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Confined spaces - 312 entries found

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CIS 11-0531 Ravallec C., Richez J.P., Lemarié J.
Underground work - Hardly visible but nonetheless real hazards
Travaux souterrains - Des risques peu visibles mais bien réels [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on occupational hazards during underground work: specific features of underground construction sites; regulatory aspects; construction site of the extension of a Paris subway line; rendering road tunnels safe; underground work at height; safety lighting; workstation of a tunnel boring machine conductor; pollution control of underground quarry earthmoving machines; renovation of underground wine cellars in the Champagne region of France.
Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2011, No.716, p.20-34. Illus. 4 ref.
Travaux_souterrains.pdf [in French]


CIS 10-0155 Testud F.
Carbon dioxide
Doixyde de carbone [in French]
While carbon dioxide (CO2) is harmless at low concentrations, its build-up in confined spaces is highly dangerous. Together with the often concomitant effects of anoxia, it then causes severe poisoning with a high mortality rate. Work in vats during fermentation processes and the sublimation of dry ice are two situations presenting the highest risks. On the other hand, CO2 is devoid of long-term health effects.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, 2nd quarter 2010, No.167, 5p. Illus. 22 ref.


CIS 12-0012 Kulcsar Neto F.
Confined spaces - Workers' manual
Espaços confinados - Livreto do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
Safety guide aimed at workers called upon to work in confined spaces. Topics addressed: what are confined spaces and where they are found; typical work performed in confined spaces; hazards in confined spaces; avoiding accidents in confined spaces; authorizations to enter; responsibilities of employers; information of personnel; safety and health training.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2009. 37p. Illus. 11 ref.
Espaços_confinados_Livreto_do_trabalhador_[INTERNET_FREE_ACCESS] [in Portuguese]

CIS 10-0752 Kulcsar Neto F., Possebon J., do Amaral N.C.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Confined spaces - Booklet aimed at the worker
Espaços confinados - Livreto do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
Booklet on hazards and safety measures in confined spaces aimed at workers.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2009. 35p. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 10-0390 Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining
Exposures of German hard coal miners to nitrogen monoxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured in a cohort of 1369 miners from two German coal mines, and the data were used to estimate long-term exposures. For all three components, time weighted 8h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company estimated major potential long-term changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were diesel engines, while blasting fumes contributed to a lesser degree. The findings concerning CO are discussed in a separate publication. Among diesel engine drivers, current 8h average exposures were 1.35ppm for NO and 0.21ppm for NO2. For blasting workers, the corresponding values were 0.84ppm and 0.014ppm. By applying these data and the estimates of experts concerning retrospectives, cumulative exposures for NO and NO2 were determined from 1974 until 1998. Implications of these findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nov. 2009, Vol.92, No.10, p.1267-1279. Illus. 44 ref.

CIS 09-1321 Jurewicz J., Hanke W., Sobala W., Ligocka D.
Assessment of the dermal exposure to azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in selected Polish greenhouses after restricted entry intervals expired -The role of the protective gloves
The purpose of this study was to determine the level of skin contamination by azoxystrobin among women tending cucumbers in a greenhouse in Poland after the expiry of restricted entry following the spraying of this fungicide. Exposure samples were assessed on the day after spraying of azoxystrobin and six days later. Dermal exposure was measured by using patches on the outside of clothing and cotton gloves worn under the regular protective gloves. It was found that women not directly engaged in the process of spraying nonetheless experienced a dermal exposure to azoxystrobin. Protective gloves constituted a source of secondary exposure rather than protecting employees' hands. More efficient protective gloves are needed.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 3rd quarter 2009, Vol.22, No.3, p.261-267. 17 ref.

