ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Español
view in a printer-friendly format »

Confined spaces - 312 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Confined spaces


CIS 02-1768 Rojas Labiano J.M.
Method of work in confined spaces
Procedimiento de trabajo para la intervención en espacios confinados [in Spanish]
When required to work in confined spaces, operators need specific procedures that define the preventive measures to be adopted against the hazards that are inherent to this kind of work. This article proposes an approach for developing and implementing these work procedures that comprises the following steps: preliminary information on the confined area; identification of the general hazards related to the area layout and to hazardous atmospheres; evaluation of the identified hazards; planning the preventive measures (alternatives to work in confined spaces, methods enabling a reduction in the time spent in the confined space, basic prevention standards to be applied for work in confined spaces, collective and personal protection, control of the hazards related to dangerous atmospheres, emergency planning); writing-up of the working procedure document; control and follow-up.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.3-17. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1778 Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Lee E., Khan J.
Improving the use of mixing factors for dilution ventilation design
A safety factor is often used when specifying the dilution ventilation flow rate to compensate for uncertainties and health impact severity. The component of the safety factor accounting for imperfect mixing, Km, was studied for the purpose of developing more effective design procedures. Air flow and contaminant distribution were simulated for steady, isothermal conditions using computational fluid dynamics. A series of ten simulations explored factorial combinations of air exchange rate and inlet types. This work suggests that air quality data can be used to calculate dilution flow rate requirements. Also, dilution flow rate requirements may be reduced by enhancing room mixing with fans or altering air inlet configuration. However, mixing should not be increased if the altered room air currents could transport contaminants to an occupant's breathing zone or interfere with other control methods that depend on segregation of incoming air and contaminant.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.333-343. Illus. 19 ref.


CIS 02-290 Jo W.K., Kim S.H.
Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores
Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 02-438
Health and Safety Commission
The management, design and operation of microbiological containment laboratories
The implementation of EC Biological Agents Directive (90/679/EC, see CIS 91-29) via the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 and 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 95-19 and CIS 00-620) introduced legal requirements applicable to all types of laboratories. This guidance concentrates on legal requirements under COSHH applicable to work with biological agents in microbial containment laboratories. Contents include: safety and health management in microbial containment laboratories; general principles of design and operation of microbial containment laboratories; principal requirements for containment level 2 and level 3 laboratories.
HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 72p. lllus. 61 ref. Price: GBP 9.50.

CIS 02-274 Petrelli G., Lauria L., Figà-Talamanca I.
Occupational exposures and male fertility: Results of an Italian multicentre study in exposed populations
Esposizioni occupazionali e fertilità maschile: Risultati di uno studio italiano multicentrico tra popolazioni esposte [in Italian]
Report on a study on the fertility of couples where the men were occupationally exposed to three different kinds of toxic substances with effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couples. Data were collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers, as well as from comparable non-unexposed groups of workers. Results suggest that workers exposed to metals, solvents and the agricultural and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy, although the delay was statistically significant (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.2-5.1) only for greenhouse workers with heavy exposure (>100hrs of application time per year) to pesticides.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.307-313. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 02-270 Brugnot C., Beauté C., Hasni-Pichard H., Lauzier F.
Applying resins in confined spaces during construction work - Highlighting of exposures and proposals for prevention measures
Application de résines en espaces confinés dans l'activité BTP - Mise en évidence des expositions et propositions de moyens de prévention [in French]
To satisfy growing technical and aesthetic requirements, synthetic resins used in surface coatings (of floors, vessels, piping, etc.) contain an increasing variety of chemicals. The potential hazards from handling and applying these resins are a subject of concern, as confirmed by field evaluations of the working environment and biological monitoring at 9 construction sites in the Ile-de-France region. To limit these hazards, it is recommended that all parties (formulators, equipment manufacturers and suppliers) work together. This first study enabled the highlighting of the problems, and would need to be followed by long-term evaluations involving pluridisciplinary teams.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2152-184-01, p.5-23. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 01-628 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Confined Spaces) Regulations, 2001 [Ireland]
These Regulations came into operation on 31 Aug. 2001. They apply to any workplace where work in confined spaces may occur, with the exception of underground operations in mines and diving operations. They specify the duties of employers, conditions under which workers may work in confined spaces and emergency arrangements. Certain Regulations relating to confined spaces in other Statutory Instruments are revoked.
Government Publications Sales Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 2001. 7p.


