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Agricultural chemicals - 1,674 entries found

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  • Agricultural chemicals

1991

CIS 94-615 Igbedioh S.O.
Effects of agricultural pesticides on humans, animals and higher plants in developing countries
Undesirable side effects that result from the indiscriminate use of agricultural pesticides in developing countries are widespread. This has captured the attention of health workers, governments, and environmental protection agencies. In fact, the potential health effects of long-term exposure to humans, animals, and higher plants are of great concern. This study examines the effects of agricultural pesticides on such living forms and explores modes of action, and presents strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of pesticides to living forms in developing countries.
Archives of Environmental Health, July/Aug. 1991, Vol.46, No.4, p.218-224. 52 ref.

CIS 93-2012 Diago Alvarez F.
Pesticides : Preventive measures in storage and handling
Pesticidas: medidas preventivas en el almacenamiento y utilización [in Spanish]
Safety measures concerning handling and storage of pesticides are presented in this information note. Particular attention is paid to safe use of equipment and materials. Recommendations regarding the use of personal protective equipment are also given.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, C/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 4p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 93-1651 Marco G.J., Hollingworth R.M., Plimmer J.R.
Regulation of agrochemicals - A driving force in their evolution
Collected symposium papers reviewing the history of pesticide regulation in the USA and elsewhere. This regulation has clearly influenced the use of known products and the development of new ones. Specific articles cover pesticide regulation in Europe and in the developing countries of the Asia-Pacific region.
American Chemical Society, Books and Journals Division, 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington D.C. 20036, USA, 1991. xvi, 188p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 93-1258 Dearfield K.L., Quest J.A., Whiting R.J., Stack H.F., Waters M.D.
Characteristics of the U.S. EPA's Office of Pesticide Programs' Toxicity Information Databases
Under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP), toxicity testing data are submitted and entered into various databases which contain the information used for hazard evaluations as part of the OPP review of pesticides. The studies are listed in an archival database to catalogue and allow retrieval of the study for review. Reviews of toxicity studies are then placed in a separate database that can be retrieved to support a regulatory position. Toxicity information for health effects other than cancer and gene mutations from chronic exposure is reviewed through a reference dose (RfD) approach, and these decisions and supporting data are entered into an RfD database. Carcinogenicity data are peer reviewed and the decisions are entered into a database to show the regulatory decision with supporting data. The mutagenicity data are reviewed and acceptable data are entered into the Genetic Activity Profile system to catalogue and display the information.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1991, Vol.96, p.53-56. 8 ref.

CIS 93-833 Coggon D., Pannett B., Winter P.
Mortality and incidence of cancer at four factories making phenoxy herbicides
To assess the possible carcinogenicity of phenoxy herbicides and related chlorophenols and dioxins, the International Agency for Research on Cancer is coordinating an international collaborative study of workers exposed to these compounds in their production or use. Four British cohorts of chemical manufacturers which have been recruited to the survey are described. They comprise a total of 2239 men employed during 1963-85. Their mortality was compared with that in the national population. Two deaths were from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with 0.87 expected. Both deaths occurred more than 10 years after first exposure to phenoxy compounds. One further non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was registered in a living subject with probable exposure to phenoxy compounds. A non-significant excess of lung cancer (19 deaths observed, 14.2 expected) is probably attributable to chance or a confounding effect of smoking. In one cohort only there was increased mortality from circulatory disease (34 deaths observed, 20.4 expected). A nested case-control study did not point to any occupational cause for this excess, but further evaluation will be needed during continued follow up.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.48, No.3, p.173-178. 25 ref.

CIS 93-831 Lander F., Lings S.
Variation in plasma cholinesterase activity among greenhouse workers, fruitgrowers and slaughtermen
The purpose of the study was to compare the plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activities of 100 greenhouse workers and 43 fruitgrowers engaged in spraying insecticides with those of 113 slaughtermen who served as controls. The ChE activity in the greenhouse workers and fruitgrowers was not significantly lower than in the controls. Nevertheless the ChE activity of greenhouse workers declined with increasing exposure. The wearing of protective gloves appears to be of particular value for the safety of workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1991, Vol.48, No.3, p.164-166. 6 ref. Illus.

