Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Antov G., Ajanova A.
Effect of Fundazol pesticide on the myocardium of rats with experimental atherosclerosis
Vlijanie na pesticida fundazol vărhu miokarda na plăhove s eksperimentalna ateroskleroza [in Bulgarian]
Study of the effects of the fungicide benomyl: methyl(1-butylamino)carbonyl(-1-H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate on the development of sclerotic lesions of the myocardium caused by atherogenic diet in experimental animals. Results of biochemical tests and morphological and histochemical investigations. Exposure to benomyl has a potentiating effect on atherogenic diet.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.58-67. Illus. 20 ref.
Ivanova-Čemišanska L., Mirkova E., Antov G., Mihajlova A., Kapurcov V.
Evaluation of the chronic toxicity of Balagrin herbicide in continuous or intermittent exposure
Ocenjavane hroničnoto toksično dejstvie na herbicida balagrin pri monotonen i intermitenten režim na văzdejstvie [in Bulgarian]
Experimental research on rats to determine the toxicity of Balagrin (20% balan, 80% xylene), involving 2 types of exposure: daily and weekly for 4 months; daily with weekly breaks. The toxic effects were more severe in the case of continuous exposure: increase in cholinesterase activity, ornithine transcarbamylase and cellular leucine aminopeptidase, reduced serum α-globulins, activation of liver tisue isocitrate dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase, inhibition of testicular and brain cytochrome oxidase. It is recommended that this herbicide should be applied only periodically in agriculture.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.50-57. Illus. 15 ref.
Agricultural and Industrial Insurance Fund for the Central Cooperative of Sugar and Alcohol Producers of the State of São Paulo (Segurança Agroindustrial da Cooperativa Central dos Produtores de Açucar e Alcool do Estado de São Paulo).
Handling and use of pesticides - Safety instructions
Manuseio e aplicação de pesticidas: instruções de segurança [in Portuguese]
Definitions are followed by sections devoted to: toxicological aspects of pesticides, Brazilian legislation, OSH directives (training, transport of pesticides, storage, mixing, disposal of empty containers, use of pesticides, aerial crop dusting), protective clothing, hygiene, personal protective equipment, protection of eyes, hands and feet, respiratory protection.
FUNDACENTRO - Atualidades em prevenção de acidentes, Mar. 1980, Vol.11, No.123, p.12-14; Apr. 1980, Vol.11, No.124, p.13-14; May 1980, Vol.11, No.125, p.13-14. Illus. 5 ref.
Israeli R., Potashnik G.
Spermatogenetic disturbances due to exposure to 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) - An urgent alert signal
Schädigung der Spermatogenesis bei Exposition gegenüber 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropan (DBCP) als Warnung für die Zukunft [in German]
Results of tests and examinations (sperm analysis, hormone levels, duration of exposure) in 24 DBCP-exposed workers (this chemical is employed as a nematocide, and was considered inoffensive up to the present). Exposure to DBCP may result in 100% sterility, linked to an increase in plasmatic gonadotrophins. Correct evaluation of the results of animal experiments conducted 20 years ago would have given warning of these effects in humans.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Jan. 1980, p.20-22. Illus. 4 ref.
Matsushita T., Nomura S., Wakatsuki T.
Epidemiology of contact dermatitis from pesticides in Japan.
216 cases, all but 3 of them in farmers, occurring in 1968-1970 were studied for conditions of pesticide use, sex, age, occupation, exposure, and season. The pesticides most often responsible were captafol, dithiocarbamates, highly and moderately toxic organic phosphates, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Complications, dermatitis sites, prognosis, and contributing factors are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, June 1980, Vol.6, No.4, p.255-259. 8 ref.
Carcinogenicity of chlorobenzilate in mice, rats, and dogs.
Chlorobenzilate produced an increase in malignant neoplasms at all sites in rats; those of the liver were highly significant. Endocrine neoplasms were also increased, and there were some unusual neoplasms such as Kupffer cell sarcomas of the liver. In mice, the compound caused malignant neoplasms of the liver and stomach, as well as adenocarcinomas of the lung and reticulum cell sarcomas. There was a marked increase in testicular atrophy in mice and rats. There was some toxicity in dogs, which might have developed into carcinomas with time. Effects seen were cardiac changes and arteriosclerosis of the pulmonary artery.
