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CIS 91-713 Council Directive of 26 March 1981 amending Directive 78/631/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations (pesticides) [CEC]
Directive du Conseil du 26 mars 1981 modifiant la directive 78/631/CEE concernant le rapprochement des législations des Etats membres relatives ŕ la classification, l'emballage et l'étiquetage des préparations dangereuses (pesticides) [CCE] [in French]
This modification specifies the date for the entry into force of the necessary laws, regulations and administrative provisions to comply with this Directive.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 2 Apr. 1981, No.L.88, p.29-30.

CIS 88-113 Parathion
Parationi [in Finnish]
Parathion is a very toxic insecticide (LD50 = 2mg/kg; TLV = 0.1mg/m3). Toxicity: cholinesterase inhibitor; is absorbed through the skin. Symptoms: nausea, visual disturbances, muscular pain, headache, trembling. Mandatory European labelling: T, R26, R27, R28, S1, S13, S28, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 88-106 Methyl parathion
Parationi-metyyli [in Finnish]
Methyl parathion is a very toxic pesticides (LD50 = 9mg/kg; TLV = 0.2mg/m3). Absorption through skin causes poisoning with convulsions, nausea, visual disturbances, headache, muscular pain, trembling. Inhibits cholinesterase activity. Mandatory European labelling; T, R26, R27, R28, S1, S13, S28, S45.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 86-794 Manual of safety in the use of pesticides and herbicides
Manual de segurança no uso de "defensivos agricolas" [in Portuguese]
This well-illustrated manual, written in simple language, is aimed at Brazilian farmers. It covers: causes of accidents when handling pesticides and herbicides; transportation and storage; safe use of such products (obtain the right product for the job, preparation, best time for spraying, guide to safe spraying, what to do when finished, maintenance of spraying equipment, disposal of empty boxes and containers); labelling of products; first aid in case of accidental poisoning; legal aspects of accidents in rural work; period of residual effects (given for the more commonly used products); useful addresses.
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1981. 40p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 83-1130 Collection of data sheets on toxicology of herbicides
Datensammlung zur Toxikologie der Herbizide [in German]
This loose-leaf collection is published under the auspices of the Commission for Pesticides in the German Research Association (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). Comments on the criteria for toxicological evaluation are followed by monographs on various herbicides (uses, human and animal toxicity, metabolism, transformation in plants, in soil and in water). Each monograph is completed by a toxicological evaluation and bibliographical references. The 3rd supplement (CIS 79-520) includes modifications and 12 monographs on the following herbicides: allyl alcohol, benzthiazuron, chloramben, chloridazon, chlorphenprop-methyl, isocarbamide, maleic acid hydrazide, methabenzthiazuron, metobromuron, metribuzin, picloram, terbutryne. Appendix: list of manufacturers with addresses.
Verlag Chemie GmbH, Postfach 1260/1280, 6940 Weinheim, Federal Republic of Germany, 3rd supplement, 1981. 420p. Price: DM.196.00. (Complete collection: 614p.)

CIS 83-487 Kacenovič L.A., Ruzybakiev R.M., Fedorina L.A.
T- and B-type immunity in subjects with pesticide poisoning
T- i B-sistemy immuniteta u bol'nyh s intoksikaciej pesticidami [in Russian]
Comparative study of the quantitative changes and functional activity of T- and B-type immunity in workers with various degrees of pesticide poisoning. There were pronounced changes in cellular immunity. The deficit in T-lymphocytes was accompanied by a reduction in their activity, and the number of B-lymphocytes was increased in most of the exposed workers. The rates of T- and B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood depended on the clinical picture of poisoning. Careful assessment of these 2 types of immunity is of diagnostic value and permits judgment of the course of poisoning.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1981, No. 4, p. 17-19 7 ref.

CIS 83-244 Dorofeev V.M., Gavričenko A.I., Zolotnikova G.P.
Present-day OSH problems for women working in greenhouses where pesticides are applied
Nekotorye aktual'nye voprosy ohrany truda ženščin v teplicah pri primenenii pesticidov [in Russian]
The pesticides used in greenhouses are of various compositions: organophosphorus compounds (36%), carbamates and phenol derivatives (28%), chlorinated organic compounds (18%). 65% of all these pesticides are highly or moderately toxic, and about half of them may be absorbed through the skin. The skin-absorbable preparations are the most dangerous pesticides for people working in greenhouses after plant spraying. It is necessary to establish minimum delays to be observed by workers before re-entering greenhouses after pesticide application; a formula is given to calculate these delays. Greenhouse workers should also use skin protection (gloves, protective clothing) to avoid skin contact with treated plants and skin absorption of pesticide residues.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1981, No.3, p.22-24. 5 ref.

