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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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  • Agricultural chemicals

1979

CIS 79-1038
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20014.
Report on carcinogenesis bioassay of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB).
1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) is a gasoline and antiknock additive, and a soil and grain fumigant. Oral administration by stomach tube caused cancers in rats and mice (squamous cells carcimonas, blood vessel cancers, liver cancers, lung cancers). The report also gives details of the compound and its toxicity in animals and humans.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.A-31 to A-35.

CIS 79-1086 Popendorf W.J., Spear R.C., Leffingwell J.T., Yager J., Kahn E.
Harvester exposure to zolone (phosalone) residues in peach orchards.
In this study, 5 fields were harvested, with a shorter period between pesticide application and harvesting each time. Virtually all exposure was dermal. The pattern of pesticide residue exposure was similar to that of citrus harvesters. Despite dose rates estimated at up to 14mg/h, red blood cell cholinesterase was only slightly inhibited when compared with unexposed controls. The stable decay pattern and relatively low toxicity of phosalone suggest that it presents little hazard to workers.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1979, Vol.21, No.3, p.189-194. 17 ref.

CIS 79-1082 Whorton D., Milby T.H., Krauss R.M., Stubbs H.A.
Testicular function in DBCP exposed pesticide workers.
Semen studies were performed in 107 men exposed to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and 35 controls. Exposure was evaluated semi-quantitatively, as a function of duration. There was a clear-cut difference between the 2 groups in both the distribution of sperm counts and the median counts. 13.1% of exposed workers were azoospermic, 16.8% were severely oligospermic, and 15.8% were mildly oligospermic (controls: 2.9%), 0, and 5.7% respectively). Biopsy of the most severe cases showed generalised absence of all spermatogenic activity, and the histological pattern suggested that the seminiferous tubules were the site of damage.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1979, Vol.21, No.3, p.161-166. Illus. 10 ref.

1978

CIS 91-715 Council Directive of 26 June 1978 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations (pesticides) [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 26 juin 1978 concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives ŕ la classification, l'emballage et l'étiquetage des préparations dangereuses (pesticides) [CCE] [in French]
This directive gives definitions of the preparations considered as pesticides; the reference values for the determination of the acute oral or percutaneous toxicity of the preparation, expressed in LD50 values determined in the rat, or respiratory toxicity expressed in LC50 values determined in the rat; the packaging requirements as well as the labelling requirements of the packaging. Appendices: classification by calculation of pesticides containing one and more than one active substance (table of classification indices); list of active substances with indications of their conventional LD50 and LC50 values; phrases indicating the nature of the special risks attaching to pesticides; safety advice.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 29 July 1978, No.L.206, p.13-25.

CIS 81-1704 Naled
Naled [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide, fungicide and acaricide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 7p.

CIS 81-1702 2,4-D
2,4-D [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a herbicide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1978. 7p.

CIS 81-1701 Chlordane
Chlordane [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1978. 8p.

CIS 81-1700 Warfarin
Warfarine [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a rodenticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 6p.

CIS 81-1699 Bioresmethrin
Bioresméthrine [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical surpervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, June 1978. 6p.

CIS 81-1698 Chlorpyrifos-methyl
Chlorpyrifos-méthyl [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 8p.

CIS 81-1697 Chlorphoxim
Chlorphoxime [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay, and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 6p.

CIS 81-1696 Phoxim
Phoxime [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; mammalian, human, and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay, and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 8p.

CIS 80-129
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration.
Occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) - Occupational safety and health standards.
This permanent standard dated 10 Mar. 1978 (effective: 17 Apr. 1978) establishes a TLV of 1ppb as an 8h time-weighted average for DBCP. The employer must ensure that no worker is exposed to eye or skin contact with this substance. The standard contains other provisions concerning: worker information and training, supply of respirators and protective clothing and equipment, employers' compliance programme, selection of respirator type for different concentrations of DBCP, exposure monitoring, cleaning of surfaces, hygiene facilities and practices, medical surveillance (frequency and content of medical examinations, medical reports), emergency situations, warning signs and out-of-bounds areas, labelling. Appendices: safety data sheet (substance identification, health hazard data, first aid, precautions for safe use, handling and storage), chemical and physical properties, medical surveillance and treatment guidelines, preventive medicine. The text of the standard is preceded by background and supplementary information.
Federal Register, 17 Mar. 1978, Vol.43, No.53, p.11514-11533. 5 ref.