Clinical Toxicology, Mar. 1980, Vol.16, No.1, p.67-98. Illus. 28 ref.
Axelson O., Sundell L., Andersson K., Edling C., Hogstedt C., Kling H.
Herbicide exposure and tumor mortality
348 railroad workers were followed from 1957 to 1978. The observed number of tumour deaths was higher than expected, especially among workers exposed to both amitrol and phenoxy acids. No specific type of tumour predominated. There were 3 stomach and 3 lung cancers. Causal relations are unclear. Amitrol and phenoxy acids are increasingly suspicious as carcinogens.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.73-79. 14 ref.
Chlorinated organic compounds
Organochlorés. [in French]
The toxicology of derivatives of chlorobenzene (DDT, DDD, perthane, methoxychlor), indan (dieldrin, aldrin, chlordane, heptachlor, endrin), cyclohexane (hexachlorocyclohexane, polychlorocyclohexane sulfide) and turpentine (toxaphene, polychlorocamphenes, endosulfan), is reviewed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, Fascicule 16059 A10, 3-1980. 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 3p. 35 ref.
Prediction of agricultural worker safety reentry times for organophosphate insecticides.
Concepts and current methods of determining worker reentry times are reviewed. Comparison of human monitoring studies, factors affecting exposure, and exposure estimation methods illustrate the advantages of estimation methods. Models should be accurate, field tested, and simple to use. The model should account for the production and description of the toxic metabolites from organophosphate pesticides. A systematic approach to the worker reentry situation is urged.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.340-345. 39 ref.
Solid adsorbent collection and gas chromatographic determination of the propylene glycol butyl ether esters of 2,4,5-T in air.
A method is described for collection of these esters of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in air and their determination by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The samples are collected on XAD-2 resin and desorbed in diethyl ether. The procedure provides an accurate 4h time-weighted average of exposure. Recoveries were 97±8% in the concentration range 0.7-5ppb. Breakthrough, storage effects, and humidity effects were investigated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1980, Vol.41, No.5, p.328-333. Illus. 13 ref.
Acute toxicity in theory and practice, with special reference to the toxicology of pesticides.
Contents of this book: definitions; justification of the need for more acute toxicity information for pesticides; responses (non-specific, reactive, highly specific, requiring modification of the substance, additive, greater than additive, antagonistic); test animals; dose and dosage (dose-effect relation, concentration-time of exposure relation, influence of formulation, influence of vehicle, multiple exposure); types and routes of exposure (including occupational).
John Wiley and Sons Limited, Shripney, Bognor Regis, West Sussex, United Kingdom, PO 22 95A, 1980. 159p. 950 ref. Price: £10.00.
Miller T.L., Deinzer M.L.
Effects of nonachloropredioxin and other hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers on biological membranes.
The pesticide pentachlorophenol (PCP) contains hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers and other compounds as impurities. The effects of hydroxy derivatives of nonachlorodiphenyl ether (NDE), 2-hydroxy-2',4,4'-trichlorodiphenyl ether (HTDE), and PCP, were studied in the human erythrocyte membrane. The hydroxy NDEs are very potent haemolytic agents. The order of activity is: 2-hydroxy-NDE (nonachloropredioxin)>3-hydroxy-NDE>4-hydroxy-NDE>HTDE>technical PCP>pure PCP. Haemolytic potency varied with the degree of chlorination and to some extent with the position of the HO group. The hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers can directly alter properties of biological membranes.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.11-25. Illus. 38 ref.
Paraquat - A review of worker exposure in normal usage.
This literature review examines the likely worker exposure in agricultural practice using normal procedures, with reference to the possibilities of oral, dermal and inhalational absorption. At the recommended dilution levels systemic effects do not appear to occur. There may be local effects on skin and mucous membranes due to delayed caustic effects, but paraquat is unlikely to give rise to serious problems when properly used.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.30, No.1, p.6-11. Illus. 27 ref.
Bailly R., Dubois G.
Index of pesticides
Index phytosanitaire. [in French]
Alphabetical list of insecticides and acaricides, fungicides, combined insecticide-fungicides and insecticide-fungicide-crow repellants, herbicides and nematocides. The trade name of each product is followed by its chemical name, a brief description and instructions for use, toxicity and conditions to be observed when using it. Numerous indexes.
