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Confined spaces - 312 entries found

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1977

CIS 78-1526 Hazards of entering recipients and confined spaces (wells, waste water tanks, etc.)
Gefahren beim Befahren von Behältern und engen Räumen (z.B. Brunnenanlagen, Abwasserbehälter usw.) [in German]
Review of the most common hazards of work in tanks, boilers, hoppers, wells, conduits and other confined spaces: presence of harmful gas, vapour, smoke and dust from their contents or from installations connected to them; oxygen deficiency; hot, corrosive or toxic substances; flammable gas or vapour; mobile mechanical plant; heated or cooled plant; live electric plant; radiation. List of safety regulations in force in the Fed.Rep. of Germany. Preventive measures recommended: organisational (obligatory permit-to-work, supervision, instruction of personnel), technical (identification of substances, cleaning and isolating of plant, monitoring of atmosphere, personal protective equipment); rescue (use of safety harness and lifeline, 2nd worker outside the installation). Check list for application of these measures.
Der Unfallschirm, Mitteilungsblatt der Textil- und Bekleidungs-Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1977, No.4, p.2-4.

CIS 78-1425 Safety requirements for working in tanks and other confined spaces.
This standard set forth minimum requirements for safe entry, work in, and exit from tanks and other confined spaces at normal atmospheric pressure. It does not apply to the building, breaking, operating, and repair of marine vessels; mining or tunnel construction; foundry sand silos, bins, and hoppers; operations conducted in special breathing chambers, such as oxygen-enriched atmosphere, with special oxygen blends or above or below normal atmospheric pressures; or to utility and telecommunications manholes. Definitions are followed by specifications concerning: precautions before entry (isolating, ventilation, preliminary precautions to cleaning, cleaning, contaminant freeing); environmental hazards (general testing requirements, oxygen-deficient, flammable, toxic and combustible dust atmospheres, noise and radiation exposure); entry procedures (entry permit, illumination, completion of cleaning, cleaning solvents, ventilation after entry); hot work (precautions before commencing, maintaining gas-free conditions, fire prevention, control of fumes, permit-to-work); removal and application of preservative coatings (flame or heat removal, chemical removers, etc.); personal protective equipment. Appendices: instrumentation for evaluation of atmospheric contaminants, other pertinent standards and reference material.
ANSI Z117.1-1977, American National Standards Institute, 1430 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10018, USA, 26 Aug. 1977. 24p. 13 ref. Price: US-$5.00.

CIS 78-1238 Horn A.
Responsibilities of experts for work involving the treatment of inner surfaces of ships
Aufgaben des Sachkundigen bei der Oberflächenbehandlung in Schiffsräumen [in German]
According to West German regulations currently in force, the shipowner or contractor is obliged to call in a specialist to determine if there is any risk of emanations of harmful or explosive substances before and during operations for the treatment of the inner surfaces of vessels. The specialist is held responsible for preparing and programming supervision before and during the work, and establishing a report. This article gives information on different types of dangerous substances, choice of apparatus and methods, the method of air sampling and the air exchange rate depending on the solvent concentrations in the atmosphere.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, May 1977, No.5, p.204-208. Illus.

CIS 78-941 Boenke R.
Entry into containers and confined spaces
Befahren von Behältern und engen Räumen [in German]
This booklet is a commentary on German Democratic Republic standard TGL 30047 which is reproduced. Aspects of the text dealt with are: definitions; permit-to-work; occupational safety and fire training; safety measures against miscellaneous hazards; information and on-the-job instruction; first aid and resuscitation. The relevant legislation in the German Democratic Republic is referred to, with excerpts from the Orders on respiratory protective equipment, welding and cutting, and safety harnesses.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, DDR-1193 Berlin. 1977. 64p. Illus. Price. M.1.00.

CIS 78-940 Lining tanks and vessels with rubber.
Hazards of work in enclosd spaces (traces of dangerous substances, fire hazard from static electricity in presence of flammable vapours from rubber solvents and cements, etc.); precautions during sand or shot blasting; wearing of breathing apparatus; general precautions (physical examination for fitness; standby employee in charge of operations; permits to work; limitation on quantity of solvent used inside tank at any given time; nonferrous tools; personal protective equipment; warning notices, etc.); work clothing, goggles, conductive soles; electrical precautions (e.g. earthing of tank); lining of railway tank cars; use of carbon disulfide as an activator; rescue and first aid.
Data Sheet 492, Revision B, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 5p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 78-843 Duval H., Lalheugue L.
Work in crawl spaces by plumbers and sanitary fitters
Le poste de travail des plombiers et des chauffagistes dans les vides sanitaires. [in French]
Description of hazards for these workers in a damp, cold and poorly accessible workplace: electrical hazard (use of hand lamps); harmful vapours, fumes and gases from organic solvents, glues, pyrolysis of polyethylene, accidental combustion of teflon strips, welding of galvanised pipes; physical load due to difficulties of movement and work in an uncomfortable posture. Safety and health measures: maintenance of gas piping; use of 24V current; body hygiene, facilitated by installation of sanitary facilities, and, especially, increase in height of workplace, soil drainage, incorporation of openings, ventilation ducts, lighting throughout crawl spaces.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1977, Vol.5, No.3, p.119-124. Illus.

