Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Crop protection index. France, North and tropical Africa
Index phytosanitaire. France, Afrique méditerranéenne et tropicale [in French]
Analytical listing of crop protection substances. Part 1 contains information on products approved for sale in France (2100 in all). Part 2 has information on about 1000 pesticides distributed in Africa. Alphabetic listings of products and active substances are given under the headings of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, combined products and others. The information includes composition and properties of the products, their trade names, conditions for their use, their toxicity and addresses of distributors.
ACTA-Publications, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, 1985, 21st edition, 644p. Price: FF.91.59 (outside France).
Kauppinen T., Lindroos L.
Chlorophenol exposure in sawmills
Personnel exposure to chlorophenol (CP) was measured in 10 Finnish sawmills where a chlorophenate salt formulation was used for the blue stain control of sawed wood. Average concentrations of CP in air were below the 0.5mg/m3 exposure limit. However, some workers had high CP levels in their urine, indicating a high skin adsorption rate from contact with the CP solutions. CP was also observed by breathing wood dust contaminated with the chemical. The risks associated with impurity contained in CP preparations (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and the need for epidemiologic studies on possible cancer risks in sawmill work are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.34-38. 17 ref.
Agricultural chemicals regulation Law [Japan]
Law No. 82 of 1948 as amended to 1984. Topics: agricultural chemicals; approval; crop protection; environmental pollution; inspection; Japan; law; notification of dangerous substances; pesticides; supply of information.
Photocopy, 15p. On file at CIS.
Health (Use of Pesticides) Regulations 1984 [Australia - Victoria]
These regulations were made on 31 July 1984. They provide for: provision and use of protective clothing and equipment; knowledge of signs and symptoms of poisoning or illness due to pesticides and of safety directions on labels; adequate water supply; washing of protective clothing; periodical medical examinations. In the schedules: list of pesticides (with alternative names); protective clothing and equipment to be provided to pesticide workers; first-aid and treatment advice to be given to medical practitioners relating to pesticide poisoning; sample report sheet for the results of medical examinations of pesticide workers.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., Cnr. Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 4p. (pages numbered 62,921 - 62,924).
USSR Commission for UNEP
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: diazinon. Organophosphorus insecticide. Exposure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.2mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects (cholinesterase inhibition).
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 21p. 38 ref.
Liesivuori J., Jääskelainen S.
Exposure of greenhouse workers to pesticides
Kasvihuonetyöntekijöiden altistuminen torjuntaaineille [in Finnish]
The concentration of five chemicals was measured during the spraying of pesticides in 17 greenhuses. Urine samples were taken and the pseudocholinesterase activity was measured. Both sprayers and harvesters showed typical symptoms of cholinergic effects caused by organophosphates. Interviews showed inadequacies in the training of workers and in their handling of pesticides. Recommendations to decrease exposure are given.
National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1984. 48p. 38 ref. Illus. Price: FIM 20.00.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 50. Benomyl
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 50. Benomyl [in Swedish]
The metabolism and toxic effects of benomyl and its analogues carbendazim and thiophanate-methyl are reviewed. The acute toxicity of benomyl is very low in rodents. Acute toxic effects at low concentrations are only found in aquatic organisms. Long-term toxicity studies indicate that testes and spermatogenesis are special targets of the toxic manifestations of benomyl and its degradation product carbendazim. Benomyl also causes mitotic disturbances. Chromosome damage and point mutations have been caused by benomyl. Benomyl at moderate dose levels has caused malformations and foetal deaths in mouse and rat. Evidence exists suggesting hepatocarcinogenicity for benomyl and carbendazim in mice. Benomyl must be considered a potential mutagen, carcinogen and teratogen. The possible effects on health of benomyl are most obviously shared by carbendazim and thiophanate-methyl (metabolised into carbendazim). Quantitative estimation of the risk to man, especially in occupational exposure to benomyl, is impossible at present due to a lack of human data.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 42p. 55 ref.
Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide poisoning
Directives pour les mesures d'urgence à prendre dans le cas d'un empoisonnement par un produit phytosanitaire [in French]
This illustrated booklet is a practical tool for farmers, farm workers and plant managers who have to administer first aid at the site of an accident. Information for health-care professionals who will take over treatment of a patient has also been added. Aspects covered: recognition of poisoning; first-aid management at scene of incident; guidelines for physicians and nurses. In appendices: recommended method for gastric lavage; recommended treatment regimes in case of poisoning with organophosphorus insecticides.
International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, avenue Hamoir 12, 1180 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1984. 48p. Illus. 6 ref.
Guidelines for emergency measures in cases of pesticide poisoning - Poster
Directives pour les mesures d'urgence à prendre dans le cas d'un empoisonnement par un produit phytosanitaire - Affiche [in French]
This poster shows in a sequence of pictures the basic procedures to be followed or avoided in cases of pesticide poisoning.
International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, avenue Hamoir 12, 1180 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1984. 1p. Illus.
Misra U.K., Nag D., Krishna Murti C.R.
A study of cognitive functions in DDT sprayers
Organochlorine pesticides are widely used in India and other developing countries. To study the effects of occupational exposure to DDT, 29 sprayers were subjected to clinical evaluation, the Bhatia battery performance test of intelligence, the Wechsler memory scale and the Bender visuomotor Gestalt test. Blood tests showed that DDT levels in the sprayers were 8.5 times higher than in controls. Intelligence and memory did not differ significantly from control values, but visuomotor function did. Over half of the sprayers with poor visuomotor performance had diffuse electroencephalographic changes. Visuomotor performance scores were correlated with DDT levels. This suggests a role of DDT in the impairment of cognitive functions.
Industrial Health, 1984, Vol.22, No.3, p.199-206. 20 ref.
Experimental study on Endodan for teratogenicity and embryotoxicity
Eksperimentalno proučvane na endodan za teratogennost i embriotoksičnost [in Bulgarian]
An experiment was carried out on albino rats for assessment of the effect, during gestation, of the fungicide endodan (ethylene-thiuram monosulfide) on the intrauterine and postnatal development of the progeny. A low teratogenic and embryotoxic activity was found after a single treatment with 1/2LD50 on the 13th day of gestation. The preparation has a pronounced cumulative effect on daily administration of 1/5, 1/10 and 1/20LD50, manifested by clinical symptoms and death of a part of the pregnant animals. Behavioural abnormalities were observed in the progeny but no changes in viability and weight gain during the postnatal period.
Problemi na higienata, July 1984, Vol.9, p.88-95. Illus. 13 ref.
Kanamaru M., Suzuki H., Katoh M., Nishikawa T., Ohyama Y., Noda H.
Effects of agricultural chemicals on rural inhabitants in Miye prefecture - A report on the findings of health examinations
From 1980 to 1982, health examinations were conducted on 1,164 pesticide sprayers in Miye Prefecture, Japan. Most of the pesticides in use were organophosphorus. Mercury residues in hair were also measured. The rate of detection of abnormalities was not particularly high in comparison with that in health check-ups of ordinary persons. In comparison with previous findings, the cases of abnormal lipid metabolism and anaemia were fewer, whereas the number of cases of abnormal cholinesterase activities and albuminuria increased in both sexes. The average level of mercury in hair was 5.35ppm in men and 2.97ppm in women, and >6.0ppm of mercury was detected in 23.1% of the men and 1.9% of the women.
Journal of the Japanese Association of Rural Medicine, July 1984, Vol.33, No.2, p.159-166. Illus. 29 ref.
Heptachlor is readily absorbed following ingestion and skin contact. There are no reports of cases of poisoning in man. Although no adverse effects have been reported in workers manufacturing or using the compound, epidemiological data are insufficient to judge the carcinogenic hazard of heptachlor to man. Other important aspects covered: identity and analytical methods; uses and sources of exposure; environmental concentrations and exposures; kinetics and metabolism; effects on animals and man; recommendations for further research. French translation available from World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984, 81p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.10.00.
