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Falls from heights - 105 entries found

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  • Falls from heights

2000

CIS 01-1228 Worker deaths by falls - A summary of surveillance findings and investigative case reports
Between 1980 and 1994, there were 8,102 deaths in the United States due to falls from heights at work, accounting for 10% of all occupational fatalities in the country. This report summarizes surveillance data and investigative reports of fatal work-related falls from elevations. Part I provides an overview of fall hazards at the workplace, a summary of the epidemiology of fatal occupational falls, and recommended elements for an effective safety program for the prevention of falls at the workplace. Part II contains case summaries and prevention recommendations from 90 investigation reports of fatalities from falls from heights.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 2000. xi, 322p. Illus. 35 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/00-116pd.html [in English]

1999

CIS 02-931 Popov K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Investigation of accidents involving falls from low heights and draft of a recommendation for the application of differentiated measures of protection in construction work and on construction sites
Untersuchung des Unfallgeschehens bei Abstürzen aus geringen Höhen und Entwurf einer Empfehlung zur Anwendung differenzierter Schutzmaßnahmen bei Bauarbeiten und auf Baustellen [in German]
Although falls from heights are often fatal and receive the most attention, falls from low heights (< 2m) are the most frequent and can cause serious injuries. This report presents recommendations for the prevention of falls from low heights. These recommendations are based on the results of a retrospective analysis of 5224 cases of occupational fall accidents which occurred in Germany in 1996 and 1997 in all sectors of the economy. Examples of worksites where these accidents occurred most frequently were analysed, including with the help of photographs and video recordings. Recommendations are made in the following areas: technical measures; organizational measures; personal protective equipment; motivation; safety instructions and rules; occupational medicine.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 222p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: EUR 18.00.

CIS 01-1223 Tosal Suárez J.M., Fueyo Martín C., Pérez Sánchez L.M., Ruiz Barberán J.M., Solar Vińa M.
Hanging scaffolds
Andamios colgados [in Spanish]
This article analyses the data concerning 24 severe occupational accidents due to hanging scaffolds, some fatal, having occurred during the last twenty years in the Asturias region of Spain. They were mainly due to falls of persons into the space between the scaffold and the façade. Most of these scaffolds (90%) were made of planks. The authors also present the results of a study of 77 construction sites involving 624 workers. More than half of the elevation systems consisted of a simple pulley. Only just over one fourth of the scaffolds had been load tested before being used and more than half were not maintained regularly. 81% of the scaffolds were not fixed to the façade, and where these anchorage points existed, 60% did not meet the requirements. Changes for improving safety are discussed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 1999, No.4, p.4-11. Illus.

1998

CIS 01-244 Practical safety data sheet. Elevated platforms for work at low heights
Fiche pratique de sécurité. Plates-formes de travail pour travaux de faible hauteur [in French]
Topics: building industry; built-up scaffolds; data sheet; falls from heights; France; legal aspects; mobile platforms; scaffold platforms; standard.
Travail et sécurité, June 1998, No.573, p.53-56. Illus. 5 ref. Also available as an offprint from the INRS.

CIS 99-650 Pimblott S.
Stopping falls through rooflights
Topics: building materials; falls from heights; legal aspects; roofs; safety by design; strength of materials; United Kingdom; work on roofs.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 1998, Vol.16, No.9, p.44-45. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 98-1469 Janicak C.A.
Fall-related deaths in the construction industry
Topics: causes of accidents; construction work; falls from heights; fatalities; job-exposure relation; mortality; protection against falls from heights; survey; USA.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1998, Vol.29, No.1, p.35-42. 14 ref.

1997

CIS 97-644 Sabourin G.
No more falls!
Pour en finir avec les chutes [in French]
This article provides an overview of the problem of falls from heights, an accident hazard that occurs in a wide variety of work situations. The human cost is high: in the Province of Quebec (Canada) alone, 16 workers died this way in 1993. The most dangerous industry for falls is that of construction: in the United States, a third of the accidents in this sector are falls, while in the UK this proportion rises to 52%. Another industry where falls constitute a major hazard is mining: in Quebec, 20% of mining accidents are falls. In order to prevent falls, all standards relating to personal protective equipment must be respected. In addition, the risks of falling must be considered during the planning of new projects and during the maintenance of buildings and public places.
Prévention au travail, Mar.-Apr. 1997, Vol.10, No.2, p.7-14. Illus. 10 ref.

1996

CIS 00-972 Velluz C.
Falls from heights - Risks and individual protection
Chutes de hauteur - Risques et protection individuelle [in French]
Topics: directive; European Communities; fall arresters; falls from heights; France; harnesses; mortality; occupational safety; personal protective equipment; protection against falls from heights; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; safety and health documentation; standard; statistical aspects; training material.
Les éditions d'ergonomie, B.P. 138, 13267 Marseille Cedex 08, France, 1996. 141p. Illus. Price: FRF 200.00.