CIS 80-168 El-Ghawabi S.H.
Fluorosis in superphosphate industry.
The effect of chronic fluorine exposure on 58 workers in the superphosphate industry was studied and compared with a control group. The concentrations of fluorine to which the workers were exposed were measured. Occurrence of sneezing, sore throat, lacrymation and coughing was statistically significant among exposed workers. Dental enamel mottling was not present; this could be explained by the fact that susceptibility to this condition is restricted to a sharply defined age group. There was no statistical difference in the blood picture between the exposed and controls; 36% of the workers showed bone changes of the type recognized as produced by fluorosis and such definite changes were found in all workers with over 20 years exposure. The regression line showing the relation between fluorides in urine and the concentration of fluorine in the air is reproduced. Fluoride concentrations in breathing zone of workers (in ppm) and a breakdown of exposed workers according to workplace, age and duration of exposure in years are tabulated.
Egyptian Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1978, Vol.6, No.1, p.11-23. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 79-1725 Ehrhardt M., Zinsser E.
Results of random screening tests of workers exposed to pesticides, and recommendations for fitness tests prescribed by regulations
Ergebnisse der arbeitsmedizinischen Dispensairebetreuung von Pflanzenschutz- und Schädlingsbekämpfungsmittelexponierten sowie Empfehlungen für die Durchführung der gesetzlichen Tauglichkeitsuntersuchungen [in German]
Results of serum transaminase tests of 751 agricultural workers engaged in crop protection and exposed to organophosphorous compounds, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, dinitroorthocresol and mercury. Market gardeners and pesticide workers who were the most exposed showed a significant statistically confirmed higher rate of transaminase values as compared with a control group (scaffolding workers). Occupational medical action gradually to reduce exposure (provisional or permanent change of work) should be envisaged, depending on histological liver test findings.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1978, Vol.33, No.38, p.1813-1817. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 79-1642 Exposure of council and forestry workers to 2,4,5-T.
Inhalation and dermal exposure to the herbicide trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) was monitored for 2 years. Results are given for application by direct injection, engine powered knapsack misters, and power sprays with hand guns. Excessive urinary 2,4,5-T levels (>100µg/l) fell dramatically when exposure was minimised. The use of protective clothing and adoption of measures to prevent inhalation exposure are recommended as essential.
Medical Journal of Australia, Nov. 1978, Vol.2, No.11, p.536-537.

CIS 79-1345 Reuber M.D.
Carcinomas and other lesions of the liver in mice ingesting organochlorine pesticides.
Carcinomas of the liver were readily induced in male and female mice given organochlorine pesticides by mouth. The carcinomas were predominantly hepatocellular, a few being cholangiocellular, and varied from well differentiated to poorly differentiated and undifferentiated. They are capable of invading, metastasing, and killing the mice. Haemangiosarcomas, leiomyosarcomas and reticulum cell sarcomas were also occasionally seen. Hepatic vein thrombosis and hepatic necrosis occurred in some mice.
Clinical Toxicology, Sep. 1978, Vol.13, No.2, p.231-256. Illus. 78 ref.

CIS 79-1339 Samama E.P.
Poisoning due to pentachlorophenol: 22 case studies
Intoxication par le pentachlorophénol: ŕ propos de 22 observations. [in French]
MD thesis. Pentachlorophenol is very widely used as a fungicide in many trades (particularly in the woodworking industry) and for domestic purposes. The author takes stock of the present state of the art concerning this substance: properties, place and mode of utilisation in the woodworking industry, physio-pathology, experimental and human toxicology (review of 29 fatal cases and many cases of varying severity referred to in the literature), symptomatology, personal observations, occupational hygiene. Much space is devoted to the possible role of dioxin constituents in poisoning by commercial-grade chlorophenol and to the haematological toxicity of this substance.
Université de Paris VII, Faculté de médecine Lariboisičre - Saint-Louis, Paris, France, 1978. 128p. 72 ref.