CIS 03-778 Danet J.P., Dubernet F., Magniez G., Aussel H., Rolin A.
Airflow balance of asbestos sites
Le bilan aéraulique des chantiers d'amiante [in French]
Contractors qualified in the removal or confinement of friable asbestos must ensure the protection of employees and the environment, in particular by systems to clean the air and maintain a negative pressure in the working zone. The airflow technique allows firms to adopt a rigorous step-by-step approach. It ensures the control of risk by predicting equipment requirements in advance and limiting improvisation on site. Finally, measurements carried out on site allow validation of the assumptions made and feedback on experience, which is a factor of progress in the prevention of occupational risks on asbestos removal sites.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.181, p.17-40. Illus. 4 ref. [in French]

CIS 03-101 Dumayag C.M., Viado A.M.
Safety in confined space
Work in confined spaces such as tunnels or tanks is dangerous, involving the risk of getting trapped, being exposed to toxic substances or suffering from a lack of oxygen. Many workers have died in confined spaces while doing their job or attempting to rescue their fellow workers. Contents of this guide on the prevention of hazards when working in confined spaces: introduction; definition of confined space; examples of confined space; hazards in confined spaces; control of hazards; confined space entry procedures. Appendices include: checklist; samples of tags; sample of permit to enter a confined space.
Department of Labor and Employment, Occupational Safety and Health Center, OSHC Building, North Avenue corner Agham Road, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines, Apr. 2000. ii, 30p. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-1847 Code of practice for entry into and safe working in confined spaces
This standard consists of guidelines for entering confined spaces and working safely in them. It is based on a four-stage approach: identification of confined spaces; evaluation of hazards; development and implementation of control measures; development of an effective emergency plan. Contents: scope; definitions; identification of confined spaces (warning signs, openings, lighting); procedures for entering into a confined space (written procedures, hazard identification, entry permits, testing of confined atmospheres, authorization to work, name tags, retrieval systems, confined spaces unused for a significant period of time); ventilation; training; attendants (duties, appointment); rescue operations.
Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 19p. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 02-1760 Matney M.L., Beck S.W., Limero T.F., James J.T.
Multisorbent tubes for collecting volatile organic compounds in spacecraft air
The objective of this study was to improve the capability of Tenax-TA tubes to trap and concentrate volatile contaminants from air aboard spacecraft by incorporating additional sorbents within the tubes. Two carbon molecular sieve-type sorbents were tested. Breakthrough volumes were determined by flowing low levels of methanol or trichlorofluoromethane in nitrogen through the sorbent tubes at 30mL/min. Breakthrough volumes for methanol on the two sorbents were about 9L/g and 11L/g, while those for trichlorofluoromethane were 7L/g and >26L/g. Tubes containing either Tenax-TA alone or in combination with each sorbent were next exposed to a 10-component gas mixture and percentage recoveries of each constituent were determined. The Tenax-TA and Carboxen 569 combination gave the best overall recoveries (75-114% for the 10 compounds). Acetaldehyde had the lowest recovery (75%), but this value was an improvement over either the other sorbent combinations or the original single-sorbent tubes.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-1322 Lyons R.A., Wright D., Fielder H.M.P., McCabe M., Gunneberg A., Nash P., Routledge P., Rees H.
Investigation of an acute chemical incident: Exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons
Symptoms experienced by 254 people present at an accident in a sewer in the United Kingdom (including 2 fatalities) suggested a chemical hazard. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in the serum of 83 patients were recorded. Among all workers, symptoms (shortness of breath and sore throat) were not significantly associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase as biomarker of fluorinated hydrocarbons intoxication. Freon 11 was detected in two blood samples. In a nearby chemical company there had been a Freon 11 spill months earlier.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.577-581. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 02-595 Occupational safety and health for work in confined spaces
Prevención para labores en espacios confinados [in Spanish]
Contents of this booklet on occupational safety and health measures for work in confined spaces: characteristics of confined spaces; hazards (lack of oxygen, flammable or toxic atmospheres, suffocation, electrocution, heat-induced fatigue, remaining trapped, falls); precautions before entry into a confined space; personal protective equipment; check list for hazard evaluation.
Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 7p. Illus.

