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Confined spaces - 312 entries found

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CIS 89-1888 Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Excess cancer morbidity in Swedish chimney sweeps
Canceröversjuklighet bland svenska skorstensfejare [in Swedish]
The incidence of cancer was investigated among 5,266 Swedish chimney sweeps employed at some time from 1918 to 1980 and information on cases of cancer from 1958 to 1981 was collected from the Swedish cancer registry. National cancer rates were used as a reference. A total of 214 cancers were found, compared to 162 expected. An increased risk of developing bladder cancer (23 observed vs. 9.8 expected) was a new finding. Risk excesses were also found for cancer of the lung, oesophagus and haematopoietic organs. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dust, sulfur dioxide, asbestos and metals have probably contributed to the excess risks in varying degrees.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 21p. 24 ref.

CIS 89-891 Enjalbert P.
Diesel engines and atmospheric pollution in confined spaces
Moteurs Diesel et pollution atmosphérique en espace confiné [in French]
The exhaust gases from diesel engines in handling, excavating, earthmoving, hauling, etc., can cause considerable pollution, depending on the site, the density of traffic and the frequency of use. This paper reviews the current knowledge in this field and suggests suitable ways of limiting the toxic effects of the different pollutants. It covers: the characteristics and toxicity of gases and fumes emitted by diesel engines; a comparison with other thermal engines; limit values for concentrations of dangerous substances; measuring and sampling; the specific case of pollution by diesel engine exhaust gases in confined spaces; preventive measures (pollution control at source, purification and cleaning of exhaust gases, ventilation); regulations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th Quarter 1988, No.133, Note No.1704-133-88, p.649-665. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 89-653
Haupverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften
Safety rules for work performed in confined spaces in waste water purifying plants
Sicherheitsregeln für Arbeiten in umschlossenen Räumen von abwassertechnischen Anlagen [in German]
These safety rules are concerned mostly with the prevention of falls from heights and of exposure to dangerous substances during work in confined spaces. Contents: definition of installations within the scope of these rules; general rules concerning workers (requirements, hiring, work training, work organisation, personal protective equipment, hygiene); operation of installations (risks connected with dangerous substances and with installations, prevention measures); first aid and rescue.
Carl Heymanns Verlag, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 30p.


CIS 89-2002 Atmospheres in sub-surface structures and sewers
Contents of this data sheet: hazards inherent in the atmospheres in confined spaces and underground structures; types of dangerous gases; hazards (explosion, fire, asphyxiation, poisoning); periodic inspections; ventilation; manhole entry requirements.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611-3991, USA, 1987. 5p. Illus.

CIS 89-1652 NIOSH Alert - Reprints: October 1980 - December 1986
Thirteen alerts requesting assistance are reprinted: 2-nitropropane; benzidine-, o-tolidine-, and o-dianisidine-based dyes; controlling carbon monoxide hazard in aircraft refuelling operations; electrocutions of workers in fast food restaurants; injury of workers by robots; electrocutions from contact between cranes and power lines; deaths and injuries from excavation cave-ins; hazards in the use of water spray (fog) streams to prevent or control ignition of flammable atmospheres; occupational facilities in confined spaces; grain auger electrocutions; fatalities due to fires and explosions in oxygen-limiting silos; electrocutions due to damaged receptacles and connectors; fatalities of workers who contact electrical energy.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Sep. 1987. 105p. Bibl.

CIS 89-1696 Nicodem R.
Metal stairs in sewer shafts - Evaluation of their safety
Steigeisen in Kanalschächten - Eine Bewertung ihrer Sicherheit [in German]
The German (Fed.Rep.) standard DIN 1211 requires metal steps mounted to the wall in manholes for descending into sewer shafts to have a depth of 130mm. Using statistics on shoe sizes it is argued that this depth is not safe. A depth of 150mm is recommended.
Sicherheitsbeauftragter, 1987, Vol.22, No.12, p.14, 16-18. Illus.

