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Confined spaces - 312 entries found

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CIS 97-127 Appleby P.H.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 96-2203 Akbar-Khanzadeh F., Greco T.M.
Health and social concerns of restaurant/bar workers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke
Smoking (22) and non-smoking (21) workers were surveyed by means of interviews to assess their reactions to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in three restaurant settings. There was a significant difference between the non-smokers and the smokers in their attitudes towards ETS in workplace (non-smokers showed more health symptoms and anti-smoking attitudes than smokers). Carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations ranged from 1 to 23ppm; carbon dioxide (CO2) from 100 to 6,000ppm and nitrogen oxides were in practice non detectable. Levels of CO increased during the entire workshift, CO2 levels increased when workplaces were more crowded. Designation of non-smoking sectors did not seem to reduce workers' exposure.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1996, Vol.87, No.2, p.122-132. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 96-1882 Magni S., Malacarne M., Vismara R.
Biological risk in sewage treatment plants
Il rischio biologico negli impianti di depurazione [in Italian]
Biological risks for waste-water treatment plant workers are discussed, with particular reference to the Italian situation compared with that existing in some other countries (Sweden, Denmark, USA, Canada, Romania). The relevant provisions of Italian decree D.L. 626/94 (see CIS 96-1531) are also commented on. Two levels of evaluation are emphasized: risk of exposure and risk of infection. It is recommended that epidemiological aspects be also analyzed together with systematic monitoring procedures of the main ways of infection: contact, ingestion and inhalation. Studies concerning hepatitis A and microbial contamination by aerosols are also reviewed.
Biologi Italiani, May 1996, Vol.26, No.5, p.46-52. 27 ref.

CIS 96-1262
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Core training elements for the National Standard for Safe Working in a Confined Space
This is one of a series of core training manuals for the performance-based standards addressing major hazards and developed by Worksafe Australia. It is recommended to include its contents in any Australian training programme on safe working practices in confined spaces. The core training elements are grouped under: scope; target groups; training aims; training objectives; performance indicators; main topic/content areas; notional times; training and learning methods; resource list. In appendix: a series of "breakdown" (data) sheets, presenting the role of everyone in the workplace in dealing with specific issues: legislation relating to the risks associated with work in confined spaces; health and safety effects relating to confined spaces; identification, assessment and control of risks; correct selection, use and maintenance of safety and rescue equipment required for safe working in confined spaces; communication and consultation regarding the implementation of management strategies for confined spaces; design of a management programme for safe working in confined spaces; training outcomes for designers, manufacturers, suppliers and installers of confined space equipment.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Jan. 1996. vi, 23p. 5 ref. [in English]


CIS 96-2141 The sewer worker
Le travail en égout [in French]
Contents of this occupational data sheet devoted to sewer workers: definition; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: products used, working methods, hand movements and postures; risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the working hours, the mental workload (claustrophobia, fear of rodents and insects)); occupational diseases (infectious, parasitic and musculoskeletal diseases) and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal (vaccinations recommended)), OSH measures, specific first-aid measures (presence of a qualified first-aider recommended, first-aid kit should be present in the vehicles); regulations applicable in France; particular health conditions to watch (when checking for work aptitude, taking into consideration the demands of the job (carrying heavy loads; work in a confined, humid and unhealthy underground environment)).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1995, Vol.35, No.3. Insert.

CIS 96-1174 Occupational Health and Safety (Commonwealth Employment) (National Standards) Regulations (Amendment) [Australia]
Amendments to the 1994 Regulations (see CIS 96-393, previous amendments CIS 96-394). The principal modifications concern: hazard identification and risk assessment; control of risk after a risk assessment has been made; new part on hazardous substances (including definitions, determination of a substance as a hazardous substance, duties concerning Material Safety Data Sheets, labelling, ingredient disclosure, provision of information by employers, register of hazardous substances, risk assessment, instruction and training, risk control, atmospheric monitoring, health surveillance); new part on confined spaces. In schedules: changes in prohibited uses of hazardous substances (involving PCBs); health surveillance for specific kinds of hazardous substances (MOCA, acrylonitrile, asbestos, cadmium, crystalline silica, inorganic arsenic, inorganic mercury, isocyanates, organophosphate pesticides, PAHs, thallium, vinyl chloride).
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1995. 57p. Also in: Commonwealth of Australia Gazette, 6 Nov. 1995.