CIS 09-1375 Tschopp A., Joller H., Jeggli S., Widmeier S., Steffen R., Hilfiker S., Hotz P.
Hepatitis E, Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcers in workers exposed to sewage: A prospective cohort study
Workers exposed to sewage may have an increased risk of infection by Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis E virus (HEV). To assess the incidence of clinical hepatitis E and peptic ulcers and the seroconversion rate of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV in workers with and without sewage exposure, 332 workers exposed to sewage and a control group of 446 municipal manual workers entered a study with clinical examination and determination of antibodies to H. pylori and HEV. Findings are discussed. Overall, sewage does not appear to be a source of occupational infection by H. pylori or HEV in trained sewage workers with personal protective equipment working in a region with good sanitation infrastructure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2009, Vol.66, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 09-888 Serinken M., Karcioglu O., Evyapan F., Sungurtekin H.
Bilateral pneumothorax following acute inhalation injury
A male worker in an upholstery factory in Turkey was confined in the tanning machine for 15 min. On admission into hospital, he was confused with Glasgow coma scale score of 9. His vital signs were as follows: blood pressure 80/58 mmHg; pulse rate 114; respiratory rate 30 bpm; temperature 37.1°C; oxygen saturation 48%. Chest X-ray and bronchoscopy showed lung injury that warranted bilateral tube thoracotomy. The patient was discharged without any sequelae after eight days. Exposure to irritant gases such as sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide can cause severe pulmonary injury.
Clinical Toxicology, July 2009, Vol.47, No.6, p.595-597. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 09-349 Cuéllar Sastoque C.A., Hernández Ramírez A.
Safety during excavation work and work in confined spaces in the construction of road infrastructures in Bogota
Trabajo seguro en excavaciones mecánicas y espacios confinados en obras de infraestructura vial en Bogotá [in Spanish]
This article describes a project aimed at designing and validating a manual of safe procedures for excavation work and work in confined spaces during road work in the city of Bogota, Colombia. Following a literature survey, the study involved a descriptive investigation of the safety characteristics in mechanical excavations and confined spaces of six works by means of observations, check lists and interviews. The resulting manual was submitted for review to a group of experts who proposed several improvements.
Protección y seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2009, Vol.55, No.323, p.58-68. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 08-1438 Safe work in confined spaces: Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 - Approved Code of Practice, regulations and guidance
This publication contains an Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) and guidance on the duties in the Confined Spaces Regulations 1997 (CIS 97-1084) which are applicable across all industry sectors with the exception of diving operations and below ground in a mine (there is specific legislation dealing with confined spaces in these cases.) It also gives guidance on the duties in other regulations where they apply to work in confined spaces. This second edition has been updated to reflect the latest legislation. Since this Approved Code of Practice and guidance was written, regulation 1(2) and regulation 2(c) have been amended by the Diving at Work Regulations 1997 (SI 1997/2776, see CIS 97-1785). Out-of-date regulations listed in Appendix 1 have been replaced with current legislation. References throughout have been updated to include the most recent publications available, and obsolete information removed. The Approved Code of Practice (ACOP) and substance of the guidance remains unchanged but the guidance given in paragraph 91 has been clarified. Contents: preface; notice of approval; meaning of 'confined space'; application of the regulations; risk assessment; preventing the need for entry; safe working in confined spaces; Emergency procedures; plant and equipment; training; appendices; further information.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2009. vi, 42p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 11.95.


CIS 09-133 Shih T.S., Lu P.Y., Chen C.H., Soo J.C., Tsai C.L., Tsai P.J.
Exposure profiles and source identifications for workers exposed to crystalline silica during a municipal waste incinerator relining period
In this study, respirable crystalline silica exposures to furnace relining workers were assessed by conducting personal respirable dust sampling. All samples were analyzed for their tridymite, cristobalite and quartz contents using X-ray diffraction. Results show that quartz was the only detectable crystalline silica content. The operations with the highest levels of respirable quartz exposure were different from those for which respirable dust exposure levels were the most important. Nearly all workers' respirable quartz exposures exceeded the TLV-TWA (0.025mg/m3) indicating appropriate control strategies should be taken immediately.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, June 2008, Vol.154, Nos.1-3, p.469-475. 21 ref.

CIS 09-199 Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N., Kim Y.S., Roh Y.M.
Effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in the confinement nursery pig house
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual feeding on the level of farmer's exposure to airborne contaminants in confinement nursery pig houses. A control pig house was used for comparison, where no feed was supplied during the experimental period. The levels of all the airborne contaminants besides respirable dust, airborne fungi and ammonia were found to be significantly higher in the pig house with feeding than in the control pig house. In conclusion, manual feeding by farmer increases the exposure level of airborne contaminants compared to operations involving no feeding.
Industrial Health, Mar. 2008, Vol.46, No.2, p.138-143. Illus. 25 ref.