CIS 79-1125 Labour Inspectorate Instructions concerning liquid manure installations
Arbejdstilsynets anvisninger for gylleanlćg [in Danish]
These directives (effective 1 July 1978), which are intended for manufacturers, users and persons installing and repairing liquid manure collecting systems, give instructions for their construction (safety by design of mechanical and electrical plant and equipment, siting of manure tank in the open air, layout of manure drainage and collecting system, level of manure in pump well, siphons, openings and covers, liquid manure pumps), instructions for use, and warnings (notice board warning of asphyxiation hazard, use of appropriate technical methods for maintenance and transformation work). Annexe: diagrams of pump well and siphon construction, model warning notice with first aid instructions.
Publikation 76/1978, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Kristineberg 6, 2100 Křbenhavn Ř, Denmark, Feb. 1978. 14p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 79-1123 Van Nijnatten P.W.A.
Report on an investigation of the use of hydrocyanic acid in greenhouses and related health aspects
Rapport inzake een onderzoek naar het gebruik van blauwzuur in de glastuinbouw en de veiligheidsaspecten daarbij [in Dutch]
Report of an investigation carried out in 1977, covering 548 horticultural workers, whose predominant production was tomatoes and cucumbers grown in glasshouses. Contents: historical background of use of cyanides; invasion on a vast scale in 1971 by aleyrodid (greenhouse whitefly) and enormous financial loss due to lack of appropriate insecticides; investigation report; results (rates of use of hydrocyanic acid, uses, stocks kept in small enterprises, mode of application, packaging, storage methods, biological insect control using natural enemies); respiratory tract protection (wet handkerchief, masks covering the mouth and nose, full face masks, purchase of new masks, repeated use, problems of filter cartridges, reasons why unsuitable cartridges are sometimes selected, upkeep and storage of masks and facepieces). The report emphasises the necessity for providing better information for market gardeners.
Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Balen van Andelplein 2, 2273 KH Voorburg, Netherlands, Oct. 1978. 55p. 8 ref. Gratis.

CIS 79-1036 Special occupational hazard review for aldrin/dieldrin.
This literature review, with other reviews and criteria documents on insecticides, will form the bases for NIOSH recommendations for international occupational health standards. Contents: extent of exposure (use, production, metabolism, pharmacokinetics); toxic effects in animals (acute toxicity, organ-specific effects, effect on reproduction, teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, cytotoxic effects); human effects (case reports, volunteer studies, exposed workers, epidemiological studies on the general population); dose-response relations. It is recommended that aldrin and dieldrin be controlled and handled as suspected occupational carcinogens and that exposure be reduced to a minimum. The air concentration should not exceed 0.15mg/m3 for both compounds. Skin contact should be avoided.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-201, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 166p. 249 ref.

CIS 79-1035 Special occupational hazard review for DDT.
This literature review, together with other reviews and criteria documents on insecticides, will form the bases for NIOSH recommendations for international occupational health standards. Contents: extent of exposure (use, production, metabolism, pharmacokinetics); toxic effects in animals (acute and chronic toxicity, organ-specific toxicity, effects on reproduction, teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, cytotoxic effects); human effects (case reports, volunteer studies, exposed workers, epidemiological studies in the general population); dose-response relations. It is recommended that DDT be controlled and handled in the workplace as a suspected occupational carcinogen and that exposure be reduced to a minimum. The air concentration should not exceed 0.5mg/m3. Skin contact should be avoided.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-200, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Sep. 1978. 205p. Illus. 318 ref.

CIS 79-804 Nešković N., Terzić M., Vitorović S.
Acute toxicity of carbaryl and propoxur in mice previously treated with phenobarbital and SKF 525-A
Akutna toksičnost karbarila i propoksura u miševa prethodno tretiranih fenobarbitonom i SFK 525-A [in Serbocroatian]
The 2 insecticides were administered intraperitoneally and subcutaneously to male and female mice. To study the effect of certain pharmaceutical products on the acute toxicity of these methylcarbamates, 60mg/kg phenobarbital and 50mg/kg SKF 525A (2-diethylaminoethyl 2,2-diphenylvalerate hydrochloride) were administred 24h and 1h, respectively, before experimental poisoning. The 2 carbamates were more toxic in the males than in the females. Phenolbarbital attenuates the toxic effects of the 2 insecticides, but SKF 525A has a synergic effect on their intraperitoneal toxicity. The authors attribute the action of the pharmaceutical products to the fact that they act on the activity and concentration of microsomic enzymes in the liver.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1978, Vol.29, No.3, p.251-256. 8 ref.

