Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Gunningham N., Healy P.
Regulation by stealth: Reducing the OSH impact of pesticides
Exposure to pesticides poses a serious threat to the health of agricultural workers worldwide. Regulatory reforms at the national level may somewhat mitigate the problem. However, this article argues that greater opportunities for improving pesticide safety lie outside the boundaries of the traditional regulatory system, through harnessing the potential of new agricultural and pest control technology, the market forces driving global food production and the powerful forces within civil society capable of changing attitudes to risk and safety. These instruments are most successful when they form part of an integrated strategy underpinned by regulation and state intervention. Governments nonetheless have a pivotal role in harnessing and shaping these forces to improve pesticide safety.
Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, 2004, Vol.2, No.2, p.25-42. 49 ref.
Tokarska-Rodak M., Toś-Luty S., Haratym-Maj A.
Selected parameters of immunological response in hop growers during the period of intensive application of pesticides
This study investigated selected parameters of immunological response among hop growers and farmers in conditions of intensive exposure to crop protection products. Laboratory tests covered the determination of selected morphological parameters, phagocytic test, NBT test, and myeloperoxidasis (MPO) concentration in blood serum of hop growers and farmers. A significant decrease was noted in the number of platelets in the general population of hop growers and in individual age groups, compared to the control groups of farmers. Analysis of individual sub-populations of leukocytes showed a significantly higher number of basophils and lymphocytes among hop growers, compared to farmers. It was concluded that changes observed with respect to certain haematological parameters are an evidence of exposure to pesticides.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2004, Vol.11, No.2, p.227-231. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/11227.pdf [in English]
Hossain F., Pray C.E., Lu Y., Huang J., Fan C., Hu R.
Genetically modified cotton and farmers' health in China
This study provides the first evidence of a direct link between the adoption of a genetically modified crop and improvements in human health. Estimation of the impact of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton adoption on pesticide use from a survey of cotton farmers in northern China, 1999-2001, showed that Bt cotton adoption reduced pesticide use. Assessment of a health-production function showed that predicted pesticide use had a positive impact on poisoning incidence. Taken together, these results indicate that the adoption of Bt cotton can substantially reduce the risk and the incidence of poisonings.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.296-303. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Hossain.pdf [in English]
Jirachaiyabhas V., Visuthismajarn P, Hore P., Robson M.G.
Organophosphate pesticide exposures of traditional and integrated pest management farmers from working air conditions: A case study in Thailand
Concentrations of organophosphate pesticides, including chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion, were measured in ambient air breathed by farmers in a region of Thailand. Exposure levels were assessed and a comparison was made between the levels of pesticide exposure of traditional and integrated pest management (IPM) farmers. Thirty-three air samples were collected during pesticide spraying. Traditional farmers were exposed to higher levels of the pesticides, with an average concentration of 0.19mg/m3, compared with 0.037mg/m3 for the IPM farmers. It was estimated that farmers would be exposed to 81-12,261mg of the organophosphate pesticides via inhalation throughout their lifetime. Moreover, traditional farmers absorbed more pesticides via inhalation than did IPM farmers.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.10, No.3, p.289-295. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/1003_Jirach.pdf [in English]
Gunningham N., Healy P.
Regulating agricultural chemicals: Limitations of the status quo
This article examines current policy and regulations concerning the occupational safety and health (OSH) aspects of agricultural chemicals in Australia. It is argued that the potential of the current regulatory framework for pesticides to promote good OSH practice is constrained by four factors: the fragmentation and complexity of the regulatory framework and institutional arrangements; the inappropriateness of the current OSH regulatory model to agriculture; the widespread reliance on ineffective training strategies; and the lack of regulatory incentives for compliance.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2004, Vol.20, No.3, p.255-261. 15 ref.
Krzemińska S., Nazimek T.
Selection of sorption material for tests of pesticide permeation through protective clothing fabrics
This article presents the results of studies on selecting a solid sorption material for absorbing liquid crop protection agents which permeate protective clothing fabrics. The selected substances (dichlorvos, cypermethrin, 2,4-D and carbofuran) were tested with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The tests demonstrated that polypropylene melt-blown type nonwoven fabric had high recovery coefficients for all four active ingredients studied. The highest recovery coefficient, 0.97, was obtained for carbofuran. The recovery coefficients obtained for the three remaining substances were lower: 0.89 for cypermethrin and 2,4-D, and 0.84 for dichlorvos.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2004, Vol.10, No.4, p.387-397. Illus. 13 ref.