CIS 99-846 Tosal Suárez J.M., Fueyo Martín C., Pérez Sánchez L.M., Ruiz Barberán, Solar Vińa M.
Holes in construction sites
Huecos en obra [in Spanish]
Topics: construction industry; construction sites; falls from heights; protection against falls from heights; Spain; statistical evaluation; survey.
Salud y trabajo, 1996, No.115, p.15-19. Illus.

CIS 97-1154 Jäger W., Holland U.
Skull and brain injuries
Schädel-Hirnverletzungen [in German]
Occupational accidents in Germany caused 98,072 skull and brain injuries in 1993. In 1994 the number was 97,015. In both years the construction industry was affected most. Falls from heights accounted for most of these injuries. Other causes included stumbling, being hit by falling objects and by moving objects and striking against objects.
Die BG, July 1996, No.7, p.476-481. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 97-1341 Crawford H.
Health and Safety Executive
Energy absorbers for tree surgeons: An investigation of fall distances for tree climbers equipped with sit harness or with full harness
This report presents the results of an investigation into fall heights and fall arrest forces for tree climbers. It focuses on the suitability of tree climbers' harnesses in relation to the fall arrest hazard. The study involved a literature survey, and a drop test programme. Results of the test programme provide a set of guidelines relating to situations suitable for a sit harness, a full harness, and a full harness with energy absorber. Recommendations are also given for developments in full harness design.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1996. iii, 46p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 97-1000 Cattledge G.H., Hendricks S., Stanevich R.
Fatal occupational falls in the U.S. construction industry, 1980-1989
Statistical analyses were conducted on all fatal occupational falls occurring between 1980 and 1989 in the US construction industry. In that period there were 2798 deaths, representing 49.6% of all fatal occupational falls across all industries. The highest fatality rates were observed within the subregions of the Southern USA. 66% of the victims died on the day of the injury. Research is needed to explain why there are geographic differences in occupational falls, to find out what occupations are at highest risk and to establish which prevention strategies are the best for the reduction of injuries and fatalities.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1996, Vol.28, No.5, p.647-654. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 97-999 Cattledge G.H., et al.
Nonfatal occupational fall injuries in the West Virginia construction industry
A report of analyses conducted on the 182 nonfatal occupational falls from heights reported for the construction industry during fiscal year 1991 in West Virginia (USA) for which there were complete supplemental injury data. For 60% of the subjects the length of employment with the company at the time of the fall injury was two years or less. 63% had received some type of fall protection training, but protection devices were not commonly used. 59% of the falls occurred from relatively low (below 10ft, i.e. 3m) elevated work surfaces.
Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1996, Vol.28, No.5, p.655-663. Illus. Bibl.ref.

1995

CIS 97-77 Peirens K.
Falls and careless behaviour
Chutes et faux pas [in French]
Val- en struikelpartijen [in Dutch]
Illustrated training brochure, concentrating on the following areas: passages and corridors; stairways, ladders and scaffolds; the dangers of falling from heights; proper falling postures.
Nationale Vereniging tot Voorkoming vanArbeidsongevallen (NVVA), Gachardstraat 88, Bus.4, 1050 Brussel, Belgium, 1995. 20p. Illus. 8 ref.

1994

CIS 96-95 About safety off the ground
Training booklet on working safely at heights: causes of falls from heights; main means of prevention; proper use of ladders; safe work on scaffolds; proper use of other climbing and lifting equipment; what to do if a fall occurs. Test for self assessment.
Scriptographic Publications Ltd., Channing House, Butts Road, Alton, Hants GU34 1ND, United Kingdom, 1994. 15p. Illus. Price: GBP 0.55-0.94 (depending on number of Scriptographic booklets ordered). ###

CIS 95-337
Health and Safety Executive
Safe working on glasshouse roofs
This guidance note describes the hazards associated with working on glasshouse roofs and outlines precautions needed before accessing and working on such roofs, the type of supervision and information required and selection of staff. Advice is also given on appropriate clothing and responsibilities towards contractors.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 2p.

1993

CIS 96-2062 Slips, trips & falls
Training booklet aimed at workers. Contents: slipping (wet indoor surfaces, traction and footwear, inclement weather, other hazards); tripping (lighting, clutter); falls (proper equipment, ladders, stairs). Quiz for testing whether readers have understood the message.
Coastal Video Communications Corp., 3083 Brickhouse Court, Virginia Beach, VA 23452, USA, 1993. 16p. Illus.