CIS 02-317 Shibata N., Tanaka M., Ojima J., Iwasaki T.
Numerical simulations to determine the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions in small enclosed workspaces
To improve arc welding working conditions in a small enclosed workspace, numerical simulations were conducted to find the most appropriate welding currents, hood position and flow rates. Distributions of airflow vectors and fume concentrations were calculated for two hood opening positions: one faced a welder's breathing zone, the other a contaminant source. It was predicted that a hood opening facing a breathing zone remarkably lowered the fume concentration in the breathing zone compared with that facing a contaminant source. The reliability was confirmed in CO2 arc welding experiments in the enclosed workspace by using a welding robot. In addition, the number of blowholes in welds, examined with X-ray, decreased with the increase in the welding current and with the decrease in the exhaust flow rate. These results showed that the fume concentration near welder's breathing zone and the number of blowholes could be reduced by appropriate selection of the welding current and hood position.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.356-365. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-1845 Reynolds Mozrall J., Drury C.G., Sharit J., Cerny F.
The effects of whole-body restriction on task performance
Cognitive task performance in restricted spaces presents cognitive demands (the task itself) as well as additional physical demands (e.g. awkward postures), which may adversely affect task performance or operator workload. This research focused on the effects of whole-body restrictions on cognitive task performance. Nine levels of restriction were examined: an unrestricted control, 6 single whole-body restrictions at two severity levels (2 lateral, 2 sagittal and 2 vertical) and 2 multiple restrictions (sagittal-vertical, lateral-sagittal-vertical). An inspection task served as the cognitive task. Physiological, psychophysical and behavioural measures were collected and analysed to measure the operator and performance effects. Results show that increasing restriction significantly affected the behavioural and physiological operator response, but not the cognitive response.
Ergonomics, Nov. 2000, Vol.43, No.11, p.1805-1823. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 01-809
Health and Safety Executive
Managing confined spaces on farms
Fatal accidents occur during work in confined spaces involving persons not aware of the presence of a dangerous atmosphere. Risks include loss of consciousness from poisonous gases or lack of oxygen, asphyxiation from free-flowing solids, drowning in liquids or serious injury by fire or explosion. Examples of confined spaces in agriculture include slurry pits, effluent-treatment tanks and silos. This information sheet provides guidance on managing the risks from confined spaces and on meeting the requirements of United Kingdom regulations. Contents include: managing the risks; avoiding work in confined spaces where possible; safe working methods in specific work environments (sealed moist grain tower silos, indoor silage clamps, slurry storage systems, forage tower silos). Replaces CIS 99-648.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2000. 4p. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 01-441 Mouriño Doval J.M.
Work in confined spaces
Trabajos en espacios confinados [in Spanish]
This article describes the various phases of work in confined spaces. It defines the measures to be implemented to ensure that different tasks are carried out under conditions of maximum safety. Contents include: permission to enter or work in the installation; delimiting and signalling the confined area; hazard evaluation; detection of hazardous atmospheres (explosive atmosphere detection, determination of CO and CO2); ventilation; personal protective equipment (respirators; harnesses and lifelines); lighting of confined spaces; planning of emergency intervention; medical surveillance and health characteristics possibly having an influence on the safety of work (claustrophobia, vertigo, heart disease, neurological problems, problems of limited mobility, reduced respiratory capacity, consumption of certain drugs); workers' training.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2000, Vol.20, No.80, p.3-13. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 00-1487 Palinkas L.A., Gunderson E.K.E., Holland A.W., Miller C., Johnson J.C.
Predictors of behavior and performance in extreme environments: The Antarctic Space Analogue Program
To determine the criteria for screening personnel for long-duration space flight, the influence of social and demographic characteristics, personality traits, interpersonal needs, and characteristics of station physical environments on performance measures were examined in 657 men who spent an austral winter in Antarctica between 1963 and 1974. Subjects completed a questionnaire on social and demographic characteristics which assessed 5 different personality traits, and a scale which measured 6 dimensions of interpersonal needs. Station environment included measures of crew size and severity of physical environment. Performance was assessed on the basis of peer-supervisor evaluations of overall performance, peer nominations of fellow crew-members who made ideal winter-over candidates, and self-reported depressive symptoms. Military service, low levels of neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness, and a low desire for affection from others were significant predictors of several performance measures.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.71, No.6, p.619-625. 26 ref.