CIS 83-242 Řezníček J.
Monitoring ultracid and Folimat residues in glass house atmospheres
Sledování reziduí Ultracidu a Folimatu v pracovním prostředí skleníků [in Czech]
Atmospheric analyses in glass houses revealed concentrations of 480µg/m3 of methidation (M) - the active ingredient of ultracid and 1,741 µg/m3 of omethoate (O) - the active ingredient of Folimat in the breathing zone of gardeners, and concentrations of 25 and 236µg/m3 of M and 2,321 and 1,161µg/m3 of O in glass house atmospheres during pesticide application. One hour after treatment, the glass house air still contained 10 and 97µg/m3 of M and 625 and 309µg/m3 of O; after 24h, the M and O concentrations had fallen to 3µg/m3 and 10µg/m3 respectively. The M and O concentrations on plant surfaces an in the top layer of soil were between 20 and 270µg/g of plant or soil 1h after pesticide application; these concentrations had fallen by 93 and 75% respectively after 6 days and by 99 and 94% after 16 days. Women gathering carnations 2 months after they had been treated with O were found to have 502µg of O on their hands. After washing the hands with soap and water, 12-20% of this residue still remained.
Pracovní lékařství, May 1981, Vol.33, No.5, p.163-166. 7 ref.

CIS 83-110 Calcium cyanamide
Cyanamide calcique [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; uses; toxicology (general disorders, local effects); group and personal industrial safety; medical prevention measures; French legislation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, Special Toxicology Issue (Supplement to No.83), p.43. 2 ref.

CIS 82-1940 Phenothiazine
Phénothiazine [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; properties; use; pathology; industrial safety (threshold limit values, personal protection); medical prevention measures; French legislation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, special toxicology issue (supplement to No.83), p.23. 6 ref.

CIS 82-2025 Curtes J.P., Develay P., Hubert J.P.
Late peripheral neuropathy due to an acute voluntary intoxication by organophosphorus compounds
The late neurological effects of acute intoxication due to Omethoate insecticide are described in the course of a specific case study.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.12, p.1453-1462. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 82-2022 Manzo L., Richelmi P., Sabbioni E., Pietra R., Bono F., Guardia L.
Poisoning by triphenyltin acetate. Report of two cases and determination of tin in blood and urine by neutron activation analysis
Description of a neutron activation analysis procedure, involving a radio-chemical separation of the isotopes of tin (Sn), which can be used to determine Sn in the blood and urine of workers poisoned by triphenyltin compounds. The procedure was used in 2 cases of poisoning by the agricultural fungicide triphenyltin acetate.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.11, p.1343-1353. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 82-1914 Roche L.
Poisoning by pesticides - Prevention in developing countries
Intoxications par les pesticides - Prévention dans les pays en développement [in French]
Proceedings of a joint meeting (WHO/World Federation of Associations of Clinical Toxicology Centres and Poison Centres), Geneva, Switzerland, 24-26 Mar. 1980, to study poison control and prevention in the developing countries (theme chosen: "pesticides"). Contents: general reviews (3 working levels of exposure in toxicology; problems in the epidemiology of pesticides; paper by the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products); experience of representatives of developing countries (Algeria, Tunisia, Qatar); technical problems (especially toxicology in veterinary medicine, relay toxicity; hazards of pesticides in milk; methods to identify toxicants; role of poison centres); legislation and prevention; proposals and suggestions made at the closing session.
Collection de médecine légale et toxicologie médicale, No.119, Editions Masson, 120 Boulevard Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris, France, 1981. 295p. 161 ref.

CIS 82-1736 Misra U.K., Reader D.N.
Neuro-behavioural toxicity studies at ITRC (Industrial Toxicology Research Centre)
A detailed clinical evaluation, psychiatric assessment, clinical psychometry, serum estimation and electroencephalography were carried out on 44 workers involved in spraying a 5% DDT and 5-10% malathion solution for ≥1 year; the results were compared with those of 26 healthy controls. The sprayers used no protective devices, and the average exposure period was 11 years. Headache, ocular symptoms, rawness in the throat and respiratory symptoms were the commonest reported by sprayers. Anxiety, sleep disturbance, somatic concern and depression were found in 43% of subjects. A total of 20.4% showed evidence of abnormality in mental status, tremulousness, hyperreflexia, loss of ankle jerk, or fasciculations. Electroencephalographic abnormalities were also found. No relation was found between DDT serum levels and psychometric parameters.
Industrial Toxicology Bulletin, Aug. 1981, Vol.5, No.4, p.19. Illus.