CIS 96-1482 Götz M.
Safe leakage testing of underground ducts
Sicherheitstechnische Aspekte bei der Dichtheitsprüfung erdverlegter Kanäle [in German]
Sewers need to be inspected at regular intervals for the presence of leaks. The conventional methods that are applied for such inspections are outlined. They use compressed water or compressed air. The safety requirements which need to be observed in Germany for performing the inspections are summarized. A new unit for detecting leaks in underground sewers is introduced. It operates with compressed air and accommodates both the shut-off and leak detection equipment. The leak is located with the help of sound reflection. In comparison with the outlined conventional methods the new method is safer and less expensive.
Tiefbau, Sep. 1995, Vol.107, No.9, p.628-630, 633-634, 636, 638-640. Illus.

CIS 95-1709 Foley G.
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Occupational health and safety performance overviews, selected industries. Issue No.6 - Cleaning services industry
This report highlights potential safety and health problem areas in the Australian cleaning services industry (cleaning of buildings, windows, chimneys, offices, telephones). The statistics of injury and disease are based on workers' compensation data and are analyzed by occupation, age group, sex, the nature, bodily location, mechanism and agency of the injury or disease and by time of accident. Costs of work-related injury and disease are estimated. Areas of concern are use of hand-tools, appliances and equipment, manual handling practices, and slips and falls related to the work environment.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1995. viii, 16p. Illus. 6 ref.


CIS 02-253 Worker deaths in confined spaces - A summary of surveillance findings and investigative case reports
This publication provides information on the incidence of fatal occupational injury within confined spaces from 1980 to 1989 in the United States and presents 70 case reports which are divided into two main categories: atmospheric hazards including fatal accidents involving fires or explosions, inert gases or asphyxiants, oxygen deficient air, solvents, and toxic gases, and physical hazards involving engulfment, falls, electrocution, and drowning. Recommendations for improved safety are made for each case.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1994. ix, 273p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 98-853 Carbon monoxide poisoning in enclosed and semi-enclosed worksites
Empoisonnement à l'oxyde de carbone dans des lieux de travail clos et partiellement clos [in French]
Topics: Canada; carbon monoxide; data sheet; fuel burning equipment; limitation of exposure; poisoning; ventilation; work in confined spaces.
Professional and Specialized Services, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Nov. 1994. 2p.

CIS 96-869 Harris M.K., Carter S.R.
Investigative industrial hygiene: Airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces
Determination of airborne lead concentrations during arc gouging in confined spaces in a petroleum refinery.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1994, Vol.55, No.12, p.1188-1192. 10 ref. ###

CIS 96-83 About working safely in confined spaces
Training booklet on safe work in confined spaces: types of confined spaces; hazards during routine and emergency situations; types of hazards (toxic gases and vapours, explosions and fires, oxygen deficiency, heat, noise, contact with irritating substances in tank, mechanical hazards, falls); safety procedures before and during entry; special safety tips; personal protective equipment; what to do in case of an emergency. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-2014 Rubitz Sh.
Safety in gas-flame welding and cutting
Btichut brituch vchituch blhvat gaz [in Hebrew]
Illustrated booklet which may be used for training purposes. Subjects covered: definition of terms and standards; gases used in gas welding and cutting; equipment and auxiliaries; safe working practice; personal protective equipment and working clothes; summary of safety rules; accidents and how to prevent them; safety checks for gas-flame welding, brazing and cutting work.
Israeli Institute for Occupational Safety and Hygiene, 22 Maze Street, P.O. Box 1122, Tel Aviv, Israel, 1994. 80p. Illus.

CIS 95-24
Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Confined and Enclosed Spaces and Other Dangerous Atmospheres in Shipyard Equipment - Final rule [USA]
This final rule (effective 24 Oct. 1994) extends the protection afforded by previous rules (see CIS 89-1411) to workers entering any confined space or working in any other dangerous atmosphere in or out of a shipyard. It requires the authorization of a competent person before such work can take place. It also contains requirements for posting unsafe spaces, and for the safe performance of cleaning, cold work and hot work. Very extensive commentary and background information.
Federal Register, 25 July 1994, Vol.59, No.141, p.37816-37863. 15 ref.

