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Confined spaces - 312 entries found

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1983

CIS 83-2001 Hogstedt C., Gustavsson A., Frenning B.
Causes of death and exposure conditions of Swedish chimney sweeps
Svenska skorstensfejares dödsorsaker och exponeringsförhållanden [in Swedish]
A study of 2,560 chimney sweeps who were active in the trade for at least 10 years. Of the 470 subjects who died during the period of the study, 126 died of cancers (the expected number in a population of this size is 82), 205 of cardiovascular disorders (165 expected), and 31 of respiratory disorders (17 expected). Apparent risk factors in the work environment: combustion products (sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soot (review of the literature of harmful substances which can be inhaled by chimney sweeps). The frequency of lung cancer is almost 3 times higher among chimney sweeps than among the general population. Thus, measures must be taken to reduce inhalation of the substances responsible. An appendix contains tables giving causes of death (observed versus expected) for more than 40,000 chimney sweeps observed between 1951 and 1979; tables organised by age cohort show the effects of smoking.
Arbetarskyddsverket, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 30p. 34 ref.

CIS 83-1642
Central Coordinating Committee, French National Health Insurance Fund (Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie)
Risks of hydrogen sulfide poisoning
Risques d'intoxication présentés par l'hydrogène sulfuré [in French]
Recommendations adopted 23 Feb. 1983. They cover operations requiring access to reservoirs, tanks, drains and sewers containing deposits or residues which can liberate hydrogen sulfide. Special provisions are given for the treatment of deposits and residues with acids, for operations on tank equipment, and for the cleaning of wells. Commentaries on some of the recommendations are included.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1983, No.112, Note No.1441-112-83, p.403-405.

CIS 83-1728 Duval H., Mauvillain J.P., Louvel J., Le Louedec Y., Le Coniat M.O., Fave A.J.
Improving working conditions in crawl spaces for plumbing
Améliorer les conditions de travail dans les vides sanitaires [in French]
Results of a workplace study conducted by 3 physicians who used continuous recording electrocardiography to analyse workload. Each work site is described in terms of: movement of workers, lighting, ventilation, noise, temperature, materials and equipment, personal equipment, working posture and motions, electrocardiograms. Suggestions for improved working conditions, motions and postures are offered.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1983, No.2, p.65-71. Illus.

CIS 83-1727 Adenot A., Tardy J., Chobert D.
Crawl spaces for plumbing used as general-purpose crawl spaces
Vides sanitaires utilisés en vides techniques [in French]
Economic motives have caused crawl spaces originally intended only for sanitary service to be used for other services and to be reduced to dimensions which fail to take account of potential drainage problems and of the need for human access. Errors to be avoided in building design are analysed, with emphasis on the importance of considering the piping system of a building from the earliest stages (access, headroom, preparation and movement of materials). Minimal requirements for the installation and operation of a piping system in tunnels used as crawl spaces are suggested (dimensions, access, floor, lighting, working methods).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1983, No.2, p.60-64. Illus.

CIS 83-1502 Lift-truck transmission uses flywheel energy
Announcement of a flywheel energy storage system for diesel-powered lift trucks working in ship holds and terminals. By storing engine and braking energy in a flywheel for subsequent recovery, the system reduces the contribution of the diesel engine to the work cycle of a lift truck, thereby doing away with exhaust gases in confined spaces. A representative truck with a fully-charged flywheel was able to shift a 25-ton container and return to its starting point (a total path of 140m) without the use of its engine.
Engineering, Aug. 1983, p.578. Illus.

1982

CIS 84-1149 Seitz B., Saux M., Legrand F., Briotet A.
Sewer work
Le travail dans les égouts [in French]
A study by occupational physicians of working conditions in sewers: description of tasks, hazards (falls, drowning, bites, poisoning by air and water pollution, microbial and parasitic infection, neuropsychic effects of underground work in confined spaces). Medical prevention involves adherence to the rules of good hygiene and the practice of vaccination. Safety rules must also be observed. Relevant French regulations and recommendations (including air and water sampling) are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1982, Vol.43, No.8, p.649-652.

CIS 83-1832 Requirements to be met in internal inspection of water-tube and fire-tube boilers: recommendation of the "Pressure Equipment" technical committee of the C.E.O.C.
Conditions à respecter pour la visite intérieure des chaudières à foyer intérieur et à tubes de fumée: recommandation de la Commission technique "Appareils à pression" du C.E.O.C. [in French]
These recommendations of the European Symposium of Independent Inspecting Organisations are an attempt to harmonise the methods used by the national inspection organisations to assure safe use of this equipment. They cover the possibilities of examining different parts of a boiler, the openings provided for cleaning, and the placement of internal accessories so as not to interfere with inspection of the internal walls of the boiler. Vertical and horizontal boilers have particular inspection requirements, as do boilers with flat walls.
APAVE, Apr.-May-June 1983, Vol.64, No.222, p.49-54.

