Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Eriksson M., Hardell L., Berg N.O., Möller T., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study.
110 patients with soft-tissue sarcomas reported to the cancer registry in 5 Swedish countries and 220 controls were studied. The risk ratio for soft-tissue sarcomas after exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols was 5.1; for phenoxy acids 6.8 (4.2 when free from impurities) and for chlorophenols 3.3. The risk for workers exposed to 2,4,5-T and other phenoxy acids was 17.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-33. 30 ref.
Kraus J.F., Mull R., Kurtz P., Winterlin W., Franti C.E., Kilgore W., Borhani N.O.
Monitoring of grape harvesters for evidence of cholinesterase inhibition.
36 grape harvesters were studied for 6 weeks following reentry into vineyards sprayed with organophosphorus pesticides. Insignificant changes in blood cholinesterase activity were found. Some workers had very low levels of organophosphate metabolites in the urine throughout the study. Ethion dioxon was the only pesticide residue detected on the grape leaves. For practical reasons, it is recommended that monitoring studies rely more on urinary analyses than on venipuncture.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.19-31. Illus. 16 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Biological monitoring of workers exposed to organo-phosphorus pesticides.
Brief roundup of information on organophosphorus pesticides and recent developments; occupational exposure (manufacture, packaging, storage, distribution, application, scrap recovery of contaminated containers); routes of absorption; biological effects; clinical manifestations; inhibition of blood cholinesterase activity as an objective index of organophosphorus anticholinesterase poisoning; health surveillance; electromyograph monitoring; emergency treatment.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Dec. 1980. 4p. 2 ref. Price: £0.50.
Control of Pesticides Act, No.33 of 1980; Regulations made under the Act [Sri Lanka]
The Law (certified 5 Sep. 1980) applies to active ingredients and pesticide formulations with included adjuvants, as well as to adjuvants intended to be included in pesticide formulations at the point of use. Provisions of the Act concern: setting up of a Registrar of Pesticides and a Pesticide Formulatory Committee; functions of the Committee; applications for licensing a pesticide and the issuing of such licences; approved pesticides, containers and packages; cancellation of licences; prohibitions of manufacturing and commercialisation; prohibition of storage, transport and sale in close juxtaposition with foodstuffs; advertisements; storage in bulk; limitation (based on time of use and quantity present) of harvesting or sale of food crops in which pesticides have been used; authorised officers (inspectors); analysis of samples. The Regulations (published 2 May 1985) provide for the appropriate labelling of pesticides. In annex: pesticides prohibited for import and use; list of products registered under the Act, with corresponding trade names, formulation concentrations, use and classification.
In: Pesticides in Sri Lanka, Fernando R., Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, 14 Rotunda Gardens, Colombo 3, Sri Lanka, 1989 (ISBN 955-607-001-X), p.211-247.
Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social
Safety regulations concerning the use of toxic substances in agriculture [Costa Rica]
Reglamento de seguridad sobre empleo de sustancias tóxicas en la agricultura [in Spanish]
Contents of these regulations: general obligations and requirements; protection of workers; penalties.
Imprenta Nacional, San José, Costa Rica, 1980. 7p.
Temik 10G; aldikarbi [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Carbamate insecticide. Toxicity: LD50 = 10mg/kg; inhibits cholinesterase activity; neurotoxic effects; irritates skin, eyes and mucous membranes. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R27, R28, S1, S13, S28, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, June 1980. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Health and Safety Executive
Poisonous chemicals on the farm
Summarises and gives guidance on the practical application of the provisions of the United Kingdom Health and Safety (Agricuture) (Poisonous Substances) Regulations, 1975. Sections are devoted to: summary of regulation provisions (persons to whom the regulations apply, specified substances, obligations imposed by the regulations, certificates of exemption, enforcement, soil fumigants, sheep dips, typical protective clothing); use of pesticides in greenhouses and livestock houses; general advice and recommendations to minimise risks to operators and others (always read the label, working conditions, protective equipment, precautions, symptoms of poisoning); general advice regarding the protection of livestock and wildlife. Appendices give: a schedule of operations which are prohibited except when protective clothing is worn and lists the appropriate clothing; and a reproduction of a register of persons working on these scheduled operations.
HM Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, 2nd edition, 1980. 39p. Illus. Price: £2.50.
Pinto L.J., Spear P.J.