CIS 93-596 Osorio A.M., Ames R.G., Rosenberg J., Mengle D.C.
Investigation of a fatality among parathion applicators in California
Staff of the California Department of Health Services investigated the death of a parathion applicator in California that was thought to be pesticide-related. A crew of eleven workers had been applying 0.125% parathion spray to almond orchards for approximately three weeks. On the day of the fatality, a sprayer rapidly developed symptoms of salivation, sweating, and convulsions after a half-day of work. Despite aggressive medical treatment, the worker died within one hour of his initial symptoms. This worker death is consistent with prior reports of parathion-related sprayer/applicator intoxications and is the first worker-related parathion death in California since 1972. Substitution of pesticides with less toxic active ingredients or the elimination of parathion is recommended.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.4, p.533-546. 16 ref. Appendix.

CIS 92-1968 Andrade Carvalho W.
Risk factors related to occupational and environmental exposure to organochlorine insecticides in the State of Bahia, Brazil, 1985
Fatores de riscos relacionados com exposição ocupacional e ambiental a inseticidas organoclorados no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, 1985 [in Portuguese]
In order to investigate the risks derived from occupational and environmental exposure to organochlorine insecticides, in particular 1.5% gamma-benzene hexachloride (technical HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), tests were conducted on 127 male individuals aged between 15 and 52 years from the State of Bahia (Brazil). It was found that improper handling of the products and failure to use personal protective equipment, together with longer time of exposure, significantly increased the rates of the hepatic enzyme transaminases GOT and GPT in the appliers of DDT and technical HCH. In view of the high morbidity among pesticide appliers in agriculture, the institution of programmes to teach these workers to avoid contaminating themselves and the environment is pointed out. Reference is made to the development of good hygiene habits, the use of personal protective equipment, and the correct handling of products. Summary in English.
Boletín de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, Dec. 1991, Vol.111, No.6, p.512-524. 19 ref.

CIS 92-1633 Chen S., Zhang Z., He F., Yao P., Wu Y., Sun J., Liu L., Li Q.
An epidemiological study on occupational acute pyrethroid poisoning in cotton farmers
A cross sectional survey on the prevalence of acute pyrethroid poisoning in Chinese cotton farmers was conducted in 1987 and 1988. A total of 3113 pyrethroid spraymen (2230 men (71.6%) and 883 women (28.4%)) were interviewed after spraying and followed up for 72 hours. Adverse effects of pyrethroid exposure were found in 834 of them (26.8%), manifested as abnormal facial sensations, dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, or loss of appetite. Only 10 subjects, who developed significant systemic symptoms and had signs of listlessness or muscular fasciculation, were diagnosed as having mild occupational acute pyrethroid poisoning, with a prevalence of 0.31% in subjects exposed to pure pyrethroids and 0.38% in subjects exposed to pyrethroid organophosphate mixtures. Measurements of pyrethroid concentrations in the air of the breathing zone, in skin pads, and in urine samples showed that dermal contamination is the main route of exposure to pyrethroids in cotton growers. Preventive measures are recommended.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1991, Vol.48, No.2, p.77-81. 9 ref.