The main hazard associated with this insecticide is acute intoxication through overexposure. It is classified by WHO as a moderately hazardous technical product. Endosulfan can be absorbed following ingestion, inhalation and skin contact. It is readily metabolised and excreted and does not accumulate in the body. On acute intoxication, neurological manifestations may occur; lung oedema and cyanosis may precede death in cases of massive intoxication. Other important aspects covered: identity, analytical methods and sources of exposure; distribution in the environment; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 62p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.8.00.
This insecticide is a recognised animal carcinogen and should be considered as being potentially carcinogenic in humans. It is readily absorbed via all routes of entry. Other aspects covered: identity, properties and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales services, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 66p. Bibl. Price: SF.9.00.
Based on findings in mice and rats, this pesticide should be considered, for practical purposes, as being a potential carcinogen to man. It can enter the body by inhalation, ingestion and the skin. It accumulates in adipose tissue and biomagnifies in food chains. Other aspects covered: identity, properties and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; exposure levels; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 70p. Bibl. Price: SF8.00.
This pesticide is carcinogenic in mice and rats. It can enter the body via ingestion, inhalation and through the skin; it bioaccumulates mainly in the liver. Toxic effects include neurological symptoms and liver damage. It can impair reproduction (mice) and is foetotoxic (rat). Other aspects covered: identity, properties and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; exposure levels; toxicology; effect on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 57p. Bibl. Price: SF.8.00.
This fungicide is classified by WHO as a technical product unlikely to present an acute hazard in normal use. The only observation in man has been dermal sensitivity. Other aspects covered: identity, properties and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 23p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF.6.00.
WHO classifies this soil fungicide as a technical product unlikely to present an acute hazard in normal use. Other aspects covered: identity, properties and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; toxicology; effects on man, animals and the environment.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 38p. Bibl. Price: SF.7.00.
Paraquat and Diquat
In humans the minimum lethal dose for paraquat is about 35mg/kg of body weight and 6-12 grams for diquat bromide. Other important aspects covered: general properties; distribution in the environment; toxicology and metabolism in animals and man; recommendations in case of acute poisoning.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984, 181p. Illus. Bibl. Price: SF16.00.
The acute lethal dose of this pesticide for man is estimated to be between 25-50mg/kg of body weight. No adverse effects have been reported in occupationally exposed workers and epidemiological data are insufficient to judge the potential carcinogenicity of chlordane to man. It induces hepatocellular carcinoma in mice. Other aspects covered: identity properties, sampling and analytical methods; distribution in the environment; levels of exposure; toxicology; evaluation of health risks for man and the environment. French translation available from World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1984. 82p. Bibl. Price: SF.10.00.
Determination of Sumilex (Diciklin) in air and biological media
Opredelenie sumileksa (diciklina) v vozduhe i biologičeskih sredah [in Russian]
Sumilex is used to fight grey rot of strawberry, grape, sunflower and other crops; it is toxic to warmblooded animals. It can be determined by drawing air through a filter at a known rate, extracting the filter with diethyl ether, and applying the washed and concentrated extract to silica-gel thin-layer chromatography plates. Worker exposure can be monitored by collecting blood or urine samples, extracting aliquots with ether and proceeding as for the air samples. The plates are developed with hexane-chloroform or hexane-acetone mixtures. Spots are visualised by ultraviolet irradiation followed by treatment with silver-amonia complex, or by diazo coupling. The spots are quantitated by comparison of their areas or densities with standards. The UV-silver method gives maximum sensitivity (0.2µg can be detected). For a 5L air sample, this is equivalent to 0.04mg/m3; for typical biological samples, the lower limit is 0.4µg/mL for blood and 0.02µg/mL for urine. The precision in air sampling is +18.5%. Chlorinated and organophosphorus pesticides do not interfere.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1984, No.6, p.46-48. Illus.
Vidnenko L.I., Kaskevič, Čimil' V.D., Pis'mennaja M.V., Bersan L.V., Provalova A.M.
Cases of acute intoxication of chemical etiology in beet growers
Slučai ostryh intoksikacij himičeskoj ėtiologii u sveklovodov [in Russian]
The insecticide hexachlorocyclohexane was responsible for acute intoxication of persons who had been weeding sugar beets. The intoxication was facilitated by local conditions (high humidity and air temperature, rain, flat terrain, little wind, active evaporation of the pesticide from the soil). Several measures for protecting beet growers are recommended, among which the most important is the mechanisation of sugar beet cultivation, so as to reduce or eliminate manual work.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.26-28.