CIS 95-159 French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health - Meeting of 11 May 1993
Société de médecine et d'hygiène du travail - Séance du 11 mai 1993 [in French]
Topics of papers presented at the meeting of 11 May 1993 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine and Health: assessment of benzene exposure in 41 tank cleaners by determination of urinary trans-trans-muconic acid; training of industrial physicians in the European Community.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.49-52.

CIS 94-1940 Betemps E.J., Buncher C.R., Clark C.S.
Proportional mortality analysis of wastewater treatment system workers by birthplace with comments on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
A proportional mortality study was conducted on a large cohort of wastewater treatment system workers who were divided into two groups (immigrants and non-immigrants) by place of birth as reported on their death certificates. The immigrant worker had a significantly higher incidence of stomach cancer, leukaemia and lymphopoietic cancers than would be expected in the US white male population. Immigrant workers also had an elevated ratio for all diseases of the nervous system and sense organs. No cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis were found. The American-born workers had an elevated rate of death for arteriosclerotic heart disease compared with the US white male population. Place of birth may present a confounding factor when evaluating exposures in employee groups.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.31-35. 26 ref.

CIS 94-674 Suruda A.J., Pettit T.A., Noonan G.P., Ronk R.M.
Deadly rescue: The confined space hazard
Two sources of data on work-related fatalities in the USA were used to examine confined-space related deaths. During the period 1980-1988, there was an average of 89 work-related deaths in confined spaces per year; approximately 23 (25.5%) of those who died were attempting rescue, with asphyxiation by atmospheric hazards being the primary cause of death. Those persons who were attempting rescue and died were more likely to be co-workers than safety or emergency personnel. Proper training of personnel is required along with the availability of specialized equipment; safety personnel should be familiar with confined space hazards and the use of appropriate rescue techniques.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 1994, Vol.36, No.1, p.45-53. 19 ref.


CIS 98-878 Explosion - sewer construction using a laser device
Explosion - construction d'un égout à l'aide d'un dispositif à laser [in French]
Topics: Canada; data sheet; explosion hazards; gas explosions; sources of ignition; work in sewers.
Construction Health and Safety Program, Occupational Health and Safety Branch, Ministry of Labour, Ontario, Canada, Sep. 1993. 1p.

CIS 96-2115 Evanoff B.A., Gustavsson P., Hogstedt C.
Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: An extended follow up study
Mortality and incidence of cancer were examined in a cohort of 5542 Swedish chimney sweeps employed between 1918 and 1980. Previous studies of this cohort found increased risks of ischaemic heart disease, respiratory disease, accidental deaths, and various neoplasms. By increasing follow up, the power of the study was to be increased and disease time trends examined. All risks remained significantly raised. Exposure-response analyses showed significant positive associations between duration of employment and risks for mortality from lung, oesophageal, and total cancer. This study supports a causal role for exposure to chimney soot, which contains carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Extended follow up of this cohort now shows increased risks of prostate and haematolymphatic cancers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.50, No.5, p.450-459. 56 ref.

CIS 96-990 Charuel C., Mercier-Gallay M., Stoklov M., Romazini S., Perdrix A.
Environmental stresses and strains in an extreme situation - The repair of electrometallurgy furnaces
During the replacement of an electrode element from a 20MW continuous casting furnace, excessive temperatures and CO levels were found. The wet bulb globe temperature in the furnace centre was 55°C. In the furnace periphery the WBGT measured 34°C. These temperatures did not change significantly during the 6h of replacement work. The mean CO levels of 110 to 145ppm in the furnace centre exceeded the exposure limit. The average pulse rate was measured at 150/min. It reached 65 to 83% of the maximum theoretical rate. The protective clothing worn by the workers was found to provide no protection against radiant heat and did not allow evaporation. It is recommended that this kind of repair work be limited to 2h and that an insulated floor be used to limit thermal radiation. Recommendations for periodical medical examinations are presented.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.4, p.253-258. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 94-1468
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen (National Board of Occupational Safety and Health)
Directive on work in confined spaces [Sweden]
Arbete i slutet utrymme [in Swedish]
This directive deals with the hazards of work in confined spaces: high or low oxygen concentrations; accumulation of explosive or toxic gases or of dust. The maintenance of a clean environment is emphasized. Protective equipment is described.
Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 13p.