Cancer risk assessment of toxaphene
The cancer risk of toxaphene was assessed using the four steps of risk assessment proposed by the United States National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council (NAS/NRC) namely hazard identification, dose-response relationship, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Toxaphene was the most heavily used insecticide in many parts of the world before it was banned in 1982. It increased the incidence of neoplasms of the liver and uterus in mice and the incidence of neoplasms of endocrine organs, thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, mammary glands, and reproductive systems in rats. The slope factor in studies on mice and rats is 0.8557 (mg/kg/day)-1. Lifetime average daily dose of toxaphene from ambient air, surface water, soil and fish were 1.08x10-6, 5.71x10-6, 3.43x10-7, and 7.96x10-5 mg/kg/day, respectively. Cancer risk of toxaphene for average exposure was 7.42x10-5. This study indicates that toxaphene might present a carcinogenic risk to humans.
Industrial Health, July 2004, Vol.42, No.3, p.321-327. 5 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2004/pdf/42-3-3.pdf [in English]
Engrais minéraux [in French]
The ingestion of concentrated liquid fertilizers may severe cause severe acute poisoning due to the presence of high levels of potassium in these types of formulations. With the exception of a few cases of skin diseases and indications of mucous membrane irritation related to dusts, there are very few reports of harmful effects in occupational settings. Some fertilizer formulations containing calcium cyanamide may give rise to an antabuse effect. Excessive use of inorganic fertilizers results in the pollution of the water table by nitrates, which may then find their way into the water supply. Nitrates have been suspected of causing methaemoglobinaemia accidents in newborn children and cancers among the general population. However, their human toxicity has been largely overestimated. Methaemoglobinaemia in newborn children has been established to be caused by the bacterial pollution of water. It has not been possible to demonstrate any relationship between the long-term consumption of nitrate-rich water and cancers among the general population.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2004, No.142, 5p. Illus. 41 ref.
Hanke W., Jurewicz J.
The risk of adverse reproductive and developmental disorders due to occupational pesticide exposure: An overview of current epidemiological evidence
This literature survey examines epidemiological studies on the association between parental occupation in agriculture and the incidence of infertility, congenital malformations, miscarriage, low birthweight, small-for-gestational-age birth, pre-term delivery and stillbirth. The findings suggest the need to increase awareness of workers who are occupationally exposed to pesticides about their potential negative influence on fertility and pregnancy outcome. Furthermore, in the light of existing although still limited evidence of adverse effects of pesticide exposure on fertility during the pre-conceptual period, the exposure to pesticides should be reduced at all times.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2nd quarter 2004, Vol.17, No.2, p.223-243. 80 ref.
Acquavella J.F., Delzell E., Cheng H., Lynch C.F., Johnson G.
Mortality and cancer incidence among alachlor manufacturing workers 1968-99
Alachlor is the active ingredient in herbicide formulations used widely on corn, soybeans and other crops. It has been found to cause nasal, stomach, and thyroid tumours in rodent studies, however at levels that are much higher than likely human exposures. This study was carried out to evaluate mortality rates from 1968 to 1999 and cancer incidence rates from 1969 to 1999 among workers at an alachlor manufacturing plant. Worker mortality and cancer incidence rates were compared to corresponding rates for the Iowa state general population. Analyses addressed potential intensity and duration of exposure. There were no cancers of the types found in toxicology studies and no discernible relation between cancer incidence for any site and years of alachlor exposure or time since first exposure. These findings are significant considering that these workers had chronic exposure during extended manufacturing campaigns, while use in agriculture is typically limited to a few days or weeks each year.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.61, No.8, p.680-685. 20 ref.
Kirrane E.F., Hoppin J.A., Umbach D.M., Samanic C., Sandler D.P.
Patterns of pesticide use and their determinants among wives of farmer pesticide applicators in the agricultural health study
Using questionnaire data from a cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators and their spouses, this study investigated patterns of pesticide use among 31,173 farmers' wives. 36% reported having never used pesticides during their lifetimes, whereas the 10% heaviest pesticide users reported lifetime use of three or more agricultural pesticides plus several commonly-used residential pesticides. Five categories were defined based on the degree of pesticide use, for which risk factors associated with each category were studied using logistic regression. Among the findings, farm women who reported the heaviest pesticide use could risk further pesticide exposure by engaging in household hygiene practices involving pesticides.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2004, Vol.46, No.8, p.856-865. Illus. 38 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Childhood pesticide poisoning - Information for advocacy and action
Pesticide poisoning is a serious health problem that disproportionately affects infants and children. Pesticides can be harmful when improperly used or stored, key risks being cancer, birth defects, damage to the nervous system and disruptions to the functioning of the endocrine system. The purpose of this booklet is to provide information on the effects of pesticide exposure on women and children and to propose appropriate preventive actions. Contents: texts of relevant international agreements; current knowledge concerning the risk of pesticide poisoning among children; what can be done to prevent pesticide poisoning among children at the local, regional, national and international levels; activities of international organizations.
United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, May 2004. 37p. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.who.int/ceh/publications/en/pestpoisoning.pdf [in English]
Calvert G.M., Plate D.K., Das R., Rosales R., Shafey O., Thomsen C., Male D., Beckman J., Arvizu E., Lackovic M.