CIS 82-1696 Triebig G., Krekeler H., Golssler K., Valentin H.
Investigations on neurotoxicity of chemical substances at the wprkplace - II. Determination of the motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity in persons occupationally exposed to pentachlorophenol
Untersuchungen zur Neurotoxizität von Arbeitsstoffen - II. Messung der motorischen und sensorischen Nervenleitgeschwindigkeit bei beruflich Pentachlorophenol-belasteten Personen [in German]
Methods and results of examinations of 18 workers with a mean activity of 12 years in processing pentachlorophenol (PCP). The PCP levels in plasma ranged between 0.02 and 1.5ng/l (median 0.25ng/l) and in urine between 13 and 1.224µg/l (median 112γ/l) or between 11 and 2.111µg/l creatinine (median 111µg/g). The median values of the neurophysiological parameters showed a slight slowing trend, The decrease in sensory nerve conduction velocities was significant. A dose-effect relation between internal PCP load and nerve conduction velocities could not be demonstrated. The individual evaluation of the toxicological and neurophysiological results suggested that in some cases decreased nerve conduction velocity is caused by chronic exposure to PCP.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.4, p.357-367. 22 ref.

CIS 82-1524
Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen)
Nitrate-containing fertilisers - Transport and storage
Nitraathoudende meststoffen - vervoer en opslag [in Dutch]
Second revised edition of the report (CIS 68-1694) with updated directives: Classification of nitrate fertilisers; regulations to be observed for the storage of these fertilisers (hazard categories, maximum quantities that may be stored in premises); safety rules for the storage and handling of the various categories (warehouse construction, electrical installations, explosion prevention, instruction of personnel, fire fighting); determination of the explosibility of a fertiliser; general information on explosion and fire hazards. Appended are: Directives of the Council of the European Communities dated 15 July 1980 concerning fertilisers on the basis of ammonium nitrate and with a high nitrogen content; extract from a manual on dangerous substances (data on various nitrates); Netherlands regulations on the transport of nitrate fertilisers.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1981. 86p. Illus.

CIS 82-1735 Siddiqui M.K., Saxena M.C., Mishra U.K., Krishna Murti C.R., Nag D.
Long-term occupational exposure to DDT
Blood serum of 20 workers exposed to DDT (in spraying DDT for plant protection) for an average duration of 14 years was analysed for organochlorine pesticides by gas-liquid chromatography with an electron capture detector. Levels of DDT in serum were more than the permitted level of 200ppb. The daily intake was computed to be about 10mg/man/day as against the acceptable 0,25mg. Abnormal nerve conduction was encountered in a few cases of DDT sprayers. There was no report of any typical signs of DDT poisoning. No significant correlation was observed between the total DDT equivalent in serum and duration of exposure. Levels of benzene hexachloride (lindane) in controls was 2.3 times the level in exposed workers, possibly due to induction of hepatic drug-metabolising enzymes by high levels of DDT in the exposed workers. Findings are discussed in the light of existing knowledge of the biochemical effects of DDT.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.3, p.301-308. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 82-1689 Tomczak S., Baumann K., Lehnert G.
Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane - IV. Sex hormone alterations in HCH-exposed workers
In a Lindane production plant 54 male workers (mean age 40 years, mean duration of exposure 8 years) were studied with regard to their blood levels of testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). Serum-LH concentrations of the exposed workers were significantly higher, FSH levels were insignificantly higher than in controls. Serum testosterone was found to be slightly lower in the group of workers. The results indicate certain perturbations in sex hormone regulation probably as a consequence of HCH-exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1981, Vol.48, No.3, p.283-287. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 82-1615 Schiele R., Söll F., Weltle D., Valentin H.
Field study of workers with long-term exposure to calcium cyanamide
Felduntersuchung von Personen mit langjähriger Exposition gegenüber Kalkstickstoff [in German]
The literature on the effects of exposure to calcium cyanamide (CaCN2) in farmers and production workers was reviewed. 65 workers exposed to CaCN2 at levels in the range 0.23-8.36mg/m3 were examined and no evidence of damage to the skin, respiratory system, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys or nervous and circulatory systems was found. When alcohol was taken 1-7 hours after the workshift, a moderate flush reaction occurred in 6 workers and a weak reaction in 7. An elevation of the MAC value from 1.0 to ≥2.5mg/m3 is proposed.
Zentralblatt für Bakteriologie, 1981, No.173, p.13-28. 31 ref.