CIS 94-1769 Ohlendorf R.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewer maintenance and sewage purification plant workers
Hepatitis-A Infektionsrisiko bei Kanalunterhaltungs- und Kläranlagenarbeitern [in German]
Sanitation workers exposed to sewage were subjected to serological examinations to determine the presence of anti-HAV-IgG. All 15 sewer maintenance workers and all 27 employees of a sewage treatment plant of a German municipality were included. Sewer maintenance workers with more than five years of exposure were found to be HAV-positive while among the group with less than five years seniority, only one was HAV-positive. Of the employees of the sewage treatment plant, all with more than 11 years of exposure were HAV-positive and all those with less than five years seniority were HAV-negative.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.305-307. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-1170 Conforti J.V.
Confined space pocket guide
Pocket guide to safety and health in confined spaces written for workers. Contents: review of the law (entry permit, training, duties, rescue and emergency services, alternative procedures for entering a permit space, nonpermit confined space); hazard recognition (engulfment, mechanical hazards, atmospheric hazards); hazard assessment (monitoring for oxygen, combustibles and toxins); equipment (ventilation, personal protective equipment, respirators, protective clothing, communications, tools, lighting, belts and harnesses); rescue and first aid; safety tips; glossary.
Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 77p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders.

CIS 94-963 Lehmann E., Fröhlich N., Huang C.Y., Wang L., Bian Y.L.
Detection and monitoring in confined spaces
Messung und Überwachung in engen Räumen [in German]
The concentrations of oxygen, flammable gases, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide and organic gases and vapours in selected confined spaces such as wells, sewers and cable tunnels in China and Germany were determined. Portable detectors were used for the purpose. The results will be used to derive directives for the methods to be used for detecting explosive and toxic atmospheres in confined spaces.
Sicher ist Sicher, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.44, No.7-8, p.362-364. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 94-1057 Doit J.L., Aptel M., Horwat F.
Assessment of lumbar spine load in sewer workers removing manhole covers
Estimation de la contrainte lombaire lors du décollement de plaques d'égout [in French]
The lifting of sewer manhole covers provokes numerous complaints from sewer workers and a high number of occupational accidents, particularly lower back injuries. Dirt accumulation between manhole cover and frame affects the initial maximum force F(max) required to open the cover. The corresponding load on the lumbar spine F(comp) was also measured by a biomechanical model (see appendix). The relative importance of various factors that contribute to the workload (the tool: light hook versus "hammerhead" hook, the type of sewer cover and the worker's lifting technique) was estimated with statistical tools. For all 12 cover types tested, even when clean, F(comp) was higher than the NIOSH limit value. Although use of the "hammerhead" hook involves a less comfortable posture, it causes less strain in the back than the light hook. Sewer workers should be trained to use proper gestures and postures in their work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1937-152-93. p.453-460. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 94-617 Bowes S.M., Mason E.G., Corn M.
Confined space ventilation: Tracer gas analysis of mixing characteristics
Study of the mixing effectiveness of dilution ventilation of confined spaces (the hold of petrochemical vessels). The tracer gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was used as an experiment, with an infrared analyzer capable of sampling at 90L/min used as the monitoring instrument, and smoke tubes and anemometry used to assess air circulation. It was found that air in the vessels showed mixing that was much slower than predicted by theory, due to the complicated dynamics of internal air circulation. Tracer gas studies are shown to be useful for the assessment of air mixing inside confined spaces.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1993, Vol.54, No.11, p.639-646. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1906 Zuskin E., Mustajbegovic J., Schachter E.N.
Respiratory function in sewage workers
Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory capacity were studied in a group of 74 sewage workers employed in cleaning the city sewage system of Zagreb, Croatia. Workers were studied by their work stations: closed channels (n=26), drainage (n=31), and other sewage workers (n=17). The prevalence of chronic respiratory symptoms was higher in closed channel and drainage workers than in controls, particularly for chronic cough, chronic phlegm, chronic bronchitis, and chest tightness. In the first two groups of sewage workers there was a high prevalence of acute symptoms which developed during the work shift, being particularly pronounced for eye irritation (range: 16.1-26.9%), dyspnoea (16.1-23.1%), dizziness (range: 6.5-23.1%), throat burning (9.7-19.2%), and skin irritation (range: 22.6-26.9%). Baseline ventilatory capacity was significantly decreased compared to predicted values in sewage workers; in particular, values for FEF50 and FEF25 were reduced, suggesting obstructive changes in smaller airways. These data indicate that sewage workers experience frequent acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and exhibit objective evidence of respiratory dysfunction.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.751-761. 29 ref.