CIS 92-1286 Consolidated list of products whose consumption and/or sale have been banned, withdrawn, severely restricted or not approved by governments (4th edition)
The 4th edition of this publication contains information on chemical products (agricultural and industrial chemicals and consumer products regulated because of their chemical composition) submitted to the International Register of Potentially Toxic Chemicals by national governments. Part 1 presents information on restrictive regulatory decisions taken by 92 governments on over 600 products. Part 2 is a compilation of trade names and manufacturer information for a large proportion of the products covered in Part 1. There are indexes by common name, trade name and Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number.
United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 1991. 769p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-1119 Temephos
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects (cholinesterase inhibition). Long term exposure effects: cholinesterase inhibition.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-1250 Godon D., Lajoie P., Thouez J.P.
Mortality due to cancers of the brain and lymphatic tissues, and leukemia as a function of agricultural pesticide use in Quebec (1976-1985)
Mortalité par cancers du cerveau, des tissus lymphatiques et la leucémie selon l'utilisation des pesticides, en agriculture, au Québec (1976-1985) [in French]
Relationships between the mortality data for cancers of the brain, the lymphatic tissues and leukaemia, and the spatial distribution of agricultural pesticide use for 34 drainage basins in Quebec, Canada, from 1976-1985 are described. Agreement between the results for mortality data in this exploratory study and the results from another study on cancer incidence data for 1982-1983, supports the hypothesis of a potential relationship between the use of pesticides in agriculture and cancer of the lymphatic tissues.
Canadian Journal of Public Health - Revue canadienne de santé publique, May-June 1991, Vol.82, No.3, p.174-180. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 92-806 Agricultural chemicals through pictures
Los agrotóxicos en cifras [in Spanish]
Illustrated propaganda booklet aimed at agricultural workers exposed to pesticides. It encourages replacement by organic, non-toxic substances rather than the use of protective equipment.
Centro de Investigación y Apoyo Cultural (CIAC), Calle Sánchez No.254, Zona Colonial, Z-1, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, 1991. 2 vols. (32+36p.) Illus.

CIS 92-974 Pontal P.G.
Organochlorine insecticides
Insecticides organochlorés [in French]
Contents of this summary note on organochlorine insecticides: common properties, notably absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, common symptoms of acute poisoning, subacute and chronic toxic effects, determination in biological matter, treatment, prevention and safety measures. Principal organochlorine insecticides are listed. Tables show: daily permissible dose and maximum values of exposure for some organochlorine insecticides; an evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of some organochlorine insecticides (CIRC) as reported in the literature.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1991, 4p. Illus. 29 ref.

CIS 92-939 Brown L.M., Dosemeci M., Blair A., Burmeister L.
Comparability of data obtained from farmers and surrogate respondents on use of agricultural pesticides
Information from surrogates is increasingly being used in case-control studies to evaluate cancer risks from pesticides; however, little is known about the quality of this type of information. To address this concern, the authors compared interview data collected in 1987 from 95 male Iowa farmers and their wives or other surrogates on the use of specific agricultural pesticides. Agreement between direct and surrogate interviews was excellent (83-100%) for response to dichotomous (yes/no) questions regarding past agricultural use of specific pesticides. Although there were more discrepancies for detailed questions (e.g., the number of days per year on which each pesticide was handled), responses from spouses appear to be adequate for epidemiologic studies of pesticides and cancer.
American Journal of Epidemiology, 15 Aug. 1991, Vol.134, No.4, p.348-355. 15 ref.

CIS 92-778 Propoxur
International chemical safety card. Synonym: arprocarb. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects; hepatic and renal damage. Long term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects; may affect gastrointestinal tract; hepatic and renal damage.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-776 Phosphamidon
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects (cholinesterase inhibition) resulting in convulsions, respiratory failure and death. Long term exposure effects: depression of blood cholinesterase; possible cumulative effect.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-764 Methomyl
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the nervous system, blood-forming tissues, kidneys, spleen, and liver.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-763 Methamidophos
International chemical safety card. Synonym: tamaron. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects; may cause retarded development of the new-born.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-760 Maneb
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect alcohol tolerance. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-759 Malathion
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); risk of convulsions, respiratory failure and death in case of exposure to concentrations above the occupational limits.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-581
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR)
This index summarises the toxicological assessments of pesticides made by the WHO Expert Groups on Pesticide Residues and the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment. The 1st table summarises the current acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) that have been established by the WHO experts, gives the chemical class and primary use(s) of each pesticide and indicates other relevant WHO publications. The 2nd table summarises in more detail the history of the evaluations. An annex lists the reports and other documents resulting from the Joint Meetings that have been held to date.
WHO Joint Secretary of the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues, International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 33p. 64 ref.

