Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found
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Verma G., Sharma N.L., Shanker V., Mahajan V.K., Tegta G.R.
Pesticide contact dermatitis in fruit and vegetable farmers of Himachal Pradesh (India)
In this case-control study on pesticide allergic contact dermatitis conducted in Himachal Pradesh, an Indian state with an important fruit and vegetable production, cases included 30 farmers with dermatitis on the face, neck, hands and feet, while controls consisted of two groups of 10 subjects each: group 1 had a history of exposure to pesticides but no dermatitis while group 2 had neither dermatitis nor history of exposure to pesticides. All subjects were patch tested with the 10 most common pesticides used in the region. Positive patch test reactions from pesticides were observed in eight cases, while three group 1 subjects also showed sensitization to several pesticides. No reactions were observed among group 2 subjects. Captan was the most common sensitizer (five patients), two patients were sensitive to propargite. Chlorpyrifos, tree spray oil and thiuram gave a positive reaction in one patient each. Other findings are discussed.
Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2007, Vol.57, No.5, p.316-320. 25 ref.
Testud F., Grillet J.P.
Organophosphorus, carbamate, synthetic pyrethroid and various other insecticides
Insecticides organophosphorés, carbamates, pyréthrinoïdes de synthèse et divers [in French]
Insecticides consist of substances that are highly toxic for the central and/or peripheral nervous system. Their neurotoxicity is the reason behind both their effectiveness against insects and their toxic effects on humans. Recent regulatory trends have caused the withdrawal of many active substances, in particular organophosphorus compounds and carbamates. Pyrethroids are currently the most widely-used insecticides, in consideration of their effectiveness on insects coupled with their low mammalian toxicity. For each of the main classes of insecticides, this article presents the toxicokintetics, biochemical mode of action and toxic effects reported in humans in the main exposure settings, namely farming, public health and consumer use.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2007, No.155, 24p. Illus. 187 ref.
Hoppin J.A., Valcin M., Henneberger P.K., Kullman G.J., Umbach D.M., London S.J., Alavanja M.C.R., Sandler D.P.
Pesticide use and chronic bronchitis among farmers in the agricultural health survey
This study evaluated the role played by pesticides as risk factors of chronic bronchitis, using data from the Agricultural Health Study on lifetime pesticide use among doctor-diagnosed cases of chronic bronchitis from 20,908 pesticide applicators. Chronic bronchitis was diagnosed after age of 19 in 654 farmers (3%). Eleven pesticides were significantly associated with chronic bronchitis, the highest odds ratio being found for heptachlor (OR 1.50). Increased prevalence for chronic bronchitis was also seen for individuals who had a history of a high pesticide exposure event (OR 1.85) and for those who also applied pesticides in off farm jobs (OR 1.40).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.969-979. 44 ref.
Testud F., Grillet J.P.
Plant protection chemicals: Acute poisonings and occupational hazards
Produits phytosanitaires: intoxications aiguës et risques professionnels [in French]
This publication is primarily aimed at occupational health physicians involved in the evaluation, prevention and surveillance of hazards resulting from exposure to plant protection chemicals. It is also aimed at clinicians, emergency services and coroners having to deal with cases of acute and chronic pesticide poisoning. It includes an up-to-date summary of toxicological data for the most common active substances used in French agriculture. Based on an analysis of medical literature, it provides guidance for optimizing both the treatment of poisoning patients and the realistic evaluation of the hazards faced by workers exposed to agricultural chemicals.
Editions ESKA, 12 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75002 Paris, France, 2007. 432p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 120.00.
Health and Safety Executive
Sheep dipping: Advice for farmers and others involved in dipping sheep
Trochi defaid: Cyngor i ffermwyr ac eraill sy'n ymwneud â throchi defaid [in Welsh]
Topics covered in this brochure on health protection during sheep dipping: procedure for risk assessment required by the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH, see CIS 03-1023); choice of treatment; design of dip facilities; engineering controls; personal protective equipment; good working practice; disposal of harmful waste; health surveillance. Update of document abstracted under CIS 98-1424.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., July 2007. 16p. Illus. 6 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/as29.pdf [in English]
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/welsh/as29.pdf [in Welsh]
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for dichloropropenes - Draft for public comment (Update)
This profile draft was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of dicholoropropenes is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; relevance to public health; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and guidelines; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the eyes, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. IARC has classified 1,3-dicloropropene as being possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2006. xx, 282p. Illus. Approx. 380 ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp40.pdf [in English]
Safety and health in the use of agrochemicals: A guide
Dalīl al-salāma wa al-ṣuḥa - A@_tnā ist(imāl al-mawād al-kīmīa'īa al-zira(īa [in Arabic]
Arabic translation of a training manual aimed primarily at workers in developing countries (see CIS 91-792). Contents: safety and health aspects (how dangerous substances enter the body, classification, labelling and identification, safe handling and use, disposal of waste, operational control and use of personal protective equipment); poisoning by agrochemicals, its management and emergency responses (types and symptoms of poisoning and injury, first-aid treatment, role of poison information centres, effects of temperature and fire emergencies); roles and responsibilities of manufacturers, government agencies, retailers, employers, workers and the public; education and training; case histories illustrating accidents resulting from improper use of agrochemicals in developing countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. 81p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
In favour of banning the "dirty dozen". Saying no to the most harmful pesticides
Por la prohibición de la "docena sucia": No a los plaguicidas más nocivos [in Spanish]
This document consists of a plea for banning the "dirty dozen" organic compounds which are very difficult to eliminate (POP) and which are also highly-toxic pesticides. In this perspective, a survey was carried out among the Bolivian, Columbian, Ecuadorian and Peruvian sections of the Andean Consultative Council on Labour Issues (CCLA) on their perceptions with respect to impairments to health and the environment from these products in the respective countries. Findings are presented and discussed.