Acute occupational pesticide-related illness in the US, 1998-1999: Surveillance findings from the SENSOR-pesticides program
Survey data for the years 1998 and 1999 from the seven states that conduct acute occupational pesticide-related illness surveillance were collected and analysed. Between 1998 and 1999, 1,009 individuals with acute occupational pesticide-related illness were identified. The mean age of affected workers was 36 years, with a peak in incidence rates among 20-24 year-olds. The overall incidence rate was 1.17 per 100,000 full time equivalents (FTEs). The incidence rate among those employed in agriculture was higher (18.2/100,000 FTEs) compared to those employed in non-agricultural industries (0.53/100,000 FTEs). Most of the illnesses were of low severity (69.7%). Severity was moderate in 29.6% of the cases, and high in four cases (0.4%). Three fatalities were identified. Insecticides were responsible for 49% of all illnesses.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2004, Vol.45, No.1, p.14-23. Illus. 26 ref.
Goldman L., Eskenazi B., Bradman A., Jewell N.P.
Risk behaviors for pesticide exposure among pregnant women living in farmworker households in Salinas, California
Although farm workers and their families are known to be at risk for pesticide exposure, little is known about behaviours that increase their risk. In this study, the frequency of risky behaviours among pregnant farm workers was determined and persons at greatest risk were characterized. Participants were pregnant women residing in the valley of Salinas, California, including 153 farm workers and 248 women not working on farms but residing with farm workers. Habits relating to hand washing, bathing, use of protective clothing, housecleaning, laundering of work clothes, wearing of work clothes and shoes in the home, and eating produce from the fields were examined. Between 25 and 60% of the women demonstrated risky behaviour on each item. Practices of households with pregnant farm workers and non farm workers did not differ. Pregnant farm workers and those living with farm workers need to be educated to reduce potential pesticide exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2004, Vol.45, No.6, p.491-499. 40 ref.
Grillet J.P., Adjémian A., Bernadac G., Bernon J., Brunner F., Garnier R.
Arsenic exposure in the wine growing industry in ten French departments
This study investigated exposure to arsenic from a fungicide used in French vineyards. First phase compared urinary arsenic excretion of agricultural workers after having performed the application and of a non-exposed control group. In the second phase, which included 35 subjects exposed to arsenic from ten French departments, the increase in urinary arsenic excretion after application was measured. In the first phase, urinary arsenic excretion was significantly higher in applicators than in the control group. The second phase showed a significant increase of arsenic excretion the day after the application. A closed tractor cabin provided a protective effect but efficacy of individual protective equipment could not be demonstrated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.77, No.2, p.130-135. 16 ref.
Knowledge, beliefs and practices of pesticide users in small-scale farms in Mutoko District, Mashonaland, East Zimbabwe
This cross-sectional survey was carried out to assess knowledge levels, beliefs and practices of pesticides users in small-scale farms in a rural district of Zimbabwe. Interviews of 280 pesticides users revealed that most had poor knowledge of the meaning of the colour-coding of pesticide containers. Furthermore, although the users showed a general understanding of the importance of protection, most did not use protective equipment because of their cost. Other factors cited included the difficulty in understanding the language on the labels and the lack of appropriate measuring equipment necessary for ensuring the proper dilution levels.
On Guard, Mar. 2004, Vol.9, No.1, p.11-18. Illus. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Urban rodent control and the safe use of rodenticides by professional users
This information sheet offers guidance to pest control professionals on minimizing the risks rodenticides may pose to human health, non-target animals and the environment. Contents: what to do before treatment of an infestation (site survey, risk assessment, choice of bait); guidance on treatment (using a variety of control methods, monitoring and record keeping); urban situations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2003. 6p. 11 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc515.pdf [in English]
Mills P.K., Yang R.
Prostate cancer risk in California farm workers
A nested case-control study of prostate cancer was conducted within a large cohort of predominantly Hispanic unionized farm workers in California. 222 newly-diagnosed cases of prostate cancer were identified for the years 1988 through 1999, and 1110 age-matched controls were randomly selected from the remainder of the cancer-free cohort. It was found that the risk of prostate cancer was not associated with any particular crop. Increasing duration of union affiliation was associated with decreasing prostate cancer risk. Although risk was not associated with total pounds of pesticides applied in the years and regions where farm workers were employed, risk increased with specific chemicals, including simazine, lindane, and heptachlor, and suggestive increases were observed with dichlorvos and methyl bromide. Farm workers exposed to higher levels of these compounds had an elevated risk of prostate cancer compared to workers with lower levels of exposure.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.45, No.3, p.249-258. 41 ref.
Dinham B., Malik S.