CIS 83-222 Ekström Ö.
The first larger chimney-sweeper survey shows: Chimney sweepers die earlier
Första större sotarundersökningen visar: Sotarna dör i förtid [in Swedish]
Interview with an industrial physician who carried out a survey covering 2,495 chimney sweepers with at least 10 years' activity (period covered: 1951 to 1979). Some of the results were alarming: excess mortality of 24%; almost 3 times more cases of lung cancer, and 5 times more cases of oesophageal cancer and of liver cancer than in the general population. Chimney sweepers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (containing a well-known carcinogen - benzo(a)pyrene), nitrogen compounds, arsenic, asbestos dust, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide; sulfur dioxide often forms corrosive compounds when dissolving in water. The advent of district heating plants tends to diminish this type of exposure.
Arbetsmiljö, 1982, Vol.13, No.2, p.14-19. Illus.

CIS 83-47 Hazards of confined spaces
Les dangers dans les espaces confinés [in French]
Review of the hazards related to dangerous atmospheres (flammable, toxic, irritant or asphyxiating gases), and of general hazards (mechanical and physical) related to difficulties of communication, entry and exit. Sections deal with: types of confined spaces; measures prior to entering a confined space and during a stay in a confined space; poisoning hazards (threshold limit values for a number of gases and vapours, flammable limits of certain gases and vapours); explosion hazards; asphyxiation; hazards related to the physical environment (temperature, noise, vibration); techniques and apparatus for atmospheric evaluation.
Prévention, Jan. 1982, No.1, p.2-8. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 82-1394 Chimneysweeps die young
Nearly 3 times as many chimneysweeps in Sweden die of lung cancer than would be normal; 5 times as many die of throat cancer. There were 441 deaths among the 2,495 chimneysweeps studied, compared with an expected figure of 355 (excess mortality of 24%); of these, 32 died of lung cancer, against an expected figure of 12, i.e. nearly 3 times the normal population rate. 8 chimneysweeps died of ¿sophageal cancer, whereas 1.6 such deaths could normally be expected (5 times the normal population rate). Liver cancer also was 5 times the normal population rate. Cardiovascular diseases killed 182 of chimneysweeps studied, against an expected figure of 152. Hazards to which chimneysweeps are exposed: polycyclic aromatic compounds (including benzo(a)pyrene), nitrogen compounds which can convert into nitrosamines), arsenic, asbestos, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, solvents (for cleaning ventilation channels). Mortality among chimneysweeps could be reduced by use of respirators, expansion of channelled district heating, and information on the importance of personal hygiene.
Working Environment, 1982, p.18-20. Illus.

CIS 82-1093 Oblak-Lukač A.
Fatal case of trichloroethylene poisoning
Smrtna nesreča zaradi zastrupitve s trikloretilenom [in Slovenian]
Description of a fatal accident due to massive inhalation of trichloroethylene. A young inexperienced worker took a bottle of this solvent to clean metal surfaces nearly at floor level in a transformer room. He accidentally spilled some of the solvent, causing a near-floor concentration probably around 3,000ppm. Next day the worker was found dead on the premises. Lessons to be learned from this incident: workers should be informed of the hazards of this solvent, with regular supervision of those working alone in confined spaces. Data on trichloroethylene: fire and explosion hazards, health hazards, rescue operations and first aid; safety measures.
Delo in varnost, Jan.-Feb. 1982, Vol.27, No.1, p.5-7. Illus.

CIS 82-1132 Schrottmaier J.
Protection from silo gas
The composition and concentration of gases present during the filling or opening of > 70 silos were determined and simulation experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of hatch cover position, silo contents and the outside wind conditions on the outflow of gas. Average carbon dioxide concentrations found were 35% with maize, 30% with grass and 38% with forage cereals. Nitrogen oxides were present at 20 and 25ppm with maize and grass respectively. Silos should not be entered without ventilation and blowers, and flaps are recommended to reduce gas concentrations and prevent accidents.
Ergonomics, Jan. 1982, Vol.25, No.1, p.89-105. Illus. 10 ref.