CIS 78-792 Philbert M., Perrin J.
Occupational diseases due to work below ground level
Pathologie du travail souterrain [in French]
Paper read at the "Entretiens de Bichat" (Paris, France), 1977. Report on an investigation by interview conducted in undertakings of the Paris region employing workers below ground level or in confined spaces (record clerks, reprography personnel, restaurant personnel, cleaners, etc.), to determine whether such activity gives rise to specific disorders. After remarks on these workplaces, the main findings are reported: visual disorders due to fluorescent lighting, headache, rhinopharyngitis, thirst, osteoarticular and muscular pain, gastrointestinal and autonomic nervous disorders. Review of arrangements to compensate the many factors posing a problem of adaptation: job enrichment, flexible working hours, work breaks, reduced working hours, location of canteens and cafeterias above ground, minimum space of 12m2 per person, work below ground level limited to jobs liable to be detrimental for the external environment.
Médecine et biologie, 1977, p.187-192. 10 ref.

CIS 78-583 Proteau J., Raix A., Assouly M., Gaumy M.
Work in windowless premises and basement
Le travail dans les locaux aveugles et en sous-sol. [in French]
Work in premises where there is no daylight, no fresh air from outside and no windows giving a view of the outside surroundings, and in basements or below ground level, raise special problems as regards regulations, work rules, air conditioning, and lighting. This article examines these problems and suggests remedies, with particular emphasis on the psychological hazards of work in windowless premises below street level. The effects of this type of employment on the workers' health and mental balance are still little-known. Prevention of possible psychological disorders it may bring on should not consist in merely awarding bonuses for disagreeable working conditions, but in workplace improvement, reduction of hours of work, extra leave, staff transfers and rotation, flexi-hours, job enrichment, work breaks with calisthenics, physical and outdoor activities and sports. Work in basement premises should be authorised only if it is technicially impossible to avoid it, and only for work which involves moving around. List of types of work which can be performed below street level without danger of psychological trouble (archives, store rooms, cinemas, theatres, concert halls, etc.).
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June 1977, Vol.38, No.6, p.551-562. 46 ref.

CIS 78-49 Entry into grain bins and food tanks.
This data sheet lists hazards (explosive dusts, gases, vapours; toxic gases or vapours; lack of oxygen; contact with pesticides, fumigants, etc.; spontaneous heating; falls of objects; falls from ladders, etc.), gives examples of typical accidents, and proposes safe working rules (notify superintendent before entering bulk storage bins, have a standby worker outside, always wear safety harness, belt or lifeline). Other sections are devoted to: approval of, and specifications for hoisting equipment; inspections; rescue plans; permits-to-work.
Data Sheet 663, National Safety Council, 425 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1977. 6p. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 78-48 Entry into confined spaces.
Sections of this guidance note are devoted to: hazards (dangerous concentrations of gases and vapours, fumes, combustion products); safe working methods (permits-to-work, assessment of hazard, sequence of operations, isolating the installation, steam cleaning and other cleaning methods, purging, testing, certification); precautions during work (use of breathing apparatus, rescue); maintenance of equipment; training; legal requirements; manhole dimensions.
Guidance Note GS 5, Health and Safety Executive, London, H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, July 1977. 10p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: £0.30.

CIS 77-2068 Holzhauser K.P., Schaller K.H.
Occupational health study of chimney sweeps - Accident and disease hazards
Arbeitsmedizinische Untersuchungen bei Schornsteinfegern - Gefährdung am Arbeitsplatz und berufsbedingte Gesundheitsschäden [in German]
This epidemiological study first defines the problem and describes the work of the chimney sweep. Hazards of exposure to vanadium, benzo(a)pyrene and carbon monoxide above all are studied. Medical examinations in 121 chimney sweeps are reported: questionnaire history, job analysis, clinical and laboratory studies, lung function tests, radiography, ECG, ENT examinations. There was no evidence of an increased incidence of occupational disease. Chronic obstructive bronchitis was no commoner than in the general population. Recommendations for improvement of protective equipment and for pre-employment and periodical examinatioons.
Heft 91, Schriftenreihe Arbeit und Gesundheit, Georg Thieme Verlag, Herdweg 63, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1977. 98p. Illus. 180 ref. Price: DM.45.00.