Karpenko V.N., Hohol'kova G.A., Pokrovskaja T.N., Rjazanova R.A., Gricevskaja I.D.
Bases for the hygienic characterisation of the pesticide kroneton
Materialy k gigieničeskoj harakteristike pesticida kronetona [in Russian]
The carbamate insecticide kroneton (2-(ethylthiomethyl)phenyl N-methylcarbamate) was subjected to a typical battery of toxicological tests. A single intragastric dose is moderately toxic for rats (LD50=400-500mg/kg) and highly toxic for mice and rabbits (LD50=150 and 118mg/kg, respectively). The pesticide has weakly cumulative effects. Its principal mode of action is inhibition of cholinesterase. It penetrates intact skin, producing embryotoxic, gonadotoxic and mutagenic effects. A subthreshold chronic dose is 0.043mg/kg at a concentration of 0.34mg/m3. A MAC for workplace air of 0.05mg/m3 is proposed. Work with the pesticide should be conducted with the same precautions as for highly toxic carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.23-26. 6 ref.
Klisenko M.A., Belašova I.G., Hohal'kova G.A.
Determination of mixtures of airborne pesticides by gas chromatography
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie pesticidov pri ih sovmestnom prisutstvii v vozduhe [in Russian]
Mixtures of basudin, phosphamide, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane, betanal and pyramin in air are concentrated by collection on filter paper (aerosols) or polyurethane foam (vapours). Solvent extracts of the filter paper or foam are applied to glass columns with highly or moderately polar packings. The columns are equipped with electron-capture detectors. Betanal is determined separately at low column temperature (140°C); the others are separated at 190-250°C (temperature program). The compounds are identified by their retention times (≤11min 8s). Detection limits are 0.1ng for hexachlorocyclohexane, 1ng for pyramin and 5ng for the others. Precision is ±16.3%. Some other compounds which may be present in the samples (eptam, tillam, lenacil) do not interfere.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1984, No.8, p.58-59. 2 ref.
Zielhuis R.L., Stijkel A., Verberk M.M., van de Poel-Bot M.
Health risks to female workers in occupational exposure to chemical agents
This literature review examines the available evidence of extra health risks to female workers who are occupationally exposed to chemical agents. The risks during pregnancy and lactation to either the mother or the offspring, as well as nearly all epidemiological studies and some relevant animal studies, are critically reviewed. Areas in which information is lacking are identified. Chapters cover: organic solvents, carbon disulfide, pesticides, polychlorinated and polybrominated biphenyls, plastic monomers, carbon monoxide, metals in general, lead, cadmium, mercury, operating-room personnel, health-care personnel, the pharmaceutical industry, the chemical industry and laboratories, the rubber industry, hairdressers, conclusions.
Springer Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, D-1000 Berlin 33, 1984. 119p. Bibl.
Photometric method for determining polidazol in air
Fotometričeskoe opredelenie polidazola v vozduhe [in Russian]
Polidazol concentrations are measured by changes in the light absorption of coloured solutions of calcium dithizonate as a result of the reaction of zinc ions with dithizone. Colour density is measured in the range 500-560nm. The method enables polidazol concentrations as low as 0.05mg/m3 (1/2 MAC) to be determined in 100L of air sampled at a rate of 10L/min. Its analytical limit is 2µg polidazol, at a precision of ±3.53%.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1984, No.10, p.56-57. Illus. 2 ref.
Safe work with pesticides
Bezpečná práca s pesticídmi [in Slovak]
The numbers of preparations for plant and seed protection permitted in Czechoslovakia from 1967 to 1983 are listed. Herbicide use has increased more than 3-fold over this period. The terms toxicity, exposure and risk in the application of pesticides are explained. Health protection of workers exposed to pesticides is described in terms of primary, secondary and tertiary preventive measures.
Bezpečná práca, 1984, Vol.15, No.2, p.59-62. Illus. 7 ref.