1981

CIS 83-1209 Satarov V.N.
Safe distances from toxic blasting fumes
O bezopasnom rasstojanii po dejstviju jadovityh gazov pri vzryvnyh rabotah [in Russian]
A safety parameter for work in the neighbourhood of blasting fumes (e.g. in mining and tunnelling) is proposed and a method is described for evaluating it under various ventilation regimes. A nomogram is given for graphical determination of safe distances.
Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, July 1981, No.7, p.61-63.

CIS 83-571
Ministry for Environmental Protection and Water Resources (Ministerium für Umweltschutz und Wasserwirtschaft)
Waste-water installations [German Democratic Republic]
Abwasseranlagen [in German]
This standard lays down safe working pratices and conditions for waste-water evacuation and treatment plant: access, guards, danger zones, ventilation, materials handling equipment, electrical installations, health monitoring, technical instructions, permits to work, preparatory measures, bad weather, underground work, pressure plant, use of chemicals, first aid.
Staatsverlag der DDR, Bereich Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Mar. 1981, 5p.

CIS 82-533
Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet)
Work in confined spaces
Arbeid i trange rom [in Norwegian]
Sections of this directive cover: poisoning hazards (due to residues in tanks and toxic gases resulting from welding, etc.), and causes of toxic hazards; fire hazards due to an oxygen-rich atmosphere; safety measures for work in confined spaces (cleaning and degassing, ventilation, supplied-air respiratory equipment, monitoring of oxygen concentration, rescue harnesses, etc.); first-aid in cases of poisoning.
Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, June 1981. 5p.

CIS 82-236 Wilson J.D., Stenzel M.R., Lombardozzi K.L., Nichols C.L.
Monitoring personnel exposure to stainless steel welding fumes in confined spaces at a petrochemical plant
Analyses for total chromium (Cr), hexavalent Cr, nickel, iron, copper and total particulates were carried out on 35 area samples from a maintenance shop in which welding operations were performed, on 7 personal samples taken during open air welding in the shop, and on 69 samples taken during welding in confined spaces such as distillation towers. The level of metal fume exposure of the general maintenance shop population was minimal. Exposures in the maintenance shop during open air welding were also low when compared to current permissible exposure levels. Contaminant levels found in confined space welding were excessive, and a mandatory air-line respirator programme for all employees entering confined spaces during stainless steel welding operations was implemented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1981, Vol.42, No.6, p.431-436. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 82-186 Skinhøj P., Hollinger F.B., Hovind-Hougen K., Lous P.
Infectious liver diseases in three groups of Copenhagen workers: Correlation of hepatitis A infection to sewage exposure
3 groups of municipal workers, matched for age and duration of employment, and consisting of 77 sewer workers, 81 gardeners and 79 clerks were studied for clinical and serological evidence of infection with viral hepatitis types A and B and pathogenic leptospires. Antibody against hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) was found in 80.5% sewer workers compared with 60.5% gardeners and 48.1% clerks. The anti-HAV prevalence rates correlated with age rather than duration of employment. In 11 reported cases of jaundice only 3 occurred amongst sewer workers. Hepatitis B serological markers were similar in each group. Exposure to metropolitan sewage appears to impose a limited risk of hepatitis A infection while the hepatitis B virus is not successfully transmitted by this route.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1981, Vol.36, No.3, p.139-143. 20 ref.

CIS 81-2051 Watch that space - confined space hazards in the construction industry
This 16-min colour film is designed to alert construction crew workers to the dangers of work in confined spaces and the necessary safety measures to avoid accidents. Specific hazards described include toxic gases, explosion and fire, excessive oxygen in the air, and suffocation. The training programme dramatises an incident in which 3 workers suffocated after entering a manhole without testing the atmosphere and shows how the tragedy could have been prevented by use of a simple safety procedure.
American Educational Films, 132 Lasky Drive, Beverly Hills, Cal. 90212 USA. Price: $.410.00.