Technical data for pesticides of the structural pest control industry
Compilation of data sheets on 52 currently used pesticides (23 insecticides, 9 fumigants, 12 rodenticides, 5 avicides, 3 wood preservatives). Each data sheet contains: chemical names and descriptors; physical properties; fire and explosion hazards; known problems; human and animal toxicity; threshold limit values; tolerances; carcinogenicity status; formulations; manufacturers.
National Pest Control Association, 8150 Leeburg Pike, Suite 1100, Vienna, Virginia 22180, USA, 1980. 124p. Illus.
Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins and related products
This books is intended for researchers, regulators, and health professionals who may encounter problems resulting from exposure to these substances. The chemistry, environmental pollution problems, general animal toxicology and present knowledge about structure-activity relationships are presented. An overview of worker exposure and occupational disease following exposure mainly to chlorinated naphthalenes, biphenyls and diphenyls and dibenzodioxins, is presented (chemical porphyria; immune alterations; sequelae of accidental exposure to TCDD).
Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1980. 406p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$95.00.
Gromov V.L., Gromova V.S.
Effect of pesticides on working conditions in the weeding of sugar beet plantations
Rol' pesticidov v formirovanii neblagoprijatnyh uslovij truda pri propolke saharnoj svekly [in Russian]
Residual chlorinated organic pesticides and fertilisers in sugar beet plantation soil result, upon weeding, in the emission of toxic gases (hydrogen chloride, phosgene). These emissions start 18-20 days after application of the pesticides and continue for a week. With annual treatment the emissions start a week later and last for about 2 months. Maximum HCl emission occurs at higher atmospheric temperatures (during noon hours), and that of phosgene during hours of maximum UV irradiation (9.30-11am).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.43-44. 4 ref.
Safe pesticide application in forestry work
Metsätalouden torjunta-aineiden turvallinen käyttö [in Finnish]
Säker användning av bekämpningsmedel i skogsbruk [in Swedish]
Health hazards of pesticide application (skin abosrption, body accumulation following prolonged exposure, allergic reactions); review of safety regulations laid down in Finnish legislation; personal protective equipment (gloves, suits, rubber boots, hoods) that should be provided for workers and used by them; personal hygiene; choice of pesticide and method of application; duties of employer (work planning, choice of working method, worker selection and training, supply of personal protective equipment, supervision).
Teollisuusvakuutus - Industriförsäkring, 1980, No.5, p.8-11. Illus.
Spynu E.I., Bolotnyj A.V., Zor'eva T.D., Ivanova L.N.
Determining safe waiting times prior to entry into zones treated with pesticides
Principy obosnovanija srokov bezopasnogo vyhoda ljudej na ploščadi, obrabotannye pesticidami [in Russian]
In view of the danger of inhalation and skin absorption in zones treated with pesticides, it is necessary to lay down waiting times for recommencing work in such zones. It is proposed that this waiting time should be calculated on the basis of the time required for the level to fall to the dose permissible for the human body. Examples of the calculation.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Nov. 1980, No.11, p.64-67. Illus. 3 ref.
Demidenko N.M., Izmajlova G.D., Musamuhamedov S.R., Šamirzaev N.H.
Establishment of the maximum permissible concentration of dipyridyl phosphate in workplace air
Obosnovanie PDK dipiridilfosfata v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Results of single and repeated administration of dipyridyl phosphate (DPP) to animals by inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion, and study of working conditions in the production of DPP as a cotton dessiccant and its effects on workers. A maximum permissible concentration for DPP of 0.1mg/m3 is recommended. The respiratory organs, eyes and skin should be protected when using DPP.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.48-50. 5 ref.
Pesticides in portable containers
This ANSI/NFPA standard, updating previous editions, was approved 19 Nov. 1980. It covers: administration (scope, purpose, definitions); general requirements (building location, fire protection, storage of flammable and combustible liquids, storage of oxidising agents, ammonium nitrate, separation of pesticides, signs, visibility of labels, leakage of containers, management of post-fire problems, basement storage, moisture damage); storage facilities. Information on recommendations for pesticide storage facilities; recommendations for emergency planning; recommendations for post-fire procedures; pertinent NFPA standards and other codes, is appended.
National Fire Protection Association, Batterymarch Park, Quincy, Massachusetts 02269, USA, 20 Nov. 1980. 20p. 10 ref.
Klisenko M.A., Girenko D.B.