CIS 00-1459 Weldon M., VanEgdom M.J., Hendricks K.A., Regner G., Bell B.P., Sehulster L.M.
Prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus in drinking water workers and wastewater workers in Texas from 1996 to 1997
To determine if wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of antibody to hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) than drinking-water workers, 359 wastewater and 89 drinking-water workers were evaluated for risk factors by questionnaire and tested for anti-HAV. Anti-HAV positivity was 28.4% for wastewater and 23.6% for drinking-water workers. After adjustment for age, educational attainment and Hispanic ethnicity, the odds ratio for the association between anti-HAV positivity and wastewater industry employment was 2.0. Among wastewater workers, never eating in a lunchroom, ≥8 years in the waste water industry, never wearing face protection, and skin contact with sewage at least once per day were all significantly associated with anti-HAV positivity. Wastewater workers had a higher prevalence of anti-HAV than drinking-water workers, which suggested that wastewater workers may have been at increased risk of occupationally acquired hepatitis A.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.42, No.8, p.821-826. 18 ref.

CIS 00-840 Gawthorpe R.
Pressure effects in railway tunnels
The severe pressure waves generated by high-speed trains travelling through tunnels may create severe discomfort, and - in extreme cases - ear damage in crew and passengers on trains travelling through these tunnels. Should there be a case of rapid decompression (e.g. if a window broke while the train passed through the tunnel), the health consequences may be even more serious. There do exist solutions, all of which costing money. Expensive solutions include changing tunnel configurations (larger tunnel cross-sections, installation of air shafts) or the trains themselves (complete pressure sealing of train compartments). Less expensive solutions involve the prevention of two trains passing each other in the tunnel and a general reduction in train speeds while in the tunnel.
Rail International, Apr. 2000, Vol.31, No.4, p.10-17. Illus. 10 ref.


CIS 07-9 Ordinance on the use of organisms in confined spaces [Switzerland]
Ordonnance sur l'utilisation des organismes en milieu confiné (Ordonnance sur l'utilisation confinée) [Suisse] [in French]
Verordnung vom 25. August 1999 über den Umgang mit Organismen in geschlossenen Systemen (Einschliessungsverordnung, ESV) [in German]
Ordinanza del 25 agosto 1999 sull'utilizzazione di organismi in sistemi chiusi (Ordinanza sull'impiego confinato, OIConf) [in Italian]
Ordinance on the safe use of microorganisms in confined spaces. In summary: general measures; requirements concerning the use of organisms in confined spaces (general requirements and requirements concerning genetically modified organisms); role of government authorities (verification of notifications and of authorization applications; monitoring of enterprises; monitoring of transportation; collection, treatment and confidentiality of data; directives, training and further education). In annex: definition of the techniques of genetic modification; hazard evaluation (classification of organisms, systems of biological safety, classification of activities); information required for the declaration, notification and authorization of activities; safety measures.
Internet document, 1999. 38p. [in Italian] [in German] [in French]

CIS 01-1751 Letzel S., Schaller K.H., Elliehausen H.J., Gissibl R., Hoffmann G., Schmittner H., Paur R., Angerer J., Lehnert G.
Study on the internal exposure of chimney sweeps to hazardous substances
To evaluate their exposure to hazardous substances, biological monitoring was carried out on chimney sweeps from three different regions of Germany and from Poland. The metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene and several hydroxylated phenanthrenes were determined in urine as indicators of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Urine analysis was carried out to detect aromatic amines. 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations ranged in the total group from below the detection limit (0.1µg/L) to 12.8µg/L. A similar pattern of distribution was found for phenanthrenes. For a few subjects, concentrations of aromatic amines above the valid reference values for occupationally non-exposed persons were observed. Results indicate that chimney sweeps do not belong to the occupational groups highly exposed to PAHs. However, they should wear adequate personal protective equipment.
Occupational Hygiene, 1999, Vol.5, No.1, p.59-71. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 01-1828 Schlosser O., Vibert M.L.
Prevention of leptosirosis in an occupational setting: Comments on a case report
Prévention de la leptospirose en milieu professionnel: réflexion à propos d'un cas clinique [in French]
A case of Weil's disease affecting a young plumber after his first exposure to working in sewers is reported. The preventive measures of the occupational risk of leptospirosis are discussed and the problems of defining approaches for temporary and occasional exposures are emphasized. The many-fold, dispersed and variable activities of many firms should encourage occupational physicians to inform workers widely about the hazards of leptospirosis, in anticipation of their possibly executing tasks which could lead to exposure. The objective is to cause further enquiries if necessary, leading to the definition of an appropriate prevention for the task.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 1999, Vol.60, No.2, p.112-117. 21 ref.