1980

CIS 81-1685 Dąbrowski S.
Protecting workers against high temperatures and dust at the workplace
Ochrona pracownika przed działaniem wysokiej temperatury i zapylenia na stanowisku pracy [in Polish]
Description of an integral suit of clothing for hot and dusty work. Designed in relation to the thermal and physical load, this integral suit incorporates a facepiece, hood, airfeed system (compressor and air conditioner), an in-suit air-distribution system, gloves and footwear. Tested under normal conditions (furnace relining), it gave protection against not only heat and dust but also noise and hot metal spatters, and enabled workers to double their stay in the furnace (1h non-stop) without symptoms of excessive fatigue. With some modification, it could be used for somewhat different working conditions.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1980, Vol.30, No.107, p.295-303. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 81-1369 Berkman N., Moubri M.
Ophtalmological findings in a case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning
Manifestations opthalmologiques au décours d'une intoxication par l'hydrogène sulfuré. [in French]
Clinical findings in a case of hydrogen sulfide poisoning that occurred during work in a sewer; dominant nature of ocular manifestations: bilateral keratoconjuctivis and bilateral papillary oedema with retinal haemorrhages, all of which regressed after a few days without sequelae. Review of the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide which may have a fatal effect at high concentrations (700-900ppm); at this level, due to its paralysing effect on the olfactory centres, hydrogen sulfide is no longer detectable by its smell, and eye lesions probably due to anoxia may occur. To prevent this type of serious accident - in which the effects may be irreversible - safety measures for workers at risk should be intensified and regular clinical and opthalmological examinations instituted.
Bulletin de la société ophtalmologique française, 1980, Vol.80, No.4-5, p.369-372. 22 ref.

CIS 81-361 Aucour C.
Accidents in 1980 due to oxygen deficiency at workplaces at normal atmospheric pressure
Les accidents par privation d'oxygène en milieu de travail à pression atmosphérique normale en 1980. [in French]
MD thesis: technical data on accidents due to oxygen deficiency (physico-pathological mechanisms, occupational categories exposed, circumstances in which such accidents may occur, symptomatology); consequences of hypoxia on pulmonary ventilation, cardiovascular system and nervous system; studies of 16 incidents (involving 88 fatalities) which occurred in different countries during the last 20 years. An aetiological investigation enables the possible causes of these accidents (which occurred in metal caissons and in underground work) to be determined. Review of French regulations on this subject and preventive measures (monitoring of workplace air, ventilation, breathing apparatus). Role of the occupational physician.
Université de Paris XIII, Faculté de médecine de Bobigny, Bobigny, France, 1980. 52p. 30 ref.

CIS 81-570 Krämer R.
Safety aspects of underground water pipe consolidation
Sicherheitstechnische Überlegungen bei Rohrsanierungsarbeiten [in German]
Coating the insides of buried water pipes (>600mm diameter) with cement mortar is considered to be as effective as new pipelaying. Description of the method; considerations on accident hazards and corresponding safety measures. Principal hazards: electricity, dust containing free silica, noise from centrifugal cement coating machines; physical and postural strain, toxic gases and lack of oxygen inside pipes.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Mar. 1980, Vol.92, No.3, p.158-171. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 81-547 Thevenin A.D.
Study of inhalation poisoning hazards in toll collectors (motorways, road tunnels, underground car parks) exposed to motor vehicle exhaust
Etude sur les risques d'intoxication des péagers d'autoroutes, de tunnels routiers et de parcs souterrains par les gaz d'échappement des moteurs automobiles. [in French]
MD thesis. Review of the principal pollutants found in motor vehicle exhaust (CO, aromatic hydrocarbons, lead, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides). Based on previous investigations, this thesis attempts a comparison of the degree of poisoning hazard according to the workplace (motorways, road tunnels, underground car parks) from the results of workplace air sampling and clinical data. Underground car park attendants seem most exposed to CO (although peaks of 150ppm are found in road tunnels). Excessively high concentrations of benzopyrene (100-600mg/m3), lead (0.001-0.025mg/m3), and nitrogen oxides (25ppm) were found at motorway toll collectors' booths. Preventive measures: better tuning of engines, use of petrol with less lead content. The occupational health practitioner can play an important part in screening out subject with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma or heart disorders (severe or developing).
Université VI Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 1980. 27p. 21 réf.

CIS 81-520 Glass R.I., Ford R., Allegra D.T., Markel H.L.
Deaths from asphyxia among fishermen
Reported are deaths occurring in the unventilated holds of ships in warm waters and during the warm season. A total of 32 deaths have been documented since 1970. Asphyxia was due to the presence of toxic concentrations of CO2, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, or CO. Crewmen were often overcome while attempting to rescue a fellow worker. Measures to correct the hazard should include: purging the air in an unventilated hold before entry; educating crewmen to the hazards of working in enclosed spaces; training crew in proper rescue procedures; requiring that respirators and safety ropes be available to rescuers at the entrance to the hold.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 14 Nov. 1980, Vol.244, No.19, p.2193-2194. 6 ref.