Pesticides and human rights
Many nations including developing countries have in place statutes and regulations to protect the rights to life, health and livelihoods of their people. This article describes some of these efforts to protect human rights and identifies specific instances where the protection they were intended to offer has been ineffective. Common problems and conditions of pesticide use in developing countries are discussed and it is argued that national legislation should be strengthened to effectively protect workers. Specific cases of pesticide poisoning with endosulfan or dibromochloropropane among cotton growers in Benin, banana workers in Central America (Costa Rica, Nicaragua) and cashew growers in India are presented.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.40-52. 99 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/0901_dinham_pesticides.pdf [in English]
van Wijngaarden E.
Mortality of mental disorders in relation to potential pesticide exposure
Some studies have suggested a role of pesticide exposure in the development of neurobehavioural disorders. This case-control study examined the association between mortality from mental disorders and occupational exposure to pesticides. The study population consisted of 7756 deaths and 330,452 eligible controls identified from United States death certificate files for the years 1988 through 1992. Exposure assignment was based on job title reported on the death certificates. Employment in jobs potentially involving pesticide exposure was weakly associated with the risk of death from mental disorders (odds ratio, OR=1.46). This association was stronger among women (OR=2.65), in particular for deaths from neurotic disorders (OR=4.32). These results must be interpreted with caution, however, because the impact of social and work-related factors other than pesticide exposure is not known.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.45, No.5, p.564-568. 21 ref.
van Wijngaarden E.
An exploratory investigation of suicide and occupational exposure
This exploratory study evaluated the association between suicide and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields, pesticides and hydrocarbon solvents. The study population comprised 11,707 suicide deaths and 132,771 eligible controls identified from United States death certificate files for the years 1991 and 1992. Exposure assignment was based on job title reported on the death certificates. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and pesticides was weakly associated with suicide risk, while little evidence for an increased risk was seen for hydrocarbon solvents. The association for electromagnetic field exposure was highest for suicide between the ages 20 and 35 (odds ratio, OR=1.5), while the highest risk of suicide for pesticide exposure was seen between the ages of 35 and 49 years (OR=1.5). Further investigation to replicate these findings seems warranted, using higher quality occupational data.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.96-101. 25 ref.
Thompson B., Coronado G.D., Grossman J.E., Puschel K., Solomon C.C., Islas I., Curl C.L., Shirai J.H., Kissel J.C., Fenske R.A.
Pesticide take-home pathway among children of agricultural workers: Study design, methods, and baseline findings
In this article, self-reported pesticide exposure and practices aimed at reducing the amount of pesticide residues taken home were examined among 571 farmworkers. Urine samples from a sub-sample of farmworkers and children and dust samples from households and vehicles were also used to assess pesticide exposure. Overall, 96% of respondents reported exposure to pesticides at work. Many employers did not provide resources for hand washing. Farmworkers' protective practices to keep pesticide residues out of the home were at a low level. In a subset of respondents, pesticides were detected in the urine of children and adults and in house and vehicle dust. The results support the take-home pathway of pesticide exposure and highlight the need for ways to be found to reduce this exposure among farmworkers' children.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.42-53. Illus. 63 ref.
Mármol-Maneiro L., Fernández-D'Pool J., Sánchez B.J., Sirit Y.
Seminal profile of workers exposed to cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides
Perfil seminal en trabajadores expuestos a plaguicidas inhibidores de la colinesterasa [in Spanish]
The objective of this study was to examine the physical and chemical properties of the sperm of workers exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides and to highlight a possible relationship with the total cholinesterase level in blood. The study involved 29 subjects aged between 20 and 54 years, exposed for four hours a day during a minimum period of one year, and a control group of 30 unexposed subjects. Results of spermatograms and measurements of blood cholinesterase levels showed significant differences between exposed subjects and controls in terms of sperm concentrations and quality. Results suggest that cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides influence some sperm variables.
Investigación Clínica, June 2003, Vol.44, No.2, p.105-117. 50 ref.
Acutely toxic pesticides: Initial input on extent of problem and guidance for risk management
This report on the risk management of acutely-toxic pesticides was presented during the fourth Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS) in Bangkok, Thailand from 1 to 7 November 2003. Factors associated with pesticide poisoning incidents are discussed (type of product, lack of technical and organizational measures, safe systems of work and appropriate information and training, infrastructure weaknesses) and recommendations are made for policy, regulatory and communication actions.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.2-3, p.178-187. 4 ref.
Smit L.A.M., van-Wendel-de-Joode B.N., Heederik D., Peiris-John R.J., van der Hoek W.