CIS 92-580
International Agency for Research on Cancer
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to insecticide application, and some pesticides
This publication represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (16-23 October 1990, Lyon, France). The report concludes that spraying and application of nonarsenical insecticides entail exposures that are probably carcinogenic in humans (Group 2A). Chlordane, heptachlor, DDT, dichlorvos, pentachlorophenol, atrazine are possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B) and captafol is probably carcinogenic in humans (2A). Aldicarb, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, permethrin, thiram, ziram, monuron, picloram, simazine and trifluralin are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 612p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 95.00.

CIS 92-550 Cowell J.E., Lottman C.M., Manning M.J.
Assessment of lawn care worker exposure to dithiopyr
Eighteen lawn care specialists were monitored by both passive dosimetry and biological monitoring techniques for exposure to the herbicide dithiopyr (trade name Dimension) in the normal course of their duties. The mean body dose estimate from urinalysis of the specimens collected over a 72-hour period was 4.60 x 10-5mg/kg/lb applied. The passive dosimetry body dose estimates using dermal deposition measurements corrected for skin penetration and simulated inhalation measurements were calculated for the 2 clothing scenarios observed in the worker tests. The mean body dose estimate for a fully clothed worker wearing a long-sleeved shirt was 8.09 x 10-5mg/kg/lb while for a specialist wearing a short-sleeved shirt the estimate was 3.62 x 10-4mg/kg/lb. The lower leg regions, which were protected by long trousers and boots, had the highest exposure by passive dosimetry data.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Aug. 1991, Vol.21, No.2, p.195-201. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 92-549 Abrams K., Hogan D.J., Maibach H.I.
Pesticide-related dermatoses in agricultural workers
Literature survey on occupational skin diseases in farm workers due to contact with pesticides. A general overview of the field conditions of exposure is presented, including U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations. The bulk of the paper summarises the latest scientific data concerning specific chemicals under the following broad categories: pesticides derived from plants; inorganic and organo-metal pesticides; solvents; fumigants; chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides; organophosphates; carbamates; rodenticides; herbicides; fungicides; slimicides; antibiotics; miticides; plant-growth inhibitors; insect repellents. The special dangers of working with livestock is addressed, including zoonotic infections. Patch testing, the accepted diagnostic tool for contact dermatitis, is explained.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.463-492. 190 ref.

CIS 92-548 Shaver C.S., Tong T.
Chemical hazards to agricultural workers
The focus of this paper is on the acute toxicity of chemical hazards, other than pesticides, likely to be present in agricultural processes. The operations stressed are: fertiliser use; equipment use and repair; sterilisation and fumigation operations; animal confinement hazards; the use of stored products (such as silo-opening hazards). Pesticide toxicity is only summarised at the conclusion and is not discussed in depth. Information in appendices provide recommendations on: working in or near conventional silos; laundering contaminated clothing; emergency medical treatment for acute pesticide poisoning.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, July-Sep. 1991, Vol.6, No.3, p.391-413. 87 ref.