CIS 77-1750 Ekström Ö.
Chimney sweepers' health is threatened by hydrocarbons and benzopyrene
Kolväte och benzpyren hot mot sotares hälsa [in Swedish]
Report on a survey carried out among Stockholm (Sweden) chimney sweepers: poor conditions of work (cramped and inadequate changing and washrooms with poor maintenance and cleaning, work in narrow chimneys and cramped spaces in boiler rooms, absence of fixed ladders and anchoring devices on roofs of private houses, etc.); serious health hazards (continual exposure to soot, which contains corrosive and carcinogenic substances, risk of cancer of the scrotum, thermal stress in boilers and boiler rooms, exposure to degreasing agents when cleaning ventilation ducts in restaurant kitchens (deposits of aerosols contained in cooking oil mist), etc.). In view of these hazards it is recommended that medical supervision of these workers should be improved, and that the occupation of chimney sweep should be considered as a public service.
Arbetsmiljö, 1977, No.4, p.22-26. Illus.

CIS 77-1551 Rycroft R.J.G., Calnan C.D.
Irritant dermatitis during the relining of a blast furnace.
The conditions of the work, which was begun before the last of the refractory bricks had been removed from the furnace, and was therefore very dusty, and the contractor's men's conditions of hygiene during the 5 months on the job, are described. Results of patch tests in one of the 10 affected men (out of 36 exposed) are given. There is evidence for regarding the condition as an occupatonal primary irritant contact dermatitis.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1977, Vol.3, No.2, p.75-78. 4 ref.

CIS 77-1668 Deubner D.C., Gilliam D.K.
Fever of undertermined etiology after cleaning of steam turbine condensers.
Two outbreaks of a febrile syndrome marked by chills, headache, myalgia, nausea, and malaise occurred in workers who had cleaned the steam condensers of electric power turbines. Mean incubation period was 38h. 22 of 23 exposed men became ill. Clinical and environmental investigation failed to reveal the aetiology of the outbreaks. The circumstances and clinical syndrome have points of similarity to fever following inhalation of metal fumes and certain cotton dusts, and to Pontiac fever. It is thought that the symptoms were caused by inhalation of an unidentified toxin-producing microorganism.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1977, Vol.32, No.3, p.116-120. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 77-1252 Burri W.
Work in tanks and confined spaces
Arbeiten in Behältern und engen Räumen [in German]
Travaux à l'intérieur de réservoirs et dans des locaux exigus. [in French]
Poisoning, asphyxiation and explosion hazards are present in tanks, reaction vessels, sewers, sewer manholes, etc. This booklet comments on the types of apparatus available to determine these hazards, describes some typical accidents, and studies some possible means of prevention or protection: ventilation, combustion of gases and vapours, protection of the respiratory tract, precautions against the hazard of sudden combustion, standby worker to give assistance. Choice of precautionary methods depends on the worksite. The article refers to pertinent rules issued by the Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Nov. 1976 - Jan. 1977, No.124. 35p. Illus.

1976

CIS 77-1253 Work in tanks
Arbeid i tanker [in Norwegian]
Contents of these directives (entry into force: 1 Apr. 1976): responsibilities; definitions; emptying and gas freeing of tanks before commencing work; monitoring of atmosphere inside tank before grant of permit-to-work, and continuous monitoring during operations; sealing-off of all pipes entering the tank; ventilation; use of breathing apparatus with air supply; cleaning operations with or without heat (fire prevention); rules and procedure for issuance of permits-to-work and to enter tanks (entries on certificate indicating type of liquid previously contained in tank, professional and other qualifications of person issuing the certificate, etc.). Appendices: models of certificate and permit-to-work; directives for cleaning of tanks which have contained petrol with tetraethyllead.
Verneregler Nr.34, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, 1976. 19p. Gratis.