Neurological symptoms among Sri Lankan farmers occupationally exposed to acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pesticide use on Sri Lankan farmers' health. 260 rice farmers were surveyed in both low and high pesticide exposure periods. A control group of 55 fishermen was recruited from a nearby fishing community. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured and data on symptoms were collected by means of questionnaires. 24%of surveyed farmers had suffered at least once from acute pesticide poisoning. Farmers showed significantly more inhibition of cholinesterase activity than controls. Acute symptoms indicative for exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides were associated with farming and a higher degree of cholinesterase suppression (more than 13% inhibition). Integrated pest management training resulted in less insecticide use, and less cholinesterase inhibition. Overall reduction in pesticide use seems the best option to protect farmers from the adverse effects of pesticides.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.44, No.3, p.254-264. Illus. 32 ref.
FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Specifications, Registration Requirements, Application Standards and Prior Informed Consent - Report of the 18th session held in Rome, 27-31 October 2003
The Revised version of the International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides was adopted earlier by the FAO in 2002. The prime objectives of this session were to develop an conceptual strategy on how to implement the provisions of the code, in order to improve pesticide management and to overcome major weaknesses, mostly in developing countries. A second objective was to develop a new framework for the technical guidelines and other material in support of the code.
Publishing Management Service, FAO Information Division, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Roma, Italy, 2003. 30p.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for pyrethrins and pyrethroids
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of pyrethrins and pyrethroids is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurological effects; allergic reactions; slight skin irritation.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xx, 287p. Illus. Approx. 780 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp155.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for malathion
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of malathion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: effects on the nervous system (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase); cardiovascular effects (bradycardia, low blood pressure, atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances); ocular effects (irritation, blurred vision).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xix, 284p. Illus. Approx. 615 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp154.pdf [in English]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for atrazine
This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of atrazine is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, importation, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: effects on the reproductive function (pre-term delivery); slightly increased risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among exposed farmers as well as suggestive evidence of weak associations between triazine/atrazine exposure and increased risk of prostate, breast and ovarian cancers.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2003. xix, 222p. Illus. Approx. 560 ref.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp153.pdf [in English]
Farahat T.M., Abdelrasoul G.M., Amr M.M., Shebl M.M., Farahat F.M., Anger W.K.
Neurobehavioural effects among workers occupationally exposed to organophosphorous pesticides
In this study, 52 occupationally-exposed male workers involved in applying organophosphorus pesticides to cotton crops were compared with 50 unexposed male controls matched by age, socioeconomic class and years of education. Participants completed a questionnaire on personal, occupational and medical factors. They were subjected to general and neurological clinical examinations, neurobehavioural tests and serological analyses for acetylcholinesterase. After correcting for age and education, the exposed participants exhibited significantly lower performance than controls on six neurobehavioural tests. Longer years of work with pesticides were associated with lower performance on most neurobehavioural tests after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Although serum acetylcholinesterase was significantly lower in the exposed participants, it was not significantly correlated with either neurobehavioural performance or neurological abnormalities.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.60, No.4, p.279-286. Illus. 43 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1 April 2002 - 31 March 2003
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003. 215 incidents were reported; 60 complaints alleged ill health, while 155 involved other issues to do with pesticide use. Compared to 2001/2002, there is an increase of 48 incidents; there was also an increase of 9% compared to the average of the previous ten years . Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and five case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. 27p. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fod/pir0203.pdf [in English]
International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides
Mudawanna al-sulūk al-duwalīya (an tauzī( al-mubīdāt wa isti(malihā [in Arabic]
Guoji nongyao gong-xiao yu shiyong xingwei shouze [in Chinese]
Code international de conduite pour la distribution et l'utilisation des pesticides [in French]
Código Internacional de Conducta para la Distribución y Utilización de Plaguicidas [in Spanish]
This revised version of the international code (for previous version, see CIS 91-1980) is the worldwide guidance document on pesticide management for all public and private entities engaged in, or associated with, the distribution and use of pesticides. It covers: objectives; definitions; pesticide management; testing of pesticides; reducing health and environmental risks; regulatory and technical requirements; availability and use; distribution and trade; information exchange; labelling, packaging, storage and disposal; advertising; monitoring and observance of the Code. In appendices: international policy instruments related to the Code and text of the FAO Council Resolution 1/123.
FAO Information Division, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy, rev.ed., 2003. 36p. 50 ref. Price: USD 8.00.
http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/AGRICULT/AGP/AGPP/Pesticid/Code/PM_Code.htm [in Multilingual]
Fleming L.E., Gómez-Marín O., Zheng D., Ma F., Lee D.
National health interview survey mortality among US farmers and pesticide applicators
In this study of the mortality of pesticide-exposed workers, Cox regression analyses were performed on mortality-linked 1986-1994 National Health Interview Survey data. 9471 farmers and pesticide applicators with 571 deaths were compared to 438,228 other US workers with 11,992 deaths. It was found that age-adjusted risk of accidental death, as well as cancers of the nervous and lymphatic/haematopoietic systems, were significantly elevated in male and female pesticide-exposed workers. However, these pesticide-exposed workers were not at an increased risk of all cancers, possibly due to exposure to estrogen analogue compounds.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.43, No.2, p.227-233. 50 ref.