CIS 93-2042 Sahli B.P., Armstrong C.W.
Confined space fatalities in Virginia
A total of 41 confined-space accidents involving 50 fatalities from 1979 to 1986 were identified from various sources. The majority of decedents were male craftsmen, operators, or labourers less than 50 years old (mean 38). Drug screens of the 43 decedents tested were negative, with the exception of two cases where blood alcohol was detected. Resident death rates per million employees were highest for shipbuilding and repair facilities (23.2), local government (8.9), and manufacturing other than shipbuilding (5.4). Multiple fatalities occurred in four (10%) of the accidents. Three fatalities (6%) were rescuers. Atmospheric condition and fire/explosion were the leading causes of accidents and fatalities. In almost half the accidents due to atmospheric condition, the toxic gas or oxygen deficiency was absent in the confined space at the time of entry. Continuous or repeated monitoring of a confined-space atmosphere, rather than preentry testing alone, is recommended.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1992, Vol.34, No.9, p.910-917. 20 ref.

CIS 93-1634 Broughton C.M.
The dangers of filling station forecourts
Following a fatal accident during routine pressure testing of a tank, a review of procedures was carried out at Ferranti International to investigate exposure to petroleum vapour, carbon monoxide and oxygen deficiency. Tests showed that there can be a significant petroleum vapour levels within manhole chambers and as a result a safe system of work in these areas was developed. A schematic of the working procedure is presented along with a manhole working check list. These work practices are now standard procedure for the member companies of the Association of Forecourt Systems Contractors.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 1992, Vol.10, No.11, p.12-15. Illus.

CIS 92-1845 Ramel D., Bösch R., Choukroun G.
Maintenance of clean air in confined spaces
Richtiges Instandhalten: In engen Räumen - Die Luft ist rein! [in German]
Manutenzione corretta: in ambienti di lavoro stretti - Aria pulita! [in Italian]
Maintenance correcte: dans les locaux exigus. L'air est pur! [in French]
Training brochure on the various methods that can be used to maintain clean air in confined spaces: ventilation, elimination of ignition sources, wearing of personal protective equipment, monitoring and organisation of rescue, elimination of other risks. Five-point checklist.
SUVA, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1992. 4p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 92-1843 Safe entry and work in confined spaces
Contents of this guide usable for training purposes: definition of confined space and how to recognise one; confined space hazards (oxygen deficiency, oxygen enrichment, fires and explosions, toxic substances, etc.); precautions for safe entry and work; administration (policy and procedures, selection, education and training, work permits). Appendices cover testing equipment, purging and ventilating, personal protective equipment and rescue plans and equipment.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 250 Yonge Street, 28th Floor, Toronto, Ontario M5B 2N4, Canada, 1992. 34p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 3.55 (CAD 2.35 IAPA members).


CIS 94-930 Code of practice on safety and health in roadworks, excavation, sewer maintenance and renovation works
This code of practice outlines safety and health hazards and precautions during: roadworks (pneumatic tools, noise, vibration, work with asphalt and cement, exposure to carbon monoxide, heat stress, manual lifting, temporary lighting, work with solvents); excavation and trenching (general safety provisions, support of excavation edges, dust, gases and vapours); sewer maintenance (precautions in confined spaces); renovation works (means of access and egress, fire hazards, falling objects, machinery guarding, hand tools and portable power driven tools, welding and flame cutting, electrical hazards, demolition, painting, work with asbestos, wood, adhesives and corrosive chemicals).
Ministry of Labour, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 0105, Republic of Singapore, 1991. viii, 31p.