CIS 81-357 Thomas F.C., Brief R.S., Allen R.I., Lynch J.R., Confer R.G., Scala R.A., Stelluto J.F.
Guidelines for work in confined spaces.
Contents: check list; the problem; a confined space programme; recognition of potential hazards; atmospheric testing; ventilation; safe work practices; respirators; protective clothing; selection and training of employees; rescue and first aid; administration of the programme. Appendices: definitions; suggested ventilation practices; respirator protection factors; specifications of portable analysers for evaluation of confined space atmospheres, and of personal monitors with alarms for continuous use in confined spaces.
Medical Bulletin, 1980, Vol.40, No.1, p.1-46. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 81-251
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften)
Safety rules for chimney sweeping
Sicherheitsregeln für Schornsteinfegerarbeiten [in German]
These rules apply to chimney sweeping, and to layout and access to chimneys. Contents: definitions, general rules (supervision and work organisation, personnel instruction, workers' obligation to observe safety measures and report hazardous situations); action to be taken before commencing work; workplaces and access; fall-arresters; electrical installations and equipment; personal protective equipment.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Gereonstrasse 18-32, 5000 Köln 1, Federal Republic of Germany, Apr. 1980. 14p. Illus. Price: DM.1.20.

CIS 80-2046 Tagging device for manhole covers
Dispositif de condamnation d'un tampon de trou d'homme. [in French]
In power stations access to cable tunnels for maintenance and other work is usually through manholes. Description of a device for padlocking manhole covers to prevent unauthorised access.
Vigilance, Apr. 1980, No.61, p.53. Illus.

CIS 80-1922 Roth H., Asmuss M.
Safety in sewers
Sicherheit in Abwasserkanälen [in German]
Report on an investigation of a serious accident due to a sudden emission of hydrogen sulfide (4 dead, 5 badly poisoned). Preventive measures (ventilation before entering sewers, air monitoring) prescribed by West German regulations were found to be inadequate in the case reported, where large quantities (350-400ppm) of H2S contained in organic sediment were suddenly released. Description of preventive measures, and mechanisms of H2S emission. A safety system, developed in the light of this recent experience, supplements the existing regulations. This system involves the use of a powerful fan (air flow 15,000m3/h) at all times during work in sewers, as well as continuous air monitoring. A specific rescue system has also been set up. Legal aspects of the accident in question.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Jan. 1980, Vol.92, No.1, p.28-32. Illus.

CIS 80-1422 Keith A.
Health and safety solutions.
Description of an access cradle for maintenance work inside suspension bridge towers; tasks; types of paint used; criteria, design and dimensions of internal maintenance cradle for painting interiors of towers; details of access manhole.
Safety Surveyor, Mar. 1980, Vol.7, No.6, p.5-9. Illus.

1979

CIS 80-1507 Odorisation of oxygen used for welding, cutting and heat treatment
Tilsetting av luktestoff til oksygen ved sveising, brenning og varmebehandling [in Norwegian]
This directive (effective 1 July 1980) covers: rules for addition of dimethyl sulfide to oxygen to warn workers in confined spaces of the fire hazard (requirements for the oxygen distribution unit, stench metering unit and storage vessels, special precautions); guide for odorisation (health hazards of dimethyl sulfide, supply circuit, explosion hazards, personal protection, first aid); determination of oxygen in air.
Bestillingsnr. 384, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, 7 Dec. 1979. 14p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 80-1412 Broms G.
Steelworks environment - Stripping and relining of ladles
Stålverkens arbetsmiljö - Rivning och infodring av skänkar [in Swedish]
Methods and equipment used at 10 Scandinavian steelworks are reported: refractory products (silica content and silicosis hazard, recovery); stripping and relining (manual labour, mechanisation, spray application, ramming, slinging); improvement of workplace and working equipment (dust control measures, noise and weather control at stripping posts; height-adjustable work platforms for relining; laying of bricks helically to prevent exposure to dust from cutting); layout of relining shops; special case of torpedo ladles.
TRITA-AML-SA 15, Arbetsmiljölaboratoriet, KTH, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Sep. 1979. 106p. Illus. Gratis.

CIS 80-936 Criteria for a recommended standard - Working in confined spaces.
Recommendations are made for procedures to protect health and reduce accidents in work associated with entering, working in, and exiting from confined spaces. They relate to: entry and rescue; permit system; medical supervision; training; testing and monitoring; labelling and posting; safety equipment and clothing; work practices. Aspects considered are: confined space hazards (hazardous atmospheres, general safety hazards, statistics); development of the standard; training guidelines; research needs. Appendices: cross-reference to OSHA standard; recommended respirator selection guide; sample entry permit; characteristics of hazards. A French translation (partial) may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.80-106, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Dec. 1979. 68p. 110 ref.