Clary T., Ritz B.
Pancreatic cancer mortality and organochlorine pesticide exposure in California, 1989-1996
Earlier studies have suggested a possible link between organochlorine pesticides and the occurrence of pancreatic cancers. California maintains a death file and a pesticide reporting system that allows examination of this relationship in residents of high-use areas. Mortality odds ratios were used to compare deaths from pancreatic cancer from 1989 to 1996 with a random sample of non-cancer deaths. Using pesticide data for three agricultural counties, 102 postal codes were classified for pesticide usage from 1972 to 1989. The effect of pesticide applications were estimated by logistic regression for each postal code after controlling for possible confounders. Among long-term residents, pancreatic cancer mortality was elevated for those living in postal codes with the highest use of 1,3-dichloropropene, captafol, pentachloronitrobenzene and dieldrin. No dose-response relationship was observed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.43, No.3, p.306-313. Illus. 29 ref.
Devantier Jensen C., Thormann J., Ejner Andersen K.
Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate at a paint factory
The fungicide 3-iodo-2-propynyl-butylcarbamate (IPBC) is used in both industrial products and cosmetics. This article presents the first reported case of allergic contact dermatitis from airborne exposure to this preserving agent. A 34-year-old female production worker at a paint factory developed dermatitis on exposed skin areas. Patch testing showed a positive reaction to IPBC 0.01% in petrolatum. The compound was used as a preservative in wood treatment products manufactured at her workplace. Based on animal studies, IPBC is considered safe as a cosmetic preservative. However, widespread use of the chemical might lead to increasing levels of contact allergy, and therefore, close monitoring of IPBC is recommended.
Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2003, Vol.48, No.3, p.155-157. 19 ref.
Commission Directive 2003/81/EC of 5 September 2003 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC to include molinate, thiram and ziram as active substances [European Union]
Directive 2003/81/CE de la Commission du 5 septembre 2003 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en vue d'y inscrire les substances actives molinate, thirame et zirame [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2003/81/CE de la Comisión, de 5 de septiembre de 2003, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo a fin de incluir las sustancias activas molinato, tiram y ziram [in Spanish]
This Directive modifies Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). It adds the substances molinate (as a herbicide only) and thiram and ziram (as fungicides/repellents only) to the list of active plant protection products.
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 6 Sep. 2003, Vol.46, No.L 224, p.29-31.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_224/l_22420030906en00290031.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2003/l_224/l_22420030906fr00290031.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2003/l_224/l_22420030906es00290031.pdf [in Spanish]
Commission Directive 2003/82/EC of 11 September 2003 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC as regards standard phrases for special risks and safety precautions for plant-protection products [European Union]
Directive 2003/82/CE de la Commission du 11 septembre 2003 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en ce qui concerne les phrases types indiquant les risques particuliers et les précautions à prendre en matière de produits phytopharmaceutiques [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2003/82/CE de la Comisión, de 11 de septiembre de 2003, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo en lo relativo a las frases normalizadas indicativas de riesgos especiales y de precauciones respecto a los productos fitosanitarios [in Spanish]
This Directive modifies Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). It introduces new Annexes IV-V (Annexes I-II of this Directive) to the original Directive containing new standard phrases (in 11 languages) for special risks for humans or the environment, as well as a time schedule for implementation measures in Member States for active substances authorized for use in plant-protection products (for each of 63 substances: substance name, citation of inclusion Directive, date for implementation).
Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 12 Sep. 2003, Vol.46, No.L 228, p.11-28.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2003/l_228/l_22820030912en00110028.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2003/l_228/l_22820030912fr00110028.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2003/l_228/l_22820030912es00110028.pdf [in Spanish]
Health and Safety Executive
Guidance on storing pesticides for farmers and other professional users
This information note provides guidance on estimating the size requirements of a pesticide store, the selection of a suitable location, the design and the construction of structures resistant to fire and leakage, the organization of the store, the provision of warning signs, and the use of mobile storage. Additional precautions are given for moisture-activated gassing compounds and oxidizing agents. Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 96-1438).
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2003. 4p. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ais16.pdf [in English]
Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluations through 2002
This inventory consists of summaries of evaluations of pesticides performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), as well as other assessments of pesticides by IPCS and by other WHO programmes. The introduction briefly describes the pesticide activities that are summarized in the inventory, and the inventory itself lists relevant documents that have been published and highlights the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) and provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDI) established by the JMPR.
International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 7th ed., 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. 65p. 97 ref.
Mekonnen Y., Agonafir T.