CIS 79-803 Molnár J., Paksy K.A.
Acute inflammation of rat mucous membranes evoked by eye-instillation and inhalation of pesticide formulations containing propachlor and TMTD
Akut nyálkahártya-gyulladas patkányokon propaklór- és TMTD-tartalmú növényvédőszerek szembe juttatása és belélegeztetése után [in Hungarian]
The inflammatory activity of Satecid 65 WP (65% propachlor) and Pol-Thiuram (85% tetramethylthiuram disulfide) was determined by the Evans Blue diffusion technique. Both pesticides were effctive in the eye as 0.01% aqueous suspension. Tracheal inflammation was detected after 4h inhalation. The effective threshold concentrations for Satecid 65 WP were 136-456mg/m3 and for Pol-Thiuram <160mg/m3. Acute LC50 values were >3,580mg/m3 and >2,630mg/m3, respectively. The inert ingredients of Satecid 65 WP were ineffective in both target tissues.
Egészségtudomány, 1978, Vol.22, No.4, p.393-397. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 79-802 Jaroš F., Žuffa L., Kratinová R., Skákala I., Domsová J.
Acute percutaneous poisoning by Gramoxone
Akútna perkutánna intoxikácia gramoxonom [in Slovak]
A fatal case of percutaneous poisoning with this herbicide (paraquat 20%) in a 44-year-old man spraying it without taking the recommended precautions is reported: severe skin lesions on the neck and scrotum, and general poisoning manifested by hepatic, renal and pulmonary lesions. He died of renal and respiratory insufficiency. The mechanism of action of Gramoxone, toxicology, clinical picture and pathological anatomy, and possibilities of treatment are dealt with.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.7, p.260-263. 20 ref.

CIS 79-801 Devjatka D.G., Postolovskaja T.T.
Relation between toxicity of the pesticide metaphos and the ultraviolet radiation dose absorbed by the body
Zavisimost' toksičnosti pesticida metafosa ot dozy oblučenija organizma ul'trafioletovoj radiaciej [in Russian]
The influence of various ultraviolet radiation doses on rats previously treated with doses of metaphos (methylparathion) at levels of 1/10-1/20 of the LD50 was studied. Biochemical and haematological studies showed that the toxic effects were considerably enhanced by 0.1-3 biological doses of ultraviolet radiation. Resistance was however increased in animals receiving 0.1-0.5 times the biological dose.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1978, No.9, p.21-22.

CIS 79-522
Health and Safety Executive, London.
Poisonous chemicals on the farm.
This booklet contains guidelines for safe use of pesticides, based on the pertinent British legislation. Contents: persons to whom the regulations apply; substances; obligations of employers and employees; exemption certificates; enforcement; protective clothing; use of pesticides in greenhouses and livestock houses; recommended precautions; poisoning symptoms; protection of livestock and wildlife; operations prohibited without protective clothing; addresses of the Agricultural Inspectorates.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 1978. 38p. Illus. Price: Ł1.00.

CIS 79-499 Harden R.A., Baetjer A.M.
Aplastic anemia following exposure to paradichlorobenzene and naphthalene.
This is a single case report of a woman who had worked in a clothing resale shop for 39 years, handling a total of 5.5kg p-dichlorobenzene and 7kg naphthalene each year in June in a badly ventilated room. Full clinical details are given. In addition to the anaemia, she exhibited ecchymoses and petechiae, fibrous skin thickening and contractures of the limbs and trunk. The relations between the skin findings and the aplastic anaemia or chemical exposures are uncertain.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1978, Vol.20, No.12, p.820-822. 16 ref.