CIS 77-778 Roehlich F., Rodgers S.J.
Development of an air purifier for personnel cubicles.
An air purifier developed for tunnel, toll and garage booths or cubicles exposed to motor vehicle exhaust fumes is described. Catalytic oxidation, activated carbon and a HEPA (high-efficiency particulate and aerosol) filter are used to scrub out CO, hydrocarbons, NO2 and particulates. Laboratory tests showed it to function satisfactorily.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1976, Vol.37, No.10, p.586-589. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 77-618 Fardell P.J., Houghton B.W.
The evaluation of an improved method of gas-freeing an aviation fuel storage tank.
The technique involves the use of natural and mechanical ventilation, together with an air-driven pump for removal of liquid residues from the irregular bottom of the tank. An assessment was made by gas-freeing a 4,500m3 (1M gal) tank in which the atmosphere was monitored using portable flammable gas detectors and checked by the analysis of samples using chromatography. The technique was much quicker than the traditional method of gas-freeing and was more controlled so that a work schedule could be planned with confidence. The portable gas detectors underestimated gas concentrations; it is imperative that the concentration levels at which various inspection and maintenance operations are permitted in tanks should reflect the likely errors of the instrument used to measure concentrations.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Nov. 1976, Vol.1, No.3, p.237-251. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 77-833 Rockette H.E., Redmond C.K.
Long-term mortality study of steelworkers - X. Mortality patterns among masons.
This article compares the cause-specific mortality of masons in the steel industry in 1953-66 with that of matched controls. Non-whites had an overall excess risk compared with controls, which appeared to be due to a cumulative effect of many risk categories. White masons had an excess risk for non-malignant respiratory disease, increasing with length of exposure, and an excess risk for respiratory cancer, not present in the later years of the study. Results for cardiovascular disease are unclear.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1976, Vol.18, No.8, p.541-545. 13 ref.

CIS 77-516 Rames J.
Welding in confined spaces.
Brief review of the hazards of oxygen deficiency, on the one hand, and of oxygen enrichment of the atmosphere, on the other, during welding in confined spaces. An O2 content below 16% (or higher when there is exertion) can lead to symptoms of anoxia, 10-15% produces faulty judgment and rapid fatigue, and levels below 10%, collapse. Tests of O2 content should therefore be carried out before work is begun, and if it is less than 16% respiratory protective equipment should be worn. Oxygen enrichment may be due to a leak, but it is often created intentionally by the welder. Sudden spontaneous ignition of the welder's clothing, which is often contaminated with grease, then readily occurs. Examples of 3 such accidents, all fatal, and a list of safety rules conclude the article.
Metal Construction, Nov. 1976, Vol.8, No.11, p.493-494. Illus.

CIS 77-186 Balletta A.
Allergic eczema due to epoxy resins in particular working conditions: Clinical and allergological study
Eczema allergico da resina epossidica in particolari condizioni lavorative: Osservazioni cliniche ed allergologiche [in Italian]
A brief review of the chief plastics in use and of the applications and toxicity of epoxy resins is followed by a description of studies in some 35 workers employing them. 18 heavily exposed workers were engaged in preparing glass fibre and resin panels in a railway tunnel and installing them by spraying the resin. 12 had mild to moderate eczematous dermatitis (sometimes occurring within days of exposure). Description of type and duration of symptoms. Patch tests showed a positive reaction to the resins in a large proportion of cases, as well as to triethylenetetramine. Critical appraisal of the working conditions (spraying of epoxy resins in closed conditions; infrequent changing of work clothes). Exposed workers in the open air had no allergic symptoms.
Rivista degli infortuni e delle malattie professionali, Mar.-Apr. 1976, No.2, p.211-222. 19 ref.

CIS 76-1545 British standard specification: Access and inspection openings for pressure vessels.
This standard, prepared under the authority of the Pressure Vessel Industry Standards Committee, takes account of discussions concerning the international standardisation of pressure vessels. It specifies the requirements for the provision and dimensions of sighthole, handhole, headhole and manhole openings into static and mobile pressure vessels requiring inspection facilities. Definitions are followed by general requirements and sections devoted to: sizes of access and inspection openings; design considerations; minimum number of openings and their positions. Viewing ranges for sightholes, handholes and headholes are illustrated diagrammatically, and there is a table indicating minimum number and type of openings according to diameter of vessel. Section 30 of the Factories Act 1961 requires an opening of 460mm diameter; experiments carried out by the United Kingdom factory inspectorate indicate that this is a reasonable minimum for rescue by persons wearing airline breathing apparatus. It is not large enough for persons entering with self-contained breathing apparatus.
BS 470:1976, British Standards Institution, 2 Park Street, London W1A 2BS, United Kingdom, Feb. 1976. 4p. Illus. Price: £1.50.

