and acaricides, organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fumigants, wood preservatives, herbicides and weedicides, fungicides, rodenticides, solvents. Toxicity tables give the accepted common name, common trade names and the oral and dermal LD50 of the individual substances. Glossary of medical terms.
Division of Occupational Health and Radiation Control, P.O. Box 163, Lidcombe, N.S.W. 2141, Australia, 1976. 54p. Illus.

CIS 77-1415 Muačević G.
Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition in vivo of chlorthiophos.
The acute dermal toxicity, neurotoxicity, eye mucosa compatibility and cholinesterase inhibition of the insecticide was tested in animals. The oral, LD50 values obtained are: rat, 13mg/kg; mouse, 141mg/kg; guinea-pig, 58mg/kg; rabbit, 20mg/kg; quail, 45mg/kg; hen, 45mg/kg; and dermal LD50 for: rat, 58mg/kg and for rabbit, 48mg/kg. No signs of neurotoxicity in hens were observed. In rats, a maximal inhibition of erythrocyte cholinesterase was found after 2h, of plasma cholinesterase after 4 and of brain cholinesterase after 6h, with a reversal to normal in the blood observed after 4 days and in brain after 8 days. Lindane and phenobarbital pretreatment reduced the acute toxicity of chlorthiophos. Atropine, obidoxime chloride and trimedoxime bromide antagonised the toxic effects of chlorthiophos.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1976, Vol.27, No.1, p.3-14. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 77-1405 Jabłońska B.
The use of impermeable fabrics in the manufacture of protective clothing against liquid pesticides
Badanie przydatności tkanin impregnowanych hydrofobowo na odzież chroniącą przed płynnymi środkami ochrony roślin [in Polish]
Results of research on the resistance of tissues impregnated with silicones, hydrophobe CR and organic fluorine compounds to the action of liquid pesticides and the solvents they contain, and on their impermeability to these products and their mechanical properties. The effect of alkalis and ultraviolet radiation was also studied. Treatment with silicones and hydrophobe CR did not prevent penetration of the pesticides, and only tissues impregnated with organic fluorine compounds can be used for the manufacture of this protective clothing, provided that their resistance to washing is improved. Production techniques of non-woven oil-repelling textiles might be considered, since these have a limited service life, obviating problems of washing.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1976, Vol.26, No.91, p.307-329. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 77-1325 Ahlberg K.
Slime control agents: Carcinogenic and teratogenic hazards
Slembekämpningsmedel: Risk för cancer och fosterskador [in Swedish]
The paper industry uses slime control agents on a large scale. These agents (generally thiocarbamates in solvents such as dimethylformamide), which act against microorganisms and thus prevent formation of slimy plugs or deterioration of the paper, are present in the water vapour released by the paper during manufacture. Swedish research has found ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) to be carcinogenic and teratogenic, and dimethylformamide teratogenic. Pregnant women should thus not be exposed. Appendices: list of compounds used as slime control agents and their solvents, with the associated health hazards.
Arbetsmiljö, 1976, No.11, p.11-13. Illus.

CIS 77-1130 Dmitrieva O.V.
Influence of a group of pesticides on some enzyme systems in workers employed in spraying them
Vlijanie kompleksa pesticidov na sostojanie nekotoryh fermentnyh system u lic, zanjatyh ego primeneniem [in Russian]
Results of case studies of enzyme disturbances in 132 horticulture and arboriculture workers, 59 of whom were employed in spraying pesticides containing chlorinated and organophosphorus compounds; a second group of 73 workers was also occupationally exposed to organomercury compounds. The last-mentioned compounds potentiate the toxic action of the other pesticides. In the second group, changes in the activity of blood acetylcholinesterase and lactate dehydrogenase and in the serum level of the SH groups lasted over a longer period than in the first group. The author recommends the use of the enzyme changes observed at exposure screening tests for pesticide poisoning.
Sovetskaja medicina, June 1976, No.6, p.132-135. 6 ref.

CIS 77-1096 Matsushita T., Arimatsu Y., Nomura S.
Experimental study on contact dermatitis caused by dithiocarbamates maneb, mancozeb, zineb, and their related compounds.
This study aimed to clarify the mechanism of contact dermatitis due to these dithiocarbamate fungicides. The guinea-pig maximisation test yielded extreme to strong allergenicity for these substances and lime-sulfur mixture. Cross sensitisation between them was extreme.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 5 July 1976, Vol.37, No.3, p.169-178. 30 ref.