CIS 09-193 Johnson D.L., Lynch R.A.
An efficient analytical method for particle counting in evaluating airborne infectious isolation containment using fluorescent microspheres
The containment efficiency of patient isolation enclosures in hospitals must be verified to protect staff, other patients and visitors. This article reports on the development and validation of a simple technique to measure the low count concentrations of escaping airborne particles that might be present outside an isolation enclosure, based on micrometer-sized fluorescent polystyrene latex microspheres as a surrogate for pathogenic bioaerosols. Particles are released into the isolation enclosure and air is sampled inside and outside the room to capture airborne particles on 25mm diameter filters, which then allows the number of particles to be quantified using a random field counting approach. The method was found to be specific, sensitive and accurate.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Apr. 2008, Vol.5, No.4, p.271-277. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-1155 Bahloul A., Roberge B., Gravel R.
Feasibility of the study on fermentation gases and on ventilation in a reduced scale silo
Faisabilité de l'étude sur les gaz de fermentation et sur la ventilation en silo à l'échelle réduite [in French]
Occupational safety and health regulations classify as enclosed areas the feed silos used in agricultural environments. Serious and often fatal accidents occur in these silage reservoirs. To take into account the risks posed by conventional tower silos, this study considered using scale models for their study. The report of this preliminary research describes how a laboratory specimen of a scale model was developed for estimating the feasibility of using such miniature versions and of modifying them as needed. By measuring gases and other parameters, the silage fermentation process was followed in this experimental structure. Based on data from prior ventilation tests on corn silage fermentation gases, the design of the scale model silo was improved.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2008. vi, 25p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 6.30. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 08-859 Bondéelle A., Ravallec C.
Water distribution and treatment work - Seeing clearly through muddy waters
Métiers de l'eau et de l'assainissement - Voir clair en eaux troubles [in French]
This collection of articles on occupations in water distribution and treatment discusses the risks to which workers in this sector are exposed, namely: physical workload; work in isolation; work in confined atmospheres; work in confined spaces; biological hazards; toxic and explosive gases; road hazards. It comments the measures adopted by two French enterprises involved in water distribution and treatment, the specific problems faced by small enterprises operating in this sector and the collaborations set up between the regional health insurance institution and representatives of the sector in a French region.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2008, No.682, p.18-31. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 08-899 Bruck L.
Confined space safety and rescue: Challenges and lessons learned
A confined space is a volume that is large enough for an employee to enter and perform work, but has limited or restricted means of entry and exit and is not designed for continuous human occupancy. Confined space rescues account for a disproportionate number of fatalities suffered not only by rescue personnel, but also among bystanders and co-workers who make valiant, and often futile, efforts to bring victims to safety. Atmospheric hazards (oxygen deficiency, oxygen enrichment, flammable gases or vapors and toxic gases or vapors) are responsible for more than half of all confined space fatalities. Oxygen deficiency is the most frequently encountered of the atmospheric hazards, followed by the potential for explosion or burn-related fatality and by fatality due to toxic atmospheres. This article emphasizes the key importance of proper respiratory protection, monitoring and training for preventing fatalities associated with confined space rescue.
Occupational Hazards, Apr. 2008, No.31, p.29-31. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 08-340 Jaakkola M.S., Yang L., Ieromnimon A., Jaakkola J.J.K.
Office work, SBS and respiratory sick building syndrome symptoms
The objective of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship between exposure to copy paper, paper dust and fumes from photocopiers and printers (FPP), and the occurrence of sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, chronic respiratory symptoms and respiratory infections. Subjects consisted of a randomly-selected sample of 342 office workers in a region of Finland. They answered a questionnaire about personal information, health, smoking, occupation, and exposures in the work environment and at home. Data were subjected to logistic regression analyses. Findings are discussed. This study provides new evidence that exposure to paper dust and to FPP is related to the risk of SBS symptoms, breathlessness and upper respiratory infections. It strengthens the evidence that exposure to copy paper increases the risk of eye symptoms, general symptoms, chronic respiratory symptoms and some respiratory infections. Reduction of these exposures could improve the health of office workers.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.64, No.3, p.178-184. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 08-106 Pistón Reyes J.M., Cubero Atienza A.J.
Work in public sewage networks: Study of risks
Trabajos en redes públicas de saneamiento: un estudio de riesgos [in Spanish]
The media regularly report accidents in which several workers undergo asphyxia or poisoning in a cesspit or a well. A common characteristic in these types of accidents is the severity of their consequences, both for the direct victim as well as for persons attempting to rescue them. Many of these accidents could have been avoided by appropriate training and the correct use of means of protection. This article describes the job of sewage workers and examines more specifically the risks involved in the cleaning and maintenance of sewage system networks, which are aggravated by the need to work in confined spaces.
Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo, July 2007, No.43, p.20-27. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 11-0235 Kim K.Y., Ko H.J., Kim H.T., Kim C.N.
Effect of spraying biological additives for reduction of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house
This on-site experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare efficiencies of various currently-used biological additives to reduce emissions of dust and bioaerosol in a confinement swine house. The mean reduction rates after spraying as compared to initial level before spraying were 30% for dust, 53% for total airborne bacteria and 51% for total airborne fungi. Other findings are discussed.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2006, Vol.13, No.1, p.133-138. Illus. 31 ref.
Effect_of_spraying.pdf [in English]