1975

CIS 77-209 Work with grass silos
Arbeid i grassiloer [in Norwegian]
These directives were drawn up to reduce the number of accidents which still occur in work with grass silos. They prescribe safety rules fulfilling the requirements laid down in the Norwegian Act of 19 Dec. 1958 concerning the conditions of work of agricultural workers. Contents: clamp and tower silos; handrails; walkways and platforms; access (ladders, steps); suspended loads; silage unloading; lifting and handling equipment; percolating juice pits; poisoning or asphyxiation hazards (carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides); detector tubes; rescue harness and respirators.
Veiledning nr.13, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103, Oslo-Dep., Norway, Apr. 1975. 18p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 76-705 Pozin G.M., Veksler G.S.
Determination of location of air inlet for the ventilation of vessels during shipbuilding or ship repair
Opredelenie mesta zabora atmosfernogo vozduha dlja ventiljacii pomeščenij strojaščihsja ili remontiruemyh sudov [in Russian]
Results of research on the laws governing the flow of air along a ship's deck, and description of research on scale models with the hold hatches opening near or at a great distance from the superstructure. If there are no obstacles with sharp edges near the air inlet, the latter may be located on the windward side without danger of intake of foul air; such a danger would only exist in the case of a flat calm. The pure air zone around an air inlet located at some distance from the superstructure commences at a height of 5m above the deck level.
Sudostroenie, Mar. 1975, No.3, p.43-44. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 76-864 Fox J.R.
Permit to work systems governing the entry into tanks and vessels.
Permits-to-work assume special importance in the case of entry and work in confined spaces, and safety regulations in force in the United Kingdom contain specific provisions in this connection. The author discusses the main requirements and features of permits-to-work and considers the precautions to be taken when entering a vessel with or without breathing apparatus.
Protection, Sep. 1975, Vol.12, No.7, p.10-14. Illus.

CIS 76-46
Central Coordinating Committee, National Sickness Insurance Fund (Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie), Paris, 12 June 1975.
Work in vats and tanks
Travaux dans les cuves et réservoirs. [in French]
Amended version of Recommendation No.113 (CIS 75-50), drawing the attention of undertakings and employees to the particular risk of asphyxia presented by cartridge filter masks when incorrectly worn in inadequately aerated premises. The other provisions of Recomendation No.113 remain unchanged.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1975, No.81, Note No.988-81-75 (Recommandation n°119), p.517-523.

1974

CIS 76-536
Anvisningar nr.19:1, National Workers' Protection Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Sep. 1974 (revised edition).
Petroleum tankers - Directives for shipyards
Oljetankfartyg - Varvsanvisningar [in Swedish]
Contents: shipyard entry certificate; gas freeing of tanks; supervision of work (responsibilities of supervisory staff); cleaning of tanks; permits-to-work and tank entry certificates; safety measures (earthing of tanker, shutdown procedure, detection of toxic or flammable atmospheres, etc.); work of land personnel on tankers outside shipyards; certification procedure. The Swedish safety standards for work in tanker holds dated 3 Dec. 1974, warning notices, and specimen forms of certificates and checklists are appended.
Liber Förlag, Fack, 16289 Vällingby, Sweden, 1974. 40p. Illus. Price: Swe-cr.12.80.

CIS 75-1827 McHale E.T.
Life support without combustion hazards.
Fire research has shown that combustion can be prevented by increasing the heat capacity of the atmosphere. This can be effected by addition to the air of perfluorocarbons such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF4), hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and octafluoropropane (C3F8), which being physiologically inert permit life to be sustained; they can also be used to extinguish existing fires. On account of the production of toxic decomposition products by C2F6 and C3F8, however, only CF4 appears acceptable from the toxicity standpoint for use in habitable atmospheres.
Fire Technology, Feb. 1974, Vol.10, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 75-2050 Rules for the design and construction of, and work in, manholes and galleries of district heating systems, etc.
Forskrifter for indretning af og arbejde i brønde og tunneler til fjernvarmeanlæg o.l. [in Danish]
These rules, which are made under the Workers Protection Act of 1954, lay down requirements to be met by new manholes and galleries (minimum dimensions, escape routes, installation and thermal insulation of steam mains, electrical safety, ventilation), steps to be taken to improve existing manholes and galleries, and safety and health measures to be observed when working in manholes and galleries (designation of a responsible guard, provision of means of escape, checking for toxic or flammable atmospheres, etc.).
Publikation nr.47, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet), Upsalagade 20, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1974. 22p. Gratis.

CIS 75-1259 Hensele W.
Get in without danger - Safe entry into compound mixing installations
Einsteigen ohne Risiko - Sicheres Befahren von Mischanlagen [in German]
The example of an accident occurring in a compound animal feed mixer serves as starting point for a review of the precautions necessary when cleaning and servicing these and similar installations: instruction and qualifications of maintenance staff; removal of fuses; locking of controls; a single key for the main switch and the mixer lid secured by a common safety lock. Circuit diagrams.
Sicherheitsingenieur, Oct. 1974, Vol.5, No.10, p.462-466. Illus.