CIS 89-988 Work inside storage vessels
Arbeiten in Behältern [in German]
This safety guide indicates the steps to be taken in order to start working inside storage vessels: locking all supply lines, using safety devices and protective clothing, further measures to be taken and the regulations to be observed.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1987. 3p.

CIS 89-370
Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po Trudu i Social'nym voprosam, Sekretariat vsesojuznogo central'nogo soveta professional'nyh sojuzov
Approval of a standard list of strenuous and hazardous jobs for which supplementary payments to workers may be established on account of working conditions in municipal services [USSR]
Ob utveždenii tipovogo perečnja rabot s tjaželymi i vrednymi uslovijami truda, na kotoryh mogut ustanavlivat'sja doplaty rabočim za uslovija truda na predprijatijah kommunal'nogo hozjajstva i bytovogo obsluzivanija naselenija [in Russian]
This decision of 13 Oct. 1986 establishes 4 standard lists of difficult and hazardous jobs in the enterprises (workshops) and organisations of the urban electric transport industry, water supply and sewage work, municipal repair and maintenance work and work with boilers.
Bjulleten' - Gosudarstvennyj komitet SSSR po trudu i social'nym voprosam, 1987, No.7, p.3-7.

CIS 88-1919 Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Excess mortality among Swedish chimney sweeps
In a cohort study of 5,464 union organised Swedish chimney sweeps employed between 1918-1980, mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals: 717 deaths were observed against 540 expected. There was an increased mortality from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, and several types of malignant tumours. Lung cancer mortality was significantly increased and positively correlated to the number of years employed. A 5-fold risk increase for oesophageal cancer and liver cancer was found. The increased mortality could be attributed to exposure to combustion products in the work environment but not to smoking habits.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1987, Vol.44, No.11, p.738-743. 25 ref.

CIS 88-1706 Bond J.
Temporary manhole covers
Falls of workers owing to failed covers in a horizontal tank, a distillation column, and a silo are described. The lessons to be learned are outlined.
Loss Prevention Bulletin, Dec. 1987, No.078, p.15-16.

CIS 88-1134 Pettit T., Linn H.
A guide to safety in confined spaces
These guidelines are for work in spaces with limited openings for entry and exit, with unfavourable natural ventilation or not designed for continuous worker occupancy. Discussed are: oxygen-deficient, flammable, and toxic atmospheres; atmosphere testing; ventilation; isolation from service; respirators; standby and rescue; general and physical hazards. A checklist for evaluating the confined space is given and accident cases are described.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, July 1987. 20p. Illus.

CIS 88-839 Confined space safety (I: Confined space entry; II: Testing confined spaces; III: Working inside confined spaces)
Audiovisual series for training purposes. Contents: I - Types of confined spaces, importance of control measures, protective equipment, rescue techniques. II - Gas detector tubes, electronic gas detectors, dangers and detection of flammable gases. III - Safe working practices in confined spaces, avoidance of falls, noise and extreme temperatures, purging and ventilation.
Tel-A-Train Inc., 309 N. Market Street, P.O. Box 4752, Chattanooga, TN 37405, USA, 1987. 3 videotapes (NTSC, PAL), also available as 16mm film. Length: 25min (I and II), 20min (III). Price: USD 410.00 each (videotape), USD 450.00 each (film), USD 3.50 each (student booklet). Rental: USD 110.00 each (videotape), USD 150.00 each (film).

CIS 88-213 In-plant powered trucks
Chariots automoteurs [in French]
Recommendations on in-plant trucks whose operator walks alongside the truck without getting on it (R285), and on the use of powered trucks in confined atmospheres (R286).
Travail et sécurité, May 1987, No.5, p.334-335. Illus.