CIS 93-1369 Hollaus E.
Pipe driving: Safety requirements as seen by safety engineers
Rohrvortriebe: sicherheitstechnische Anforderungen aus der Sicht des Sicherheitsingenieurs [in German]
Pipe driving is a special form of tunnelling. A vertical shaft is driven to the level at which the pipes are to be laid. This level can be as deep as 20m. From the bottom of this shaft pipe segments are advanced in a horizontal direction by hydraulic jacks. Hazards and safety requirements are outlined for work involving pipes larger than 800mm. Protection against welding fumes, fault currents and overpressure are discussed in greater detail. Overpressure is used to hold loose ground in place. A depressuring chart is presented.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Dec. 1991, Vol.103, No.12, p.836, 838-844. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 93-1159 Module one: Confined space entry in construction
This course outline presents the principles of safe confined space entry. Hazards associated with confined spaces are identified, relevant legislation is cited, confined spaces are defined, and the permit system, safe procedures, and air quality monitoring are described.
Alberta Construction Safety Association, 10949 - 120 Street, Edmonton, Alberta T5H 3R2, Canada, 1991. 32p. Illus.

CIS 92-2047 Bandmann M.
Safe construction and maintenance of pipelines
Arbeitssicherheit bei Bau und Instandsetzung von Leitungen [in German]
Many water supply, sewage, gas and other underground pipelines in Germany require enlargement and maintenance. Important requirements spelled out in German Ordinances (Safety Regulations for Construction Work - VBG 37 - see CIS 83-1147) and Standards (DIN 4124, see CIS 84-1126) on the safety of personnel engaged in pipelaying or in the maintenance of pipelines are discussed. During underground tunnelling operations, pipes of more than 80cm in diameter may be entered by personnel. For inspections and maintenance the minimum diameter for entry under certain conditions is 60cm and the recommendation is made here that the diameter of pipeline over 100m long be raised to 120cm. All tunnelling, shaft sinking or open-trench work requires prior assessment of soil conditions. All trench work next to roads must be adequately illuminated and marked.
Tiefbau-Berufsgenossenschaft, Oct. 1991, Vol.103, No.10, p.684-690. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 92-1664 Confined space safety
This employee guide is aimed at employees engaged in work that will involve entry into confined spaces. Aspects covered: definition of a confined space; relevant legislation; confined space hazards; clothing and equipment; safe work practices.
City of Etobicoke, Personnel Department, Occupational Health & Safety, Etobicoke, Ontario M9C 2Y2, Canada, 1991. 38p. Illus.

CIS 92-652 Rückert A., Rohmert W.
Evaluation of manual load handling in confined spaces
Arbeitswissenschaftliche Bewertung manueller Lastenhandhabungstätigkeiten in höhenbegrenzten Arbeitsräumen [in German]
Heart rate, musculoskeletal complaints and diseases as well as pressure on the lower lumbar column of 44 luggage handlers were determined. Work comprised loading and unloading of aircrafts. The influence of the height of aircraft luggage compartments and of load weight on physiological strain was analysed. Results led to a training programme on ergonomic luggage handling in confined spaces.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Feb. 1991, Vol.26, No.2, p.58-63. Illus. Bibl.ref.


CIS 91-1723 Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Hepatitis B infection hazard among sewer and sewage plant workers
Hepatitis-B-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [in German]
A higher number of persons (24) with hepatitis B virus infection was found among 93 sewer maintenance workers than among hospital personnel. Of 84 workers in sewage treatment plants 11 were found to be infected. The high infection rate among sewer maintenance workers is blamed on contact with infectious waste water and sewage sludge and on the high rate of hand injuries. It is recommended to duly inform this specific category of workers of the hazards they have to face and to offer them hepatitis B vaccination.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Oct. 1990, Vol.25, No.10, p.475-477. 7 ref.