Gas chromatographic analysis of organophosphorus pesticides in air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie fosfororganičeskih pesticidov v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a method of determining organophosphorus pesticides (dithiophosphoric, thiophosphoric and phosphoric acid esters) in air by gas chromatography: apparatus, sampling, analytical procedure. Comparison of this method with thin-layer chromatography and photometry.
Gigiena i sanitarija, 1980, No.9, p.57-60.
Baumann K., Angerer J., Heinrich R., Lehnert G.
Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane - I. Body burden of HVH-isomers
Report on the examination of 57 production workers (mean exposure 10±9 years) with special regard to the levels of the isomers of HCH in blood in adipose tissue. Whereas the TLV was not exceeded in any of the workplaces, considerable concentrations of all HCH-isomers were found in the serum of the workers, and the concentrations in the adipose tissue were even 300 times higher. This indicates a pronounced accumulation of this substance in the human body, requiring biological monitoring of exposed persons by determination of the substance in blood.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 1980, Vol.47, No.2, p.119-127. Illus. 22 ref.
Jušić A., Jurenić D., Milić S.
Electromyographical neuromuscular synapse testing and neurological findings in workers exposed to organophosphorous pesticides
3 groups of agricultural workers consisting of a total of 195 men with moderate to intense exposure to Thimet and Avisol-DM pesticides and a control group of 26 workers with no history of pesticide exposure, were examined by electromyographical synapse testing. The neurological information recorded showed no significant difference between the pescitide-exposed and control group. The electrically evoked muscle potential series in exposed workers remained as constant as those recorded for the control group and neurological records showed no singificant deviations from normal for exposed workers. Electromyographical synapse testing and clinical neurological examination are not sensitive enough for early detection of latent pesticide intoxication.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1980, Vol.35, No.3, p.168-175. Illus. 19 ref.
Ivašina S.A., Komarova L.I.
Humoral and cellular factors of specific immunity in persons exposed to zineb
Gumoral'nye i kletočnye faktory nespecifičeskogo immuniteta u lic kontaktirujuščih s cinebom [in Russian]
Results of studies on 40 male and female workers (aged 20-50 years) who had worked between a few months and 5 years in zineb fungicide production. Prolonged exposure to zineb leads to deterioration in the phagocytic activity of polynuclear neutrophils and alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in the lysozyme levels and inhibition of cytochrome oxidase and peroxidase activity. The degree of change depends on exposure duration and the functional status of the hepatobiliary system.
Gigiena i sanitarija, June 1980, No.6, p.82-83. 5 ref.
Phosphine [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a fumigant insecticide and rodenticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Roma, Italy, 1978. 6p.
Fensulfothion [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide and nematicide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, Roma, Italy, 1978. 7p.
Iodofenphos [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; public health; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 8p.
Diméthoate [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as an insecticide and acaricide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use, entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Mar. 1980. 7p.
Assessing the protective properties of new coated or impregnated nonwovens and impregnated woven textiles uses in the manufacture of clothing for protection against liquid pesticides
Ocena właściwości ochronnych nowo opracowanych włókien powlekanych i impregnowanych oraz tkanin impregnowanych przeznaczonych na odzież chroniącą przed płynnymi środkami ochrony roślin [in Polish]
Permeability, absorption and capillarity tests showed that bonded, reinforced viscose fabrics with oil-resistant coatings, polyurethane-coated bonded fabrics and fabrics with oil- and water- repellant impregnation are suitable for protective clothing for liquid pesticides in toxicity categories 3, 4 and 5. Provided the fabric coating bond can be improved, fabrics coated with polypropylene or polyethylene film may be used in clothing for protection against concentrated substances and diluted pesticides in categories 1 and 2.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1980, Vol.30, No.107, p.379-400. Illus. 16 ref.
Khan R.R., Dev B.
Toxicology data sheets on chemicals: DDT.
Information is provided under the headings: chemical identifiers and properties; environmental use and persistence; toxicity (effects on mammals, neurotoxicity, dermal toxicity, immune response, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, effects on reproduction); occupational exposure; concentration of DDT in various animal tissues and vegetable products; sampling and analysis; legislation; Indian standards; references.
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow - 226001, India, Dec. 1980. 40p. 121 ref.
Kahn R.R., Dev B.
Toxicology data sheets on chemicals: Methylparathion.
Information is provided under the headings: chemical identifiers and properties; environmental use and persistence; toxicity (neurotoxicity, inhalation toxicity, immune response, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, teratogenicity, effects on reproduction); occupational exposure; determination and analysis; legislation; Indian standards; references.