CIS 00-1625 León M.C.
Definition and conditions of entry - Confined spaces
Definición y condiciones de entrada - Espacios confinados [in Spanish]
Topics: carbon dioxide; oxygen; Colombia; explosive atmosphere detection; flammable gases; hazard evaluation; respirators; responsibilities; toxic atmosphere detection; work in confined spaces.
Protección y seguridad, July-Aug. 1999, Vol.45, No.266, p.26-30. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 00-1446 Götz M.
Safety aspects in pressure testing of sewage pipes and sewers
Sicherheitsaspekte bei Druckprüfungen an Abwasserleitungen und -kanälen [in German]
Prior to first use and during normal exploitation, sewers and sewage pipes must be checked for leaks. Compressed-air testing is more economical and environmentally-friendly, but risks arise when plugs tear away from pipe ends, since air is far more compressible than the water used in hydraulic tests. Wooden structures securing the plug for safe testing are described as well as chemical and biological hazards encountered when entering sewers for inspection (methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, bacteria, viruses).
Tiefbau, Aug. 1999, Vol.111, No.8, p.484, 487-490. Illus.

CIS 00-1037 Kneller P.
'Dem bones, 'dem bones - Health and safety in church archaeology
Topics: biological hazards; body tissues; bones; lead; contagion; emotivity; health hazards; personal protective equipment; physical hazards; research; smallpox; trenching and excavating; work in confined spaces.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Nov. 1999, Vol.17, No.11, p.12-15. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 00-1011 Friis L., Mikoczy Z., Hagmar L., Edling C.
Cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish sewage workers: Extended follow-up
To study cancer incidence in Swedish sewage workers, a cohort of all 711 employees at 17 Swedish sewage plants employed for at least one year during the years 1965-86 was analysed. Assessment of exposures was performed by classification of work tasks. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Total cancer incidence was not significantly increased (SIR=1.2) but the incidence of prostate cancer was (SIR=1.6), and based on two cases only, there seemed to be a significant increase of cancer of the nose and the nasal sinuses (SIR=12). The incidence of stomach cancer was also higher than expected (SIR=2.3). There was no relation between cancer incidence and level of sewage exposure. In conclusion, sewage workers did not have an increased risk of cancer, and the increased risk estimates for some specific cancer sites were not conclusive.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.56, No.10, p.672-673. 11 ref.

CIS 00-629 Factories and Industrial Undertakings (Confined Spaces) Regulation [Hong Kong]
L.N.17 is a Resolution of the Legislative Council introducing modifications into L.N.18 which follows it. L.N.18 repeals the 1973 Regulations (CIS 93-364) in application of the Order on Factories and Industrial Undertakings (CIS 89-6). It covers: interpretation; certified workers and competent persons (need for completion of a training course); risk assessments; safety precautions before and during work in confined spaces; use of personal protective equipment; emergency procedures; information of workers; duties of certified workers.
Hong Kong Government Gazette, 22 Jan. 1999, Legal Supplement No.2, p.B75-B79, B83-B97.

CIS 00-434 Tripp R.S., Olson D.K., Shutske J., Schermann M.
Health and safety issues in hog production: A review of the literature
The industrialization of pork production is a gradual process. While operators are focussed increasingly on production which is efficient and of high quality, they must also be aware of the potential costs to their employees. The use of confinement facilities exposes workers to health and safety risks, which in turn may increase operating costs through increased health care and insurance expenses. Respiratory problems in hog confinement workers as well as exposure to toxic gases and physical injuries related to the handling of and the caring for livestock are well documented. In order to protect their employees, employers need to know about these risks, their impact on the operation and the methods of preventing injuries and illnesses. As the number of employees increases, operators also become subject to OSH regulations.
Journal of Agromedicine, 1999, Vol.6, No.2, p.3-23. 63 ref.