Instituto laboral andino (ILA), Av. Paseo de la Republica 3832, Oficina 502, San Isidro, Lima 27, Peru, 2006. 40p. Illus.
http://www.ila.org.pe/publicaciones/docs/doc_05.pdf [in Spanish]
van Balen E., Font R., Cavallé N., Font L., Garcia-Villanueva M., Benavente Y., Brennan P., de Sanjose S.
Exposure to non-arsenic pesticides is associated with lymphoma among farmers in Spain
The objective of this case-control study was to estimate the risk of lymphoma among farmers in Spain. Cases were subjects diagnosed with lymphoma in one of four participating hospitals between 1998 and 2002. Controls were selected among other patients and matched to the cases by sex and age. All subjects were interviewed on their job history. Although globally farmers were not at an increased risk of lymphoma as compared with all other occupations, those exposed to non-arsenic pesticides were found to be at increased risk of lymphoma (odds ratio, OR 1.8). A particularly high risk was observed among farmers working exclusively either as crop farmers or as animal farmers (OR 2.8). The risk was also high for exposure to non-arsenic pesticides for over nine years (OR 2.4).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.663-668. 36 ref.
Lacasaña M., Vázquez-Grameix H., Borja-Aburto C.H., Blanco-Muñoz J., Romieu I., Aguilar-Garduño C., García A.M.
Maternal and paternal occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly
The objective of this case-control study was to evaluate the association between parental occupational exposure to agricultural work and the risk of anencephaly. Cases included 151 children born with anencephaly in maternities of three Mexican states, while controls were births without congenital malformations from the same maternities. General information and information on exposures to pesticides were obtained by means of questionnaires. The children of mothers who worked in agriculture in the acute risk period during pregnancy had a significantly greater risk of anencephaly (odds ratio, OR 4.57). The risk of fathers having a child with anencephaly was greater among those who applied pesticides, irrespective of whether it was during or not during the acute risk period (OR 2.50 and 2.03 respectively).
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2006, Vol.63, No.10, p.649-656. 43 ref.
Jurewicz J., Hanke W.
Exposure to pesticides and childhood cancer risk: Has there been any progress in epidemiological studies?
Epidemiological studies focused on childhood cancer and exposures to pesticides conducted over the last seven years were identified through searching medical literature data bases. It was found that leukaemia, brain cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and neuroblastoma were mentioned as potentially associated with pesticide exposure among children. However, the findings are limited because weakness in the research methodology of many studies. In the light of existing, although still limited evidence of adverse effects of pesticides, it is necessary to reduce exposure to pesticides. There is also a need to increase awareness among persons occupationally or environmentally exposed to pesticides concerning their potential negative influence on health of their children.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2006, Vol.19, No.3, p.152-169. 53 ref.
Jurewicz J., Hanke W.
Exposure to pesticides and children health: Overview of current epidemiological evidence
This literature review examines epidemiological studies on the association between exposure to pesticides and reproductive disorders, childhood cancer, immunotoxicity, neurodevelopment and endocrine effects. Results indicate that some pesticides are associated with a wide range of reproductive disorders (low birth weight, small-for-gestational-age birth, preterm delivery, stillbirth). Several studies found a link between exposure to pesticides in general and the risk of leukaemia, brain tumours, neuroblastoma and lymphoma. There is also evidence of neurobehavioural effects, immunotoxicity and endocrine effects following pesticide exposure. Persons who are occupationally or environmentally exposed to pesticides should be made aware of the potential effects on their children.
European epi marker, Oct. 2006, Vol.10, No.4, p.1-5. 62 ref.
Do pesticides cause childhood cancer?