CIS 08-387 Cable J.
The silent killer
Nitrogen is an invisible, tasteless and odorless gas that comprises about 78 percent of the air we breathe, but its potential to kill workers in or near confined spaces should never be underestimated. This article describes a fatal nitrogen asphyxiation accident having occurred in an oil refinery, the common causes of accidents involving 80 fatalities and 50 injuries having occurred in the United Stated between 1992 and 2002 and the good practices to adopt for preventing these accidents (alarm systems, continuous atmosphere monitoring, ventilation with fresh air, rescue organization, training).
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 2006, p.40-43. Illus.

CIS 07-928 Hazards of confined spaces for municipalities and the construction industry
Contents of this booklet on the prevention of hazards during work in confined spaces, with a focus on municipalities and the construction industry: definition of confined space; hazardous atmospheres (toxic gases, explosive gases, oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor atmospheres); mechanical, physical and electrical hazards; confined space entry programme. It includes short descriptions of accidents specific to municipalities and the construction industry.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. ii, 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-934 Hazards of confined spaces for food and beverage industries
Contents of this booklet on the prevention of hazards during work in confined spaces, with a focus on the food and beverage industries: definition of confined space; hazardous atmospheres (toxic gases, explosive gases, oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor atmospheres); mechanical, physical and electrical hazards; confined space entry programme. It includes short descriptions of accidents specific to the food and beverage industries.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. ii, 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-933 Hazards of confined spaces for shipping and transportation industries
Contents of this booklet on the prevention of hazards during work in confined spaces, with a focus on the shipping and transportation industries: definition of confined space; hazardous atmospheres (toxic gases, explosive gases, oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor atmospheres); mechanical, physical and electrical hazards; confined space entry programme. It includes short descriptions of accidents specific to the shipping and transportation industries.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. ii, 20p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-927 Hazards of confined spaces
Contents of this booklet on the prevention of hazards during work in confined spaces: definition of confined space; hazardous atmospheres (toxic gases, explosive gases, oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor atmospheres); mechanical, physical and electrical hazards; confined space entry programme. It includes short descriptions of accidents taken from a variety of industries.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2nd ed., 2006. ii, 19p. Illus. [in English]

CIS 07-883 Richard A.M.
Work in confined atmospheres - Detection is an absolute necessity
Travail en atmosphère confinée - Une détection indispensable [in French]
The lack of oxygen or the presence of toxic gases may have fatal consequences. While this risk is generally well understood for underground work, it is often overlooked in more common settings. To avoid all risks, the use of gas detectors is increasingly recommended. This article on work in confined atmospheres discusses the detection of pollutants, threshold limit values, the selection of gas detectors and personal protection.
Prévention BTP, Nov. 2006, No.90, p.30-31. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 07-460 Sundblad B.M., Sahlander K., Ek A., Kumlin M., Olsson M., Larsson K., Palmberg L.
Effect of respirators equipped with particle or particle-and-gas filters during exposure in a pig confinement building
This study compared the protective effect of two respiratory protection devices during exposure in a pig confinement building. Thirty-six healthy workers were exposed for three hours in the building, 12 without any protection, 12 with a particle-filter mask and 12 with a mask filtering both particles and gases. Symptoms, body temperature, nasal lavage fluid, exhaled nitric oxide and bronchial responsiveness to methacholine were assessed before and after the exposure. Pre- and post-exposure urine and blood samples were collected. Findings indicate that wearing a respirator in a pig confinement building reduces the inflammatory reaction but does not influence bronchial responsiveness. There was no difference between the use of a particle-filter mask and a mask with a particle-gas filter combination.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2006, Vol.32, No.2, p.145-153. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 07-450 Hallett F.
Room for manoeuvre
Selecting suitable respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is often a key part of planning for work in confined spaces, but so is careful consideration of other activities that may impact on it. This article takes work at height as an example of one such activity, looking at how various types of RPE can interfere with the need to climb into, out of, or within a confined space. Different types of RPE are described and problems of interaction with other equipment such as ladders, scaffolds and safety harnesses. Design and wearability factors of RPE are also addressed.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 2006, Vol.24, No.4, p.60-62. Illus.