CIS 75-318 Dorias H.
Explosive gas-air mixtures
Explosible Gas-Luft-Gemische [in German]
Review of conditions leading to explosions in tanks having contained hydrocarbons. Calculations are reproduced in the article showing that minimal quantities of hydrocarbons are sufficient to produce an explosive mixture (examples of a propane tank and an inland-waterway tanker are given). Rules for prevention: replacement of oxygen and flammable gas by an inert gas and by water; elimination of ignition sources; analysis of the atmosphere in tanks.
Die Berufsgenossenschaft, July 1974, No.7, p.279-281. Illus.

CIS 75-50 Work in vats and tanks
Travaux dans les cuves et réservoirs. [in French]
This recommendation applies to work carried out in existing vats, tanks and hollow spaces; it does not relate to their construction, nor to ships. Reference to French legislation in force; operation to be effected before starting work and during work, displaying of instructions, surveillance of the worker in the tank, aid in the event of an accident, periodical inspections. The recommendation is followed by detailed commentaries and a standard instruction sheet.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Recommandation No.113, Central Coordinating Committee (Comité central de coordination), Paris, 11 Dec. 1973. Paris, France, 2nd quarter 1974, No.75, Note No.908-75-74, p.295-300.

CIS 74-1553 Ulysse J.F.
Vehicle inspection pits - Construction, equipment and use
Les fosses de visite pour véhicules automobiles - Construction, aménagement et utilisation. [in French]
Review of hazards associated with inspection pits and recommendations for their prevention: construction and equipment of pits (materials used, means of access, coverings, water drainage, toxic gas exhaust, lighting, electrical system, etc.) and safety precautions during their use. Numerous practical applications are illustrated.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1974, No.74, Note No.878-74-74, p.39-45. Illus. 5 ref.

1973

CIS 93-364 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Confined Spaces) Regulations [Hong Kong]
Regulations effective 1 Nov. 1973 and issued under the authority of the 1955 Factories and Industrial Undertakings Ordinance (see CIS 89-6). Main topics covered: provision of manholes; use and supply of approved breathing apparatus in confined spaces; certification of safety for confined spaces; training of personnel in the use of breathing and reviving apparatus; prohibition of entry into confined spaces when the proportion of oxygen has been reduced; entry into boiler furnaces and boiler flues; offences and penalties.
Government Printer, Hong Kong, 1991. 3p. Price: HKD 10.00.

CIS 76-45 Safe working methods in enclosed spaces
Misure di sicurezza per lavori entro recipienti [in Italian]
This handbook takes stock of the hazards of working in tanks, cisterns, pipes and other confined spaces (presence of harmful or flammable substances, lack of oxygen, etc.). It insists on proper work organisation (issuing permits-to-work, stopping production or shutting down the installation before work is commenced, roping off the confined space or marking it out of bounds to unauthorised persons, degassing, ventilation, monitoring of the enclosed air, earthing, suitability of tools employed, rescue apparatus and equipment, watcher posted outside) and recommends steps to be taken to prevent accidents before and after the work. Extracts from the relevant Italian regulations, model permits-to-work, TLV lists and flammability limits are appended.
Securitas, Collana di studi e documenti sulla prevenzione, N.58, Ente nazionale per la prevenzione degli infortuni, Via Alessandria 220E, 00198 Roma. Price: L.1000. Also published in Roma, Italy, Feb.-Mar. 1973, Vol.58, No.2-3, p.281-357. Illus.

CIS 75-45 Boenke R.
Entry into tanks and confined spaces
Befahren von Behältern und engen Räumen [in German]
Information on the hazards involved and the precautions to be observed in entering tanks: air monitoring; presence of flammable or toxic gases and dusts; moving machine parts; electricity. Special procedures (prior notification, inspection permit required, adequate staff training). Advice on rescue, resuscitation and first aid.
Verlag Tribüne, Am Treptower Park 28-30, x 1193 , 1973. 32p. Illus. Price: M.0.60.

CIS 74-2044 Petroleum tanker directives
Oljetankanvisningar - Varvsanvisningar [in Swedish]
Subjects covered include: shipyard entry certificate; gas freeing of tanks; supervision of work (responsibilities of supervisory staff); cleaning of tanks; permits-to-work and tank entry certificates; safety measurements (earthing of tanker, shutdown procedure, detection of toxic or flammable atmospheres, etc.); work of land personnel on tankers outside shipyards; certification procedure. The Swedish safety standards for work in tanker holds dated 18 May 1973, warning notices, and specimen forms of certificates and checklists are appended.
Anvisningar nr.19:1, National Workers' Protection Board (Kungliga Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen), Stockholm, Mar. 1973. Svenska Reproduktions AB, Fack, 162 10 Vällingby 1, Sweden. 28p. Illus.