Various epidemiological studies have reported associations between childhood cancer and either parental or child exposure to pesticides. Reviews published in 1997 and 1998 found evidence to be suggestive but not conclusive. This literature search was conducted to identify and evaluate new research results on this topic issued between 1998 and 2004. Eighteen new studies were identified for this review. Collectively, the studies suggest an increase in the risk of different cancer types associated with exposure to pesticides. However, the evidence is conflicting with regard to cancer types as well as to causative factors across studies. The available literature does not allow firm conclusions to be drawn with regard to pesticides and any type of childhood cancer.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2006, Vol.79, No.7, p.536-544. 32 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/content/947m8h641366713r/fulltext.pdf [in English]
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of February 2006: 4-chlorophenyl-isocyanate is a colourless to yellowish solid which melts below 30°C. It is highly-reactive chemical intermediate used in the production of certain plant protection chemicals. It hydrolyses in the presence of water, forming 4-chloroaniline. Modes of entry include ingestion, inhalation and skin absorption. The few available animal studies show low toxicity but with inconsistent results. There are no data on chronic ingestion toxicity. In rats, the target organ of chronic inhalation exposure is the lung. It is irritating to the skin and eye. In vitro studies show the product to be non-mutagenic. There are no data on reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2006. xiv, 58p. 136 ref.
The purpose of aircraft disinsection is to protect public health, the environment, agriculture and livestock from insect vectors. The World Health Organization published general disinsection procedural guidelines in the International Health Regulations (IHR). A 2% pyrethrum solution, a naturally occurring substance found in the chrysanthemum flower, or several synthetic pyrethroids, are the recommended agents because they are extremely effective insecticides which pose minimal health risks. However, there are reports of symptoms allegedly due to insecticide exposure among cabin crew. This paper discusses the background of aircraft disinsection and the procedures to be followed, together with the types of agents and their toxicity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2006, Vol.77, No.7, p.733-736. 16 ref.
Ngowi A.V.F., London L.
Action on pesticides under the programme on Work and Health in Southern Africa (WAHSA)
Pesticides are increasingly used in developing countries, where they represent a particular hazard because of the vulnerable agricultural populations who are poor, illiterate and in poor health. As a result, the Work and Health in Southern Africa (WAHSA) programme has launched a project aimed at developing skills and resources to manage the health and environmental impact of pesticides in the region. This article reviews the objectives, activities and main achievements of the WAHSA project on pesticides.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, May 2006, Vol.16, No.1, p.15-19. Illus. 39 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/CF7BBB4A-2980-4C03-924E-8943F8F8F6A5/0/African_Newsletter106.pdf [in English]
Jaga K., Dharmani C.
Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review
This literature survey discusses toxic effects on eyes resulting from exposure to pesticides via inhalation, ingestion, dermal contact and ocular exposure. Exposure of unprotected eyes to pesticides results in the absorption in ocular tissue and potential ocular toxicity. Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure, including the dose-response relationship, has been studied in different animal species. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphorus-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease has been described in Japan in people living in an area where organophosphorus compounds were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, May 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.102-107. Illus. 33 ref.
Kielhorn J., Schmidt S., Mangelsdorf I., Howe P.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
This criteria document on heptachlor is an update of an earlier edition published in 1984 (see CIS 86-221). Heptachlor is a persistent chemical and accumulates in the food chain. It was widely used as an insecticide. Although banned in many countries since the 1980s, it is still detected as a contaminant in some food commodities. Heptachlor is readily absorbed following ingestion and skin contact. Animal studies have shown the product to be neurotoxic. It is carcinogenic in mice but not in rats. A tolerable daily intake of 0.1µg/kg of body weight has been derived from experimental studies. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish are included.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2006. v, 74p. Illus. Approx. 330 ref.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/cicad70.pdf [in English]
Jaga K., Dharmani C.
Ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure: A recent review
This literature survey reviews studies of ocular toxicity from pesticide exposure. Cholinesterase enzymes have been detected in animal ocular tissue, with evidence of organophosphate-induced inhibition. Pathological effects of pesticides have been observed in conjunctiva, cornea, lens, retina and the optic nerve. Pesticide exposure has been associated with retinopathy in agricultural workers and wives of farmers who used pesticides. Saku disease has been described in Japan among persons living in an area where organophosphates were used. Pesticide exposure is also associated with abnormal ocular movements. Progressive toxic ocular effects leading to defective vision are a serious health concern. Agricultural workers are at high risk of exposure to pesticides and associated ocular toxicity. Primary prevention should include improved eye safety and care in the workplace and effective pesticide regulation.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, May 2006, Vol.11, No.3, p.102-107. Illus. 33 ref.
Pahwa P., McDuffie H.H., Dosman J.A., McLaughlin J.R., Spinelli J.J., Robson D., Fincham S.
Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, soft tissue sarcomas, insect repellents and phenoxyherbicides
The objective of this study was to determine if there is an additional risk of developing Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma or soft tissue sarcoma as a consequence of exposure to a combination of phenoxy herbicides, rubber gloves, N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (a key ingredient of insect repellent) and sunlight compared with each of the individual risk factors. It was carried out as a population based study of men with specific cancers, with controls matched by age and province of residence. No additional risk from these combinations of exposures of developing these three types of tumour was found in contrast to non Hodgkin lymphoma. It is concluded that the mechanisms by which phenoxy herbicides contribute to the risk of non Hodgkin lymphoma and other forms of cancer may be different.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2006, Vol.48, No.3, p.264-274. 85 ref.