CIS 07-469 Worall I.
Inner space
The construction of submarines requires stringent application of safety procedures for working in confined spaces. This article explains how a United Kingdom defence contractor entered into partnership with the Health and Safety Executive to improve confined-space working practices through the operation of an intervention plan. The dangers of confined-space working are outlined and changes in the company's working practices and the benefits resulting from the intervention are described.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Apr. 2006, Vol.24, No.4, p.55-58. Illus.

CIS 07-429 Jost M., Cartier B., Rüegger M.
Work in oxygen-poor atmospheres
Arbeiten in sauerstoffreduzierten Atmosphären [in German]
Travaux dans des atmosphères appauvries en oxygène [in French]
The technique of lowering the oxygen concentration in air from 21% to 17% by adding nitrogen is increasingly used to reduce the risk of fire in premises where a fire hazard exists. This article describes the measures to be adopted for protecting the health of workers carrying out controls, maintenance or repairs in such confined spaces. Contents: scientific background; hazards faced by workers (performance limitations and increase in the risk of accidents, risks to workers with pre-existing diseases); health protection principles (technical, organisational and personal measures); preventive medical examinations.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2006, No.77, p.75-84. 7 ref. [in French] [in German]

CIS 06-1429 Duchet M., Petegnief G., Galtier Y., Terrier C.
Confined spaces
Les espaces confinés [in French]
Serious or fatal accidents continue to occur during work in confined spaces (wells, pits, manholes, vats, silos and drains). This booklet presents an approach for preventing the risk of accidents in these spaces during planned maintenance and equipment repair work. Contents: types of risks in confined spaces (asphyxia, intoxication, dangerous gases, fire and explosion); planning of the work and risk reduction; safety of equipment and procedures during work in confined spaces; training of workers.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2006. 28p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: EUR 4.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed967.pdf [in French]


CIS 08-1405 OSHA Fact Sheet - Procedures for atmospheric testing in confined spaces
A confined space is one that is large enough to enter and perform assigned work in. It has limited or restricted ways to enter or exit the space and was not designed to be occupied continuously by a worker. Atmospheric testing in confined spaces is required for evaluating the hazards of the confined space and verifying that acceptable conditions exist for entry into that space. This information sheet summarizes the procedures required for atmospheric testing in confined spaces as required according to United States legislation.
U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, 200 Constitution Avenue, Washington, D.C. 20210, USA, 2005. 2p. [in English]

CIS 06-657 Courtois B., Le Brech A., Diebold F., Lafon D.
Diesel engines and pollution in confined spaces
Moteurs diesel et pollution en espace confiné [in French]
Exhaust fume pollution from internal combustion engines powering heavy-duty mining, materials handling and earthmoving equipment may be important, depending on the site, traffic density and operating frequency. This paper reviews current knowledge in this field and proposes suitable means for limiting the toxic effects of various pollutants. In particular, it focuses on diesel engine-powered off-road vehicles, but also provides information on spark ignition engines on certain road vehicles. Other sections cover the prevention of exposure to both heavy lorry and light vehicle exhaust fumes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.45-62. Illus. 59 ref.$FILE/nd2239.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-649 Harris M.K., Ewing W.M., Longo W., DePasquale C., Mount M.D., Hatfield R., Stapleton R.
Manganese exposures during shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) in an enclosed space
This study evaluated the effectiveness of various rates of dilution ventilation in controlling welder exposures to manganese in shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) fumes when working in enclosed or restricted spaces. Personal and area monitoring using total and respirable sampling techniques, along with multiple analytical techniques, was conducted during the welding operations. Results indicated that 2000 cubic feet per minute (CFM) general dilution ventilation may not be a sufficient means of controlling respirable manganese exposures for either welders or their helpers in restricted or enclosed spaces. In the absence of site-specific monitoring data indicating otherwise, it is prudent to employ respiratory protection or source capture ventilation rather than depending solely on 2000 CFM general dilution ventilation in enclosed spaces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2005, Vol.2, No.8, p.375-382. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 06-689 Butyn S.
Getting out alive
This article lists the ten main errors to be avoided by operators working in confined spaces and outlines safety measures, including: the fulfilment of legal obligations; detection of toxic gases; maintenance of gas monitoring equipment; using the correct gas monitor; re-entry testing; ventilation; isolation of a confined space from electrical and other hazards; specifying the correct respirator; role of the designated attendant; correct emergency rescue operations.
Accident Prevention, Sep. 2005, Vol.52, No.4, p.26-30. Illus.