CIS 92-546 Obendorf S.K., Kasunick R.S., Ravichandran V., Borsa J., Coffman C.W.
Starch as a renewable finish to improve the pesticide-protective properties of conventional workclothes
Because many pesticide handlers persist in wearing and reusing conventional workclothes, a renewable functional finish that enhances the pesticide-protective qualities of fabrics would be useful. This study investigated the ability of starch to act as a pesticide trap, preventing transfer and increasing removal by laundering, and the effect of carboxymethyl cellulose on release of pesticides in laundry. The retention and distribution of methyl parathion (MeP) on 65% polyester/35% cotton fabric was studied with 4 finishes: starch and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as non-durable finishes; durable press resin (DP) and durable press/carboxymethyl cellulose (DC/CMC) as durable finishes. These studies support the intriguing theory that starch can act as a pesticide trap on the fabric surface to decrease pesticide transfer and to enhance pesticide removal. Extensive penetration studies, field studies, and additional investigation of fibre yarn, and fabric parameters are needed to further quantify the effects of starch.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, July 1991, Vol.21, No.1, p.10-16. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 92-527 Partanen T., Kurppa K., Ngowi V.F.
Occupational pesticide hazards in developing countries - Epidemiological considerations
A review of the literature on epidemiological studies of pesticide hazards. Examples are given of studies covering: assessment of exposure and response; symptoms characteristic of pesticide poisoning; impact assessment and successful prevention programmes. A table shows prevalences of selected symptoms related to exposure to organophosphorus pesticides in different populations. It is considered that in developing countries, the assessment of the frequency and intensity of acute ill health caused by pesticides is of paramount importance in the planning and implementation of successful prevention programmes.
East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 1991, Vol.1, No.2, p.46-51. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 92-526 Sekimpi D.K.
The role of OHS in safe use of pesticides, particularly in developing countries
A discussion of the role of occupational health services (OHS) during the development, manufacture, transportation, use and disposal of pesticides. Aspects covered include: provision of toxicological data by pesticide developers; provision of health education, environmental and biological monitoring and personal protection for factory workers; controls on the transportation and storage of pesticides; safe methods of pesticide use; the role of legislation, standards and education.
East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Sep. 1991, Vol.1, No.2, p.40-41. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 92-561 Safe use of pesticides: Fourteenth report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control
Contents of this report of the WHO Expert Committee on Vector Biology and Control: trends in pesticide use; international activities for promoting pesticide safety; the WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES); current research on pesticides for use in public health; aircraft disinsectisation; exposure of the public to pesticides; classification of pesticides; education and training; poisoning by pesticides; recommendations.
Office of Publications, World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. iv, 27p. 24 ref. Price: CHF 6.00; developing countries: CHF 4.20.

CIS 92-412 Dinoseb
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes; may affect the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems; renal and hepatic damage. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may have effects on the central nervous system, kidneys, liver, blood, eyes and the immune system; methaemoglobinaemia; may impair male fertility, cause birth defects and retard development of the newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-401 Dicamba
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; effects on the liver, kidneys and heart; may cause genetic damage.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-400 Diazinon
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects (cholinesterase inhibition). Long-term exposure effects: effects on blood cholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-397 Chlorothalonil
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes and skin. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; effects on the kidneys and stomach.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-389 Chlordimeform hydrochloride
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous systems); effects on the kidneys, blood and heart. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral systems), effects on the liver, kidneys, bile, bladder, heart, blood, spleen and lungs, resulting in blood in the urine and bladder irritation; possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects and retarded development of the newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-388 Chlordimeform
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous systems); effects on the kidneys, blood and heart. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous systems); effects on the liver, kidneys, bile, bladder, heart, blood, spleen and lungs, resulting in blood in the urine and bladder irritation; possibly carcinogenic in humans; may cause birth defects and retarded development of the newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-386 Carbofuran
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous systems). Long-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central and peripheral nervous systems); effects on the immune system.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-385 Carbaryl
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (cholinesterase inhibition). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; depression of blood cholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-384 Captan
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; may affect the gastrointestinal tract, liver, testes, kidneys, lungs, spleen; may cause retarded development of the newborn.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-383 Captafol
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect blood pressure, the nervous system and liver functions. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; allergic conjunctivitis; asthma; may affect the liver, kidneys, blood and blood pressure; probably carcinogenic in humans.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-208 Wallace D.G., Sullivan E.A., Malik O.P.
Mixer and applicator exposures to lawn spray chemicals
Hygiene assessments of mixer and applicator exposures to pesticides and fertilisers were made at nine lawn-spraying companies in Ontario (Canada). Overall health and safety programmes of the companies varied widely, but in most cases advice was given to upgrade hygiene and emergency response capabilities and to minimise drifting of spray mists. Although only one of the nine companies conducts regular biological monitoring to ensure the adequacy of its control measures, controls in place were generally adequate and the health of workers is considered unlikely to be adversely affected by mixing and/or applying lawn spray chemicals.
Occupational Health in Ontario, Spring/Summer 1991, Vol.12, No.2, p.57-67. 12 ref.