Tagwireyi D., Ball D.E., Nhachi C.F.B
Toxicoepidemiology in Zimbabwe: Pesticide poisoning admissions to major hospitals
All 914 cases of acute pesticide poisoning admitted to eight major referral hospitals in Zimbabwe from January 1998 to December 1999 were analysed. Almost half (49.1%) resulted from oral exposure to rodenticides and 42.2% from anticholinesterase-type pesticides, of which 90% were organophosphates. Accidental and deliberate self-poisoning (27.1% and 58.6%, respectively) accounted for most cases with only eight homicides. Organophosphates were implicated in 70.9% of all fatalities, with over 20% resulting from oral exposure to rat poison. Greater control in the sale and use of these products could help prevent significant morbidity and mortality.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.59-66. Illus. 32 ref.
Pyrethroid insecticides: Advances and challenges in biomonitoring
Pyrethroids are structurally diverse chemicals that are synthetically derived from naturally occurring pyrethrin insecticides. Significant advances in analytical chemistry have led to the development of biomarkers of exposure to pyrethroids, and these methods are currently being applied to study exposure in the general population. This article reviews the chemistry and toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides, with an emphasis on the development of biomarkers. Future challenges in the application of these biomarkers in epidemiological studies are explored, as is the need for improved understanding of the toxicokinetics of pyrethroids in humans.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 2006, Vol.44, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 36 ref.
Yucra S., Rubio J., Gasco M., Gonzales C., Steenland K., Gonzales G.F.
Semen quality and reproductive sex hormone levels in Peruvian pesticide sprayers
To determine the association between occupational pesticide exposure and semen quality among sprayers using organophosphate (OPs) pesticides, 31 pesticide sprayers and 80 men who were not exposed were studied. Semen and blood samples were obtained one day after last pesticide application. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, percentage of normal morphology, and fructose and zinc concentrations. Blood samples were analyzed for sex hormones. Pesticide sprayers had significantly reduced age-adjusted seminal volume, percentage of motility, percentage of sperm with normal morphology, serum luteinizing hormone, serum testosterone levels, and seminal zinc concentration (a marker of prostate function), as well as significantly increased time of liquefaction, seminal pH, percentage of immature sperm morphology, and leukocyte concentration. These findings provide further evidence that occupational exposures to OP pesticides adversely affect semen quality and sex hormones.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.355-361. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Yucra.pdf [in English]
Hofmann J., Guardado J., Keifer M., Wesseling C.
Mortality among a cohort of banana plantation workers in Costa Rica
The nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP, Nemagon), widely used in Costa Rica during the late 1960s and 1970s, causes sterility in men and is a possible carcinogen. Mortality among a cohort of Costa Rican banana plantation workers was investigated. The cohort included 40,959 individuals who worked on banana plantations between 1972 and 1979. Employment records were linked with the Costa Rican Mortality Registry to determine outcomes through 1999. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death. Poisson regression was also used to calculate mortality risk estimates by duration of employment, but provided no additional insight. All-causes SMRs were 0.77 for men (95% CI 0.75-0.80) and 0.90 for women (95% CI 0.80-1.02) relative to national mortality rates. Mortality from septicaemia was significantly higher than expected. Nonsignificant increases in mortality were also observed for testicular cancer, penile cancer, Hodgkin's disease, and Parkinson's disease in men, and for cervical cancer and lung cancer in women.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.321-328. Illus. 21 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Hofmann.pdf [in English]
Rodríguez T., Younglove L., Lu C., Funez A., Weppner S., Barr D.B., Fenske R.A.
Biological monitoring of pesticide exposures among applicators and their children in Nicaragua
Exposures were assessed for seven small-scale farmers using chlorpyrifos on corn and ten banana plantation employees applying diazinon, and for one child of each worker. Metabolites (TCPY and IMPY) were measured in urine before and after applications. TCPY concentrations peaked at 27 and 8.5 hours post-application for applicators and children, respectively (geometric means, 26 and 3.0µg/L). Proximity to spraying and spray mixture preparation in homes were important exposure factors. IMPY concentrations differed substantially across workers at two plantations (geometric means, 1.3 and 168µg/L); however, their children had little or no diazinon exposure. These workers and children were also exposed to chlorpyrifos, most likely through contact with chlorpyrifos-impregnated bags used in banana production. Several recommendations are offered: 1) monitor children's activities during applications; 2) do not store or prepare pesticides in homes; 3) institute sound occupational hygiene practices at banana plantations; 4) dispose of plastic insecticide bags properly at the worksite.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.312-320. Illus. 37 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Rodriguez.pdf [in English]
Peres F., Moreira J.C., Rodrigues K.M., Claudio L.