CIS 79-519 Izrajlet L.I., Kogaj R.E.
Establishment of a hygiene standard for dendrobacilline in production plant air and in the atmosphere
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie dendrobacillina v vozduhe proizvodstvennyh pomeščenij i atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Results of toxicological studies in rats and guinea-pigs with dendrobacilline, an insecticide based on entomopathogenic bacteria and spores developed against certain harmful butterflies. Dendrobacilline has no cumulative properties, does not cause contact dermatitis and has no effect on general condition. It is slightly toxic and mildly allergenic. A maximum permissible concentration of 2mg/m3 is proposed for production plant (allergenic effect) and of 0.005-0.01mg/m3 for the surounding air (toxic effects).
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1978, No.7, p.32-34.

CIS 79-432 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure during the manufacture and formulation of pesticides.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to any of various pesticides. Workplace air limits are not included in this standard, but lists of many pesticides and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and NIOSH limits are given. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of personnel, work and sanitation practices, engineering controls, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some lenght under the following heads: health hazards from exposure in pesticide manufacture and formulation; engineering controls; development of the standard. Research needs are defined and the pesticides are classified into 3 groups: Group I (LD50<50mg/kg) produce acute effects at extremely low doses or serious irreversible changes, Group II (50-500mg/kg) produce acute effects at lower dose levels than Group III (>500mg/kg) which are the least toxic. Methods for biochemical determination of cholinesterase activity in blood are given and useful other information is included in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-174, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1978. 429p. Illus. 343 ref.

CIS 79-136 Jastroch S., Knoll W., Lange B., Riemer F., Thiele E.
Studies on exposure to dinitro-o-cresol (DNOC) in agricultural chemists
Untersuchungsergebnisse zur Exposition gegenüber Dinitro-o-kresol (DNOC) bei Agrochemikern [in German]
These studies were undertaken in 1975 and 1976 on pesticide exposure resulting from the manufacture and application of the spray solution. Aspects considered were exposure of workers to pesticides in general, the relative amount of DNOC exposure over the year, determination of workplace concentrations where mobile application methods are used, and blood level determinations. A case of poisoning is described. Measures to reduce the health hazard associated with exposure are set out.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, May 1978, Vol.24, No.5, p.340-343. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 79-191 Conevski D., Barkova N.
Determination of minimum period to be observed before re-entering greenhouses after applying pesticides
Opredeljane na minimalni srokove za bezopasna rabota v oranžerii sled prăskane s pesticidi [in Bulgarian]
Research on the decomposition of pesticides in water used for washing cucumber leaves and horticultural workers' hands. Residual amounts of actellic, unden (arprocarb) and endodan were determined by thin-layer chromatography, and of zineb by colorimetry. Reproduction of the results, which show that actellic, endodan and zineb undergo rapid decomposition in greenhouses, whereas unden is more stable (diminution by only 16.7%, as measured on leaves 4 days after treatment). The authors recommend that a period of 4 days should be allowed to elapse before re-entering greenhouses, and that unden should not be used in greenhouses.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1978, Vol.11, No.1, p.49-52. 5 ref.

CIS 79-119 Antal A., Várnagy L., Imre R., Bordás S.
Acute toxicity of Chinoin-Fundazol 50 WP (50% benomyl) plant protecting agent
A Chinoin-Fundazol 50 WP (50% benomyl) növényvédőszer heveny toxicitása [in Hungarian]
For male and female rats the per os LD50 was >16,000mg/kg; the i.p. LD50 was 1140 (1085-1200) and 1100 (1040-1160)mg/kg; the dermal LD50 >10,000mg/kg; the inhalation LD50 was >10,000mg/m3; the cumulation coefficient was >5.0. For male and female rabbits the acute eye irritation index was 7.7, 1.2, 0.0; acute skin irritation index was 0.1. The skin sensitisation test was negative in male and female guinea pigs. Fundazol can be considered practically harmless to workers and need not carry the statutory label for toxic substances. In the case of oral administration, the gastric ulcer in CFY rats might be due to a metabolite, n-butyl isocyanate, and the testis impairment might be due to another metabolite, methylbenzimidazole carbamate. For workers, these changes can be neglected, but they must be taken into consideration for accidental or intentional ingestion.
Egészségtudomány, 1978, Vol.22, No.3, p.260-268. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 78-1655 Fournier E., Sonnier M., Dally S.
Detection and assay of organophosphate pesticides in human blood by gas chromatography.
The method described was used in 7 patients with acute poisoning by parathion, trichlorfon, dichlorvos and dimethoate, 9 who were occupationally exposed to these compounds, and 7 professional sprayers using other compounds, serving as controls. Differences in findings between the exposed and control groups were significant. The sensitivity of the method is 0.1ng/ml. Identification is difficult more than 48h after exposure on account of the high reactivity of organophosphate compounds.
Clinical Toxicology, 1978, Vol.12, No.4, p.457-462. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 78-1708 Ubajdullaev R.U., Madžidov U.A.
Effects of low concentrations or doses of Kilval on the reflexes and metabolism
Materialy izučenija reflektornogo i rezorbtivnogo dejstvija malyh koncentracij i doz kil'val'ja [in Russian]
Results of studies in man to determine the olfactory threshold (0.026mg/m3 in the most sensitive subjects) and the threshold for an effect on cerebral bioelectric activity (0.016mg/m3) of this organophosphate pesticide. A concentration of 0.01mg/m3 is recommended as the limit for brief exposure. Animal experiments also yielded an exposure limit of 0.01mg/m3 for daily exposure in hot conditions.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Mar. 1978, No.3, p.11-14. 2 ref.