CIS 87-1019 Practical guide to ventilation - 8: Ventilation of confined spaces
Guide pratique de ventilation - 8: Ventilation des espaces confinés [in French]
Document drawn up by a working group of specialists and in collaboration with the relevant trade associations. Contents: definitions, nature of hazards (asphyxia and/or intoxication, fires and explosions); preventive measures (locking out, sampling of the confined atmosphere, decontamination of the confined atmosphere prior to entry of the worker, entry without prior decontamination, entry permit); decontamination principles and techniques, practical examples. An appendix provides examples of accidents.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1987, No.127, Note No.1623-127-87, p.161-169. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 89-496 Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Mortality in Swedish chimney sweeps
Dödsorsaker bland svenska skorstensfejare [in Swedish]
A cohort study of mortality among 5,464 Swedish chimney sweeps was performed. The cohort comprised all male, union-organised chimney sweeps between 1918 and 1980. Their mortality was studied from 1951 to 1982 with national statistics used as a reference. Follow-up was possible for 98.6% of the individuals in the cohort. Mortality due to malignant tumours, ischaemic heart disease, respiratory diseases, violent death (especially falls) and intoxication was higher than among controls. A 5-fold increased risk for oesophageal cancer was found, and the mortality from cancer of the lung and liver was also significantly higher. The increased risk of malignant tumours, ischaemic heart disease and respiratory diseases can be attributed to occupational exposure to chemicals in the work environment.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 26p. 34 ref.

CIS 87-1325 Guideline for the medical monitoring of workers exposed to sewage
This guideline is intended for employers, physicians and nurses. Discussed are: chemical and biological hazards; medical monitoring (health inquiry of workers, examination, immunisation); worker education (personal hygiene and hazards).
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Sep. 1986. 4p.

CIS 87-1236 Sewer entry guidelines
This guide is intended for supervisors, employers, contractors and workers. It provides information including entry of manholes, vaults and lift stations that may be used in the training of workers as required by Alberta legislation. Covered are: responsibilities, sewer hazards, sewer entry procedure guidelines, sewer worker and employers' guidelines, ventilation, air monitoring and isolation techniques, personal protective equipment, rescue procedures, and codes of practice.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Division, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Aug. 1986. 29p. Illus. Appendices.

CIS 87-956 Construction safety over and around water
This booklet is intended for management, supervisors and workers. It outlines general safeguards applicable to work over water or on ice, including construction on bridges, wharves, dams, locks, breakwaters and similar structures.
Construction Safety Association of Ontario, 74 Victoria St., Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5C 2A5, 1986, 28p. Illus.

CIS 87-680 Ahlström R., Berglund B., Berglund U., Lindvall T., Wennberg A.
Impaired odor perception in tank cleaners
The olfactory perception of 20 tank cleaners exposed to petroleum products was estimated. Office workers and watchmen were used as referents (N = 20 + 20). Odour detection thresholds and the perceived odour intensity of 4 odorous stimuli, pyridine, dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), n-butanol, and heating oil vapour (gas phase of heating oil heated to + 40°C) were determined. The tank cleaners had higher absolute odour thresholds for n-butanol and oil vapour than the referents. The psychophysical function of the tank cleaners and referents differed for all the tested substances in respect to odour intensity. The tank cleaners displayed normal perception of strong stimuli but impaired perception of weak stimuli. This odour deficit was therefore named "odour intensity recruitment" and seems, in tank cleners, to be associated with exposure to oil vapour.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1986, Vol.12, No.6, p.574-581. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 87-314
Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie
Vats and storage tanks. Prevention of risks due to the handling of and entry into fixed containers used for the storage or transportation of gases, liquids and solids (Recommendation No.276)
Cuves et réservoirs. Prévention des risques présentés par les interventions à l'extérieur ou à l'intérieur des installations fixes contenant ou véhiculant des produits gazeux, liquides ou solides. (Recommandation n°276) [in French]
Recommendations adopted 13 Dec. 1985 by the Coordinating Committee of the French National Health Insurance Fund. Safety measures relating to the installation of vats and storage tanks containing flammable or harmful substances. Prevention of falls from heights during handling and maintenance. Recommendations for outside work and entry into the containers. Commentary.
Travail et sécurité, July 1986, No.7, p.455-461.