Risk perception and communication regarding pesticide use in rural work: A case study in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil
In an agricultural region of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, rapid assessment procedures were used for risk-perception studies based on semi-structured interviews, participatory observations, and focus groups. Data were qualitatively categorized. Women's risk perception was prioritized, as they did not recognize some risks they were exposed to during work activities. To reach women likely to be exposed to pesticides, a photographic soap opera (fotonovela) was constructed in collaboration with rural workers, using community-based participatory research methods. Contents of the risk-communication strategies included the harmful effects of pesticides. Results showed that the inclusion of risk-perception studies in the development of educative and risk-communication campaigns is very important for linking research to action.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2006, Vol.12, No.4, p.400-407. 24 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1204_Peres.pdf [in English]
Abadi-Korek I., Stark B., Zaizov R., Shaham J.
Parental occupational exposure and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in offspring in Israel
This study investigated the possible association between parental employment in occupations that have potential exposures to organic solvents or pesticides and the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in offspring. This hypothesis was explored in a case-control study that included 224 children, 112 diagnosed with ALL and 112 matched controls. A significantly higher odds ratio (OR) was found between childhood ALL and reported parental occupational exposures. Analysis of exposures of both parents by exposure time revealed significant OR during preconception, pregnancy and postnatal periods. The results provide support for the association between parental occupational exposures and ALL in children.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.165-174. Illus. 44 ref.
Calvert G.M., et al.
Acute pesticide-related illness among emergency responders, 1993-2002
Emergency services personnel are among the first to arrive at a pesticide-related release event. In this study, data on pesticide poisoning magnitude, severity, and risk from various sources in 21 States were reviewed. Acute occupational pesticide-related illness incidence rates for each category of emergency services worker were calculated. A total of 291 cases were identified. Firefighters accounted for 111 cases, law enforcement officers for 104 cases, emergency medical technicians for 34 cases and 42 cases were unspecified. Most were exposed while performing activities related to a pesticide release event (84%) and not involving patient care, while the remainder involved exposure to pesticide-contaminated patients. A majority of cases were exposed to insecticides (51%). Most had low severity illnesses (90%). The incidence rate was highest for firefighters and law enforcement officers. The findings suggest the need for greater efforts to prevent acute occupational pesticide-related illness among emergency responders.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2006, Vol.49, No.5, p.383-393. Illus. 22 ref.
Chitra G.A., Muraleedharan V.R., Swaminathan T., Veeraraghavan D.
Use of pesticides and its impact on health of farmers in South India
The relationship between extent of pesticide use and signs and symptoms of illnesses due to exposure was assessed in a cross-sectional survey of 631 farmers (537 men and 94 women) in South India. Responses to questionnaires showed that 433 farmers (68.6%) sprayed pesticides themselves and were thus directly exposed. More than 75% used moderately or highly hazardous pesticides; 88% used no protection while handling pesticides. About 50% of sprayers mixed different brands. Retailers were the source of information about pesticides for 56%. The farmers reported excessive sweating (36.5%), burning/stinging/itching of eyes (35.7%), dry/sore throat (25.5%), and excessive salivation (14.1%), all more prevalent among sprayers. Among men, excessive sweating and eye and throat problems were significantly associated with exposure. There is a need to raise farmers' and authorities' awareness of the need to use protective gear when handling pesticides. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.228-233. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Chitra.pdf [in English]
Sass J.B., Colangelo A.
European Union bans atrazine, while the United States negotiates continued use
Atrazine is a common agricultural herbicide with endocrine disruptor activity. There is evidence that it interferes with reproduction and development, and may cause cancer. Although the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved its continued use in October 2003, that same month the European Union (EU) announced a ban on atrazine because of ubiquitous and unpreventable water contamination. The authors reviewed regulatory procedures and government documents, and report efforts by the manufacturer of atrazine, Syngenta, to influence the U.S. atrazine assessment, by submitting flawed scientific data as evidence of no harm, and by meeting repeatedly and privately with EPA to negotiate the government's regulatory approach. Many of the details of these negotiations continue to be withheld from the public, despite EPA regulations and federal open-government laws that require such decisions to be made in the open. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.260-267. 82 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Sass.pdf [in English]
Ben Mansour H., Miled S., Hidri A., Ben Laiba M.
Exposure to methyl bromide
L'exposition au bromure de méthyle [in French]
Methyl bromide is a pesticide used in Tunisia as a fumigation agent for the preservation of dates. It is estimated that around 10,000 persons working in the date packaging sector are potentially exposed to this substance. This article summarizes the physical and chemical properties of methyl bromide, its metabolism and toxicity, and its effects on health (neurotoxic effects, peripheral neuropathies, hepatic disorders), together with preventive measures, medical supervision and the compensation of occupational diseases due to exposure to the substance.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2006, No.36, p.33-35. Illus. 6 ref.