Pesticide sprayers' knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on agricultural farms of Ethiopia
Pesticide sprayers from five state-owned agricultural farms in Ethiopia took part in a study that evaluated their knowledge, attitude and practice of pesticide use on farms. Demographic features of the sprayers showed that the majority of them had primary-level education. The duration of work as sprayers on the farms ranged from one month to ten years, with 59% having worked less than five years. Their knowledge about hazards from pesticides was indicated by the responses to a questionnaire. Working carefully was considered to be very important by 93%, while only 7% suggested the use of personal protective equipment. On some farms, sprayers were provided with inappropriate, unfit and worn-out PPEs; 18% of the sprayers had unfit goggles and 29% used worn-out gloves. To minimize risk from pesticide application, 63% suggested avoiding applications during windy and sunny weather, 32% suggested the provision and proper use of PPD, while only 3% believed that medical check-ups and training were important, and 2% suggested risks from spraying were best controlled by leaving the job.
Occupational Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.52, No.6, p.311-315. 28 ref.
Berkowitz Z., Orr M.F., Kaye W.E., Haugh G.S.
Hazardous substances emergency events in the agriculture industry and related services in four mid-western states
Analysis of surveillance data reported from 14 states between 1993 and 1998 found that acute releases of hazardous substances are seasonal. This seasonality was more prevalent in four Midwestern states during April-June and coincided with their planting season, suggesting an association of these releases with the agricultural industry. A more detailed analysis found that ammonia was the chemical most frequently released, and ammonia-related events resulted in a significantly higher number of evacuations than all other events (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10.7). For incidents resulting in victims, a logistic regression model found an increased risk for events with ammonia during April-June (adjusted OR=3.57), events in fixed facilities during April-June (OR=3.74) and events with multiple substances (OR=2.33). The most common causes for the events were equipment failure and human error. Resulting injuries were mainly respiratory, ocular and traumatic, and included six deaths.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.44, No.8, p.714-723. Illus. 19 ref.
Martin S.A., Sandler D.P., Harlow S.D., Shore D.L., Rowland A.S., Alavanja M.C.R.
Pesticide use and pesticide-related symptoms among black farmers in the Agricultural Health Study
This study describes agricultural practices and pesticide-related symptoms among North Carolina Afro-American and white farmers participating in the Agricultural Health Study. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 891 Afro-American and 11,909 white farmers licensed to apply restricted pesticides. The data were subjected to analysis using regression models. Afro-American farmers reported lower lifetime pesticide use, less use of each class of pesticides (such as herbicides, insecticides), less use of high exposure application methods, and fewer pesticide-related symptoms such as headaches, dizziness, skin irritation, chest discomfort and feeling nervous or depressed than did white farmers. Differences between Afro-American and white farmers may also be explained by farm characteristics or economics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.41, No.3, p.202-209. Illus. 11 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification 2000-2002
This document presents the latest WHO recommendations with respect to the classification of pesticides. Part 1 describes the basis of the WHO system for the classification of pesticides according to their acute risk to health. The classification is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to the rat (LD50 values). A table shows LD50 values for each class of pesticide: extremely hazardous, highly hazardous, moderately hazardous and slightly hazardous. The application of the criteria for classification is explained along with the effects of classification on labelling. Part 2 provides lists of products in the four hazard classes and a list of pesticides considered unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use. Further tables are provided for determining the hazard class of a formulation. Update of CIS 00-1076.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. 58p. 121 ref. Index.
http://www.who.int/pcs/docs/Classif_Pestic_2000-02.pdf [in English]
Osorio A.M., Penagos G.H., Miranda J., Lundberg I., McConnell R., Delgado E., Cuadra R., Torres E., Wesseling C., Keifer M., Ahlbom A., Moon J.D., Rosenstock L., Hogstedt C., Mekonnen Y., Agonafir T., Cantor A., Young-Holt B., London L., de Grosbois S., Kisting S., Rother H.A., Mergler D., Goldman L.R., Richter E.D., Terracini B.
International pesticide use
Contents of this special issue on the international use of pesticides: surveillance systems for pesticide intoxications; contact dermatitis from pesticides in banana plantation workers; grip and pinch strength impairment after acute pesticide poisonings; long-term neurobehavioral effects of mild pesticide poisonings; pesticide effects on the respiratory health of farm workers; pesticide-related symptoms of farm workers in rural Honduras; pesticide health consequences of pesticide exposure for women in developing countries; international impact of pesticides on children; carcinogenicity of pesticides.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2002, Vol.8, No.1, p.1-75 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Sebastian L.P., Tubelonia R.M.
Building a culture of safety and health in the Cordilleras - Report of proceedings #2
Brief summary of the activities undertaken in the course of a programme aimed at building a safety and health culture in rural mountainous regions of the Philippines, as discussed at a training course held in Baguio, Philippines, 1-5 Jan. 2002. These activities included the organization of a five-day occupational safety and health training course, a forum on occupational safety and health in the farming sector with an emphasis on working safely with pesticides, and the visits of two rural municipalities by occupational safety and health staff, during which films of farming hazards were presented and medical examinations of farm workers were carried out.