CIS 87-24
Work on board ships
Arbete på fartyg [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective 1 Apr. 1987) applying to repair, maintenance, rebuilding and shipbreaking work cover: definitions; co-ordination of operations; checking for the presence of gas; reception of ships (certificate of reception; tank ships having transported liquids, gases or solids harmful to health); carbon-dioxide and halogenated-hydrocarbon extinguishing systems (installation of such systems; reception and testing of ships equipped with such systems; measures to protect workers against oxygen insufficiency); work performance (precautions regarding smoking, dangerous areas, solvents, electrical safety, fire safety, etc.; prohibition of access before the safety checks; permit to work; work involving heat sources; atmosphere changes in confined spaces; work in ship holds protected by inert gas). Detailed advice and commentaries as well as examples of certificates and of a check list are appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 10 Feb. 1987. 41p.

CIS 87-227 Sewer pipe - inspecting and cleaning
Contact with sewage; hazardous atmospheres; supervision and job instruction; entering manholes; equipment handling; personal protective equipment; traffic control.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, IL 60611, USA, 1986. 6p. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-1825 Blackburn A.G.
Working in confined spaces
Basic aspects of preventing fatalities when working in confined spaces: permits-to-work; equipment; maintenance; training; first aid; a basic approach to working in confined spaces (pre-entry meetings, equipment and rescue, communication, equipment testing, isolation, gas detection instruments, personnel, checklist for entry into confined spaces).
Safety Practitioner, Aug. 1986, Vol.4, No.8, p.19-22. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 86-1523 Gantner B.A.
Respiratory hazard from removal of ceramic fiber insulation from high temperature industrial furnaces
Ceramic fiber insulation is being used increasingly as a refractory lining for heat-treating and preheating furnaces in the iron and steel industry. This is largely due to its superior thermal resistance per unit thickness when compared to insulating fire brick, which was the previous mainstay of refractory linings. Although toxicity data to date have found these ceramic fibers to be innocuous, recent studies have shown the fibers to devitrify and undergo partial conversion to cristobalite when exposed to elevated temperatures. This paper presents the exposure hazards to cristobalite found during the removal of various brands of ceramic fiber insulation from heat treat furnaces and the extent of fiber transformation to cristobalite.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1986, Vol.47, No.9, p.530-534. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 86-1184 Christensen J.M., Talbot J.M.
Review of the psychological aspects of space flight
This literature review covers scientific observations and anecdotal reports of temporary psychological aberrations during space flight. They include disorientation, spatial illusions, visual disturbances, anomalous myopias, sleep disturbances and substandard performance. Both physical (artificial life support, microgravity, continuous threat of hazards) and social (isolation, boredom, crowding, lack of privacy) stress factors are present in space travel. An ad hoc Working Group set up in the USA has recommended the establishment of a comprehensive research and development programme aimed at all aspects of the problem, in particular as it relates to the Space Station Program planned by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA).
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1986, Vol.57, No.3, p.203-212. 90 ref.


CIS 88-326 Kuorinka T.
Manual lifting in restricted spaces
Nostaminen ahtaissa tiloissa [in Finnish]
Manual lifting of heavy loads is always problematic, but the back is especially at risk when the lifting area is limited. The recommendations given in lifting guides do not help when spatial and environmental conditions are far from satisfactory, and there may be no room to use mechanical lifting aids or to adopt the correct lifting posture. Description with illustrated cases as to how to reduce physical stress when lifting heavy loads in restricted spaces, especially covering the case of storemen in a large warehouse and that of loaders loading an aircraft.
Ergonomiatiedote, 1985, No.5, p.1-15. Illus.

CIS 86-2042
(Direktoratet for arbeidstilsynet)
Work on board tankers
Arbeid i tanker [in Norwegian]
These regulations, dated 14 June 1985 (effective: 14 June 1985), supersede the 1980 regulations. They apply to work performed on board tank ships and in confined spaces (bunkers, pipelines) that contain or have contained flammable products. Contents: definitions; requirements to be met before the ship is allowed to enter the yard (checking for the presence of flammable gases, blinding of pipelines, gas-freeing and ventilation; explosion-proof electrical equipment, earthing); cleaning; inspection and certification. In an appendix: facsimiles of an entry permit and a work authorisation; directive on the cleaning of tanks that have contained leaded motor fuel; hazards of carbon disulfide.
Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, July 1985. 24p.