Pesticide-related illness and injury surveillance - A how-to guide for state-based programs
This guide explains how to define and operate medical surveillance programmes for acute and subacute effects of pesticide exposure. It includes guidelines for case investigation, data collection, outreach, and occupational hygiene education. Additional useful information for use both in the initial phases of developing a surveillance programme and the ongoing implementation of the surveillance system is provided in the appendices. The guide also addresses issues of capturing data on pesticide-related illnesses and injuries in workplace and non-workplace settings.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Nov. 2005. xv, 272p. Illus. Bibl. ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-102/pdfs/2006-102.pdf [in English]
Li A.A., Mink P.J., McIntosh L.J., Teta M.J., Finley B.
Evaluation of epidemiologic and animal data associating pesticides with Parkinson's disease
To evaluate the evidence regarding the association between Parkinson's disease (PD) and exposure to pesticides, this study examined both epidemiologic studies and animal studies for PD-like effects following systemic pesticide exposure. The findings of the epidemiologic studies were found to be mixed and without consistent exposure-response or pesticide-specific patterns. These studies were furthermore limited by a lack of detailed and validated pesticide exposure assessment. In animal studies, no pesticide has yet demonstrated the selective set of clinical and pathologic signs that characterize human PD, particularly at levels relevant to human populations. It is concluded that the animal and epidemiologic data reviewed do not provide sufficient evidence to support an association between pesticide exposure and PD.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2005, Vol.47, No.10, p.1059-1087. Illus. 147 ref.
Pastides H., Doll R., Acquavella J.F., Alavanja M.
Agricultural exposures and cancer
Compilation of papers presented at an international conference on agricultural exposures and cancer held in Oxford, United Kingdom, 19-22 November 2002, grouped under the three following headings: epidemiology of the relationship between agricultural exposure and cancer; exposure assessment; toxicology of agricultural exposures.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2005, Vol.31, Suppl.1, p.1-163 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
London L., Flisher A.J., Wesseling C., Mergler D., Kromhout H.
Suicide and exposure to organophosphate insecticides: Cause or effect?
A literature review was performed of mortality and morbidity studies related to suicide among pesticide-exposed populations, and of human and animal studies of central nervous system toxicity related to organophosphate (OP) pesticides. Suicide rates are high in farming populations. Animal studies link OP exposure to serotonin disturbances in the central nervous system, a mechanism that is implicated in depression and suicide in humans. Various epidemiological studies conclude that acute and chronic OP exposure is associated with affective disorders. Other studies also support a causal association between OP use and suicide. It is concluded that OPs are not only agents for suicide, but may be part of the causal pathway.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2005, Vol.47, No.4, p.308-321. Illus. 132 ref.
Miligi L., Aprea C., Settimi L.
Health risk and occupation in agricultural settings in Italy
This literature survey reviews studies on the association between cancer and occupation in agricultural settings in Italy, focusing on exposure to pesticides. Most of the cohort studies evaluated cancer mortality in licensed pesticide users. Several case-control studies considered haematolymphopoietic malignancies, and the most recent studies observed increased risks for use of specific chemical classes of pesticides. It is suggested that a national surveillance system should be implemented to identify areas at high risk and to promote exposure control programs.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2005, Vol.11, No.1, p.96-102. 52 ref.
Marlair G., Kordek M. A.
Safety and security issues relating to low capacity storage of AN-based fertilizers
This article discusses safety issues associated with the storage of fertilizer grades of ammonium nitrate (AN), with a focus on low storage capacity premises. The information is based on a literature review on hazardous properties of AN and AN-based fertilizers, a review of accidents involving relatively small quantities of AN-based fertilizers, an examination of both the relevant regulatory framework and the level of hazard control achieved, and finally on an analysis of the economical, technical and organizational factors that could lead to an underestimation of the risk compared to large scale storage facilities.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2005, Vol. 123, No. 1-3, p. 13-28. Illus. 54 ref.
Mancini F., Van Bruggen A.H.C., Jiggins J.L.S., Ambatipudi A.C., Murphy H.
Acute pesticide poisoning among female and male cotton growers in India
A season-long assessment of acute pesticide poisoning risk among cotton-growing farmers was conducted in three villages in India. Fifty female cotton growers reported symptoms after exposures to pesticides by themselves and by their male relatives. Typically female tasks such as mixing concentrated pesticides and refilling spraying tanks were as hazardous as direct pesticide application. Of 323 reported events, 83.6% consisted of mild to severe poisoning symptoms. Ten percent of the pesticide application sessions were associated with three or more neurotoxic symptoms typical of poisoning by organophosphates, which were used in 47% of the applications. Although in 6% of the spray sessions the workers' neurotoxic effects were extremely serious, none sought medical care. Low-income marginal farmers and agricultural labourers were at greater risk of severe poisoning than were owners of larger farms who often used agricultural labour.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.221-232. Illus. 38 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Mancini.pdf [in English]
Mills P.K., Yang R.