CIS 07-520
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Pollution in closed garages
Revista do trabalhador: Poluição em garagens fechadas [in Portuguese]
This videotape explains how workers in closed garages are exposed to high concentrations of carbon monoxide gas from car exhausts and describes measures for minimizing risks to workers' health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.

CIS 07-125
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Work in storage tanks and confined spaces
Arbeiten in Behältern und engen Räumen [in German]
Contents of these guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association on work in storage tanks and confined spaces: scope; definitions; hazard evaluation and list of hazards and dangers; safety measures (organizational, protection against dangerous substances, explosions, hazards related to biological substances, protection against falls, mechanical hazards, electrical hazards, radiation, hot and cold environments, protection against burial in loose materials, risks to health due to excessive physical or psychological stress), emergency and rescue measures; special provisions. Appendices include examples of operating procedures, directives and related rules.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 2004. 56p. Illus. Index. [in German]

CIS 06-1279
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Confined spaces
Revista do trabalhador: Espaços confinados [in Portuguese]
This videotape describes the hazards of working in confined spaces (lack of oxygen, presence of toxic gases, inflammable substances) and shows how these hazards may be avoided.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 15min.

CIS 05-479 Borel P., Giudicelli M.C., Klarsy D., Liégeois J.M.
Study of heart rate measurements during accelerated search for leaks in sewers
Etude cardiofréquencemétrique des recherches accélérées de fuites dans le travail en égout [in French]
This study was carried out at the request of the occupational hygiene committee of a large water supply utility in the Paris region, who sought clarification on the strenuousness of the task of accelerated search for leaks in sewers during continuous working days. This task consists of walking within the sewage system according to a pre-established itinerary. The study was carried out by means of heart rate measurements among seven volunteers aged between 30 and 51 years. It was found that the relative cardiac strain was above 20% in six of the nine measurements, of which two were above 30%. Results show that this activity may cause heart strain, although possibilities for improvement through ergonomic or working procedure changes appear limited.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2004, Vol.44, No.4, p.465-471. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 04-663 Dabill D.W.
Health and Safety Executive
Controlling and monitoring exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions in non-coal mines
Most non-coal mines use diesel-powered vehicles and equipment underground. Consequently, in the confined spaces of a mine, the potential for worker exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions (DEEEs) is high. This report provides practical advice on how to control exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions in non-coal mines. It describes a simple on-site method for measuring exposures to DEEEs and to confirm whether the controls in place are effective and the exposures are being kept in line with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH, see CIS 00-620) requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. v, 12p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]


CIS 05-560 Michaelis S.
A survey of health symptoms in BALPA Boeing 757 pilots
A questionnaire on health symptoms was sent to 600 members of the British Airline Pilots Association, of whom 106 responded. The study focused on the effects of air contaminants in the aircraft. With regard to leaks of engine oil and hydraulic fluids into the aircraft, 93 reported that they had been involved in at least one such incident. The total number reported was 1,674, with all but seven occurring on one type of aircraft. Following exposure to the contaminated air, high rates of symptoms were reported including: irritation of the eyes, nose and throat; headaches, light-headedness and dizziness; fatigue, weakness and a decrease in performance; a general increase in feeling unwell; concentration difficulties and confusion; diarrhoea; nausea, vomiting and gastrointestinal problems; numbness (head, limbs, lips, fingers); short-term memory impairment; joint pain/muscle weakness.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2003, Vol.19, No.3, p.253-261. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 04-659 Lazure L., Abdellaoui H., Lesage J., Charette M.
Evaluation of the confinement of preparation areas during paint spraying
Evaluation du confinement des aires de préparation lors de l'application de peinture [in French]
Automobile body paint shops are a priority target for the prevention of occupational asthma caused by isocyanates. The Occupational Health and Safety Institute of the Canadian Province of Quebec (l'Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail - IRSST) conducted two earlier studies on the evaluation of isocyanate exposure levels and on the efficiency of paint spray booths. For a full understanding of the levels of exposure to isocyanates in automobile body paint shops, it was also necessary to obtain data on the workstations situated outside the spray booths, in particular in the ventilated preparation area often used for certain types of paint preparation work. This report presents the results of evaluations of the potential exposure levels and the efficiency of systems used for eliminating contaminants present in workplace atmospheres of these preparation areas.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2003. 61p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: CAD 6.42. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 04-361 Hoffmann H.J., Iversen M., Brandslund I., Sigsgaard T., Omland Ø., Oxvig C., Holmskov U., Bjermer L., Jensenius J.C., Dahl R.
Plasma C3d levels of young farmers correlate with respirable dust exposure levels during normal work in swine confinement buildings
Work in swine confinement buildings may lead to an inflammatory response and may be associated with increased levels of acute phase proteins. This study compared the inflammatory response of former farm workers who had previously developed respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, tightness of the chest during work in swine confinement buildings and had stopped work because of these symptoms, with that of age-matched former farm workers who were known not to have developed such symptoms. Both groups were subjected to an experimental exposure in a swine confinement building for three hours. Complement activation and acute phase proteins were measured in blood samples and broncho-alveolar lavage. Plasma C3d levels correlated significantly with respirable dust. There was complement activation in response to respirable dust, more so among cases than in the control group. It is concluded that acute occupational exposure to organic dust containing endotoxin leads to a weak systemic inflammatory response.
AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.10, No.1, p.53-60. Illus. 48 ref. [in English]