CIS 99-1275 Larsson B.M., Larsson K., Malmberg P., Mårtensson L., Palmberg L.
Airway responses in naive subjects to exposure in poultry houses: Comparison between cage rearing system and alternative rearing system for laying hens
34 previously non-exposed subjects were exposed for 3h in confined poultry houses in three groups: one in a building with a cage rearing system and two in buildings with a cage-less system with either young hens and fresh bedding material or with older hens and old bedding material. Inhalable dust levels were approximately 4mg/m3 in the buildings with the cage-less system and 2mg/m3 in the building with cage rearing system; the endotoxin concentration was approximately 100ng/m3 in both systems. Bronchial responsiveness to methacholine increased approximately fivefold in all groups following exposure. The concentration of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 increased in nasal lavage fluid and in peripheral blood as a result of exposure. The number of leukocytes in peripheral blood increased only in the groups exposed among loose laying hens. Results indicate that among previously non-exposed subjects, that 3h exposure in confined buildings for egg production induces an acute inflammatory reaction in the upper airways and increased bronchial responsiveness. Topics: airborne dust; bacterial toxins; bronchial diseases; confined spaces; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; inflammations; interleukins; organic dust; poultry farming; pulmonary function; upper respiratory diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1999, Vol.35, No.2, p.142-149. Illus. 25 ref.


CIS 00-1656 Baud J.P., Boulat J.F., Bonnin C., Canonne J.F., Lauzier F., Le Bâcle C., Matha F., Peguin G.
Organization of emergency care on friable asbestos confined or removal worksites
Organisation des secours d'urgence dans un chantier de confinement ou de retrait d'amiante friable [in French]
Topics: asbestos; confined spaces; construction sites; emergency organization; emergency treatment; first aid; first-aid and rescue organization; France; personal protective equipment; rescue training.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 1998, No.74, p.107-124. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 00-1626 Alves S.
Confined spaces: It remains a hazardous occupation
Espaço confinado: ainda uma atividade de risco [in Portuguese]
Topics: Brazil; carbon monoxide; hydrogen sulfide; explosive atmosphere detection; flammable gases; hazard evaluation; personal protective equipment; respirators; responsibilities; safety engineers; toxic atmosphere detection; toxic gases; work in confined spaces.
Revista CIPA, Apr. 1998, Vol.19, No.225, p.88-91. Illus.

CIS 00-1101 Carbon monoxide poisoning and death after the use of explosives in a sewer construction project
Topics: carbon monoxide; carboxyhaemoglobin; case study; CO diffusion; confined spaces; construction industry; data sheet; fatalities; manholes; USA; work in sewers.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1998. 2p.

CIS 99-2070 Arvanitidou M., Constantinidis T.C., Doutsos J., Mandraveli K., Katsouyannopoulos V.
Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers
In this cross-sectional study the employees of a Greek sewage company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers - HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc - to determine the prevalence of HBV infection, assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, and to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9%, and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. The prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage, with age, and with educational level, but only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection. Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B. Topics: antibodies; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; exposure evaluation; exposure tests; immunization; infectious hepatitis; sanitation services; sewage; vaccination; work in sewers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.437-444. 11 ref.

CIS 99-1905 Salano R., Copello F.
Epidemiologic study of a group of workers employed on maintenance of sewage network and waste water treatment plants
Studio epidemiologico su un gruppo di operatori addetti alla manutenzione della rete fognaria e degli impianti di depurazione delle acque reflue urbane [in Italian]
The results of a study on occupational risks of a group of sewage workers in Genoa, Italy, are reported. The subjects were divided into three subgroups according to job characteristics. A questionnaire on individual symptoms, clinical examinations, blood and respiratory tests were administered. The relative risk of alterations in respiratory function (both instrumental and clinical findings) was increased among water treatment workers. Average platelet count in workers exposed to sewage appeared to be significantly reduced compared to non-exposed subjects although both were within normal limits. There was no evidence of an increased prevalence of positive A hepatitis markers in the exposed workers. Topics: case-control study; epidemiologic study; functional respiratory disorders; haematological changes; health hazards; risk factors; sanitation services; sewage treatment; symptoms; water treatment; work in sewers.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1998, Vol.89, No.5, p.393-403. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 99-1007 Brugha R., Heptonstall J., Farrington P., Andren S., Perry K., Parry J.
Risk of hepatitis A infection in sewage workers
In a study of 241 workers in a large water and sewerage company, frequent occupational exposure to raw sewage was a significant risk factor for hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, independently of other known risk factors. Workers who are likely to be at risk of frequent exposure should have their immunity ensured. The salivary assay for IgG and anti-HAV described in the study is highly specific and would be suitable for prevaccination testing of older workers, who are more likely to be immune. Topics: antibodies; biological hazards; cross-sectional study; determination in blood; determination in saliva; infectious hepatitis; non-occupational factors; sewage treatment; vaccination; work in sewers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1998, Vol.55, No.8, p.567-569. 12 ref.