CIS 82-1421 Giri S.N., Hollinger M.A., Schiedt M.J.
The effects of paraquat and superoxide dismutase on pulmonary vascular permeability and edema in mice
Intraperitoneal administration of 50mg/kg paraquat dichloride to mice significantly increased pulmonary vascular permeability at 24 and 48h, as measured by I-125-labelled albumin content of alveolar lavage. Lung oedema, measured by lung weight as percent body weight, was significantly increased 48g after treatment. Intravenous administration of 4 doses of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1 before and 3 after paraquat treatment, failed to inhibit the increased pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary oedema. SOD also failed to reduce mortality and had no effect on the death time course in treated animals. The acute toxic effects of praquat are not mediated through generation of the superoxide anion.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.36, No.4, p.149-154. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 82-1414 Franklin C.A., Fenske R.A., Greenhalgh R., Mathieu L., Denley H.V., Leffingwell J.T., Spear R.C.
Correlation of urinary pesticide metabolite excretion with estimated dermal contact in the course of occupational exposure to guthion
Exposure to, and absorption of, guthion were estimated in orchardists involved in the mixing, loading, and application with ultra-low volume air blast equipment. Air monitoring and patch techniques were used to estimate exposure, and alkyl phosphate excretion and cholinesterase inhibition were measured to estimate absorption. All workers wore standardised cotton shirts, trousers, long-sleeved coveralls, half-face respirators, gloves, boots, and hats. 8 wore rubberised protective clothing in addition. All workers had quantifiable levels of alkyl phosphates in the 24h urine samples following exposure. A high correlation was found between 48h alkyl phosphate excretion and the amount of active ingredient sprayed. Patches of guthion were found on the skin beneath the clothing by using a fluorescent tracer in the spray tank. The rubberised clothing was not significantly more protective than the heavy coverall. No significant depression of red blood cell or serum cholinesterase activity was found.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May 1981, Vol.7, No.5, 715-731p. 26 ref.

CIS 82-1352 Flávio Midio A.
Paraquat and Diquat: Toxicological aspects
Paraquat e Diquat: Aspectos toxicológicos [in Portuguese]
Roundup of information on these herbicides: physical and chemical properties, formulae, mechanism of herbicidal action, paths of entry, toxicity (paraquat: LD 5g (humans); LD50 120mg/kg(rats); diquat: LD 20g (humans), LD50 200-300mg/kg (rats)), toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic phases, toxic effects. Recommended analytical procedure for determination of paraquat and diquat in biological fluids.
Saúde ocupacional, July-Aug.-Sep.1981, Vol.9, No.35, p.56-59. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-1351 Pleština R., Pjukovíć-Pleština M.
Effects of cholinesterase pesticides on eyes and vision
Eféitos dos agrotóxicos colinesterásicos nos olhos e na visăo [in Portuguese]
Report on epidemiological studies with volunteers, and animal experiments, at the University of Zagreb (Yugoslavia) and original research on morphological changes in the eye with functional weakness and irritation (hemianopia, myopia, cataract, amblyopia, refraction anomalies, astigmatism, conjunctivitis, lesions of the retina, abnormal movement of eyes) in agricultural workers and crop-dusting pilots highly exposed to various pesticides (Malathion, Dichlorvos, dithiocarbamates, DDT, other organophosphorus compounds). Results are shown in tabular form. Comments on the role of anticholinesterase drugs in ophthalmology. Bibliographic literature survey.
Saúde ocupacional, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.9, No.35, p.31-45. 180 ref.

CIS 82-1133 Krechniak J., Foss W.
Gas chromatography determination of carbaryl in air
Oznaczanie karbarylu w powietrzy metodą chromatografii gazowej [in Polish]
Description of a new method for the atmospheric determination of carbaryl, in which carbaryl is hydrolysed in a sodium solution to form 1-naphthol, the ether derivative of which is subsequently obtained by reaction with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. This is then determined by gas chromatography using the electron capture detector. In view of the sensitivity of this method (0.004mg/m3), it is possible to measure, at an air flow rate of 2.8dm3/min, carbaryl concentrations at around the maximum allowable concentration after only 2min of sampling. The method is suitable for monitoring workplace conditions.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.110, p.183-188. 6 ref.