Agricultural chemicals and farm health safety
Aspects covered in the 3rd of 3 reports prepared to serve as a basis for implementing safety and health programmes in Ontario agriculture: background information; legislation on farm chemicals; pesticides (exposure routes, transport, storage, handling, mixing, disposal); toxicology of major pesticides used in Ontario (organophosphates, carbamates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, dithiocarbamates and phthalimide, phenoxy, bipyridyllium, triazine, anilide, urea and phenolic compounds); toxic effects of other farm chemicals (dust, gases, mycotoxins, bacteria); epidemiological data (cancer and other diseases).
Ontario Task Force on Health and Safety in Agriculture, 434 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M7A 1T7, Canada, Dec. 1984. 146p. Illus. 209 ref.
Fingerhut M.A., Halperin W.E., Honchar P.A., Smith A.B., Groth D.H., Russell W.O.
An evaluation of reports of dioxin exposure and soft tissue sarcoma pathology among chemical workers in the United States
A review of employment records and tissue specimens of 7 workers reported previously as having been exposed to dioxin and having soft tissue sarcomas, confirms that 4 workers were employed from 2 to 19 years in the production of 2,4,5-T or trichlorophenol, products usually contaminated with dioxin. 2 of these workers had confirmed soft tissue sarcomas. 3 workers from another company involved in the production of 2,4,5-T had also confirmed soft tissue sarcomas; their records did not show specific assignments to the 2,4,5-T process area, but one individual worked for 10 days in the production of pentachlorophenol. The epidemiological aspects of the study are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1984, Vol.10, No.5, p.299-303. 17 ref.
Belova I.Ju., Rafikov H.S., Husnutdinova Ė.K., Vasanova N.I., Ivaško G.A., Škuratov I.I.
Quantitative features of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the blood serum of workers engaged in the production of chlorinated organic pesticides
Količestvennoe projavlenie aktivnosti izofermentov laktatdegidrogenazy v syvorotke krovi rabočyh, zanjatyh na proizvodstve hlororganičeskih pesticidov [in Russian]
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme made up of 4 protein chains. There are 2 genes (A and B) for these proteins. An LDH molecule can consist of 4 A-gene products, 3 A-gene products and a B-gene product, 2 of each, etc. There is a spectrum of these isoenzymes typical of healthy humans. When the LDH of workers in a chlorinated organic herbicide plant was examined, altered isoenzyme spectra were observed, even in workers with less than 5 years at the plant. The alterations imply that environmental factors at the plant activate gene B and inhibit gene A.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.30-34. 13 ref.
Aspects of working conditions in agriculture associated with the use of granulated pesticides
Osobennosti uslovij truda pri ispol'zovanii v sel'skom hozjajstve granulirovannyh form pesticidov [in Russian]
Exposure of agricultural personnel to furadan (carbofuran) and phosphamide (dimethoate) was monitored during pesticide application and crop harvesting. When tractor drivers opened furadan applicators to clear blockages, they were exposed to levels of the substance above the MAC; otherwise, exposure levels for both compounds were well below recommended limits. Thus, working conditions are better with granulated pesticides than with alternative forms (liquids, powders).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.28-30. 3 ref.
Is dichlorvos hepatotoxic?
Ist Dichlorvos hepatotoxisch? [in German]
Administration of dichlorvos to rats at the LD50 (70mg/kg) produced a mild hepatosis. Chronic administration of the compound (30mg/kg/day for 90 days) lowered the free fatty acid content and raised the phosphatide content of female rats. Male rats did not show this alteration in lipid composition, but did have elevated levels of hepatic cytochrome P-450 and O-demethylase. These observations and literature data suggest that the hepatotoxicity of dichlorvos is low, but that heavily exposed persons should receive medical care that takes account of the exposure.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1984, Vol.30, No.3, p.156-158. Illus. 59 ref.
van den Oever R., Jacques P., Roosels D., Lahaye D.