CIS 86-1822
Safe work in confined spaces
Veilig werken in besloten ruimten [in Dutch]
Contents of this data sheet: hazards (fire, explosion, asphyxia, poisoning, electricity, falls); work organisation (personnel, responsibilities, permits-to-work - of which a detailed example is reproduced); practical safety measures (accessibility, manhole, details to be considered at the design stage); measures to be taken before a confined space is entered (external inspection, emptying and gas freeing, shutting of pipeline connections, ventilation, tagging out of switches to prevent inadvertent starting of agitators or other moving elements); determination of the concentrations of harmful substances and of the oxygen content; measures to be taken during work in confined spaces (exhaust ventilation of gases and vapours, fire prevention, supervision, communication); equipment to be used (electric lamps, fans, etc.); personal protection (respirators, clothing, etc.); excerpts from the relevant Netherlands regulations.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1985. 29p. Illus. Price: Glds.0.50.

CIS 86-1230
Manholes for certain vessels
Manhål på vissa behållare [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1986) specify that the manholes of vessels which must be entered with personal protective equipment should have the minimum dimensions specified by Swedish Standard SS 1797. Detailed commentaries and drawings showing the convenient arrangement of manholes for different types of container and the arrangement of openings for exhaust hosing.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 18 June 1985. 7p. Illus.

CIS 86-1433
Chimney sweeping
Sotning [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1986) apply to the cleaning and inspection of smoke and chimney flues and furnaces. Contents: general rules (everything should be done to limit exposure to combustion products and other harmful substances); equipment and premises (use of a vacuum cleaner to eliminate soot, cleaning of the vacuum-cleaner exhaust air, rest room equipped with washing facilities); personal protection and hygiene (clothing that protects against combustion products, gloves, food, drinks and tobacco products should be kept in a place where they cannnot be contaminated by soot or other harmful substances). Detailed commentaries.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 21 Mar. 1985. 12p.

CIS 86-466 Ulfvarson U., Alexandersson R., Aringer L., Anshelm-Olson B., Ekholm U., Hedenstierna G., Hogstedt C., Holmberg B., Linstedt G., Randma E., Rosén G., Sorsa M., Svensson E.
Health effects of exposure to motor exhaust gases
Hälsoeffekter vid exponering för motoravgaser [in Swedish]
Exposure to and the effects of motor exhaust gases on personnel in bus garages and car ferries and stevedores on roll-on roll-off (ro-ro) ships were studied. The peak concentrations (in mg/m3) recorded for some substances were: dust 1.0 (diesel only), benzene 0.3 (diesel), formaldehyde 0.8 (petrol and diesel) and nitrogen dioxide 1.2 (diesel). The highest observed concentration of benz(a)pyrene was 30ng/m3 (petrol and diesel). In an experimental study, people not normally exposed to motor exhaust gases at work were exposed to diesel exhaust gases. Pulmonary function is impaired during a working day with exposure to exhaust gases, but normalises after a few days without exposure. The decline in pulmonary function apparently has no appreciable adverse short-term impact on individual work capacity. In the experimental exposure study, no effect on pulmonary function was observed. Some of the subjects reported irritated mucous membranes. Urinary analyses for genotoxic compounds (Ames test and determination of thioethers) were negative for both occupationally exposed people and subjects in the experimental study.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1985. 83p. Illus. 162 ref.

CIS 85-1454
National Safety Council
Confined space entry control system for R&D operations
This data sheet provides guidance in developing procedures for minimising the risks associated with work in confined spaces of research facilities and similar establishments.
National Safety News, Apr. 1985, Vol.131, No.4, p.63-67. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 85-937 Atmospheres in sub-surface structures and sewers
Contents of this data sheet: hazards inherent to the atmospheres in confined spaces and underground structures; types of dangerous gases; hazards (explosion, fire, asphyxiation, poisoning); periodic inspections; ventilation; manhole entry requirements. French translation may be obtained from INRS, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France.
National Safety News, Feb. 1985, Vol.131, No.2, p.66-70. Illus.