Breast cancer risk in Hispanic agricultural workers in California
Riesgo de cáncer de mama en trabajadores agrícolas hispanas en California [in Spanish]
In a registry-based case-control study of breast cancer in female Hispanic farm workers in California, 128 breast cancer cases diagnosed in 1988-2001 and 640 cancer-free controls were investigated. Risk of breast cancer was not associated with work with any specific crops or commodities except mushrooms, where the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 6.00. Controlling for covariates, adjusted ORs for breast cancer in quartiles of pesticide use were 1.00, 1.30, 1.23, and 1.41. Chlordane, malathion, and dichlorophenoxyacetic acid were associated with increased risk. Risk associated with chemical use was stronger in younger women, those with early-onset breast cancer, and those diagnosed between 1988 and 1994.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.11, No.2, p.123-131. 48 ref. (Spanish version: Internet document, 30p.)
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1102_Mills_es.pdf [in Spanish]
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1102_Mills.pdf [in English]
Gawora-Ziółek M., Jurewicz J., Hanke W.
Exposure to pesticides among pregnant women working in agriculture
Ekspozycja na pestycydy kobiet w ciąży pracujących w rolnictwie [in Polish]
A survey of potential pesticide exposure was carried out among pregnant women working in agriculture. The women provided information about their work in the field, pesticide spraying, preparation of spraying equipment and pesticide mixtures and washing of clothes after spraying. The survey revealed potential hazards to the women resulting from their exposure to pesticides both at work and at home. Results indicate the need to estimate actual exposure using biological monitoring.
Medycyna pracy, 2005, Vol.56, No.3, p.197-204. 22 ref.
Workers' response to the use of pesticides in banana production
La respuesta de los trabajadores al uso de plaguicidas en la producción bananera [in Spanish]
Published by the National Federation of Food Industry Workers, Farmers and Free Indigenous Populations of Ecuador (FENACLE), this leaflet describes eleven actions that banana production workers may adopt for the protection against the risks related to pesticide exposure. These actions include selecting a pesticide with low toxicity, training in correct pesticide use, inclusion of an article on occupational safety and health in collective employment contracts, insisting on compliance with existing legislation and organizing occupational safety and health on the plantations.
Fenacle Nacional, Gayaquil, Rumichaca 2206 y Manabí, Edificio Monterrey, 4to piso oficina 4-5, Quito, Ecuador, ca 2005. 6p. Illus.
Exposure to pesticides and workers' health in banana production
La exposición a plaguicidas y la salud de los trabajadores en la producción bananera [in Spanish]
Published by the National Federation of Food Industry Workers, Farmers and Free Indigenous Populations of Ecuador (FENACLE), this leaflet describes the health risks resulting from pesticide exposure and the effects of environmental pollution in banana production. Pesticides used in banana production in Ecuador are listed, citing the hazard class of each substance. While the country has adopted occupational safety and health legislation, it is rarely enforced in this sector of activity.
Fenacle Nacional, Gayaquil, Rumichaca 2206 y Manabí, Edificio Monterrey, 4to piso oficina 4-5, Quito, Ecuador, ca 2005. 6p. Illus.
Ambroise D., Moulin J.J., Squinazi F., Protois J.C., Fontana J.M., Wild P.
Cancer mortality among municipal pest-control workers
An historical cohort mortality study was carried out to investigate the hypothesis of a relationship between cancer occurrence and occupational exposure of municipal pest-control workers to a wide range of pesticides and other chemicals. The cohort comprised all subjects ever employed in a municipal pest-control service between 1979 and 1994. The follow-up period lasted from 1979 to 2000. The mortality rates of pest-control workers were compared with those of a regional population. A job exposure matrix was developed, which took into account four types of chemicals: formaldehyde, ethylene oxide, insecticides and rodenticides. A statistically significant excess of cancer mortality was found among these workers, increasing as a function of duration of employment.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.387-393. Illus. 13 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/hpb9jdrrqr5trjl3hjf3/contributions/g/0/1/7/g017734238785464.pdf [in English]
Idrovo A.J., Sanin L.H., Cole D., Chavarro J., Cáceres H., Narváez J., Restrepo M.
Time to first pregnancy among women working in agricultural production
This study explores risk factors potentially associated with reduced fertility among women working in cut flower production. A cross-sectional study of time to first pregnancy was undertaken in 47 Colombian floriculture companies. 2,085 women were interviewed regarding potential reproductive, lifestyle and work history predictors of time-to-pregnancy (TTP), measured in months. Fertility odds ratios (FORs) were estimated for various factors associated with longer TTPs. Reduced FORs were found for the several factors, including work in flower production, less than 24 months (FOR 0.86) or two years or more (FOR 0.73).
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2005, Vol.78, No.6, p.493-500. 45 ref.
't Mannetje A., McLean D., Cheng S., Boffetta P., Colin D., Pearce N.