CIS 77-1033 Pesticide residue hazards to farm workers.
Proceedings of a workshop, held in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, 9-10 Feb. 1976, to discuss required new and/or continuing research on re-entering crop areas after pesticide application and the support of this research. Among the papers were: an overview and perspective; early history of re-entry illness in the Pacific Northwest and the California Central Valley; acute pesticide poisonings; insecticide decay; poisonings in Iowa and Florida; re-entry studies of commercial and natural pesticides in North Carolina; comparison of pesticide risks and other farm occupational hazards; research needs in western irrigated cotton; calculating re-entry times from kinetic data; reports and studies of poisoning incidents; organophsophorus pesticides; comments on the EPA epidemiological studies programme. Discussions are appended to the papers.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-191, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, May 1976. 256p. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 77-743 Pleština R., Piuković-Pleština M.
The effects of pesticides on the eyes and vision
Učinak pesticida na oko i vid [in Serbocroatian]
The effect of pesticides on eyes and vision in humans and animals is reviewed. The literature is scarce and not easily available. Acute effects of pesticides are known, but possible delayed effects caused by prolonged exposure have received little attention. Some of the obvious visual impairments found in selected populations in Japanese retrospective studies indicated the existence of a special nosologic entity, Saku Disease. The number of examined subjects, their occupations, type and duration of exposure are plotted against ophthalmological findings. The most striking finding was visual field constriction. However, in most cases the methodology and conditions of the examination were insufficiently described. Clinical observations on the effects of anticholinesterase miotics used in therapy of glaucoma are also described. Dogs, rats and rabbits were studied to discover the effects of a given compound, but rarely to determine the mechanism of the eye impairment. The morphological findings or electrophysiological changes were nonspecific. Efforts to explain these findings have not been successful. Morphological changes and functional eye impairment in humans and animals are indicative, but not fully confirmative of the unequivocal effect of pesticides on humans.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1976, Vol.27, No.4, p.321-333. 67 ref.

CIS 77-742 Bošković B., Vojvodić B., Maksimović M., Granov A., Besarović-Lazarev S., Binenfeld Z.
Effect of mono- and bis-quaternary pyridinium oximes on the acute toxicity and on the serum cholinesterase inhibitory activity of dioxacarb, carbaryl and carbofuran.
The acute toxicities of the three insecticidal carbamates were determined in mice and the effects of atropine, older oximes (PAM, TMB-4, toxogonin), and newer oximes (HS-3, HS-6, HS-7, and "XIII") were measured separately as antidotes. Atropine increased the LD50 for the insecticides; the value for carbofuran quadrupled. All the oximes increased carbaryl toxicity, but some were effective in decreasing the toxicity of dioxacarb and carbofuran. The oximes increased the anti-serum cholinesterase activity of the carbamates; this may explain the in vivo effects of the oximes. Atropine is the choice of antidote for poisoning by these insecticides and therapy with the oximes is contraindicated.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1976, Vol.27, No.4, p.289-295. 9 ref.

CIS 77-736 Kimmerle G., Iyatomi A.
Toxicity of propoxur to rats by subacute inhalation.
Exposure to 31.7mg/m3 propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate) in rats for 12 weeks caused a 20-30% reduction in plasma, erythrocyte and brain cholinesterase activity, without symptoms. A maximum permissible concentration of 2.5mg/m3 is proposed.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1976, Vol.18, No.4, p.375-382. 20 ref.

CIS 77-486 Zinc phosphide.
Phosphure de zinc. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses and unintended effects on crops; public health programme and household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (mixers and applicators, other workers); decontamination of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment in case of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods of detection and analysis and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.24, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1976. 11p. 6 ref.

CIS 77-485 Fentin compounds.
Fentine. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses and unintended effects on crops; public health programme and household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (mixers and applicators, other workers); decontamination of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment in case of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods of detection and analysis and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.22, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1976. 13p. 3 ref.

CIS 77-484 Fenthion.
Fenthion. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture; horticulture and forestry uses and unintended effects on crops; public health programme and household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (mixers and applicators, other workers); decontamination of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment in case of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods of detection and analysis and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.23, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1976. 13p. 8 ref.

CIS 77-481 DDT.
DDT. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses and unintended effects on crops; public health programme and household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD 50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers); decontamination of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment in case of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods of detection and analysis and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.21, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1976. 11p. 3 ref.

CIS 77-480 Propoxur.
Propoxur. [in French]
Contents: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses and unintended effects on crops; public health and household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (mixers and applicators, other workers); decontamination of spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment in case of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods of detection and analysis and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.25, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1976. 11p. 7 ref.