CIS 92-1088 Health (Entry into Confined Spaces) Regulations 1984 [Australia - Victoria]
These regulations were made on 31 July 1984. They cover: entry conditions; use of respirators; employer's duties; testing of air in confined space for presence of dangerous substances and/or oxygen deficiency; manholes. In the schedule: list of 75 substances, with corresponding maximum concentrations deemed to be safe for entry purposes.
In: Australian Industrial Safety, Health and Welfare, CCH Australia Ltd., Cnr. Talavera and Khartoum Roads, Box 230, North Ryde NSW 2113, Australia, Vol.2, 4p. (pages numbered 62,501 - 62,504).

CIS 85-1837 Sukiassan A., Bianco Sales V., Moraes Silva C.
Safety in the coating, cleaning and repairing of storage tanks
Segurança no revestimento, limpeza e reparos de tanques [in Portuguese]
A survey of common safety risks and their prevention during work inside storage tanks. Aspects covered: types of coating; vapour pressure and boiling point of stored liquids; steam cleaning; ignition points for gases and fumes; gas densities; personal protective equipment; coating operations (surface preparation, dyes and primers, finishing, adhesives, labelling of dangerous products); cleaning operations; safety recommendations.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, Apr.-June 1984, Vol.12, No.46, p.25-37. 15 ref.

CIS 85-1738 Dômont A., Venjean J., Raix A., Proteau J.
The hazards of work in sewers: analysis of preventive measures and suggestions for their improvement
Les risques du métier d'égoutier: analyse des mesures actuelles de prévention et propositions d'amélioration de celles-ci [in French]
A survey of the working conditions of sewer workers. Large number of light occupational accidents in France (215 occupational accidents for 800 sewer workers in 1979). Fatal accidents are rare (hydrogen sulfide poisoning, suffocation due to lack of oxygen, drowning). Effective preventive measures are needed against occupational diseases (leptospirosis, tetanus, ankylostomiasis, brucellosis, other infectious and parasitic diseases). Technical preventive measures and safety procedures are enumerated. Suggestions for changes in legislation: stricter controls of the air breathed by sewer workers, better training, improvements in first-aid and protective equipment, compulsory vaccination against tetanus, poliomyelitis and leptospirosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1984, Vol.45, No.5, p.363-366.

CIS 85-1457 Venjean J.
Study of sewer work, its occupational hazards and their prevention
Etude du métier d'égoutier, des risques professionnels et de leur prévention [in French]
This medical thesis covers work in sewers large enough to permit direct access by workers. It is based on a study of the sewer systems of Paris (France) and describes the operation of the system, the working environment of the maintenance worker and the job itself (tasks, work organisation, benefits, inconveniences of safety equipment, chemical and biological hazards, stress factors, overall work load, occupational hazards). Safety measures presently include regulation and monitoring of discharges into sewers, rat control, upgrading of the system, safety training, guidelines for underground work, improved hygiene, personal protective equipment, limitation of working hours to 6h per day, special medical surveillance and prohibition of sewer work to persons under 18 years of age. A review of present preventive measures indicates that they are inadequate; it is proposed to augment them with obligatory vaccinations and with determinations of hydrogen sulfide, oxygen and explosive gases in sewer air before descent.
Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de médecine Broussais-Hôtel Dieu, Paris, France, 1984. 109p. 32 ref.

CIS 85-938 Safe working in sewers and confined spaces
An illustrated booklet primarily aimed at supervisors, to be used in conjunction with a training course. Contents: duties of management; medical examinations, training, minimum manning levels; roadworks signing; equipment; detection of unusual gases; first aid; emergency systems.
Severn-Trent Water Authority, Abelson House, 2297 Coventry Road, Sheldon, Birmingham B26 3PU, United Kingdom, Mar. 1984. 32p. Illus.