CIS 78-1634 Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to dinitro-ortho-cresol.
Recommendations are given for the prevention of occupational disease due to any of the isomers or salts of the pesticide dinitro-o-cresol. Inhalation of and skin contact with the aerosol form is hazardous. When skin exposure is prevented, the time-weighted average maximum concentration is 0.2mg/m3 for up to a 10h workshift and 40h workweek. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of personnel, work and sanitation practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; work practices and development of the standard. Research needs are defined and procedures for sampling and analysis, and useful additional information are given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-131, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Feb. 1978. 147p. Illus. 65 ref.

CIS 78-1614 Taševa M., Kazakova B.
Influence of high ambient temperature on Polikron poisoning
Vlijanie na visokata okolna temperatura vărhu intoksikacijata s polikron [in Bulgarian]
Polikron, an organic thiophosphate insecticide, was administered to white rats in a dose 1/50 of the DL50 for 90 days, in an ambient temperature of 35°C. Study of the hepatotoxic effects as shown by enzyme activities and histochemical liver changes showed that the combination of the 2 factors produced more severe effects than in control animals given only the insecticide.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1978, Vol.21, No.2, p.147-151. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 78-1413 Bainova A., Valceva V.
Experimental fixing of a maximum permissible concentration for Reglone in workplace air
Eksperimentalno obosnovavane na predelno dopustimata koncentracija na Reglona văv văzduha na rabotnata sreda [in Bulgarian]
Reglone (20% diquat dibromide) is used as a herbicide and dessicant. This article gives the results of experiments with white rats, exposed to water aerosols containing various concentrations of Reglone to determine the LC50 (83mg/m3), the acute threshold concentration (9.9mg/m3) and the chronic threshold concentration (0.32mg/m3). In all instances the clinical picture of poisoning is characterised by bronchopulmonary lesions (catarrhal bronchitis and bronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, atelectasis and emphysema) and toxic involvement of the liver and kidneys. The authors ccnclude from their results that there is no risk of sequelae due to body accumulation of Reglone, and propose a temporary TLV of 0.1mg/m3.
Problemi na higienata, 1977, Vol.3, p.11-18. 10 ref.

CIS 78-1412 Directives concerning health protection when employing agricultural chemicals
Anvisningar till skydd mot yrkesskada vid hantering av kemiska bekämpningsmedel [in Swedish]
These directives (entry into force: 1 Mar. 1979) are concerned with the manufacture and use of pesticides, herbicides, defoliants, etc. in agriculture, forestry and horticulture. Contents: toxic and allergy hazards; reference to other Swedish directives and regulations; safety rules for using these chemicals (worker information and instruction regarding health hazards; minimum age (20 years) for using certain chemicals; contra-indication for allergic subjects, etc.); application at ground level or from aircraft; fumigation of seeds and precautions in handling treated seeds; transport and packaging of chemicals; personal protection; personal hygiene; first aid in case of suspected poisoning. Annexes: texts of regulations; recommended first aid before a physician is obtained; elimination of waste or spills; warning symbols and notices.
Anvisningar nr 126, National Board of Occupational Safety and Health (Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, May 1978. 34p. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 78-801 Cohn W.J., Boylan J.J., Blanke R.V., Fariss M.W., Howell J.R., Guzelian P.S.
Treatment of chlordecone (Kepone) toxicity with cholestyramine - Results of a controlled clinical trial.
Cholestyramine is an anion-exchange resin that binds chlordecone. It was given for 5 months to 12 workers who had been exposed to chlordecone during manufacture, while 10 received a placebo. The toxicity and modes of elimination of chlordecone before and after therapy are reported. Cholestyramine significantly accelerated elimination of chlordecone from blood and fat. The treatment offers a practical means of detoxifying persons exposed to this and possibly other lipophilic toxins.
New England Journal of Medicine, 2 Feb. 1978, Vol.298, No.5, p.243-248. 24 ref.