CIS 82-1088 Veljković V., Vojvodić.
Theoretical possibility of predicting the harmful biological effects of chemicals
Teorijske mogućnosti za izračunavanje štetnih uticaja pojedinih hemikalija na žive organizme [in Serbocroatian]
Study on the correlation between the mean electron-ion interaction potential and the insecticidal, herbicidal, fungicidal and bactericidal properties of various chemicals. The chemical structures of the compounds were used as a basis for predicting toxic effects in mammals. The results of the authors' calculations are compared with data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyons. The method described may also be used to predict the beneficial effects of new chemicals and to identify compounds with particularly marked biological action.
Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju, 1981, Vol.32, No.4, p.311-319. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 82-1129 Janati J., Huber R.J., Cohen R., Kolesar E.S.
Chemically sensitive field-effect transistor to detect organophosphorous compounds and pesticides
Four types of chemically sensitive field-effect transistors (CHEMFET) detector systems were evaluated for their ability to determine 1-10ppb organophosphorous compounds or pesticides with a response time of <10s, complete reversibility in 30s, a shelf-life of 6 months and an operational life of 104 days of continuous use. Performance assessments indicated that the work-function and galvanostatic CHEMFET were the best candidates at present. The enzyme-coupled and catalytic CHEMFET did not meet specifications. The integration of chemically sensitive polymers with the field-effect transistor structure was considered.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 1981, Vol.52, No.11, p.666-671. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 82-1128 Barthel E.
Increased risk of lung cancer in pesticide-exposed male agricultural workers
A retrospective cohort study was used to examine cancer morbidity in a group of 1658 men who began work with pesticides between 1948 and 1972 and had ≥5 years subsequent exposure. 169 malignant tumors were found in the cohort. The ranking order corresponded to the distribution expected in males in the general population except that cancer of the colon was under-represented and bronchial carcinoma was over-represented. 50 cases of bronchial carcinoma were observed compared with 27.5 expected. A positive correlation between the duration of employment and mortality due to lung cancer suggested a dose-effect relation. The smoking habits of the exposed men did not differ fom those of the general male population.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.8, Nos.5-6, p.1027-1040. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 82-1127 Lamb J.C., Marks T.A., McConnell E.E., Abeywickrama K., Moore J.A.
Toxicity of chlorinated phenoxy acids in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in C57BL/6 male mice
In 4 groups of mice, in which group I were controls, group II were given daily doses of 40mg/kg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 40mg/kg 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), and 2.4µg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in feed for 8 weeks. Group III received the same doses of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T as group II but only 0.16µg/kg TCDD and group IV received 20, 20mg/kg and 1.2µg/kg 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and TCDD respectively. The chemical mixtures approximated the concentrations of the components of Herbicide Orange. In the treated animals liver enlargements, hepatocellular toxicity and reduced thymus size were found, and body weight gain was significantly less than that of the control animals. Recovery from liver and thymus toxicity was observed when the mice were returned to a control diet. The thymic toxicity and hepatotoxicity were related to TCDD levels while the decrease in body weight gain was more closely associated with phenoxy acid concentrations.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.8, Nos.5-6, p.815-824. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 82-1126 Ho K.I., Funimori K., Huang T.P., Chang-Tusi H., End D.W., Carchman R.A., Dewey W.L., Desaiah D., Eroschenko V.P., Mehendale H.M., Guzelian P.S.
American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics Symposium on molecular mechanisms of toxicity of chlordecone (kepone)
Papers presented at this symposium, held 20 Aug. 1980, Rochester, Minnesota, USA are reproduced. Titles: neurochemical evaluation of chlordecone toxicity in the mouse; neurochemical correlates of chlordecone neurotoxicity; interaction of chlordecone with biological membranes; oestrogenic activity of the insecticide chlordecone in the reproductive tract of birds and mammals; chlordecone-induced hepatic dysfunction; therapeutic approaches for chlordecone poisoning in humans.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.8, Nos.5-6, p.699-766. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 82-823 Quantick H.R., Perry I.C.
Hazards of chemicals used in agricultural aviation: A review
Hazards associated with the exposure of pilots, ground crews and rescue workers to nitrophenols, carbamates, chlorinated cyclic hydrocarbons, and organophosphates, used as insecticides and pesticides in agricultural spraying operations are reviewed. Cholinesterase levels should be established at the start of a season or project and monitored at intervals. Recommended lowest levels in blood and plasma are tabulated. Electromyography is recommended as a non-invasive method of monitoring operational personnel. In crash situations, rescue workers must be protected from exposure as a result of walking through recently sprayed crops and handling aircraft components contaminated with pesticide solutions.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1981, Vol.52, No.10, p.581-588. 21 ref.

CIS 82-780 Hardell L., Eriksson M.
Soft-tissue sarcomas, phenoxy herbicides, and chlorinated phenols
Several studies have shown an increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma resulting from exposure to 2,4,5-T, TCDD, and other phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. The results obtained do not support the hypothesis of Cook that smokers acquiring chloracne as a result of exposure are at increased risk of soft-tissue sarcoma.
Lancet, Aug. 1981, Vol.II, No.8240, p.250. 7 ref.