Health hazards of soil disinfection by methylbromide fumigation in Belgian greenhouses
Survey of exposure effects and of cases of methyl bromide poisoning. Analysis and comparative study of toxicity of techniques in applying the fumigant (by mechanical injection forbidden in Belgium since 1978 and by vaporisation). Because the use of vaporisation has not reduced sufficiently the number and seriousness of poisoning episodes, a prevention programme has been established. Description of this programme (worker information, field assistance, frequent medical and biochemical monitoring), which has reduced the number of cases of poisoning and has improved the sense of responsibility in workers.
Cahiers de médecine du travail - Cahiers voor arbeidsgeneeskunde, 1984, Vol.21, No.4, p.211-215. 8 ref.
Effect on animals of exposure to potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate to long-term experiments
Dejstvie sul'fata kalija i kalimagnezii na organizm životnyh v hroničeskom ėksperimente [in Russian]
Exposure of animals to potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate fertilisers produced irritation of the lung tissue and respiratory tract. A long-term experiment revealed some physiological and biological changes including inhibition of the enzyme activity, changes of the acid-base balance and leukocytosis. The data obtained provide a basis for establishing a MAC of 15mg/m3 for potassium sulfate and potassium-magnesium sulfate fertilisers.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1984, No.3, p.47-49. 6 ref.
Tatevosjan A.Ė., Sahkaljan Ė.O.
Experimental bases for a MAC for the acaricide Plictran in workplace air
Materialy k ėksperimental'nomu obosnovaniju PDK akaricida pliktrana v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
A standard battery of toxicological tests showed Plictran (tricyclohexyltin hydroxide) to be moderately toxic: intragastric LD50=318, 275 and 458mg/kg for rats, mice and rabbits, respectively; topical LD50 = 1880 and 2422mg/kg for rats and rabbits respectively; inhalation CL50=244 and 290mg/m3 for rats and mice, respectively. The threshold of acute toxicity (kidney damage) was about 6.5mg/m3. Plictran was not allergenic or sensitising, but was an irritant. Chronic exposure to 0.170mg/m3 did not produce embryotropic or teratogenic effects; this concentration may be taken as a threshold for such effects. A MAC of 0.02mg/m3 should be established for Plictran production facilities; the standard should carry the warning "skin absorption".
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1984, No.5, p.52-53. 5 ref.
Doignon J., Parant C., Larche-Mochel M., Rafi M.C., Lazarini H.J., L'Epée P.
Epidemiologic survey of urinary arsenic levels in wine-growers handling sodium arsenite
Enquête épidémiologique sur l'arsenicisme urinaire chez des viticulteurs manipulant de l'arsénite de sodium [in French]
Study of urinary arsenic excretion in vinyard workers who use sodium arsenite as a fungicide. The general toxicity of sodium arsenite is reviewed, especially its ability to cause cancers of the skin and internal organs. Determination of urinary arsenic does not seem to be a reliable monitoring method, because it does not reflect the extent of exposure. The risk of sodium arsenite exposure could not be clearly defined; larger-scale studies are needed. Means of preventing exposure are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.2, p.138-141.
Kagan Ju.S., Pan'šina T.N., Vojtenko G.A., Sasinovič L.M., Rodionov G.A., Voronina V.M., Kokšareva N.V., Šuljak V.G., Deši I., Karmoš-Varsegi M., Štromajer A.
Toxicology of the pesticide Hostaquick and establishment of a safe exposure level
Toksikologija pesticida hostakvika i ustanovlenie bezopasnyh urovnej ego vozdejstvija [in Russian]
In a battery of toxicological tests with rats, mice and guinea pigs, the systemic insecticide Hostaquick was found to be highly toxic and mildly cumulative. Its basic mechanism of action is inhibition of cholinesterases in the blood, and other tissues. Changes in the functional states of the central nervous system, liver and peripheral blood are sensitive indicators of Hostaquick intoxication. The anticholinesterase activity of the compound is more marked on continuous administration via the respiratory tract than on periodic administration, although the latter protocol produces a greater sensitising effect. Extrapolation of the data to man gives a daily exposure limit of 0.003mg/kg and a recommended MAC under agricultural conditions of 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.18-22. Illus. 3 ref.