CIS 78-500 Baker E.L., Zack M., Miles J.W., Alderman L., Dobbin R.D., Miller S., Teeters W.R., Warren M.
Epidemic malathion poisoning in Pakistan malaria workers.
In 1976, epidemic organophosphate insecticide poisoning due to malathion occurred in an estimated 2,800 malaria control workers in Pakistan. Low red-cell cholinesterase activity was associated with clinical findings. Toxicity was greatest with formulations containing increased amounts of isomalathion, a malathion degradation product. Poor work practices resulted in excessive skin contact and percutaneous absorption of the insecticide. Airborne levels were low. The epidemic was stopped by improvement of work practices and cessation of use of the most toxic products. A training programme and surveillance system was then put into effect.
Lancet, 7 Jan. 1978, Vol.1, No.8054, p.31-34. 18 ref.

1977

CIS 80-754
Health and Safety Executive.
Fumigation using methylbromide (bromomethane).
This note gives information on: hazards; toxicity; employers' and workers' responsibility; qualifications and duties of operators; reference to British standard on methyl bromide; storage and transport; detecting equipment; respiratory protective equipment; cylinders; precautions during fumigation; ventilation after fumigation; residues; precautions for fumigation of buildings, stacked commodities, soil and compost, under gas-proofed sheets, in ships' holds and freight containers; fumigation chambers. Appendices: properties; methods of detection (detector lamps, gas detector tubes); first aid and medical treatment; legislation and documentation.
Guidance Note GS 1, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Sep. 1977. 12p. 15 ref. Price: Ł0.30.

CIS 79-157
Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, proposed revision of Part 1910.1044 (Occupational Safety and Health Standards).
Occupational exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) - Proposed standard, hearing.
This document gives background information on DBCP, an agricultural nematocide (properties, uses etc.), and summarises the evidence that led to the issuance of an Emergency Temporary Standard on 9 Sep. 1977 regulating DBCP exposure (Code of Federal Regulations, Title 29, Part 1044, Federal Register, Vol.42, p.45536.). The reasons why an OSHA standard appears necessary are the effects of DBCP exposure (sterility, carcinogenicity and other toxic effects in animals and man). As certain parties had pressed for the adoption of a standard on DBCP, this document calls for testimonies to be given at an OSHA hearing, and gives a summary and explanation of the proposed regulations (scope, permissible exposure limit; regulated areas, notification of use, controls and methods of compliance, respirators, emergencies, personal protective clothing and equipment, housekeeping, hygienic facilities, personal hygiene, medical surveillance, employee information and training, warning signs, labelling, TLVs (3 alternatives are proposed: 1-10ppb; 0.0-1ppb; or zero employee exposure)). The text of the proposed regulations is appended. A considerable amount of documentation on DBCP has been gathered by the ILO in its International Occupational Health Hazard Alert System.
Federal Register, 1 Nov. 1977, Vol.42, No.210, p.57265-57283.