CIS 82-862 Erhardt H.P., Zinsser E., Bartsch R., Bretschneider M.
Hepatobioptic surveillance and medical consequences for workers exposed to pesticides
Leberbioptische Verlaufskontrolle und arbeitsmedizinische Konsequenzen bei Werktätigen in Pflanzenschutz und Schädlingsbekämpfung [in German]
The findings of a hepatic biopsy performed on 27 workers exposed to pesticides and repeated 2 years after the initial examination are reported. The statistical analysis shows that improvements were confined to people whose change of occupation was accompanied by a reduction of alcohol intake and body weight. Consequences for occupational medicine: consultation of a specialist; ban on alcohol consumption and reduction of overweight, screening of transaminase and cholinesterase levels, change of workplace in accordance with bioptic findings, registration and certification of occupational disease.
Das deutsche Gesundheitswesen, 1981, Vol.36, No.6, p.265-269. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 82-821 Matsushita T., Aoyama K.
Cross reactions between some pesticides and the fungicide benomyl in contact allergy
A field study was performed to determine the sensitivity, to a 1% benomyl formulation, of 25 male and 17 male farmers in an area where this fungicide had been in use and in 12 male and 72 female farmers in an area where benomyl had not been used. About 20% of the female subjects in the second group showed positive patch test reactions. Patch tests also indicated that significant cross reactions occurred with the pesticides Diazinon, Saturn, Daconil, and Z-Bordeaux. Guinea pig maximisation tests showed similar results and a significant cross reaction was also found with Kitazin P.
Industrial Health, 1981, Vol.19, No.2, p.77-83. 17 ref.

CIS 82-818 Antov G., Ajanova A.
Effect of Fundazol pesticide on induced sclerotic processes
Effekt na pesticida fundazol vărhu inducirani sklerotični procesi [in Bulgarian]
The effect of Fundazol on the development of sclerotic processes in the aorta of experimental animals was investigated. 250mg/kg and 1000mg/kg fundazol was administered orally to male and female white rats for 30 days, singly or in combination with atherogenic diet. Combined administration lead to potentiation of the atherogenic effect. The pathologic process was more severe even with lower doses and progressed more rapidly, compared with the single effect of the atherogenic diet.
Problemi na higienata, July 1981, Vol.6, p.54-61. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 82-817 Mirkova E., Ivanov I.
Embryotoxic effects of a triazine herbicide (Polizin 50)
Vărhu embriotropnoto dejstvie na triazinovija herbicid polizin 50 [in Bulgarian]
The embryotropic effect of the new Bulgarian simtriazine herbicide Polizin 50 was studied in an inhalatory experiment with 90 pregnant white Wistar rats in concentrations of 2mg/m3 and 0.2mg/m3 daily during the entire pregnancy and at a level of 2mg/m3 during the first 3 weeks of gestation. With both regimes, the preparation showed teratogenic and, to a lesser extent, embryotoxic effects. Polizin induces external malformations, anomalies in the development of the internal organs and defects in the ossificatin of the cranial bones of the foetus. The preparation has an embryotoxic activity only with daily penetration in the organism of the pregnant animals at a concentration of 2mg/m3. It is recommended that the employment of women in the production of this herbicide should be prohibited.
Problemi na higienata, July 1981, Vol.6, p.36-43. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 82-743 Scarisbrick D.A., Martin J.V.
Biochemical changes associated with chloracne in workers exposed to tetrachlorazobenzene and tetrachlorazoxybenzene
One year after mild chloracne developed in workers involved in the production of the herbicide Diuron, and its precursor 3,4-dichloraniline (DCA), abnormalities were found in the results of serial liver function tests and lipid profiles in some of the same workers. No significant abnormalities of liver function in the DCA-Diuron workers were found in an examination of the entire work force. A statistically significant increase in the mean triglyceride values was found and this was greater in those who had had chloracne. Mean cholesterol levels were also higher. The lipid values returned to normal as a result of a combined programme of improved occupational hygiene and personal health care.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, 4 Oct. 1981, Vol.31, No.4, p.158-163. 10 ref.

CIS 82-816 Rotaru G., Constantinescu S., Filipescu G., Ratea E.
Experimental research on chronic poisoning by carbofuran
Rats were fed carbofuran in their diet at 10 and 25ppm levels for 180 days and histopathological examinations and enzymological investigations were used to compare the cumulative effect of the pesticide with conditions in a control group. No evidence of a cumulative effect was found. An increase in lactate dehydrogenase activity in serum at 10ppm and in hepatitic homogenate at 25ppm was found. No effects were observed for other enzymes and only insignificant histopathological changes were observed.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1981, Vol.72, No.5, p.399-403. 13 ref.

CIS 82-458 Brassow H.L., Baumann K., Lehnert G.
Occupational exposure to hexachlorocyclohexane - II. Health conditions of chronically exposed workers
Report of a health survey of 60 workers in a Lindane (γ-hexachlorocyclohexane) production plant and an external control group of 20 clerks (Part I, see CIS 81-2000). Case history, physical examination, neurologic status, and ECG revealed no significant differences. However, significant differences in clinical and chemical blood tests were ascertained: higher polymorphonuclear leukocyte count, lower lymphocyte count, higher reticulocyte count, lower prothrombin (Quick's) test, and lower blood concentrations of creatinine and uric acid in the exposed worker's group. In spite of pronounced exposure to all HCH isomers, no sign of severe health impairment were observed; the small deviations in some laboratory tests had no pathological significance. The results are discussed together with those of other authors. Biological monitoring and health supervision of HCH-exposed workers should be performed, especially in workers with additional exposure to benzene.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 1981, Vol.48, No.1, p.81-87. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 82-425 Ethylene dibromide
Published as NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin No.37, this warning notice reaffirms the recommended standard of 1977 (CIS 78-752) and is published because of an anticipated increase in the use of ethylene dibromide (EDB) as a fruit fumigant. Recent information about the carcinogenic potential of EDB, determined in animal experiments, is included.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 26 Oct. 1981. 13p. 16 ref.