Association de coordination technique agricole, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, 16th edition 1980. 464p.
Pesticides Act 1979 [New Zealand]
Safety provisions of this Act dealing with the use of pesticides: registration of pesticides; dealing with pesticides (special mixtures, sale in bulk, labelling); controlled pesticides; sampling procedures.
Government Printer, Wellington, New Zealand, 1979. 47p. Price: NZD 0.90.
Diazinon [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Roma, Italy, 1978. 8p.
Aldrine [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide and acaricide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Apr. 1979. 7p.
Diquat [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a herbicide and dessicant in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects on eyes and skin; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1979. 7p.
Leptophos [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide and fungicide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects on eyes; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Apr. 1979. 7p.
Establishment of a hygiene standard for a mixture of hexachlorane and phosalone in air
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie smesi geksahlorana i fozalona v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
This insecticide mixture is frequently used to protect cotton crops. The olfactory threshold was determined and the effect of low concentrations on EEG recordings was studied. White rats were exposed for 4x15-day periods, with 10-day intervals, to various concentrations of the mixture; ambient temperature was 35-37°C. The 2 substances have a purely additive effect when mixed, and their TLVs should be considered separately.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1979, No.12, p.11-15. Illus. 3 ref.
Controlling the mercury poisoning hazard - Sampling and determination of organic mercury
Contrôle du risque d'hydrargyrisme - Prélèvement et dosage du mercure organique. [in French]
Report giving the results of laboratory tests to investigate the possibilities of applying to organomercury fungicides a method for determination of mercury vapours and inorganic mercury (CIS 78-445). The method consists of activated charcoal sampling and determination by flameless atomic absorption. Tests with alkylmercury (methylmercury chloride), arylmercury (phenylmercury acetate) and alkoxymercury compounds (methoxyethylmercury silicate) gave positive results.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 1979. 22p. Illus. 12 ref.
Petersen G., Busch K.H., Fechter B.
Occupational safety and health in pesticide production
Arbeitssicherheit bei der Herstellung von Pflanzenschutzmitteln [in German]
Roundup of information for workers to encourage them in safe attitudes and observance of OSH regulations. Overview of various types of pesticide, classified by purpose and mode of application; list of raw materials and intermediary and auxiliary substances used in pesticide production, and information concerning the evaluation of their toxicity. Much of this booklet is devoted to hazards of production equipment, and their prevention: technology and basic operations, fires and explosions, dust, static electricity, safety engineering, maintenance. Recommendations regarding pesticide spraying in agriculture. Regulations and standards in force in the German Democratic Republic.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin, 1979. 56p. Price: M.2.20.
DDT and its derivatives.
Chapters are devoted to: properties and analytical methods; sources of environmental pollution; environmental transport and distribution; environmental exposure levels; metabolism; experimental effects; effects on man (including a brief section on occupational exposure); evaluation of health risks from exposure, with recommendations on exposure. Recommendations for further research.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1979. 194p. 672 ref.
Pesticides: Safety precautions scheme agreed between Government departments and industrial associations.
Collection of agreed working documents under the Pesticides Safety Precautions Scheme: definitions; directory of laboratories; guidance on presentation of supporting data, on toxicity data requirements (testing for percutaneous toxicity; methods for the assessment of skin irritation and sensitisation; and of eye irritation; inhalation toxicity of pesticides; tests for neurotoxicity of organophosphorus compounds; screening organophosphorus anticholinesterase compounds for response to reactivating agents; medical advice on labels) and on labelling of pesticide products (classification; symbolic indication of general nature of hazard (warning symbols illustrated); standard phrases for commercial, agricultural, forestry and other use; labelling of products formulated by servicing companies for use by their own operators; dangerous solvents which should be named on labels.
Pesticides Branch, Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, London, United Kingdom, revised 1979. 92p. Illus.
Castor cake allergy
Rizinusschrot-Allergie [in German]
The literature on allergy due to inhalation of castor bean dust or contact with the beans or residue after oil extraction is reviewed. A case of asthmatiform respiratory allergy attributed to fertilisers contained in castor cake is described (symptoms, patch tests). Conclusions on the value of skin tests and the allergenic properties of the plant (especially the seeds), dust and extraction residues are drawn. Attention is drawn to the strong sensitising potential of castor bean and the difference in symptoms in early mucosal, cutaneous and late reactions.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1979, Vol.27, No.6, p.159-162. 28 ref.