Department of Labor and Employment, Occupational Safety and Health Center, OSHC Building, North Avenue corner Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, Apr. 2002. 16p. Illus.
Yassin M.M., Abu Mourad T.A., Safi J.M.
Knowledge, attitude, practice, and toxicity symptoms associated with pesticide use among farm workers in the Gaza Strip
To assess knowledge, attitudes, work practices and health symptoms associated with pesticide use in the Gaza Strip, questionnaire responses of a cross section of 189 agricultural workers were analysed. Pesticides were used extensively. Workers reported high levels of knowledge on the health impact of pesticides, and moderate to high levels of knowledge on symptoms related to pesticide exposure. Most workers were aware of protective measures, but the use of these measures was poor. Most workers reported symptoms. The most common symptom was a burning sensation of the eyes and face. The highest prevalence of self reported symptoms was found among workers who returned to sprayed fields within one hour of applying pesticides. Prevention programmes involving the adoption of protective measures and the monitoring of the health status of farm workers should be implemented.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.59, No.6, p.387-393. 33 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 2001/2002
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between April 2001 and March 2002. 167 incidents were reported; 63 of these alleged ill health, while 104 environmental and other complaints did not allege ill health. Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and seven case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 27p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fod/pir0102.pdf [in English]
Pesticides in agriculture and the environment
This publication describes the current status of knowledge and practice in pesticide use and crop protection issues. Contents: effect of three decades of integrated pest management policy in the United States; biological control; risk assessment; environmental fate of pesticides; pesticide residue procedures for agricultural commodities; pest management issues on minor crops; arthropod resistance to pesticides; new technologies for the delivery of pesticides in agriculture; trends in the crop protection industry.
Marcel Dekker Inc., Charron Road, P.O.Box 5005, Monticello, NY 12701-5185, USA, 2002. x, 330p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 150.00 (Amazon US).
Arbuckle T.E., Burnett R., Cole D., Teschke K., Dosemeci M., Bancej C., Zhang J.
Predictors of herbicide exposure in farm applicators
The purpose of this study was to identify factors likely to affect exposure to herbicides under actual field conditions and to measure the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported indications of exposure against urinary measures of herbicide exposure. Immediately prior, and subsequent to, the handling of the phenoxy-herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) for the first time during the season, 126 pesticide applicators provided pre-exposure spot urine samples and a subsequent consecutive 24h urine sample. At the same time, they completed a questionnaire on handling practices for the first day of pesticide application. It was found that pesticide formulation, use of protective equipment, the type of application equipment, handling practices, and personal hygiene practices were significant as predictors of urinary herbicide levels in the first 24h after application had been initiated.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.406-414. 28 ref.
Peiris-John R.J., Ruberu D.K., Wickremasinghe A.R., Smit L.A.M., van der Hoek W.
Effects of occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides on nerve and muscular function
This study aimed to investigate whether occupational exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides caused neurophysiological abnormalities. 30 farmers who regularly spray OP pesticides and 30 fishermen (controls), living close by, were evaluated during and between cultivation seasons. The farmers had higher erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase levels than the controls during and between cultivation seasons. During the cultivation season, there was a significant reduction in erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in both groups. Significant differences between the farmers and controls were found in sensory conduction velocity and motor conduction velocity between cultivation seasons. Sensory conduction velocity was reduced significantly in farmers and in controls during the cultivation season. Effects of OP poisoning were seen both in farmers and in controls who had no history of spray activities. Evidence of sensory dysfunction after acute exposure and sensory and motor impairment after long-term low-level exposure to OP was observed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.352-357. Illus. 17 ref.
Commission Directive 2002/64/EC of 15 July 2002 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC to include cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, metalaxyl-M and picolinafen as active substances [European Union]
Directive 2002/64/CE de la Commission du 15 juillet 2002 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en vue d'y inscrire les substances actives cinidon-éthyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, métalaxyl-M et picolinafène [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 2002/64/CE de la Comisión, de 15 de julio de 2002, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo a fin de incluir las sustancias activas cinidón-etilo, cihalofop-butilo, famoxadona, florasulam, metalaxilo-M y picolinafeno [Unión europea] [in Spanish]
This Directive adds six new substances to the list of authorized active plant protection products (PPPs) introduced by Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). The substances include 4 herbicides (cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, florasulam and picolinafen) and 2 fungicides (famoxadone and metalaxyl-M). In annex: table presenting details about the substances, including specific provisions for their safe use.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 18 July 2002, Vol.45, No.L 189, p.27-32.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718en00270032.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718fr00270032.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718es00270032.pdf [in Spanish]
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