Potential embryotoxic hazard of the herbicide betanal (experimental data)
O potencial'noj opasnosti ėmbriotoksičeskogo dejstvija gerbicida betanala (ėksperimental'nye dannye) [in Russian]
When administered to rats in a single peroral dose of 2000mg/kg (0.5LD50) or in repeated inhalation doses of 40mg/kg (0.01LD50) at a concentration of 30mg/m3, betanal was embryotoxic and teratogenic. Changes were noted in the nucleic acid contents of certain organs of the mothers and offspring. The threshold concentration for embryotoxic action is 2mg/m3. A MAC of 0.5mg/m3 is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Apr. 1984, No.4, p.16-18. 8 ref.
Garnier R., Bismuth C.
Paraquat [in French]
This encyclopaedia article provides up-to-date information on paraquat, one of the most widely used herbicides in agriculture. Aspects covered: uses; toxicity; toxicokinetics; mechanism of action; localised or general effects in the body; treatment; technical preventive measures applied before, during or after use; medical prevention. The role of the occupational physician is to prevent people with skin or respiratory problems from working with paraquat, to inform workers of the risks of working with the substance and to maintain a medical surveillance programme (involving a clinical examination and radio-immunological determination of paraquat in urine at least every six months).
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 8p. 90 ref.
Composés organiques du phosphore: organophosphorés [in French]
This encyclopaedia article covers: classification of organophosphorus compounds based on how they affect plants; physical and chemical properties; metabolism; toxicity; poisoning symptoms; mechanism of their action on cholinesterases; symptomatic treatment and cholinesterase reactivating antidotes; methods of cholinesterase determination.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 4p. 11 ref.
Camoni I., Cicero A.M., Di Muccio A., Dommarco R.
Measurement of urinary excretion of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in rats that have ingested Zineb
Verifica della escrezione urinaria di etilentiourea (ETU) in ratti trattati con Zineb [in Italian]
Urinary and faecal excretion of ETU, a metabolite of ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamic fungicides, was monitored in rats for 16 days after they were administered a single oral dose of Zineb. After 48h, 86% of the excreted ETU was in the urine, 14% in the faeces. Urinary excretion peaked at 24h after ingestion, at which time 52% of the total urinary ETU had been excreted. Low levels of ETU excretion continued in urine for the length of the study, by which time 5.1% of the Zineb received was excreted as urinary ETU. Faecal ETU disappeared after 3 days.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 1984, Vol.75, No.3, p.207-214. Illus. 26 ref.
Medved' I.L., Ivanova Z.V., Pokrovskaja T.N.
Bases for a maximum allowable concentration for dichloral urea in workplace air
K obosnovaniju predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii dihloral'močeviny v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
The title compound, a herbicide, was administered by various routes to rats, mice, rabbits and cats. The compound is absorbed by the skin and is a local irritant. Its primary site of action is the liver. It has no marked cumulative effect. An MAC of 5mg/m3 is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1984, No.1, p.51-52. 4 ref.
Lu Y.P., Lu P.K., Xue S.Z., Gu X.Q.
Investigation on the chronic effects of Dipterex in occupational exposure
110 Chinese workers engaged in refining Dipterex (chlorophos) for veterinary medicine and 75 controls were examined for physiological and neurological symptoms, electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities and lowered blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity. Median exposure levels were 0.52-1.54mg/m3. Symptoms affecting more than half the exposed workers during the period of exposure were muscular twitching, lightheadedness, breathlessness and sweating. 4 months after exposure, lightheadedness remained as the only prominent symptom. EEG abnormalities occurred among 35.5% of the workers during exposure, 29.3% of the workers 4 months after exposure, and among 8% of the controls. Reduced blood ChE activity was significant during exposure, but not 4 months after exposure or in the control group. EEG examinations are recommended as the best method for monitoring exposure to Dipterex. It is suggested that the current MAC value in China (1mg/m3) be reduced.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1984, Vol.75, No.5, p.376-384. Illus. 11 ref.
Yamauchi T., Konno N., Yamaguchi Y., Fukushima M.