CIS 82-223 Škrdlik M., Marek V.
Spectrophotometric determination of tetramethylthiuram disulfide in dust samples taken in premises used for seed treatment
Spektrofotometrické stanovení tetramethyltiuramdisulfidu v prachu z ovzduši moříren osiv [in Czech]
A modified spectrophotometric method for determining this substance in water, based on the complexing of tetramethylthiuram disulfide (TMTD) with a copper cation in a chloroform solution with maximum absorbance at 425-430nm. The method has proved suitable for determining concentrations down to 20-fold lower than the maximum allowable concentration in the USSR (0.5mg/m3). It has been used for the determination of TMTD in total dust and in the respirable dust fraction collected in a filter.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1981, Vol.33, No.3, p.86-89. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 82-220 Ziminski K.R., Manning T.J., Lukash L.
Separation of organophosphate, chlorinated, and carbamate insecticides using conventional and reverse-phase thin-layer chromatography
Organophosphate insecticides were separated from chlorinated and carbamate-type insecticides using a 1-solvent thin-layer chromatography (TLC) system, and the presence of the various components was then confirmed by parafin-oil-prepared reverse-phase TLC plates in a polar development system. The method was used to determine the presence of insecticides isolated from gastric contents and urine of 2 patients. Rf values are given for 12 insecticides using conventional TLC and 85:15 isoctane/ethhyl acetate solvent and reverse-phase TLC and a 30:30:40 ethanol/acetonitrile/water solvent.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.6, p.731-735. 12 ref.

CIS 82-219 Nelson J., MacKinnon E.A., Mower H.F., Wong L.
Mutagenicity of N-nitroso derivatives of carbofuran and its toxic metabolites
In the Ames assay method the nitroso derivatives of carbofuran (CF), 3-hydroxycarbofuran (HCF) and 3-ketocarbofuran (KCF) all gave a mutation ratio of 45 at 5µg per plate Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 100. All three nitroso derivatives also produced chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Nitroso derivatives of CF and HCF induced large numbers of sister chromatid exchanges in the same cells.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1981, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.519-531. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 82-218 Umetsu N., Mallipudi M.N., Toia R.F., March R.B., Fukuto T.R.
Toxicological properties of phosphorothioate and related esters present as impurities in technical organophosphorus insecticides
When administered orally to rats at single doses of ≥15mg/kg 0,0,S-trimethyl phosphorothioate (TMP), an impurity in technical-grade malathion, caused delayed death 4-22 days after treatment. Mice were less sensitive to TMP than rats but similar effects were observed. TMP-treated rats refused food and water within 24hours of administration and up to the time of death. Intoxication was not blocked or reduced by injection of nutrient solution or atropine. 0,0,0-trimethyl phosphorothioate (0-TMP) was a potent antagonist to TMP and 1% 0-TMP protected rats from the intoxicating effects of TMP at doses ≤200mg/kg. The duration of inhibition of serum carboxylesterase and cholinesterase, caused by TMP, was significantly less when the toxicant contained 1% 0-TMP. 0,0,S-triethyl phosphorothioate and 0,S,S-trimethyl phosphorodithioate, also malathion impurities, induced the same signs of intoxication as TMP but at higher doses.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1981. Vol.7, No.3-4, p.481-497. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 82-123 Flattau J.
Determination of dimethoate and fenitrothion concentrations in workplace air
Oznaczanie stężenia dimetoatu i fenitrotionu w powietrzu na stanowiskach pracy [in Polish]
Presentation of 2 methods for determining these organophosphorus pesticides: a bioassay method based on the use of Drosophilia melanogaster Meig, and a gas-chromatographic method employing isothermic chromatography with a thermoionic detector. For both methods, the air samples are collected in large wash-bottles filled with ethyl alcohol. The former method requires 8 standard alcohol solutions for the analysis of dimethoate and 10 for fenitrothion, the dilution coefficients being 2 and 1.4, respectively. In gas-chromatographic determination, the calibration curves are produced from 5 solutions at concentrations of 0.03, 0.06, 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48µg/cm3.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1981, Vol.31, No.109, p.125-140. 13 réf.