CIS 99-920 Vogelzang P.F.J., van der Gulden J.W.J., Folgering H., van Schayck C.P.
Longitudinal changes in lung function associated with aspects of swine-confinement exposure
A cohort of 171 pig farmers was observed for three years. Mean decline in lung function was 73mL/year for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and 55mL/year for forced vital capacity (FVC). A longitudinal decline in FEV1 was associated with the use of quaternary ammonium compounds as disinfectants and also with the use of an automated dry feeding system. The impact of these characteristics in a longitudinal study provides stronger evidence for causal inference than that shown in previous cross-sectional designs. This may be useful in promoting preventive measures. Topics: cohort study; confined spaces; disinfectants; livestock rearing; one-second forced expiratory volume; pulmonary function; quaternary ammonium compounds; swine; ventilatory capacity; vital capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1998, Vol.40, No.12, p.1048-1052. 30 ref.

CIS 99-648
Health and Safety Executive
Managing confined spaces on farms
Topics: agricultural operations; asphyxia; bulk storage bins; data sheet; emergency organization; forage processing; safe working methods; toxic atmosphere detection; United Kingdom; work in confined spaces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1998. 4p. 2 ref.

CIS 98-1705 Macdonald C.
Confined spaces: Killers on the loose?
Topics: asphyxia; Australia; comment on standard; fatalities; hazard evaluation; management failure; role of management; work in confined spaces.
Australian Safety News, Mar. 1998, Vol.69, No.2, p.48-60. Illus. 11 ref.


CIS 02-351 Lühr H.P., Grunder H.T., Stein D., Körkemeyer K., Borchardt B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Products and processes for the repair of sewers, with a special emphasis on waterproof mortars based on acrylamide
Produkte und Verfahren zur Sanierung von Abwasserkanälen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung acrylamidhaltiger Andichtungsmörtel [in German]
This study consists of two parts. The first describes nine processes for repairing sewers using different techniques (repair, resin injection, coating, applying a liner). The second part covers six processes in more detail. The exposure hazards linked to each step of the processes and to the various products used are listed, and the preventive measures are discussed. Many processes involve the use of reactive or volatile substances which require protective measures for the workers. A single process used mortars based on acrylamide which is a carcinogen, but its content level is relatively low.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. ix, 98p. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 98-1185 Welding in tanks and confined spaces - Essential points for your safety
Soudage à l'intérieur de réservoirs et dans des espaces exigus - Points essentiels pour votre sécurité [in French]
Topics: check lists; electricity; exhaust devices; fire hazards; gas cylinders; oxygen deficiency; personal protective equipment; safety guides; Switzerland; training material; welding and cutting; work in confined spaces.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Sécurité au travail, Secteur chimie, Case postale, 1001 Lausanne, Switzerland, Dec. 1997. 10p. Illus.

CIS 98-196 Massin N., Mellinger M.C., Barthélémy J.F., Goutet P., Wild P., Stempfer J.C.
Respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function impairments and exposure assessment to silica dusts among industrial furnace repairmen
Symptômes, anomalies fonctionnelles respiratoires et évaluation de l'exposition aux poussières silicogènes chez les maçons fumistes [in French]
Topics: comparative study; functional respiratory disorders; furnace repairs; health hazards; one-second forced expiratory volume; questionnaire survey; respirable dust; silica; silicosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1997, Vol.58, No.6, p.499-505. 19 ref.

CIS 98-281
Health and Safety Executive
Safe work in confined spaces
Leaflet on safe work in confined spaces (United Kingdom), 1997. Topics: emergency organization; hazard evaluation; legislation; safe working methods; safety guides; United Kingdom; work in confined spaces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Oct. 1997. 12p. 3 ref.