Mortality in New Zealand workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and dioxins
The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality among New Zealand phenoxy herbicide producers and sprayers exposed to dioxins. Producers and sprayers were followed up from 1969 and 1973 respectively to 2000. A total of 813 producers and 699 sprayers were classified as exposed to dioxin and phenoxy herbicides. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using national mortality rates. At the end of follow up, 164 producers and 91 sprayers had died. Results showed a 24% non-significant excess cancer mortality among phenoxy herbicide producers, with a significant excess for multiple myeloma. Associations were stronger for those exposed to multiple agents including dioxin during production. However, overall cancer mortality was not increased for producers and sprayers mainly handling final technical products, although they were likely to have been exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) levels far higher than those currently in the general New Zealand population.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2005, Vol.62, No.1, p.34-40. 38 ref.
Pesticides and electronic resources for health care providers
Agricultural workers are at high risk of occupational injuries, including pesticide exposures. There is general agreement that the training of health care providers to recognize and manage such exposures is limited and in need of improvement. This article presents a case report of suspected pesticide exposure among symptomatic agricultural workers followed by a discussion of Internet-based resources for the recognition, management and prevention of pesticide-related illness.
Journal of Agromedicine, 2005, Vol.10, No.1, p.45-51. 32 ref.
Gamelin L., Harry P.
Rodenticides [in French]
Rodenticides belong to a number of different chemical families, products exhibiting anticoagulant properties being the most widespread. Their mode of action consists of blocking the vitamin K cycle, thereby slowing down the synthesis of coagulation factors and giving rise to hypocoagulability and the risk of major haemorrhagic complications. Most rodenticides intended for domestic use are subject to strict regulations, however, the possible misuse of products strictly reserved for professionals can give rise to poisoning. Vitamin K1 is the specific antidote for haemostatic disorders caused by anticoagulant rodenticides. Uses and toxic effects of eight rodenticides are reviewed.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.148, 7p. Illus. 32 ref.
Carrier G., Brunet R.C., Bouchard M., Gosselin N.H., Dumoulin M.J., Bonvalot Y.
Evaluation of human exposure to organophosphates and the associated risks by means of urinary biomarkers
Evaluation de l'exposition humaine aux organophosphorés et des risques associés à l'aide de biomarqueurs urinaires [in French]
Approximately 200 organophosphates are sold as insecticides and used by workers in agriculture, horticulture, public health pest control, forestry, landscape maintenance and various other sectors. No method currently exists for estimating the quantity actually absorbed following occupational exposure to these substances. Using modelling and a review of existing data, a simple and effective screening tool capable of detecting exposure levels below those causing toxic effects was developed. It consists of a urine biomarker test that evaluates the quantity of organophosphate actually absorbed by the worker. It may be used for prevention programmes, for developing exposure evaluation protocols and for establishing re-entry times after organophosphate exposure.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. vii, 73p. Illus. 93 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-406.pdf [in French]
How to create new deferred hazards - Wood treatment using insecticides and fungicides
L'art de créer de nouveaux risques différés - Les traitements du bois par des fongicides et des insecticides [in French]
This article reviews the various techniques used to treat wood used for rail sleepers and electric line poles for protection against moulds. Currently, the main products used are creosote, as well as blends of salts labelled CCA (copper, chromium, arsenic) or CCB (copper, chromium, cobalt). The toxic hazards presented by these substances are reviewed, highlighting the particular hazards in the event of a fire.
Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2005, No.81, p.43-48. Illus. 7 ref.
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
The WHO recommended classification of pesticides by hazards and guidelines to classification 2004
This document presents the latest WHO recommendations with respect to the classification of pesticides. Part I describes the basis of the WHO system for the classification of pesticides according to their acute risk to health. The classification is based primarily on the acute oral and dermal toxicity to the rat (LD50 values): extremely hazardous, highly hazardous, moderately hazardous and slightly hazardous. The application of the criteria for classification is explained along with the effects of classification on labelling. Part II provides lists of products in the four hazard classes and a list of pesticides considered unlikely to present acute hazard in normal use. Further tables are provided for determining the hazard class of a formulation. Update of CIS 03-360.
World Health Organization, Marketing and Dissemination, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. 56p.
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/en/pesticides_hazard.pdf [in English]
Gunningham N., Healy P.
Regulation by stealth: Reducing the OSH impact of pesticides
Exposure to pesticides poses a serious threat to the health of agricultural workers worldwide. Regulatory reforms at the national level may somewhat mitigate the problem. However, this article argues that greater opportunities for improving pesticide safety lie outside the boundaries of the traditional regulatory system, through harnessing the potential of new agricultural and pest control technology, the market forces driving global food production and the powerful forces within civil society capable of changing attitudes to risk and safety. These instruments are most successful when they form part of an integrated strategy underpinned by regulation and state intervention. Governments nonetheless have a pivotal role in harnessing and shaping these forces to improve pesticide safety.
Policy and Practice in Health and Safety, 2004, Vol.2, No.2, p.25-42. 49 ref.
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