CIS 77-475 Moroi K., Ushiyama S., Satoh T., Kuga T.
Enzyme induction by repeated administration of tetrachlorvinphos in rats.
A single dose of 250 or 1,000mg/kg tetrachlorvinphos (TCVP - 2-chloro-1-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl)vinyl dimethyl phosphate) inhibited erythrocyte cholinesterase (ChE) more than serum or brain ChE. Oral doses of 60 and 250mg/kg for 10 days produced dose-related increases in the activity of aminopyrine demethylase and EPN (O-ethyl O-(p-nitrophenyl) phenylphosphonothioate) detoxifiction enzyme. Relative liver weight first increased and then decreased. Repeated administration of TCVP induced the enzymes responsible for its metabolism up to 7-fold in microsomes and 1.2-fold in the supernatant.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Aug. 1976, Vol.37, No.2, p.377-386. 22 ref.

CIS 77-471 Nater J.P., Gooskens V.H.J.
Occupational dermatosis due to a soil fumigant.
Patch tests with D-D mixture, which consists of chlorinated C3 hydrocarbons, including 1,3-dichloro-1-propene, 1,2-dichloropropane and related compounds, and 1% epichlorohydrin, produced a contact allergic reaction in 1 of 3 patients who had had dermatitis when spraying the mixture. This is the first case of proven allergic contact sensitivity to D-D, and patch testing is necessary to differentiate between primary irritant and contact allergic reactions. Pilot studies in healthy subjects are also described.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1976, Vol.2, No.4, p.227-229. 4 ref.

CIS 77-512 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to malathion.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of malathion on the health of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10h work shift) should not exceed 15mg/m3 over a 40h week, when skin exposure is prevented. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equiment, information of employees, work practices, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of a standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the compound are described in detail, also determination of cholinesterase in blood, and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-205, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, June 1976. 183p. 211 ref.

CIS 77-511 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to carbaryl.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of carbaryl on the health of workers. The time-weighted average exposure (10h work shift) should not exceed 5mg/m3 over a 40h week. Other recomendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment, information of employees, work practices, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are basd are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluation; development of a standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the compound are described in detail and useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-107, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1976. 192p. Illus. 162 ref.

CIS 77-510 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to methyl parathion.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of methyl parathion on the health of workers. The time-weighted average (TWA) exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 0.2mg/m3 over a 40h week. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protective equipment, information of employees, work practices, and monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data and biological evaluaton; development of a standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the compound in air are described in detail and also for cholinesterase activity in blood. Useful additional information is given in appendices.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-106, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1976. 177p. Illus. 171 ref.

CIS 77-507 Woods J.S.
Proceedings of the EPA/NIEHS/Federal Working Group and pest management conference on human health effects of new approaches to insect pest control.
The subjects of papers in this conference included methylenedioxyphenyl insecticide synergists as potential hazards; fumigant residues; organotin pesticides; quinoxaline, organotin, organo-fluorine and formamidine acaricides; insect growth regulators; role of pheromones and kairomones; integrated pest management.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Research Triangle Park, USA, Apr. 1976, Vol.14, 206p. Illus. 1,024 ref.

CIS 77-412 Gallo M.A.
Chronic toxicologic investigations of phosalone in the dog and rat.
Phosalone was fed to rats at 25, 50 and 250ppm and to dogs at 100, 200 and 1000ppm. There was a dose-dependent inhibition of red blood cells and plasma cholinesterase with an extrapolated level of no observable effect at 25ppm. Long-term exposure (2 years) shows a low order of toxicity for these animals.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, June 1976, Vol.36, No.3, p.561-568. 5 ref.

CIS 77-175 Casida J.E., Eto M., Moscioni A.D., Engel J.L., Milbrath D.S., Verkade J.G.
Structure-toxicity relationships of 2,6,7-trioxabicyclo(2.2.2)soctanes and related compounds.
Various phosphorus esters of the trioxabicyclooctane group are known to be highly toxic. 67 compounds belonging to this group were studied with a view to determining their acute and subacute toxicity in mice and some other animal species and to relating their toxicity to the chemical structure. The results are presented and discussed. In view of the high toxicity of some of the compounds studied, particularly to the central nervous system, consideration should be given whenever possible to the substitution of analogs of low toxicity. For the same reason, their inclusion in fire-retardant polyurethane foams should be studied with care in order to minimise or prevent the formation of toxic bicyclic phosphorus esters in the pyrolysis products.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1976, Vol.36, No.2, p.261-279. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 77-51 El Ghawabi S.H., Ibrahim S.M.
Pneumoconiosis in the superphosphate industry.
Radiographic and spirometric study of 35 phosphate crushers. Dust levels at various worksites were considerably in excess of the TLV. Pneumoconiosis was present in 8 (23%) of the phosphate crushers. Vital capacity and FEV1 were reduced when the lesion reached the micronodular stage and category 3 of the ILO/UC Classification, 1971.
Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1975, Vol.3, No.1, p.55-62. 12 ref.

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