Intensifying effect of repeated pretreatment on the delayed neurotoxicity of the organophosphorus insecticide cyanofenphos in hens
Pretreatment for 8 days with small doses (10mg/kg/day) of cyanofenphos (CYP), an organophosphorus insecticide which shows delayed neurotoxicity, first protected hens from the acute intoxication due to a subsequent large dose (100-1600mg/kg) of CYP. However, the pretreated hens suffered severer effects than hens which received only challenge doses, unless the challenge doses were greater than 800mg/kg. These results warn that factory workers or farmers who are exposed repeatedly to low levels of neurotoxic organophosphorus insecticides may be affected by more severe neuropathy than usual if they are accidentally exposed to high concentrations of these insecticides.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, Aug. 1984, Vol.39, No.3, p.611-620. Illus. 15 ref.
Agricultural chemicals - How their potential hazards are controlled in New Zealand
This outline covers: the government bodies responsible for controlling agricultural chemicals in New Zealand; hazard assessment; labelling requirements; registration of chemical applicators (certification of qualified users); statistics of the number of occupational poisonings due to these substances (17 in 1981).
Agricultural Medicine and Rural Health, Summer 1984, Vol.9, No.1, p.12-16. 6 ref.
Lee M.H., Ransdell J.F.
A farmworker death due to pesticide toxicity: a case report
Report on the accidental death of a farmworker where intoxication by the pesticide aldicarb may have been one of the causes. Total body burden of aldicarb was evaluated at 18.2mg, over 3 times the level known to produce cholinergic symptoms in man.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 1984, Vol.14, Nos.2-3, p.239-246. Bibl.
McCabe M., Nowak M., Hamilton R., Hartshorn P.
Cancer of lymphatic tissues in cane-growing areas of Queensland
A mortality study of the general population in the tropical sugarcane-growing areas of Queensland (Australia) with respect to leukaemias and lymphomas. The population in a nearby town (Townsville) was used for control. There was a significant excess number of deaths from leukaemia among men over 60 years old in the cane-growing areas as compared to women over 60 in the same area (61 against 13). There was also a significant excess of deaths from cancers of the lymphatic tissues in general among men in the cane-growing areas as compared to men in the town. The possible causative role of long-term exposure to pesticides in agricultural workers is discussed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 29 Sep. 1984, Vol.141, No.7, p.412-414. 14 ref.
Osterloh J.D., Cohen B.S., Popendorf W., Pond S.M.
Urinary excretion of N-acetyl cysteine conjugate of cis-1,3-dichloropropene by exposed individuals
Cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (DCP) are the major active components of the DD and Telone soil fumigants. An assay method to determine the N-acetyl cysteine conjugate of cis-DCP in urine is described. The recoveries of the conjugate were correlated with airborne concentrations and duration of exposure (r=0.83). This method could be used for the biological monitoring of workers handling soil fumigants.
Archives of Environmental Health, July/Aug. 1984, Vol.39, No.4, p.271-275. 7 ref.
Delayed neurotoxic lesions due to organophosphorus compounds
Neurotoxische Spätschäden phosphororganischer Verbindungen [in German]
Review of the problems connected with the delayed neurotoxic lesions that can be produced by organophosphorus compounds. The problems have been known for 80 years, but, in spite of the documentation of more than 40,000 cases of human poisoning, no clear structure-effect relationships have yet been established. Triorthocresyl phosphate and parathion poisonings are taken as typical examples. The biochemical mechanisms underlying delayed lesions remain unknown. There may be a neurotoxic esterase different from the cholinesterases. Delayed neuropathy may be directly related to phosphorylation of this esterase.
Zeitschrift für ärztliche Fortbildung, 1984, Vol.78, No.14, p.593-596. 17 ref.
Letz G.A., Pond S.M., Osterloh J.D., Wade R.L., Becker C.E.
Two fatalities after acute occupational exposure to ethylene dibromide
2 workers collapsed and subsequently died after entering without protective equipment a storage tank containing residues of ethylene dibromide (EDB). The toxic effects included acute kidney and liver failure, metabolic acidosis and necrosis of the skeletal muscle. Deaths occurred despite intensive medical care, demonstrating the extreme hazards of exposure to EDB.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 2 Nov. 1984, Vol.252, No.17, p.2428-2431. 17 ref.
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