CIS 80-232 Thalmann G., Ramisch H.
Safety engineering underground
Sicherheitstechnik im Untertagebau [in German]
Problems encountered and precautions to be taken during driving of galleries, tunnels, and wells are reviewed: supervision and distribution of tasks; prevention of access to communication ways and worksites, protection against falls of ground, communication, lighting, ventilation, elimination of dust during use of tunnellers, exhaust gases, minimum workplace dimensions, electrical equipment, transport media for personnel and equipment.
Sicherheitsingenieur, July 1979, Vol.10, No.7, p.12-16. Illus.

CIS 80-245 Fiedler J.
Safe work in dangerous areas of coking plants
Sicheres Arbeiten in gefährlichen Räumen auf Kokereien [in German]
In coking plants, the commonest hazard sources are harmful gases and vapours, lack of oxygen, hot substances, corrosives, and electricity. Protective measures recommended for entry into hazardous areas (tanks, plant, pipework, pits) are: written entry permit, air analysis and ventilation, respiratory protection, use of safety harness with lifeline, use of non-sparking tools. Delivery of an entry permit should be preceded by instructions from the person responsible. Other data concern precautions in welding and grinding, which constitute a fire hazard.
Bergbau, July 1979, Vol.30, No.7, p.356-364. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 80-212 Evans M.J., Ingle J., Molyneux M.K., Sharp G.T.H., Swain J.
An occupational hygiene study of a controlled welding task using a general purpose rutile electrode.
25 welders worked each for one day at a standardised welding task, assembling mild steel dock blocks in an enclosed area with 5-11 air changes/h with no local extraction. Total fume concentrations in the breathing zone exceeded the TLV on 19 days. Average concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mg and Cu were below their TLVs. Exposure was complex, with more than 20-fold variations associated with differences in work pattern and posture. No day was representative of all days or all exposures. Medical effects are reported in another paper (see CIS 80-213).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.1, p.1-17. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 79-1542
Comité technique national des industries chimiques, Caisse nationale de l'assurance-maladie, Paris, 13 Sep. 1978.
Work on and in vats, tanks and similar containers and vessels
Interventions sur et dans les cuves, réservoirs et volumes creux similaires. [in French]
This recommendation covers the following aspects: location of storage vats and tanks; external and internal work on all types of containers (prior investigation of the properties of the product contained therein, draining, cleaning out, precautions against inadvertent starting up of mechanism, switching on electrical installations, protection against falls, fire protection). Comments are made on certain points including drainage, cleaning, air quality monitoring, shutting off connections for fluids, workers' personal protective equipment.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1979, No.96, Note No.1205-96-79 (Recommendation No.160), p.465-470.

CIS 79-1758 Atmospheres in sub-surface structures and sewers.
This data sheet, which supersedes the edition abstracted under CIS 1738-1971 Gzx Hbid Jyuz (203), applies to cellars, sump pits, open tanks, as well as sewers, which are subject to various contaminants. After describing the types of dangerous vapours and gases (fuels, fermentation gases, combustion products, drainage gases) and the hazards (explosible, flammable or poisonous gases, suffocating vapours), it contains recommendations for testing (instruments for combustible gases, oxygen deficiency, carbon monoxide or hydrogen sulfide), periodic inspection of manholes and ventilation (forced draft is preferred). Reference is made to the relevant legislation on manhole entry requirements. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
National Safety News, Data Sheet I-550-79, Revised 1979, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago. Chicago, USA, Apr. 1979, Vol.119, No.4, p.79-83. Illus.

1978

CIS 95-474
Health and Safety Executive
Confined space hazards in the construction industry
Video version of the safety film abstracted as CIS 81-2051.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1978. Videotape. Length: 16min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###

CIS 95-500
Health and Safety Executive
Confined space hazards in shipbuilding
Videotape on the hazards, particularly of fire, of work in confined spaces in the shipbuilding industry. A real incident, which killed three workers, is reconstructed.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1978. Videotape. Length: 15min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###

CIS 95-483
Health and Safety Executive
Confined space hazards in factories (Watch That Space Series)
Videotape aimed at management concerning the dangers of poisoning from toxic vapours in confined spaces and on appropriate preventive methods.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1978. Videotape. Length: 19min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###