Soliman S.A., El-Sebae A.H., El-Fiki S.
Occupational effect of phosfolan insecticide on spraymen during field exposure.
Phosfolan (cyolane) is widely used to protect cotton plants in Egypt. Exposure was estimated by means of pads fixed to different parts of spraymen's bodies. Health effects were evaluated by determination of red blood cell acetylcholinesterase (RBC AChE) inhibition at different times after exposure. Workers received 0.008-0.03% of the toxic dose. Those with the highest exposure showed 31-44% RBC AChE inhibition. 50% of inhibited activity recovered in 48h, the rest in 3-4 weeks or more. RBC AChE activity can be used as a criterion of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 1979, Vol.B14, No.1, p.27-37. 24 ref.
Glass R.I., Lyness R.N., Mengle D.C., Powell K.E., Kahn E.
Sperm count depression in pesticide applicators exposed to dibromochloropropane.
112 pesticide applicators using dibromochloropropane (DBCP) were studied. There was no infertility or azoospermia. Sperm count depression was associated with exposure in the current year but not in past years, as was a rise in serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels in applicators involved in irrigation setup work and calibration of equipment. Testicular toxicity of DBCP may occur in a shorter period than previously thought; the effects may be reversible in men with sperm count depression.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 1979, Vol.109, No.3, p.346-351. 12 ref.
Health and Safety Executive.
One man's poison.
This film and training package (48 colour slides and printed commentary) describe an incident involving a farmer who was poisoned while pesticide spraying. His mistakes leading to the incident are shown: hurried and inaccurate mixing of the spray, failure to wear protective apron, spills, getting the preparation on his skin and not washing it off immediately, failure to follow manufacturer's instructions and wear a face mask and other personal protective equipment.
16mm colour film with optical sound track, 26min, and training package: 1979. Film: Central Film Library, Government Building, Bromyard Avenue, London W3 7JB; training package Special Projects Section, Health and Safety Executive, Baynards House, 1 Chepstow Place, London W2 4TF, United Kingdom. Price (film) hire: £7.50 first day, £1.00 for each subsequent day; training package (purchase only): £30.00 plus VAT.
Potashnik G., Yanai-Inbar I., Sacks M.I., Israeli R.
Effect of dibromochloropropane on human testicular function.
Testicular function was studied in 23 workers exposed to dibromochloropropane (DBCP) during the production process. Severe impairment of spermatogenesis was found in 18 (78%). Azoospermia associated with high plasma follicle-stimulation hormone levels was diagnosed in 12 workers with an exposure time of 100 to >6000h to DBCP. There was atrophy of the germinal epithelium.
Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, May 1979, Vol.15, No.5, p.438-442. 6 ref.
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane - DDT.
Dichlorodiphényltrichloréthane - DDT. [in French]
Data sheet containing information on: use, presentation, use, poisoning, prevention, TLV, regulations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 4th quarter 1979, Vol.19, special number, toxicology (supplement to No.76). p.47. 4 ref.
Ubajdullaev R., Hasanov T.S.
Establishment of hygiene limits for atmospheric concentrations of hexachlorane, phosalone and butyphos when applied in succession
Gigieničeskoe normirovanie geksahlorana, fozalona i butifosa v atmosfernom vozduhe pri posledovatel'nom primenenii ih v sel'skom hozjajstve [in Russian]
These pesticides are generally applied in succession in cotton cultivation. Studies in rats indicated that the daily average concentration should not exceed the established exposure limits, 0.05mg/m3 for lindane, and 0.01mg/m3 for phosalone and butyphos.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1979, No.9, p.14-17. 3 ref.
Masaru Morita S., Gouvea Xavier O., Morrone L.C., Amed Ali S., Nakamura K., Zaia P.A.
Organophosphorus insecticide poisoning
Intoxicação por inseticidas organofosforados [in Portuguese]
The toxicology of organophosphorus insecticides, especially parathion, is outlined. Three cases of acute poisoning are presented: clinical picture; mental disorders; inobservance of safety instructions; lack of information and qualification of workers.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Dec. 1979, Vol.7, No.28, p.70-72. 9 ref.