CIS 81-1986 Reuber M.D.
Carcinogenicity of dichlorvos
Chronic and sub-chronic studies on rats, mice, dogs and swine, carried out at the National Cancer Institute (USA), and in the Tunstall, Kettering, and Shell Chemical Co. laboratories are summarised. The animals studied were exposed to dichlorvos (DCV) for periods of 5 weeks to 2 years and DCV was carcinogenic for rats and mice and toxic for dogs and swine. Specific findings included: an increase in benign and malignant neoplasms at all sites in male rats; increases in neoplasms of the endocrine organs in male and female rats and of the adrenal gland and pituitary in female rats, and the thyroid and mammary gland in male rats; fatty change and cholestasis of the liver, chronic interstitial nephritis, periarteritis, and atrophy of the testes in rats; carcinogenic effects on the liver, oesophagus, and forestomach of male mice, and the bone of female mice; atrophy of the testes in male mice; dose-related hepatic changes in dogs and swine; chronic renal disease in dogs; dose-related reductions in cholinesterase activity in rats, dogs and swine.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.1, p.47-84. 21 ref.

CIS 81-1713
Canada Safety Council
Contents: types of pesticides (chlorinated hydrocarbons; organophosphate compounds; carbamate compounds; chlorophenoxy compounds; botanicals); conditions of exposure and routes of entry; safe working practices; medical supervision; provincial requirements for training and licensing of pesticide applicators (addresses of officials); addresses of principal poison control centres; bibliography.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario, K1G 3V4, Canada, 1981. 10p. 11 ref.

CIS 81-1695 Richter E.D., Gordon M., Halamish M., Gribetz B.
Death and injury in aerial spraying: Pre-crash, crash, and post-crash prevention strategies
A matrix of options based on safety precautions which can be taken in the aircraft, in the environment, in relation to the pilot, and by the ground crew in the pre-crash, crash and post-crash conditions is presented. Some important considerations are: aircraft cooling; filter systems to prevent exposure to parathion; provision of wire-cutting apparatus; elimination or marking of above-ground wires; neutralisation of parathion by sodium hydroxide during drainage; adequate fluid intake, medical screening and biological monitoring of pilots; cholinesterase monitoring of ground crew.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1981, Vol.52, No.1, p.53-56. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 81-1342 Hill R.H., Rollen Z.J., Kimbrough R.D., Groce D.F., Needham L.L.
Tetrachloroazobenzene in 3,4-dichloroaniline and its herbicidal derivatives: Propanil, Diuron, Linuron, and Neburon.
The presence of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazobenzene (TCAB) was determined in 3,4-dichloroaniline and its herbicidal derivatives using high-pressure liquid chromatography. The concentration was in the range 9-1400µg/g in the various herbicides analysed. Rabbit ear tests showed that the chloracnegenic potential of TCAB was similar to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin. The 4 herbicides analysed were Propanil, Diuron, Linuron and Neburon; Propanil had a much higher TCAB content than the other 3.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.36, No.1, p.11-14. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 81-1405 Wang H.H., Grufferman S.
Aplastic anemia and occupational pesticide exposure: A case-control study.
A study of the cause of death of 60 subjects in occupations involving exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and 120 controls indicated that there was no association between fatal aplastic anaemia and pesticide exposure. The estimated relative risk for pesticide-exposed workers, based on data for a 10 year period, was 0.67. No correlation was found between chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide use and aplastic anaemia mortality in the United States from 1950 to 1975. Accumulated epidemiologic data did not support a dose-dependent causal relationship between pesticides and aplastic anaemia.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1981, Vol.23, No.5, p.364-366. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 81-1356 Wyatt I., Doss A.W., Zavala D.C., Smith L.L.
Intrabronchial instillation of paraquat in rats: lung morphology and retention study.
10-5 to 10-12g paraquat was instilled into the left bronchus. 10-5g produced lung oedema and macroscopic lesions 2 and 14 days after administration. The pathology was similar to that of systemic poisoning. Doses below 10-7g produced no changes. The loss of 3H-paraquat from the lung was biphasic with an initial half-life <1h and a secondary phase in which the half-life was dose-dependent, varying from 11 to 76h. It appears that 50% of the instilled paraquat was rapidly absorbed from the lung into the plasma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.42-48. 21 ref.

CIS 81-1353 Eriksson M., Hardell L., Berg N.O., Möller T., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcomas and exposure to chemical substances: a case-referent study.
110 patients with soft-tissue sarcomas reported to the cancer registry in 5 Swedish countries and 220 controls were studied. The risk ratio for soft-tissue sarcomas after exposure to phenoxy acids or chlorophenols was 5.1; for phenoxy acids 6.8 (4.2 when free from impurities) and for chlorophenols 3.3. The risk for workers exposed to 2,4,5-T and other phenoxy acids was 17.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.27-33. 30 ref.

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