CIS 80-110 Fink J.N., Schlueter D.P.
Bathtubs refinisher's lung: An unusual response to toluene diisocyanate.
Immunologic and inhalation challenge studies were performed on a 45 year-old patient engaged in bathtub refinishing who developed systemic and respiratory symptoms (cough, dyspnoea, myalgia, fever to 40°C) suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to his occupation (the refinishing process involved the use of a catalyst containing tolylene diisocyanate). All clinical features of the disorder were reproduced by challenge. No immunologic mechanism could be identified. A change of occupation resulted in complete relief of symptoms. The patient had worn a mask when spraying the activated paint, but the premises were inadequately ventilated.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Nov. 1978, Vol.118, No.5, p.955-959. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 79-1541 Is there anything I've forgotten?
This film illustrates the permit-to-work and certificate of safety procedures for safe isolation of vessels, highlighting the hazards of confined spaces (lack of oxygen, toxic gases, etc.). In a dramatised story of an accident, it shows the correct procedure for isolation of the vessels before a man goes in to make a repair. The price includes literature.
16mm colour film, 20min. Millbank Films Ltd., Thames House North, Millbank, London SW1P 4QG, United Kingdom, 1978. Price: £175.00 + VAT.

CIS 79-1639
Standing Market Analysis Group, General Directorate for Competition and Consumption (Groupe permanent d'étude des marchés, Direction Générale de la concurrence et de la consommation), Paris.
Recommendation No.A 3-78 - Preventive or curative treatment of timber in constructions against wood borers and wood-consuming fungi in public buildings
Recommandation n°A 3-78 relative aux traitements de préservation préventive ou curative des bois en ¿uvre contre les insectes xylophages et champignons lignivores dans les constructions du secteur public. [in French]
Annex V of this decision details the hazards of these operations and the precautions to be taken: fire risk (inspection and possible overhaul of the electrical installation, waterproof or flame-proof electrical equipment supplied by 12 or 24V, prohibition of smoking, availability of extinguishers, egress ways and ventilation systems, use of the least flammable products, etc.); poisoning risk (notification of operations, storage of recipients containing toxic products in a special place, treatment in the open air or under correctly ventilated shelters, drainage of products into an appropriate container after treatment, personal protective equipment); risk of falls and penetration of ceiling. Annex V is reproduced in Cahiers des comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Paris, France, Jan.-Feb. 1979, No.1, p.20-22.
Bulletin officiel des services des prix, 28 Nov. 1978, Vol.38, No.21, p.332-338.

CIS 79-1466 Work in sewage treatment plants
Arbeid ved avløpsanlegg [in Norwegian]
These rules, effective 1 Jan. 1979, cover the following aspects of the question: safe access ways, protective equipment and guards (conditions to be met by overhead walkways, stairs, platforms, trapdoors and doors; railings, lifebuoys, lighting, emergency showers, etc.); safety and health measures (ventilation of confined spaces before commencing work, monitoring levels of oxygen and hazardous gases, use of respirators, having a stand-by worker for hazardous types of work, smoking and naked flames prohibited where there is an explosion hazard, lifelines and lifejackets etc.); storage of gases; canteens, changing rooms, washrooms and lavatories; housekeeping; annual medical examinations and vaccination.
Bestillingsnr. 365, Directorate of Labour Inspection (Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet), Postboks 8103 Dep., Oslo 1, Norway, 8 Sep. 1978. 10p. Gratis.

CIS 79-959 Schefe G.
Discussion paper on the standardisation of manholes and inspection openings
Ein Diskussionsbeitrag zur Normung von Befahr- und Besichtigungsöffnungen [in German]
As inspection openings and manholes are not indispensable and in fact are often considered to be undesirable from the engineer's point of view, this aspect of maintenance and safety is often neglected. This paper gives the historical background and current trends in the pertinent West German regulations, and reviews, with tables and diagrams, the dimensions and number of openings required for various types of equipment (boilers, pressure vessels, storage tanks, etc.) by the regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries. The problem of accessibility to the openings is more difficult than that of their dimensions and number, but it is very important, having regard to safety and rescue of workers trapped inside. Using anthropometric measurements and data on visual capacity and the possibilities of movement of the human body it should be possible to standardise inspection openings, irrespective of the type of recipient concerned and its use.
TÜ, July-Aug. 1978, Vol.19, No.7-8, p.241-246. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 79-668 Smith E.B.
Working in confined spaces.
This article reviews the hazards of work in pits, vaults, vessels, tanks, underground tunnels, pipelines etc., wirh reference to US legislation on the subject. Definition of confined spaces; standards, shipbuilding industry, tank cars, storage vessels, vats, sumps, sewers, process vessels, bins, silos, boilers; accidents and fatalities, rescue procedures, equipment (face mask, lifeline), co-worker as spotter; communication system; employee motivational training; toxic and combustible atmospheres; ventilation; electrical hazards (tagging of circuit-breakers); flammable liquids in sewers; methane.
Job Safety and Health, Nov. 1978, Vol.6, No.7, p.4-9. Illus.