CIS 78-1941 Organophosphorus pesticides - criteria (dose/effect relationships) for organophosphorus pesticides.
This report of the working party of experts (Luxembourg, 24-25 June 1975 and 30-31 Mar. 1976) covers 20 pesticides: azinphosmethyl, bromophos, chlorfenvinphos, demeton-S-methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, dimethoate, fenchlorfos, fentirothion, formothion, malathion, methidathion, mevinphos, parathion, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosphamidon, tetraethyl pyrophosphate, thiometon, and trichlorfon. Chapters deal with the chemical activity, general metabolism of organophosphates, metabolism and biochemical effects of the individual compounds, toxicity in animals (general toxicity, effects on enzymes, effects on reproduction, neurotoxicity, potentiation and/or protective activity), toxicity in man (ADI values), dose-effect relations, specific references for each compound, and bibliography.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 1977. 199p. Illus. 810 ref.

CIS 78-1633 Chemical compounds used in agriculture and food storage.
This set of loose-leaf sheets contains recommendations for safe use of about 300 organic and inorganic substances. The sheets are produced periodically. For each substance there are: the British Standards Institute common name; chemical name; use; recommendations for protection of operators, consumers, livestock, wildlife and others. A new set of sheets on pesticides covers wood preservatives (20 sheets published to date).
Recommendation Sheets, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, Great Westminster House, Horseferry Road, London SW1P 2AE, United Kingdom, 1977 (more than 1,300 Sheets, totalling some 4,000 pages).

CIS 78-1707 Conevski D., Bajnova A., Barkova N.
Health status of workers applying pesticides in greenhouses
Zdravoslovno săstojanie na rabotnicite, prilagašti pesticidi v oranžerijni uslovija [in Bulgarian]
Results of medical studies in 72 workers (67 women and 5 men) growing flowers and vegetables in hot-houses, with a length of service of more than 5 years, and a control group of 30 persons matched for age and sex. The main findings were autonomic and gastrointestinal disturbances. Examinations 3h after application of an insecticide and a fungicide showed a significant fall in serum cholinesterase and blood peroxidase activity, haemoglobin, total cholesterol and urinary 17-ketosteroids. Poisoning was due mainly to skin absorption. The combined action of the 2 substances is considered responsible.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1977, Vol.10, No.6, p.34-40. 14 ref.

CIS 78-1603 Pan'šina T.N.
Establishment of maximum admissible concentrations and indicative tolerable limits for herbicides based on halogenated anilides of carboxylic acids
Ustanovlenie predel'no dopustimyh koncentracij i orientirovočnyh bezopasnyh urovnej vozdejstvija gerbicidov galoidzameščennyh anilidov karbonovyh kislot v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments with various herbicides used in agriculture. Maximum admissible concentrations were 0.1mg/m3 for propanide (Stam F34); 0.5mg/m3 for Ramrod; and 1mg/m3 for Solan. Indicative tolerable limits were 0.1mg/m3 for Dicryl; 0.3mg/m3 for SR 52223; 0.5mg/m3 for Suffix; and 0.5mg/m3 for Lasso.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Dec. 1977, No.12, p.30-33. 8 ref.

CIS 78-1043 Hladká A.
Influence of impurities on toxicity of fenitrothion
Hodnotenie vplyvu sprievodných nečistôt na toxický účinok fenitrotionu [in Slovak]
Commercial pesticides contain impurities that can modify their toxic action. Studies in rats on the anticholinesterase activity and speed of degradation of S-methyl fenitrothion, formed during manufacture of fenitrothion, showed it to be metabolised more rapidly than fenitrothion. The cholinesterase reactivation time was appreciably longer. The results are consistent with the properties due to the different structure of the isomer.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1977, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.173-176. 11 ref.

CIS 78-1103 Methoxychlor.
Méthoxychlore. [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health programmes; mammalian, human (enzyme activity changes) and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on regulation of compound (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling); precautions in use (TLV, control of vapours and dust, mixers and applicators, flagmen in aerial operations); entry into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; determination methods.
Data sheet on pesticides No.28, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 6p. 4 ref.

CIS 78-1102 Fenitrothion.
Fenitrothion. [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects in livestock; public health; mammalian, human (no known cases) and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on regulation of compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); precautions in use (control of vapours and dust, mixers and applicators, flagmen in aerial operations); entry into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.30, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 9p. 9 ref.

CIS 78-1101 Malathion.
Malathion. [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health programmes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on regulation of compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); precautions in use (U.S. and Soviet exposure limits, mixers and applicators, flagmen in aerial operations); entry into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay, and in case of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.29, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1977. 9p. 8 ref.

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