Pastušenko T.V., Manenko A.K.
Experimental establishment of the maximum permissible level of phenazone at the workplace
Ėksperimental'noe obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii fenazona v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
The toxic effects of the herbicide phenazone (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-6-pyridazinone) were studied in rats, mice and guinea pigs after intragastric, cutaneous and inhalational administration. Acute toxicity is low. Cumulative effects are not very pronounced. The threshold concentration for chronic effects is 1mg/m3. Exposure limit recommended: 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.48-50.
Pastušenko T.V., Manenko A.K.
Determination of phenazone in air by spectrophotometry
Opredelenie fenazona v vozduhe spektrofotometričeskim metodom [in Russian]
This method is more sensitive, accurate and selective than existing techniques. It is based on dissolving the sample in dimethylformamide. Absorbance is measured at 285nm. Sensitivity is 1µg/ml, the relative error ±1.8%.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1979, No.7, p.54-55. 2 ref.
Song of the canary.
The title of this film emphasises the fact that, for want of sufficient research, workers are being exposed to unknown hazards like the caged canaries once used in coal mines to detect methane. The film is divided into 2 episodes: the first consists of interviews with Californian pesticide plant workers stricken with sterility (abnormal and irreversible low sperm counts) and skin depigmentation. When OSHA regulations were enforced, manufacture of the pesticide was transferred over the border to Mexico. Second episode: interviews with retired cotton mill workers from South Carolina suffering from byssinosis and their legal battles with employers for compensation. Improved ventilation and dust control methods are considered.
16mm colour film, optical sound track, 58min. New Day Films, P.O. Box 315, Franklin Lakes, New Jersey 07147, USA. Available also in 2 30-min. parts. Price: US$675.00; rental: US$65 (+$5 handling).
Some halogenated hydrocarbons.
Data in 25 monographs: chlordane; chlordecone (Kepone); 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane; dichlorvos; heptachlor and its epoxide; hexachlorobenzene; hexachlorobutadiene; hexachlorocyclohexane; hexachlorophene; methoxychlor; mirex; pentachlorophenol; toxaphene; 2,4,5- and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol; carbon tetrachloride; chloroform; 1,2-dichloroethane; dichloromethane; hexachloroethane; 1,1,2,2,-tetrachloroethane; tetrachloroethylene; 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-trichloroethane; trichloroethylene; tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, Vol.20, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Oct. 1979. 609p. Illus. 2166 ref. Price: SF.60.00.
Pomorska K., Domańska I.
DDT and DDE levels in adipose tissue of subjects exposed to chemical pesticides of the chlorinated hydrocarbon group
Poziom DDT i DDE w tkance tłuszczowej ludzi narażonych na chemiczne środki ochrony roślin z grupy węglowodorów chlorowanych [in Polish]
DDT and DDE levels determined by gas chromatography were significantly higher in 26 persons poisoned by chlorinated organic pesticides (up to 115.61mg/kg adipose tissue) than in 65 non-exposed controls (12.94 ± 3.92mg/kg).
Medycyna Wiejska, Apr.-June 1979, Vol.14, No.2, p.131-134. 7 ref.
Koizumi A., Shiojima S., Omiya M., Nakano S., Sato N., Ikeda M.
Acute renal failure and maneb (manganous ethylenebis[dithiocarbamate]) exposure.
The case is reported of a 62-year-old man who was taken to the emergency clinic with oliguria, diarrhoea, and hoarseness, after spreading maneb on 200m2 of garden. He was found to have acute renal failure on the basis of clinicobiochemical data. He had handled maneb with unprotected hands and had nibbled treated side buds of corn.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 7 Dec. 1979, Vol.242, No.23, p.2583-2585. 10 ref.
Kołodziejczyk A., Kołodziejczyk E.
Study of acute toxicity of Gamakarbatox M in suspension
Badanie toksyczności ostrej Gamakarbatoxu M zawiesinowego [in Polish]
Description of research on rats and rabbits to evaluate the toxicity of Gamakarbatox in suspension. This insecticide is composed of a biologically active mixture containing 20% carbaryl, 20% methoxychlor and 4.5% lindane. This preparation has an acute toxic effect when administered per os, and a slight irritant effect on the skin and eyes. It does not appear to have a potentiating effect, merely an additive one.