CIS 79-365 AWWA standard for painting steel water-storage tanks.
This standard was approved on 2 May 1978 as an American National Standard. Updating previous editions, it lays down requirements for outside and inside paint systems (selection of paint system, surface preparation, cleaning, paint application, safety precautions, ventilation, outside air supply, non-sparking and explosion-proof ventilation equipment, hazards of flammable and toxic materials in paints, labelling of paints, lighting, protective clothing, grounding of equipment to prevent accumulation of static electricity, testing, etc.).
ANSI/AWWA D102-78, American Water Works Association, 6666 West Quincy Avenue, Denver, Colorado 80235, USA, 1978. 28p. Price: US-$.4.00.

CIS 79-556 Lafon M., Troullieur J.C., Signouret M., Jullien G.
Marseilles sewermen
Les égoutiers marseillais. [in French]
Working conditions of sewermen, underground and above ground, are studied in detail with their hazards: infection (tetanus, leptospiral jaundice, brucellosis, ankylostomiasis, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, viral hepatitis, common infections), chemical hazards (hydrogen sulfide, arsine, sulfur dioxide, chlorine, carbon dioxide and monoxide), combustion and explosion hazards related to use of acetylene lamp, physical factors (humidity, odours), and, especially, falls and drowning. Technical prevention measures: prohibition of a worker entering the sewer alone, ventilation of workplace before entry, air analyses, improved lighting. Medical prevention measures: pre-employment examinations centering on spinal radiography and haematological studies; tetanus and poliomyelitis vaccinations.
Revue de médecine du travail, 1978, Vol.6, No.3, p.137-142. Illus.

CIS 78-1685 Hine C.H., Pasi A., Stephens B.G.
Fatalities following exposure to 2-nitropropane.
After a review of animal studies and observations in humans, 4 fatal case histories with postmortem findings in workers painting or coating in confined spaces without adequate protection are reported. The characteristic lesion was destruction of hepatocytes, and liver failure was the primary cause of death. Survival was 6-10 days. Symptoms usually included nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, dyspnoea, ataxia, and chest and abdominal pain. The inadequacy of warning labels is pointed out.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1978, Vol.20, No.5, p.333-337. 7 ref.

CIS 78-1008 Hartmann L.
How can a layman without any knowledge of chemistry know whether the air in a tank or shaft is breathable?
Wie kann ein Nichtchemiker prüfen, ob die Luft in einem Tank oder Schacht atembar ist? [in German]
Description of a method using a safety lamp of the type used in mines for firedamp detection, and a polyvalent detector tube. If it is certain that there is no hydrogen or acetylene present, the ordinary safety lamp used in mines indicates whether there is lack of oxygen or an explosion hazard. The detector tube shows if there are any harmful gases present. This method can therefore be used to determine if work is possible in tanks or shafts without respiratory protection.
Illustrierte Zeitschrift für Arbeitsschutz, Mar. 1978, Vol.25, No.2, p.7.

1977

CIS 78-1526 Hazards of entering recipients and confined spaces (wells, waste water tanks, etc.)
Gefahren beim Befahren von Behältern und engen Räumen (z.B. Brunnenanlagen, Abwasserbehälter usw.) [in German]
Review of the most common hazards of work in tanks, boilers, hoppers, wells, conduits and other confined spaces: presence of harmful gas, vapour, smoke and dust from their contents or from installations connected to them; oxygen deficiency; hot, corrosive or toxic substances; flammable gas or vapour; mobile mechanical plant; heated or cooled plant; live electric plant; radiation. List of safety regulations in force in the Fed.Rep. of Germany. Preventive measures recommended: organisational (obligatory permit-to-work, supervision, instruction of personnel), technical (identification of substances, cleaning and isolating of plant, monitoring of atmosphere, personal protective equipment); rescue (use of safety harness and lifeline, 2nd worker outside the installation). Check list for application of these measures.
Der Unfallschirm, Mitteilungsblatt der Textil- und Bekleidungs-Berufsgenossenschaft, Nov. 1977, No.4, p.2-4.

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