Industrial Toxicology Research Centre, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow-226001, India, Dec. 1980. 16p. 61 ref.
Hunt V.R., Harkness W.
Occupational hazards to pregnant women in the collaborative perinatal project.
Statistical analysis of the data resulting from examination of 23,961 pregnancies in which 4,575 women reported exposure to hazardous work conditions, indicated that women with a work experience of pesticide exposure had the most adverse reproductive history. More foetal deaths and stillbirths, more premature low-weight babies with low 5min Apgar scores, and more neurological abnormalities at 1 year and low intelligence quotient at 4 years were observed in this group. Occupational exposure to heat, chemicals and heavy lifting was associated with adverse pregnancy and pregnancy outcome experience. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and animals did not show comparable effects.
Superintendent of Documents, US Government Printing Office, Washington D.C. 20402, USA, Oct. 1980, p.377-391. 12 ref.
Spindeldreier A., Deichmann B.
Contact dermatitis due to a wood preservative containing a new fungicide
Kontaktdermatitis auf ein Holzschutzmittel mit neuer fungizider Wirksubstanz [in German]
Tetrachlorophthalonitrile (TCPN) is one of several products substituted for pentachlorophenol in wood preservatives on account of the latter's numerous secondary effects. 3 case studies of allergy due to TCPN occurring in the same plant, with results of epidermal sensitivity tests. Contrary to the literature issued by a supplier of the product, TCPN was highly sensitising and had a high degree of toxicity.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1980, Vol.28, No.3, p.88-90. 2 ref.
Burkackaja E.N., Karpenko V.N., Pokrovskaja T.N.
Data for establishing the toxicity and hygiene characteristics of Pyrimor, a new pesticide
Materialy k toksikologo-gigieničeskoj harakteristike novogo pesticida pirimora [in Russian]
The toxicity and biological effects of Pyrimor (2-(dimethylamino)-5,6-dimethyl-4-pyrimidinyl N,N-diethylcarbamate) were studied in animals. The pesticide is highly toxic for rats and mice after intragastric administration, and moderately toxic for rabbits when absorbed through the skin. The threshold concentration for cats and rats is 2.6mg/m3 on acute exposure and 0.56mg/m3 on chronic exposure. Poisoning results above all by inhibition of cholinesterase activity. In view of the embryotoxic effects of the compound an exposure limit of 0.05mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1980, No.4, p.8-11. 12 ref.
Mabuchi K., Lilienfeld A.M., Snell L.M.
Cancer and occupational exposure to arsenic: A study of pesticide workers.
Mortality and morbidity were studied in 1393 workers engaged in pesticide manufacture and packaging. There were 23 deaths from lung cancer and 2 from anaemias, a statistically significant excess. Lung cancer mortality was especially high in male production workers with presumed high arsenicals exposure. A dose-response effect was suggested. Exposed workers also had increased frequencies of keratoses and perforation of the nasal septum. Analysis of the lung cancer deaths and matched controls suggested a relationship between lung cancer and antecedent keratoses.
Preventive Medicine, 1980, Vol.9, p.51-77. 30 ref.
Líška D., Kolesár D.
Toxicological classification of pesticides
Príspevok k toxikologickej klasifikácii pesticídov [in Slovak]
A proposed classification of pesticides is compared with the system adopted at the 28th session of the WHO. The former is more detailed and covers additional aspects such as skin irritant action, skin toxicity, cumulation factor, and chronic effects.
Pracovní lékařství, Sep. 1980, Vol.32, No.8, p.264-270. 16 ref.
Disturbances of immunologic reactivity following exposure to pesticides in hothouses
O narušenii immunologičeskoj reaktivnosti organizma pod vozdejstviem pesticidov v uslovijah teplic [in Russian]
Female hothouse workers exposed to pesticides showed, despite the absence of clinical symptoms of poisoning, disturbances of immunologic homoeostasis (inhibition of non specific immunity and sensitisation to pesticides). The extent of these changes was proportional to length of employment in hothouses. There was a close correlation between indices of morbidity in the various groups, classified according to duration of exposure, and immunologic reactivity. Prophylactic measures are recommended, as from the first year of employment in hothouses, with emphasis on the distribution of vitamin preparations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1980, No.3, p.38-40.
Tordoir W.F., Van Heemstra-Lequin E.A.H.