Bromatologia i chemia toksykologiczna, 1979, No.1, p.39-41. 6 ref.
Young R.J., Jung F.P., Ayer H.E.
Phorate intoxication at an insecticide formulating plant.
Two case-histories are reported of phorate poisoning due to inadequate ventilation. Samples taken after the incidents contained up to 300 times the TLV. Supply of personal protective equipment was not adequate to prevent poisoning.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.1013-1016. 14 ref.
A clinical survey of paraquat formulation workers
36 workers were studied. Most showed skin rashes, nail damage and nose bleeding as a result of direct contact of skin and mucosae with paraquat. There was no clinical evidence of local or general long-term effects following several years' exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1979, Vol.36, No.3, p.220-223. 14 ref.
Bilateral retrobulbar neuritis due to insecticides
Névrite rétrobulbaire bilatérrale due à un insecticide. [in French]
Translation of an article in Postgraduate Medical Journal, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1968, Vol.44, No.3, p.341-342. This is a case report in a subject exposed to an insecticide containing dieldrin and pentachlorophenol, for 8h daily for 4 consecutive days, without respiratory protection. The only symptom was marked loss of visual acuity.
Traduction INRS 5-79, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1979. 5p. 3 ref.
Bréaud P., Schneider C., Galland C., Russ D.
Case study of acute toxic polyneuritis in a young farmer
Un cas de polyneuropathie aiguë toxique chez un jeune agriculteur. [in French]
Case study of a young farmer hospitalised with bilateral tibiotarsal arthritis. The case history of progressive nerve damage, analysis of cephalo-rachidian fluid and electromyogram confirmed a diagnosis of sensory distal polyneuritis, with albuminocytologic disassociation. Following an investigation of the farmer's occupational activities and working conditions, with toxicological sampling and analysis, an aetiology of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides was suggested.
Revue médicale de la Suisse romande, Mar. 1979, Vol.99, No.3, p.149-154. 6 ref.
Comité technique des départements d'outre-mer, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie, Paris, 10 Nov. 1978.
Loading and unloading pesticides in sea ports
Chargement ou déchargement des pesticides dans les ports maritimes. [in French]
This recommendation covers the following aspects: informing workers of the hazards involved in handling these products and of the industrial hygiene and other preventive measures to be observed, including the use of personal protective equipment; providing workers with such protective equipment and ensuring that it is used. Information on the mandatory labelling and colour coding of containers.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1209-96-79 (Recommendation No.164), p.483-484.
Hedman B.K., Erne K., Håkansson M., Engqvist A.
Occupational exposure monitoring of phenoxy acids (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T)
Kontroll av yrkesmässig exponering för fenoxisyror (2,4-D och 2,4,5-T) [in Swedish]
2,4-D and 2,4,5-T levels in plasma and urine of 4 spraymen in forestry work were monitored during a week of exposure and for 36h afterwards. Plasma levels ranged from the detection limit to 0.1-0.2µg/ml, and declined to near the detection limit overnight. The highest levels were in urine with means of 8 and 4.5µg/ml for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, respectively, and 3-14µg/ml and 1-11µg/ml, respectively, in the afternoon after a day of exposure. In another investigation, the mean 24h excretion in urine was 9mg 2,4-D and 1mg 2,4,5-T. None of the spraymen had clinical symptoms except one who showed a slight irritation of the eyes after direct contact with the spray liquid. Exposure to the substances could be best followed by determination of urine levels. Sampling should be in the afternoon of an exposed day or within a day following exposure. The lowest detectable concentration in urine is 0.05µg/ml for both substances. English summary.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1979:17, Arbetarskyddsverket, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1979. 26p. Illus. 21 ref.
Report on carcinogenesis bioassay of toxaphene.
The report describes the main commercial formulations of this chlorinated pesticide available and refers to previous research. The bioassay and the test conditions are detailed. Toxaphene was given orally in average doses of 640, 1,280, and 2,560ppm daily to rats and 160 and 320ppm daily in mice. The compound caused liver cancer in male and female mice and possibly thyroid cancer in rats. The report concludes that toxaphene should be classified as a potential threat to human health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1979. Vol.40, No.5, p.A-26 to A-32.