CIS 74-1228
Comitato tecnico per l'industria chimica dell'ENPI, Roma.
Safety measures for work in tanks
Misure di sicurezza per lavori entro recipienti [in Italian]
This technical data note is intended to assist in the implementation of Italian regulations relating to work in tanks. It covers the various types of hazard met with by those carrying out such work. In addition to tanks, piping, etc., such confined spaces as pits, sewers, silos, etc. are here considered as containers. Safety measures are grouped in 3 chapters: (1) preliminary operations; (2) safety measures during work; (3) safety measures upon completion of the work. The following information is appended: main legal provisions in force in Italy, and permit-to-work forms used in various industrialised countries for this type of work.
Securitas, 1973, No.2-3, p.281-357. Illus.

CIS 74-951
P no 69, Labour Inspectorate, General Directorate of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat Generaal van de Arbeid), Voorburg, Netherlands.
Safe work in confined spaces
Sécurité du travail dans les espaces clos. [in French]
French translation of: Data sheet P no 69, 2nd edition, 1972. 16p. Illus. The introduction reviews the hazards of work in tanks (poisoning, explosive gas/air mixtures, asphyxia, etc.). The main body of the document is devoted to safety measures and is divided into a number of chapters dealing with the following subjects: access openings; permits to work; measures to be taken before entering a tank; wind direction and meteorological conditions, elimination of dangerous substances, choice of fan, measurement of gas concentration, electrical equipment, ventilation, etc. Other sections are devoted to personal protective equipment (respiratory protective equipment, protective clothing, etc.), and signalling. Extracts of the relevant Netherlands legislation are included.
Translation INRS 85 A-73, Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1973. 33p. Illus.

CIS 74-1110 Marshall W.F., Hurn R.W.
Hazards from engines rebreathing exhaust in confined spaces.
Risques dus à la réaspiration des gaz d'échappement par les moteurs en espace confiné [in French]
Report on a series of experiments carried out by the U.S. Bureau of Mines on gasoline and diesel engines in non-ventilated spaces and in spaces with partially restricted ventilation. Experimental methods are described. The results obtained (which are illustrated) show that in the case of non-ventilated spaces CO concentration rises almost exponentially as from a fuel consumption of 1.6 to 4.8 kg per 100m3 of space. The accumulated levels of CO were much higher with a gasoline engine than with a diesel engine. The experiments carried out in a space with restricted ventilation highlight the hazard of gasoline engines (inadmissible concentrations of CO and NOx) and direct-injection diesel engines operated at full power).
Report of Investigation 7757. Bureau of Mines, Publications Distribution Branch, 4800 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA, 1973. 16p. Illus. French translation in Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Paris, France, 4th quarter 1973, No.73, Note No.867-73-73, p.471-481. Illus.

CIS 74-786 Montgomery C.H., Meyer W.H., Maly R.F.
Activated carbon as a hazardous material.
A report of 2 fatalities among workers entering a water filtration vessel under construction containing damp activated carbon. It was demonstrated by the investigation that death resulted from oxygen deficiency caused by selective absorption of oxygen from the enclosed air by the activated carbon.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1973, Vol.15, No.10, p.820. Illus.

CIS 74-833
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Sep. 1973.
Safety rules for work in boreholes
Sicherheitsregeln für Arbeiten in Bohrungen [in German]
These safety rules apply to work in vertical or inclined boreholes, to which access is gained from above. They cover the following aspects: access to work site, ventilation, cooling, communications, lifting tackle, ducts, electrical safety, supervision, breathing air, excavation work, welding and cutting work, personal protective equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5 Köln 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.). 13p.

CIS 74-844 Pettigrew J.M.
Safety in sewers and at sewage-treatment works.
The apparently low incidence of accidents in sewers and sewage works should not lead to complacency in taking adequate safety measures. The need for establishing a reliable reporting system is stressed since the absence of statutory provision for the reporting of accidents in sewers and sewage works (except for those under the Factories Act) and the inadequacy of voluntary reporting systems makes it difficult to assess safety performance accurately. To provide a safe working environment it is necessary to design safe sewers and sewage works, maintain the system in a safe condition, provide equipment (safety belt, helmet, gloves, barrier cream, lifting harness, rescue equipment, etc.) and train personnel in safe working practices and emergency procedures. A safety programme to minimise the risk of accidents is outlined. Discussion of the paper is included.
Water Pollution Control, 1973, Vol.72, No.3, p.273-283. 3 ref.

CIS 74-626 Birkhahn W.
Entering confined spaces
Befahren von Behältern [in German]
Describes the hazards of entering confined spaces, manholes, pits, etc. and refers to the relevant statutory provisions. Safety reminders include switching off agitators, safety switches for motors, disconnection of piping, obtaining permission to enter space, duties of standby, lifelines, respirable air, responsibility of person giving permisssion to enter confined space, work with naked flames (welding, etc.).
Sicherheitsingenieur, May 1973, Vol.4, No.5, p.230-241. Illus.