CIS 04-150 Rapp R., Danet J.P., Dubernet F., Magniez G., Aussel H., Rolin A.
Asbestos site airflow - Study and analysis of ventilation airflow in personnel airlocks using the EOL3D numerical simulation method
Aéraulique des chantiers d'amiante - Etude et analyse des écoulements de ventilation, par simulation numérique avec EOL3D, du sas d'accès du personnel [in French]
In asbestos removal operations, access to the confined working area is ensured by a ventilated entry lock (tunnel). An assessment of the performance of various tunnel ventilation configurations was carried out by means of numerical simulation using EOL3D, a predictive ventilation software developed by INRS. Cleaning times, the age distribution of fresh air and the distribution and average of air velocities were the main indicators used to assess the configurations. Separated ventilation systems (from that of the confined area) were the most efficient in terms of air decontamination. In contrast, the flow rates required are high (>4,000m3/h). A good alternative consists of using a lock equipped with openings laid out alternately (top/bottom) and subject to the negative pressure of the confined area. The surface area of the opening must allow the passage of air at a flow rate of about 1,000m3/h to obtain a decontamination time of less than one minute. Tunnels, which favour an air flow located only at the top or bottom, such as tunnels equipped with flexible screens, should be avoided.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2003, No.190, p.13-22. Illus. 6 ref.$FILE/nd2185.pdf [in French]

CIS 03-1370 De Graef M.
Working in confined spaces
Travailler dans des espaces confinés [in French]
Contents of this information leaflet on work in confined spaces: definition of confined space; examples of confined spaces; description of the hazards (fire and explosion, asphyxiation, electrocution, falls and trips, drowning); preventive measures (awareness of procedures, external supervision during the time work is being carried out in a confined space, communication between the worker and the person located outside, detection of dangerous atmospheres, access to confines spaces, signalling, ventilation, anti-spark or anti-explosion devices, personal protective equipment).
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2003. 2p. Illus.

CIS 03-1427 Rautiala S., Kangas J., Louhelainen K., Reiman M.
Farmers' exposure to airborne microorganisms in composting swine confinement buildings
Exposure to airborne microorganisms was studied in 12 composting swine confinement buildings and in seven buildings with traditional slatted-floor pit systems. Airborne cultivable mesophilic, xerophilic, and thermotolerant fungi, mesophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinobacteria were determined using a six-stage impactor. Total concentrations of microorganisms were determined with filter sampling and direct counts using a microscope. In swine confinement buildings where the composting system was functioning properly, the concentrations of microorganisms were 10-1000 times higher than in traditional swine buildings. High concentrations were found of thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinobacteria (up to 105CFU/m3), considered to be the main causative agents of farmer's lung, in the composting swine confinement buildings that were studied. Therefore, personal protection is strongly recommended in composting swineries, especially during the turning of the compost bed.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.673-677. 25 ref.