Lehotzky K., Szeberényi J., Tátrai E.
Local and systemic toxic effects of the herbicide propachlor (Satecid 45 WP) in experimental animals
A propaklór tartalmú herbicid (Satecid 65 WP) lokális és szisztémás méreghatása kísérleti állatokon [in Hungarian]
Primary irritation and contact sensitisation of Satecid 65 WP (containing 65% propachlor) were studied in rabbits, rats and guinea pigs, compared with 2 differing amounts of propachlor itself and with the vehicle. The propachlor samples and Satecid 65 WP caused severe dermatitis, ulceration and necrosis in rabbit skin and mice ears. None of the compounds had any contact sensitisation effects. Peroral and dermal exposure of the Satecid (acute p.o. LD50 in male rats is 2176 ± 220mg/kg) caused liver damage as indicated by increase of sulfobromophtalein retention. The morphological basis of the damage was focal necrosis in the peripherolobular zones of the liver lobes. Satecid 65 WP is a "moderately hazardous" poison.
Egészségtudomány, 1979, Vol.23, No.1, p.89-96. Illus. 22 ref.
A guide for developing a training program for anhydrous ammonia workers - Working safely with anhydrous ammonia.
In the first booklet, the necessity for having a training programme is pointed out to employers, especially in agriculture. Information for safe handling is given: physical properties; biological effects on humans; first aid; personal protective equipment (respirator guide); bulk plants and permanent installations (exposure control, standards, warning notices, transportation, piping, fittings and valves, hoses); transfer operations (step-by-step procedures for unloading tank cars and trucks and filling tanks); potential accidents; sources of further information. A plant safety check list is appended. The second booklet is written for anhydrous ammonia workers. The physical properties of the substance, biological effects, first aid (inhalation, eye and skin contact, swallowing); personal protective equipment and safe working methods (especially transfer), handling and use of cylinders, emergencies and accident causes are described.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publications Nos.79-119 and 79-120, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 2 booklets, Dec. 1978, and Jan. 1979. 85 and 24p. Illus.
Levin P.J., Klaff L.J., Rose A.G., Ferguson A.D.
Pulmonary effects of contact exposure to paraquat: A clinical and experimental study.
The clinical and pathological features of a patient who died from the effects of percutaneous absorption of paraquat, and of 9 less heavily exposed workers, are described. In the fatal case, the patient had balanced the spray reservoir on his shoulder, onto which it had leaked causing a burn (skin ulcer). In animal experiments, low concentrations of paraquat were applied to the skin of rats over 9 weeks. Pulmonary arterial lesions contrasting with the familiar pathological findings of acute high-dose ingestion occurred. Routine use of paraquat may cause severe pulmonary vascular disease.
Thorax, Apr. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.150-160. Illus. 23 ref.
Safe use of pesticides.
Sécurité d'emploi des pesticides. [in French]
Third report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control (Geneva, 3-9 Oct. 1978). An introduction (emphasising that although progress has been made in genetic and other means of controlling disease vectors and agricultural pests, the use of chemical pesticides remains indispensable at present) is followed by sections devoted to: needs of developing countries regarding safe use of pesticides; factors influencing the toxicity of pesticides; review of new data on pesticides for public health use (organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, pyrethroids); precautionary measures and the monitoring of exposure; other aspects of the safe use of pesticides including education and training (field surveys of pesticide exposure, treatment of insecticide poisoning, expertise in toxicology, development of WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazard, assistance in poisoning outbreaks, information and training); recommendations for national authorities, for WHO, and for future research. Annexes: chemical structure of some new pyrethroids; Treatment of poisoning due to organophosphorus, carbamate, and organochlorine insecticides; sampling methods in poisoning outbreaks.
Technical Report Series No.634, World Health Organization, Genève, Switzerland, 1979. 44p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: SF.8.00.
National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20014.
Report on carcinogenesis bioassay of 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB).
1,2-Dibromoethane (ethylene dibromide) is a gasoline and antiknock additive, and a soil and grain fumigant. Oral administration by stomach tube caused cancers in rats and mice (squamous cells carcimonas, blood vessel cancers, liver cancers, lung cancers). The report also gives details of the compound and its toxicity in animals and humans.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1979, Vol.40, No.2, p.A-31 to A-35.
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