CIS 74-625 Rules for work performed in tanks and confined spaces
Règles relatives aux travaux exécutés à l'intérieur de réservoirs et dans les locaux exigus. [in French]
These rules apply to cleaning and maintenance work in tanks for flammable or harmful liquids or gases, and to work in tanks, pits, canals, wells, vats and underground enclosed spaces using products containing flammable or harmful substances. They cover personnel, working equipment (including personal protection), preparation and performance of the work, and work causing sparks inside tanks. An illustrated commentary is appended.
Form. 1416, Swiss National Accident Insurance Institute (Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt), Lucerne, Switzerland, Oct. 1973. 15p. Illus.

CIS 74-820
General Commission for Safety and Health in the Iron and Steel Industry, General Directorate for Social Affairs, Commission of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
Maintenance and repair work on gas pipes and fittings
Travaux d'entretien et de réparation des conduites et appareils à gaz. [in French]
Recommendations of a working group to ensure safe working in all procedures inside gas pipes and fittings, classified according to the nature of the gas: flue gas from blast furnaces, clean gas from blast furnaces, gas from electric blast furnaces, coke oven gas.
Document G5, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Boîte postale 1003, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1973. 12p.

CIS 74-262 Jylhä L.
The permit-to-work system
Työlupajärjestetmä [in Finnish]
Introduction to the principles of the sytem, enumerating various types of permits-to-work, followed by a description of the measures to be taken before issuing permits to weld (flame permits) and permits to enter tanks. Examples of permit forms are reproduced. The author insists on careful planning and refers to the need for a complete safety analysis and adequate permit forms and directives for the application and control of the system.
Ehkäise tapaturmia - Förebygg olycksfall, 1973, No.3, p.12-17. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 74-40
Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics.
Measures to control pollutant exhaust gases from internal combustion engines in confined spaces
Lutte contre les gaz polluants issus des moteurs thermiques en milieu confiné. [in French]
Refers to confined spaces such as are found in underground excavations, wells, deep trenches, vats, etc. Recalls the French legislation on the subject, defines the nature of the hazard (gas and toxicity thresholds) and recommends safety measures. Petrol-driven engines should be avoided on account of the difficulty of purifying the exhaust gases. Mechanical and chemical means are recommended for use with Diesel engines. It is essential that the ventilation for each work site should be carefully considered and calculated beforehand.
Fiche de sécurité No. D.401. Cahiers des comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, May-Aug. 1973, Vol.28, No.3-4, p.107-110.

CIS 73-1224 Sutter E., Huber K.
Oxygen deficiency as a cause of accidents in underground workings
Manque d'oxygène comme cause d'accident dans les travaux souterrains [in French]
Describes a number of fatal accidents which occurred in underground work, due to lack of oxygen. Their cause was previously thought to be related to oxidising processes. Extensive measurements showed, however, that oxygen deficiency was due in most cases to the absorption of oxygen by water. To prevent oxygen shortage or to remedy the situation, underground workings where there is a hazard of this kind must have artificial ventilation; access to them must be permitted only after the atmospheric oxygen level has been tested and staff issued with suitable respirators.
Cahiers suisses de la sécurité du travail, Jan. 1973, No.111, 22p. Illus. 7 ref.

1972

CIS 92-374 Ordinance on Prevention of Anoxia, etc. [Japan]
English translation of the Ordinance of 30 Sep. 1972 (for the original see CIS 75-642), as amended till 1986. Contents: definitions; monitoring oxygen levels in the working environment; ventilation; protective equipment; prohibition of entrance; special training; evacuation and rescue equipment; medical examinations; preventive measures for special types of work; training of supervisors.
In: Industrial Safety and Health Law and related legislation of Japan, Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108, Japan, 1991, p.724-739.

CIS 75-642
Industrial Safety and Health Division, Ministry of Labour, Tokyo.
Ordinance No.42 of 1972 concerning hazards of oxygen deficiency.
This ordinance under the Japanese Industrial Safety and Health Act 1972 lays down various safety measures to be observed in work where there is an oxygen deficiency hazard. Sections are devoted to: monitoring oxygen levels in the work environment; ventilation; lifelines; respiratory protective equipment; special safety measures to be taken for work in tanks and enclosed spaces and other special types of work; training of foremen and supervisors.
Collection of regulations and ordinances concerning occupational health, Japanese Industrial Safety Association, 35-1, 5-Chome, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, Dec. 1972. p.412-425.

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