CIS 91-1065 Work with gas/oxygen torches in confined spaces [Netherlands]
Werken met gas-zuurstofbranders in besloten ruimten [in Dutch]
This directive deals with the use of gas/oxygen torches in confined spaces and the dangers involved in this kind of work. The most significant dangers are: oxygen enrichment or deficiency in the air; the uncontrolled escape of flammable gases and vapours; the accumulation of hazardous gases, vapours or decomposition products. This publication gives a view of technical and organisational measures for reducing or even eliminating the dangers mentioned. One of the safety measures mentioned is the odorisation of oxygen.
Labour Inspectorate, Directorate-General of Labour (Arbeidsinspectie, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1990. 16p.

CIS 91-1336 Manwaring J.C., Conroy C.
Occupational confined space-related fatalitites: surveillance and prevention
From December 1983 to December 1989 NIOSH investigated 55 confined-space fatality events resulting in 88 fatalities. Analysis of these events shows that NIOSH recommendations for working in confined spaces were not adequately followed. Data indicate that many companies either had no confined-space entry procedures or had them but they were inadequate or not implemented. These findings underscore the need for companies to increase worker understanding and awareness through developing and implementing comprehensive confined-space entry procedures and worker training. The article includes details of the occupations and activities where the fatalities occurred, the cause of death and a summary of the NIOSH safe work procedures.
Journal of Safety Research, Winter 1990, Vol.21, No.4, p.157-164. 10 ref.

CIS 91-666 Chriske H.W., Abdo R., Richrath R., Braumann S.
Risk of hepatitis A infection among sewage workers
Hepatitis-A-Infektionsgefährdung bei Kanal- und Klärwerksarbeitern [in German]
Infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) was studied among 93 sewerage workers and 84 workers in waste water treatment plants in Cologne, Germany. In comparison to the general population of the same age, HAV infection among young sewerage workers was 3-4 times higher. Anti-HAV antibodies were found in 35.7% of 21-30-year-old sewerage workers and in 85% of those aged 50 and above. Of the 84 workers in waste water treatment plants, 47 (56%) showed anti-HAV. Thus, sewerage workers are persons at risk for whom active vaccination should be practised.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, 1990, Vol.25, No.6, p.285-287. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 92-88 Safety in confined spaces
Illustrated booklet aimed at teaching workers about the dangers of work in confined spaces. Contents: confined spaces and the hazards associated with them (toxic vapours, fires and explosions, oxygen deficiency, hot or corrosive liquids, difficulty of escape); legislative requirements in New Zealand; hazard assessment; safe entry procedures; accident case histories; the work permit system (includes a sample safety checklist).
Occupational Safety and Health, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1989. 35p. Illus.

CIS 91-866 Bandmann M.
Occupational safety measures in the repair of pipelines
Arbeitsschutz bei der Sanierung von Rohrleitungen - Rohrleitungsnetze - Umfang und Zustand [in German]
German legal requirements placed on safety in the repair of sewer systems (240,000km) are outlined. The limit on minimum diameter of sewer pipes which personnel may enter is set at 600mm. Sewers may not be entered unless the composition of breathing air is known and complies with the limits.
Sicher ist Sicher, 1989, Vol.40, No.1, p.12, 14-16. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 90-256
Ministry of Labour, Government of India
Retrospective investigation of fatal hydrogen sulfide poisoning inside the waste sump of ordnance equipment factory, Phoolbagh, Kanpur
Description of an accident that occurred in the tanning department of an ordnance factory causing five deaths. The investigation reveals that practical safety measures had not been taken. The report lists all statutory violations which had led to the accident, such as absence of monitoring of toxic gases at the workplace, absence of an on-site emergency plan, etc. Recommendations are made for the specific measures which should have been taken and which should be applied in the future.
Regional Labour Institute, Sarvodaya nagar, Kanpur, India, 1989. 22p.

CIS 90-174 Rylander R., Donham K.J., Hjort C., Brouwer R., Heederik D.
Effects of exposure to dust in swine confinement buildings - A working group report
Pulmonary and other symptoms among workers in swine confinement buildings were evaluated by an international working group. In several studies in five different countries about 2000 workers were studied in clinical and epidemiologic investigations. Symptoms indicative of acute and chronic airway inflammation were widespread, as were systemic reactions characteristic of organic dust toxic syndrome. The base line, and across workshift, pulmonary function changes were moderate. There was no evidence that antigen-antibody reactions were important in the pathogenesis. Longitudinal studies are recommended to establish the relationship between acute and chronic symptoms and end stage disease.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1989, Vol.15, No.5, p.309-312. 22 ref.