Field worker exposure during pesticide application.
Proceedings of the 5th international workshop of the Scientific Committee on Pesticides of the International Association of Occupational Health (The Hague, Netherlands, 9-11 Oct. 1979). 25 papers are reproduced, covering: methods for field assessment of exposure; effects of formulation; solubility factors; toxicological evaluation of hexachlorocyclohexane; effects of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides on cholinesterase levels; anti-malaria campaign 1978; phenoxy acid herbicides; quintozene and maneb; exposure in tropical and subtropical conditions; monitoring of organophosphorus pesticide effects; a new synthetic pyrethroid; azinphos methyl; heat stress in aerial spray pilots; mevinphos; fenthion; combined exposures; porphyrinogenic potential; effects of impurities.
Studies in Environmental Science 7. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, P.O. Box 330, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1980. 208p. Bibl. Price: Glds.97.00.
Tait S.R., Repucci R.G., Tou J.C.
The effects of fumigants on grain dust explosions.
The effects of 3 commercial fumigants on grain dust explosions were investigated under 2 laboratory conditions. Although the fumigants exhibit some flammable properties, they do not increase the severity of grain dust explosions. In some cases the fumigants suppressed the explosion.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1980, Vol.4, No.2, p.177-183. Illus. 9 ref.
Ferreira de Almeida W.
Prevention of accidents due to use of pesticides in agriculture
Prevenção de acidentes na agricultura conseqüentes ao uso de defensivos agrícolas [in Portuguese]
The commonest causes of poisoning by agricultural pesticides are highlighted: low level of training and insufficient information of workers; non-use of personal protective equipment; mechanical inadequacies; employment of inexperienced minors; lack of control of highly toxic substances. A programme of preventive measures is presented: establishment and dissemination of a list of agricultural pesticides; vocational training of sprayers; control of sale of highly toxic substances; updating of legislation; coordination of interministerial and multidisciplinary action to protect workers.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Oct.-Nov.-Dec. 1980, Vol.8, No.32, p.64-73
Le Cloarec S.
Present use of mineral arsenic for plant protection - An occupational hazard
Utilisation actuelle de l'arsenic minéral dans la protection des végétaux - Risque professionnel. [in French]
MD thesis. Discussion of the use of arsenic derivatives (especially sodium arsenate) in agriculture for plant and vegetable protection, and on the frequency of occupational diseases due to arsenic among agricultural workers over the last 8 years. Brief review of the historical background; toxicological and pathological aspects of arsenic and its derivatives; past and present-day uses of arsenic in agriculture; 21 case studies (1 of nervous disorder, 3 of digestive disorders, 17 cases in which the skin and mucosae were affected). Preventive measures and occupational hygiene mainly rely on the enforcement of legislation concerning the sale, use, labelling and storage of these products, information for users and persons handling them, personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. Considerations on the role of the occupational physician in medical prevention; compensation aspects of arsenic poisoning in agricultural workers.
Université VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1980. 82p. 73 ref.
Rycroft R.J.G., Calnan C.D.
Dermatitis from slimicides in a paper mill.
A case report of workers suffering from skin irritation as a result of the overflow of wood pulp slurry from an overhead tank is presented. The active constituents of the slimicides involved were 1,4-bis(bromoacetoxy)-2-butene and 2,3-dichloro-4-bromotetrahydrothiophene 1,1-dioxide.
Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1980, Vol.6, No.6, p.435-439. Illus. 2 ref.
Tin and organotin compounds - A preliminary review.
Chapters devoted to: recommendations for further research; chemistry and analytical methods (elemental tin, tin(II) compounds, tin(IV) compounds, organometallic compounds of tin); sources of environmental pollution; environmental transport and transformations; environmental concentrations and exposures; metabolism; effects on animals; effects on man.
World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland, 1980. 109p. Illus. 345 ref.
Hazards of crop spraying.
Inadequate decontamination of a crashed crop spraying aircraft resulted in symptoms of Metasystox 55 poisoning in 3 salvage engineers. Two fatal accidents were investigated. In both cases the toxic pesticide being sprayed was not a contributing factor to the accident. In the second case, water flushing of the aircraft did not remove the pesticide from the spraying pipes and salvage workers who handled the wings on a lorry, and who were not wearing waterproof overalls, came into contact with an aqueous solution of Metasystox. These workers suffered symptoms which included sore eyes, soreness of the throat and muscle spasms.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1980, Vol.51, No.9 Section 2, p.959-960.