CIS 85-550 Poort R.O.B.
Safety in sewer work
Veiligheid bij het werken in riolen [in Dutch]
A review of the risks involved in sewer work: hazards at street level (obstacles to traffic which must be marked for drivers); hazards at the workplace (falls, high-pressure jets used for cleaning); underground hazards (lack of oxygen, toxic gases, explosions, harmful or microbially contaminated gases and aerosols, falling objects, claustrophobia). Precautions: establishment of safety responsibilities; information of workers and supervisors concerning hazards; inspection; monitoring of the atmosphere; availability of air-fed respirators, rescue equipment and communications equipment.
De veiligheid, Jan. 1984, Vol.60, No.1, p.13-15. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 85-541
Sewage treatment works
Avloppsanläggningar [in Swedish]
These regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 1986) apply to work in sewage, sludge, and faecal-matter treatment works and to the collection, transport and spreading of sewage (except for agricultural applications and composting works). Sections cover: general rules; technical equipment; work in basins, wells, confined spaces; fire and explosion prevention; personal protective equipment and preventive vaccination; housekeeping, hygiene, and personnel rooms. A detailed commentary is appended.
LiberDistribution, 162 89 Stockholm, Sweden, 14 Nov. 1984. 22p.

CIS 85-220 Stephens H.M., Tooth R.
A new tank rescue procedure
A clean air refuge which can be inflated below deck in large tankers and supplied with compressed air is described. The refuge can be used in addition to self-contained breathing apparatus, light sticks and other rescue apparatus, to prolong working time for rescuers in large tanks.
Professional Safety, May 1984, Vol.29, No.5, p.15-18. Illus.

CIS 85-179
(Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics)
Sewer work - Health and safety of operators and maintenance workers
Travaux en égouts - Hygiène et sécurité des personnels d'exploitation et d'entretien [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: review of French regulations; information to be obtained before beginning work on a sewer (characteristics of the sewers themselves, the nature of the effluents carried by the system, the area drained by the sewer, storm hazards); personnel and equipment of the work crew; access to the worksite; movement underground; prevention of hazards due to the effluent; personal and collective hygiene; medical examinations.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, May 1984, No.3, 2p. insert

CIS 85-233 Nœuvéglise J.
Work on sewers and wastewater-treatment stations
Travaux en égouts et stations d'épuration [in French]
Review of serious or fatal accidents due to hydrogen sulfide; an explosion; description of the symptoms of leptospirosis and other infectious deseases to which workers in this area are exposed. Preventive measures: personal and collective hygiene (disinfection and pest control in work areas), pre-employment medical examination and vaccinations. Safe work: monitoring the atmosphere, ventilation, etc. In an annex: list of personal and collective protective equipment, hazards that are not specific for sewer workers, French regulations.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, 1984, No.3, p.22-26. Illus.

CIS 85-35 Confined space entry - hazardous gases
This data sheet intended for farm workers covers all the hazards of work related to silos, grain bins, liquid manure and chemical fertiliser tanks and the measures necessary to prevent accidents. The hazards from gases encountered in farm work are explained (hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, ammonia, methane, nitrogen dioxide).
Manitoba Workplace Safety and Health Division, Suite 1000, 330 St. Mary Ave., Winnipeg, Manitoba R3C 3Z5, Canada, 1984. 11p.

CIS 85-34 A guide to identifying hazards in and developing procedures for entry and work in confined spaces
Aspects covered by this guide: how to recognise a confined space; hazards; precautions for safe entry; administration, policies and procedures; selection, education and training of workers; work permits. In an appendix: Canadian regulations; testing equipment; ventilation; personal protective equipment; rescue and rescue equipment; work permit (example).
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1984. 34p. Illus. Bibl.

CIS 84-1729 Enjalbert P.
Narrow underground tunnels - Prevention of occupational accidents
Ouvrages en souterrain de faible section - Prévention des accidents du travail [in French]
This booklet is aimed at the technicians of companies building special narrow underground tunnels. Safety advice is also provided to enterprises engaged in maintaining and modifying such tunnels. Contents: different types of workings, siting, site installation on the surface, access by manhole or open excavation, work in narrow tunnels (circulation of personnel and machinery, digging, support, hazards - contaminated air, dust, noise - and special techniques), horizontal boring, mini-tunnels, inspection and maintenance work.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Apr. 1984. 69p. Illus.