CIS 03-973 Kraft N.O., Lyons T.J., Binder H.
Group dynamics and catecholamines during long-duration confinement in an isolated environment
The objective of this study was to investigate possible relationships between catecholamine excretion and long-duration confinement in an isolated environment. Stays of long duration in a confinement chamber were made by three groups of four subjects each: an all-Russian team during weeks 1-34; a mixed-nationality team during weeks 3-18; a mixed-nationality team during weeks 22-38. Other groups joined the residents for one-week intervals at weeks 13, 19 and 33. Epinephrine excretion generally remained in the normal range. However, occasional elevations occurred due to psychological stress, which apparently correlate with changes in group dynamics. Norepinephrine excretion was above the normal range and was correlated with social events. These results suggest that to ensure optimum crew performance, entire crews along with their visiting crews should be selected collectively, rather than individually.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.74, No.3, p.266-272. Illus. 23 ref.


CIS 03-972 Kraft N.O., Inoue N., Mizuno K., Ohshima H., Murai T., Sekiguchi C.
Physiological changes, sleep and morning mood in an isolated environment
The objective of this project was to examine physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood and complaints during confinement. Six male and two female subjects spent seven days in an isolation chamber simulating the interior of the Japanese Experimental Module. Each 24h period included 6h of sleep, three meals and 20min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed questionnaires on the quality of their sleep. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume and body weight were measured two days before and after confinement and sleep motor activity was recorded during confinement. Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine and sleep motor activity showed significant differences during confinement. Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.73, No.11, p.1089-1093. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 03-324 Hirst N., Brocklebank M., Ryder M.
Containment systems - A design guide
Manufacturing industries are now producing materials that can have adverse effects on humans or the environment if released even in very small quantities. This is particularly true of the pharmaceutical industry, The term "containment" is used to describe equipment or systems that prevent the release of harmful substances. This publication consists of a practical guide for the design of containment equipment or systems of harmful substances during transfer operations. Contents: containment legislation; occupational hygiene aspects of containment; examples of industrial operations requiring containment; principles for the design of containment systems; development of a containment strategy; types of containment equipment; control of wastes and emissions; operation and maintenance of containment devices; ventilation.
The Institution of Chemical Engineers (IChemE), Davis Building, 165-189 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 2002. v, 199p. Illus. 73 ref. Index. Price: GBP 80.00 (+ VAT).

CIS 02-1970 Borel P., Giudicelli M.C., Klarsy D., Liégois J.M.
Work in sewers: Study of heart rate during accelerated searches for leaks
Travail en égout: étude cardiofréquencemétrique des recherches accélérées de fuites (RAF) [in French]
There are few occupational health studies of the strenuous nature of work in sewers. Heart rate measurements during work are a good way of evaluating cardiac strain. Ten cardiofrequency plots were obtained from workers of a water utility. Nine were usable. These measurements confirmed the high cardiac strain associated with this type of work. It is advised that persons required to work in sewers undergo a cardiac check-up before they are assigned to the task.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.505-511. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1841 Samuel O., St-Laurent L., Dumas P., Langlois E., Gingras G.
Pesticides in greenhouses - Characterization of the exposure of workers and evaluation of re-entry times
Pesticides en milieu serricole - Caractérisation de l'exposition des travailleurs et évaluation des délais de réentrée [in French]
Botanical garden workers are subject to health hazards resulting from their exposure to pesticides in confined spaces such as greenhouses. In this study, the behaviour of foliar residues was evaluated for several representative pesticides between the time of application and of the re-entry of workers in the greenhouses. Skin exposure risks were evaluated by a hand washing method as well as through the use of a fluorescent marker. Workers' total exposure was determined by measuring urinary metabolites excreted over a post-exposure period of 24 hours. Cholinesterase activity variations were measured in cases where organophosphorus insecticides were applied. Results show that workers remain exposed when returning to greenhouses the day after applying pesticides. However, the levels of exposure measured are generally low. Use of gloves would allow to further decrease the level of exposure. Several other preventive measures are proposed.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 116 ref. [in French]

CIS 02-1768 Rojas Labiano J.M.
Method of work in confined spaces
Procedimiento de trabajo para la intervención en espacios confinados [in Spanish]
When required to work in confined spaces, operators need specific procedures that define the preventive measures to be adopted against the hazards that are inherent to this kind of work. This article proposes an approach for developing and implementing these work procedures that comprises the following steps: preliminary information on the confined area; identification of the general hazards related to the area layout and to hazardous atmospheres; evaluation of the identified hazards; planning the preventive measures (alternatives to work in confined spaces, methods enabling a reduction in the time spent in the confined space, basic prevention standards to be applied for work in confined spaces, collective and personal protection, control of the hazards related to dangerous atmospheres, emergency planning); writing-up of the working procedure document; control and follow-up.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.3-17. Illus. 6 ref.

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