Early signs of liver function impairment in hothouse workers exposed to pesticides
O rannem vyjavlenii funkcional'nyh narušenij pečeni u rabotnic teplic, kontaktirujuščih s pesticidami [in Russian]
Comparative study of various liver function tests from the point of view of sensitivity and informative value. The severity of liver damage was related to duration of exposure. Determination of serum histidase activity proved to be the most sensitive test, and its use is recommended in periodic medical examinations of hothouse workers.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Feb. 1980, No.2, p.24-27. Illus. 12 ref.
Council of the European Communities
Council Directive of 15 July 1980 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to straight ammonium nitrate fertilizers of high nitrogen content.
Directive du Conseil, du 15 juillet 1980, concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives aux engrais simples à base de nitrate d'ammonium et à forte teneur en azote. [in French]
This directive prescribes sampling methods for these fertilisers and rules for their transport, packaging, labelling, and analysis. Member states are required to adopt and publish the regulations necessary to comply with the directive, and to apply them from 1 Jan. 1984. The directive applies to ammonium nitrate fertilisers containing more than 28% by weight of nitrogen, which may contain inorganic additives or inert substances such as ground limestone, calcium sulphate, magnesium sulphate. Such inorganic additives must not increase the fertiliser sensitivity to heat or tendency to detonate. Where a member state has good grounds for believing that a fertiliser, although satisfying the requirements of the directive, constitutes a hazard to safety or health, it may temporarily prohibit the marketing of the fertiliser in its territory or make it subject to special conditions, but must immediately inform the other member states and the Commission of such action, for consultation. Annexes: characteristics of, and limits for these fertilisers; description of test of resistance to detonation.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, B.P. 1003, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 23 Sep. 1980, Vol.23, No.L 250, p.7-11. Illus.
Exploring citrus harvesters' exposure to pesticide contaminated foliar dust.
Studies on the measurement of dislogeable and available foliar dust in 32 citrus groves are reported. Dislogeable dust means surface or water-soluble residues; available dust is the most loosely adhering portion of the surface residues. Available foliar dust is a good predictor of total dust aerosols. Differences in foliar residue, airborne dust, and dermal pesticide measurements appear to be due to the wide range of particle sizes found (<1to>200µm). The airborne dust levels to which citrus harvesters are exposed in the dry season are generally above those permitted in other industries.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1980, Vol.41, No.9, p.652-659. Illus. 28 ref.
Williams D.T., Denley H.V., Lane D.A.
On site determination of Sulfotep air levels in a fumigating greenhouse
Sulfotep (bis-0,0-diethylphosphorothionic anhydride, TEDP) levels were monitored continuously for 4-40h after fumigation. Sulfotep air levels were below the TLV of 15ppb following overnight ventilation. When ventilation was stopped they exceeded the TLV. Worker activity in the greenhouse significantly increased Sulfotep air levels. Ventilation throughout the day, and use of protective equipment, are recommended.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1980, Vol.41, No.9, p.647-651. Illus. 3 ref.
Wilson R., Lovejoy F.H., Jaeger R.J., Landrigan P.L.
Acute phosphine poisoning aboard a grain freighter.
29 of 31 crew members became acutely ill after inhaling the fumigant phosphine aboard a grain freighter. The main symptoms were headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, jaundice, paraesthesia, ataxia, intention tremor, and diplopia. Phosphine gas had escaped from the holds through a cable housing located near the midships ventilation intake and around hatch covers on the forward deck. Details are given of medical history and physical examination, laboratory data, follow-up studies, and an environmental survey.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 11 July 1980, Vol.244, No.2, p.148-150. 16 ref.
Hayes A.L., Wise R.A., Weir F.W.
Assessment of occupational exposure to organophosphates in pest control operators.
Studies in 22 operators exposed to Vaponite, Diazinon, and Dursban are reported. Metabolites of all 3 pesticides were found in the 24h urine. There was a significant inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase, and no significant effect on mean red blood count. Personal protective equipment is required during handling and application of these pesticides.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1980, Vol.41, No.8, p.568-575. Illus. 24 ref.
US Environmental Protection Agency
Fact sheet on 2,4-D.