CIS 98-260 Dupressoir C.
Flammable hazards in sewerage systems: Safety procedures when opening access covers
Topics: confined spaces; explosion hazards; explosive atmospheres; fire hazards; leakage; protection against outbursts of gas; safe working methods; sanitation services; sources of ignition; work in sewers.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 1997, Vol.13, No.4, p.375-379. 16 ref.

CIS 97-2038 Safe working in a confined space
These 11 data sheets describe general safety measures for work in confined spaces along with specific precautions for construction work, shipbuilding and repair, fishing vessel maintenance, and entry into septic and sewage holding tanks. The requirements of Australian standard AS 2865:1995 Safe working in a confined space are outlined.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, no date. 11 data sheets, 17p. 3 ref.

CIS 97-1689
Health and Safety Commission
Safe work in confined spaces
This document provides the text of the Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 (CIS 97-1084) along with an Approved Code of Practice and additional guidance. Contents: meaning of confined space and hazards associated with flammable substances and oxygen enrichment, toxic gases and fumes, oxygen deficiency, ingress of liquids or solids, and excessive heat; duties of employers and the self-employed; risk assessment; preventing the need for entry; safe working methods; emergency procedures; plant and equipment; training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1997. iv, 40p. 23 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.

CIS 97-1084 Health and Safety - The Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 [United Kingdom]
These Regulations (coming into force: 28 Jan. 1998) give effects as respects Great Britain to certain points of Council Directive 92/57/EEC (CIS 93-1062). The principal effects of the Regulations are as follows: they prohibit entry into a confined space when the work there may be reasonably carried out by other means; they impose requirements regarding safe systems of work and the preparation and implementation of emergency rescue operations; and they provide for exemption certificates to be issued by the Health and Safety Executive. Certain ancient enacments, including Section 30 of the Factories Act 1961, are repealed.
HMSO Publications Centre, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1997. 5p. Price: GBP 1.55.


CIS 97-1593 Deschamps F.J., Turpin J.C.
Methyl bromide intoxication during grain store fumigation
Over 300 cases of methyl bromide poisoning are reported in the literature. This case report demonstrates the marked toxicity of methyl bromide with the potential to cause long-term neurological damage. Two fumigation workers (equipped with rapidly saturable respiratory cartridges) entered a building where the concentration of methyl bromide was 17g/m3, almost 1000 times the recommended limit (20mg/m3). They rapidly became unwell, complaining of nausea and shortness of breath, followed by generalized convulsions in the case of one of them; five months later this man was still bedridden. A relationship between methyl bromide exposure and neurological damage was shown by the bromide levels in the blood of the most seriously injured worker and in the activated charcoal cartridge of his respirator.
Occupational Medicine, 1996, Vol.46, No.1, p.3-4. 6 ref.

CIS 97-1335 Schmitt
Erecting of scaffolds: A concern for occupational medicine as well
Gerüstbau - auch ein Thema für die Arbeitsmedizin [in German]
Workers who set up or work on scaffolds have to have a stable circulatory system, good vision and be free from vertigo. Such workers may have to work in confined space at great heights. They have to carry, lift and hold heavy loads in straining work postures. The heavy load lifting and carrying work raises the blood pressure as well as strains the spinal column, neck and shoulders. In order to ease the burdens caused by this kind of construction work it is recommended to use fork-lift trucks, truck-mounted cranes and goods lifts as much as possible to ease the load carrying and lifting tasks. In addition, a healthy diet and physical exercise are recommended to counteract the effects of the heavy construction work.
Mitteilungen der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Frankfurt am Main, 1st Quarter 1996, No.1, p.17-19. Illus.

CIS 97-287 Schröder
Ladders for chimney sweepers
Leitern für Schornsteinfeger [in German]
The German safety regulations that apply to the design and use of portable and fixed ladders by chimney sweepers are outlined. The mobile ladders which are used by chimney sweepers to climb onto roofs need to be secured at the bottom. They may be used to stand on for work at heights only if the site is not more than 7m above ground and the work does not take longer than 2h. Tools and materials needed for work at height while standing on a ladder may not exceed 10kg. Fixed ladders installed on roofs for chimney sweepers are required to be at least 350mm wide and made of metal with anticorrosive coating.
BAU, Feb. 1996, No.2, p.88-93. Illus.

CIS 97-127 Appleby P.H.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.

< previous | 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 | next >