CIS 89-1969 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing death from excessive exposure to chlorofluorocarbon 113 (CFC-113)
This alert presents 4 case reports of fatal incidents (12 fatalities) resulting from occupational exposure to CFC-113 in confined spaces. The cases are typical of situations in which CFC-113 can cause death. All of the fatalities were attributed to cardiac arrhythmia or asphyxiation or both. In addition, the alert describes the toxic effects and regulatory status of CFC-113, and recommends ways of preventing injury or death: hazard awareness, training, engineering controls, observance of the usual precautions for work in confined spaces, medical examination and personal protective equipment.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, 1989. 28 ref.


CIS 90-1493
Guidance for work in bunkers
Vejledning for arbejde i bunkere [in Danish]
Contents of this training booklet giving practical advice on how to achieve good working conditions in military bunkers: the absence of daylight (consequences and remedies), air conditioning, fluctuating working hours and long shifts, the special psychological conditions of this type of work, ergonomics, noise, work at computer terminals. A list of relevant Danish laws, directives and other useful literature is appended.
Arbejdsmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1988. 15p. Illus.

CIS 90-881
Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Eisen- und Metall-Berufsgenossenschaften
Working in confined spaces
Arbeiten in engen Räumen [in German]
These safety rules for confined spaces (containers, boilers, tanks) deal with: major accident sources in confined spaces, specific safety rules for various industries and occupations (such as electrical equipment, shipbuilding, construction work, silos). Prohibition of specific work, limitations on the use of dangerous substances, working conditions, size and number of access openings, supervision and training, hazard assessment, choice of working methods, equipment and workplaces, recommended safety measures (such as shut-off devices, ventilation, fire protection, explosion protection, personal protective equipment), cleaning and work permits.
Carl Heymanns Verlag K.G., Luxemburger Strasse 449, 5000 Köln 41, Federal Republic of Germany, 1988. 76p.

CIS 90-242 Schmider F.
Descent into manholes - The air in manholes may be deadly
Einsteigen in Schächte - Die Luft im Schacht kann tödlich sein [in German]
Carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen sulfide are the most hazardous gases that may occur in manholes. Two examples are used to illustrate that natural ventilation may not suffice to remove all toxic concentrations. Manholes must be supplied with fresh air forced all the way to the bottom. In addition, measurements of the CO2, CH4 and O2 concentrations are necessary prior to entry.
Humane Produktion - Humane Arbeitsplätze, 1988, Vol.10, No.8, p.6-9.

CIS 89-1877 Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Excess of cancer in Swedish chimney sweeps
The incidence of cancer was investigated among 5,266 Swedish chimney sweeps employed between 1918-80. An analysis of the mortality showed an increased number of deaths from coronary heart disease, respiratory diseases, liver cancer, and excessed risks for cancer of the lung and oesophagus. In addition, a more than doubled risk for bladder cancer and an increase of malignancies of the haematopoietic system was found. There were, however, no cases of scrotal cancer, the classic occupational hazard among chimney sweeps. Chimney sweeps are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated by the combustion of organic material (coal, wood, coke, and oil). They are also exposed to cancerogenic metals (arsenic, nickel, and chromium). These results support the need for improved working conditions.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1988, Vol.45, No.11, p.777-781. 21 ref.

CIS 89-1888 Gustavsson P., Gustavsson A., Hogstedt C.
Excess cancer morbidity in Swedish chimney sweeps
Canceröversjuklighet bland svenska skorstensfejare [in Swedish]
The incidence of cancer was investigated among 5,266 Swedish chimney sweeps employed at some time from 1918 to 1980 and information on cases of cancer from 1958 to 1981 was collected from the Swedish cancer registry. National cancer rates were used as a reference. A total of 214 cancers were found, compared to 162 expected. An increased risk of developing bladder cancer (23 observed vs. 9.8 expected) was a new finding. Risk excesses were also found for cancer of the lung, oesophagus and haematopoietic organs. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, dust, sulfur dioxide, asbestos and metals have probably contributed to the excess risks in varying degrees.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1988. 21p. 24 ref.

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