The toxicological background of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is reviewed: acute toxicity; neurotoxicity; reproductive effects; oncogenicity; mutagenicity; epidemiology. Environmental exposure is considered. Conclusion: information on adverse health effects does not support regulatory action to remove 2,4-D from the market; the herbicide does not appear to present an imminent hazard when used according to instructions; more toxicological information on 2,4-D is required.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1980, Vol.41, No.8, p.A-34 to A-40 (even pages).
Perold J.G., Bezuidenhout D.J.J.
Chronic organophosphate poisoning.
An epidemic of diarrhoea in 38 staff members and students of an agricultural college is reported. Symptoms, plasma pseudocholinesterase levels, details of the orchards and vegetable gardens, insecticides used, and exposure due to prevailing winds are described. Poisoning probably occurred via the skin. Precautionary measures are recommended.
South African Medical Journal, 5 Jan. 1980, Vol.57, No.1, p.7-9. Illus. 14 ref.
Morel C., Gendre M., Limasset J.C., Cavigneaux A.
Aldicarbe. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, storage; methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. French OSH regulations and other French regulations concerning environmental protection, use in agriculture and transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1980, No.100, Note No.1278-100-80 (Fiche toxicologique No.153), p.451-454. 8 ref.
Katayama G.T., Mizumoto N.M., Honda E.K., Kurihara R., Murakami W., Kawakami R., Sendai V., Okada L., Hirata N., Moriyama G., Ishigai M., Jojima T., Hara O.K., Takahashi M., Nishio S.
Evaluation of toxic hazards of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides by the ACHOLEST method in an ethnic Japanese agricultural community (Atibaia)
Avaliação dos riscos de intoxicação por pesticidas organofosforados e carbamatos pelo método de ACHOLEST na Colônia agrícola japonesa de Atibaia [in Portuguese]
Using the ACHOLEST method to determine plasma cholesterase levels in 216 agricultural workers in an ethnic Japanese rural community (Atibaia, São Paulo, Brazil) the authors concluded that 11.1% of the group examined suffered from poisoning due to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. This percentage was considered to be relatively high. The influence of some variables was studied (type of crop or farming - flowers, strawberries, roses, peaches, vegetables, grapes; type of pesticide employed, concentrations and quantities used). Study of the suitability of this method: the results are encouraging, in view of its simplicity and low cost, and the possibility of distinguishing between individuals with different levels of enzyme inhibition.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-May-June 1980, Vol.8, No.30, p.21-29. 14 ref.
Rodríguez Sánchez A.
Subacute poisoning due to agricultural pesticides - Study of the problem in the Spanish Levant
Las intoxicaciones subagudas por plaguicidas agrícolas - Estudio de su problemática en el Levante español [in Spanish]
Report of a questionnaire survey involving 1,429 agricultural workers. Chemical pollutants seem to present the greatest hazards (organophosphorous and carbamate pesticides). Acute poisoning due to these substances has been well studied, but subacute or chronic disorders are not so well known: carcinogenic effects, chronic changes in the haematopoietic system, liver and kidney damage. Numerous statistical tables.
Salud y trabajo, June 1980, No.25, p.44-61.
Bajnova A., Burkova T., Mihajlova A.
Comparative study of the intermittent and continuous effect of Ramrod herbicide
Sravnitelno izsledvane na intermitentnoto i monotonnoto dejstvie na herbicida Ramrod [in Bulgarian]
Experimental research on 3 groups of rats, subjected to 3 different types of exposure: daily administration of 70mg/kg for 4 months; daily administration of 140mg/kg on alternate weeks for 4 months; daily administration of 70mg/kg on alternate weeks for 8 months. The most pronounced liver function changes were observed in the animals receiving continuous administration. The 2 intermittent schedules gave rise to phases of adaptation; response to intermittent administration of 70mg/kg involved physiological compensation. It is preferable to use this pesticide (Ramrod, Propachlor) periodically in order to avoid chronic poisoning.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.68-74. 17 ref.
Antov G., Ajanova A.
Effect of Fundazol pesticide on the myocardium of rats with experimental atherosclerosis
Vlijanie na pesticida fundazol vărhu miokarda na plăhove s eksperimentalna ateroskleroza [in Bulgarian]
Study of the effects of the fungicide benomyl: methyl(1-butylamino)carbonyl(-1-H-benzimidazol-2-yl)carbamate on the development of sclerotic lesions of the myocardium caused by atherogenic diet in experimental animals. Results of biochemical tests and morphological and histochemical investigations. Exposure to benomyl has a potentiating effect on atherogenic diet.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.58-67. Illus. 20 ref.
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