CIS 84-1452 Notification concerning sewer work
Bekendtgørelse om kloakarbejde m.v. [in Danish]
This notification refers to working environment law No.681 of 23 Dec. 1975. It applies to work in public and private wastewater and storm sewers. Contents: scope; access and egress (dimensions of openings and passages, stairs and ladders, hand- and guardrails); workplace design (clearances, ventilation, surface treatments); equipment (emergency shut-offs for mechanical equipment, minimising contact of equipment with waste or harmful substances, lay-out of gas lines, storage of chemicals); safe working methods (safety organisation, cleaning, training, vaccination); protective equipment; worker welfare (canteens, changing rooms, bathing and washing facilities, toilets; mobile facilities); exemptions; filing of complaints; penalties; entry into force (from 1 Jan. 1984 to 1 Jan. 1987, depending on the provision).
Lovtidende A, 7 Oct. 1983, No.473, p.1496-1502.

CIS 84-1026 Guillon F., Mignée C., Girard Wallon C., Durigon M.
Five fatal poisonings involving hydrogen sulfide
A propos de cinq intoxications aiguës mortelles mettant en cause l'hydrogène sulfuré [in French]
Review of the circumstances surrounding the deaths of 5 workers exposed to hydrogen sulfide in sewers and drains. The causal connection between death and exposure to the gas is supported by macroscopic and microscopic observations at autopsy and by measurements of sulfide ion in the organs of the victims. Protective measures, methods of detection of hydrogen sulfide, and first-aid procedures are reviewed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.7, p.483-488. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 84-884 Bobo M., Bethea N.J., Ayoub M.M., Intaranont K.
Energy expenditure and aerobic fitness of male low seam coal miners
Work in low-seam coal mines involves severe postural restraints in seams with a height of 1.2m or less. The parameters were studied above and below ground in 56 coal miners in whom the physical work capacity had been predicted by bicycle ergometry. Low-seam coal miners do not have higher maximum oxygen consumption than non-mining populations. Individual task analyses (roof bolting, miner helping, bolter helping, shovelling, timbering) for oxygen uptake and caloric expenditure in the literature are discussed.
Human Factors, Feb. 1983, Vol.25, No.1, p.43-48. 8 ref.

CIS 84-171 Doby J.M., Guiguen C., Duval J.M., Deunff J.
Intestinal parasitosis in sewer workers
Les parasitoses intestinales chez les égoutiers [in French]
The faeces of 80 municipal workers (sewer cleaners, street cleaners, sewage treatment personnel, etc.) and of 300 controls were examined. The risk of faecal contamination was much higher in the municipal workers than in the control population. Simple preventive measures proved to be effective in reducing the frequency of parasitic infection. Unlike a previous survey, this one gives no clear answer to the question whether dysentry should be included in a list of professional diseases.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1983, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-25. 8 ref.

CIS 83-2001 Hogstedt C., Gustavsson A., Frenning B.
Causes of death and exposure conditions of Swedish chimney sweeps
Svenska skorstensfejares dödsorsaker och exponeringsförhållanden [in Swedish]
A study of 2,560 chimney sweeps who were active in the trade for at least 10 years. Of the 470 subjects who died during the period of the study, 126 died of cancers (the expected number in a population of this size is 82), 205 of cardiovascular disorders (165 expected), and 31 of respiratory disorders (17 expected). Apparent risk factors in the work environment: combustion products (sulfur compounds, nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and soot (review of the literature of harmful substances which can be inhaled by chimney sweeps). The frequency of lung cancer is almost 3 times higher among chimney sweeps than among the general population. Thus, measures must be taken to reduce inhalation of the substances responsible. An appendix contains tables giving causes of death (observed versus expected) for more than 40,000 chimney sweeps observed between 1951 and 1979; tables organised by age cohort show the effects of smoking.
Arbetarskyddsverket, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 30p. 34 ref.

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