CIS 92-260
Health and Safety Executive - Department of the Environment
Remedial timber treatment in buildings. A guide to good practice and the safe use of wood preservatives
Contents of this safety guide: assessing the need for remedial work and choosing the right treatment (dealing with fungal and insect attack, action against fungal decay, identifying fungal and insect damage); using pesticide products safely and responsibly (legal obligations for the use of pesticide products, outline of approval and review procedures, understanding the product label); safe and responsible timber treatment (training, planning and preparation, protecting the public, the environment and operatives, good practices for working with wood preservatives, cleaning up and disposal, dealing with spillages and fire, first aid on site).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. vi, 38p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 4.00.

CIS 92-246
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Lindane
Notwithstanding extensive use over 40 years, very few cases of occupational poisoning due to lindane have been reported. In workers exposed for long periods during either manufacture or application of lindane, the only sign found was increased activity of drug-metabolising enzymes in the liver. There is no evidence for the relationship suggested in some publications between exposure to lindane and the occurrence of blood dyscrasias. Human studies indicate that a dose of approximately 1.0mg/kg body weight does not induce poisoning; however, a dose of 15-17mg/kg body weight resulted in severe toxic symptoms. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 208p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 23.00 (in developing countries: CHF 16.10).

CIS 92-224 Saracci R., Kogevinas M., Bertazzi P., Bueno de Mesquita B.H., Coggon D., Green L.M., Kauppinen T., L'Abbé K.A., Littorin M., Lynge E., Mathews J.D., Neuberger M., Osman J., Pearce N., Winkelmann R.
Cancer mortality in workers exposed to chlorophenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols
This paper reports a historical cohort study of mortality in an international register of 18,910 chlorophenoxy herbicide production workers or sprayers from 10 countries. Exposure was reconstructed through questionnaires, factory or spraying records and job histories. A non-significant increase, based on 4 observed deaths, was noted for soft-tissue sarcoma. Increased risks were found for some uncommon neoplasms, but results are difficult to interpret because of the small numbers. The excess of soft-tissue sarcomas among sprayers is compatible with a causal role of chlorophenoxy herbicides but the excess does not seem to be specifically associated with those herbicides probably contaminated by the toxic dioxin TCDD.
Lancet, 26 Oct. 1991, Vol.338, No.8774, p.1027-1032. 35 ref.

CIS 92-31 Atrazine
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; pulmonary and liver diseases.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-30 Amitraz
International chemical safety card. Pesticide. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; the substance may have effects on the nervous system, the liver, the cardiovascular system and on blood. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the nervous system, the liver, the spleen, the stomach and the blood; carcinogenic in experimental animals.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 92-29 Aminocarb
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects; hepatic and heart disorders.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1793 Parathion
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1792 Paraquat
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; lung oedema; lung haemorrhage and fibrosis; damage to liver, kidneys, lungs, heart and digestive tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; loss of fingernails; lung diseases.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1786 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
International chemical safety card. Synonym: nemagon. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation and corrosion of skin, eyes and respiratory tract; risk of lung, renal and hepatic damage; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: renal and hepatic damage; cirrhosis of the liver; possible human carcinogen; possible antifertility effects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

CIS 91-1785 Aldicarb
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; dispnoea; nervous and respiratory disorders.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p.

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