CIS 94-1796 Nagata H.
Proposed method to match physical test scores with the probable risk of a fatal fall
A series of single leg standing tests and a jump test are proposed to evaluate the standing ability of elderly employees engaged in dangerous jobs. Results indicate that the elderly who can stand less than 2 seconds in a single leg standing test on a flat beam, less than 8 seconds on a floor, and jump less than 10 times in a jump step test are at greater risk when engaged in jobs where they are liable to fall. A suggested evaluation table shows the probable risk of fatal falls for the elderly.
Safety Science, Nov. 1993, Vol.17, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-1750 Hartmann V.
Aspects of work at height and the hazard of falls from height exemplified by the sailing ship Gorch Fock
Aspekte der Höhenarbeit und Absturzproblematik am Beispiel des Segelschulschiffes Gorch Fock [in German]
Taking the sailing ship Gorch Fock as an example, the conditions of work in the riggings are described. They are characterized by work at great height without guaranteed protection against falls. Most of the accidents that occurred on the sailing ship were due to falls from heights of more than 10m. Safety belts are presently in use for lack of any other suitable method. In addition, safe work practices and safety rules are taught. The personnel assigned to work at height is carefully selected after medical examinations.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Umweltmedizin, July 1993, Vol.28, No.7, p.308-313. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 94-1444 Agnew J., Suruda A.J.
Age and fatal work-related falls
Fatality data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) were examined. From 1980 to 1986, NIOSH data indicated that fatality rates from falls showed an increase for older workers beginning with the age group of 45-54, whereas fatal injury rates for other work-related causes did not increase until the age-group of 55-64. OSHA investigations of 996 fatal work-related falls in 1984-1986 reported that falls from ladders accounted for 20% of fatal falls in workers aged 55 and over, significantly more than the average of 9% of all falls from workers of all ages.
Human Factors, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.731-736. 23 ref.

CIS 94-147 Mäder A.
Scaffolding in elevator shafts
Liftschachtgerüste [in German]
Impalcature per vani d'ascensori [in Italian]
Echafaudages dans les cages d'ascenseurs [in French]
This information note is intended for foremen on site and for workers in elevator installation or repair enterprises. Safety rules for erecting and using scaffolding in elevator shafts are emphasized. Applicable Swiss regulations are cited.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, July 1993. 11p. Illus.

CIS 93-1477
Construction Industry Training Board (CITB)
Falling isn't funny - The tragedy of falls and how they ruin lives
Training video intended to be used in conjunction with a structured training session. Three different approaches to the session are outlined in the Trainer's manual. The video shows the events leading up to three simulated accidents involving falls in the construction industry. The manual provides material for discussions with workers of these accidents.
CITB Publications Department, Bircham Newton, Kings Lynn, Norfolk PE 31 6RH, United Kingdom, 1993. Videocassette (15min) + trainer's manual (24p. Illus.). Price: GBP 90.00 (for CITB registered customers: GBP 75.00; for overseas customers: GBP 135.00).

1992

CIS 93-881 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing falls and electrocutions during tree trimming
This Alert describes eight incidents involving five electrocutions and three fatal falls of tree trimmers. Current OSHA regulations relevant to tree trimming operations are outlined. Recommendations to prevent falls and electrocutions include: compliance with relevant regulations and standards; development and implementation of safety programmes; worker training; hazard identification at the jobsite; protection of workers near power lines; provision of fall protection equipment.
Publications Dissemination, DSDTT, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1992. 9p. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 93-878 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing worker injuries and deaths caused by falls from suspension scaffolds
This Alert describes five incidents resulting in six deaths caused by falls from suspension scaffolds. Current and proposed OSHA regulations are outlined. Recommendations to prevent serious injuries and fatal falls include: compliance with relevant regulations; correct design and construction of scaffolds; protection of suspension ropes and harness system drop lines; regular equipment inspection; provision of personal fall protection equipment; worker training.
Publications Dissemination, DSDTT, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1992. 8p. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 93-436 Lifelines and safety belts
Sicherheitsseile und Sicherheitsgürtel [in German]
Contents of this guidance note: description of the safety belts according to the type of rigging and fibre used, buckles, different parts of the belts and harnesses. Advice is given on procedures for the visual inspection of natural and synthetic fibre safety belts and lifelines. The main types of wear and damage are shown in colour illustrations. Details on regular safety checks.
Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Abteilung für Unfallverhütung und Berufskrankheitenbekämpfung, Adalbert-Stifter-Strasse 65, 1200 Wien, Austria, 1992. 18p. Illus.

CIS 92-1355 Björnstig U., Johnsson J.
Ladder injuries: Mechanisms, injuries and consequences
Hospital-based data from northern Sweden indicate that there were 114 ladder accidents during a one-year period, one third of which occurred during working hours. The most common accident was a fall from a free, straight tilting ladder (73%) or a stepladder (20%). It was common for tilting ladders to slide on the ground (41%) and for stepladders to fall sideways (48%). The extremities were most commonly injured (60%), and 37% of all injuries were fractures. One third of the injured still had persisting symptoms more than one year after the accident. Suggestions are made for improvements in ladder construction to reduce the risk of injury.
Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1992, Vol.23, No.1, p.9-18. Illus. 17 ref.

1989

CIS 91-145 Abt, Jäger
Roofs which break when stepped on - Still a major cause of accidents
Nichtbegehbare Dachflächen noch immer ein Schwerpunkt im Unfallgeschehen [in German]
Roofs made of corrugated asbestos cement panels, synthetic panels or glass break when stepped on. Data on notifiable and compensated accidents involving such roofs in Germany (Fed.Rep.) are presented for the years 1985 to 1987. They reveal for instance that in 1985, of 100 accidents 30 were so severe as to require compensation payments. Measures to prevent falls through roofs include installation of walkways, fall arresters and safety nets.
Mitteilungsblatt der Bau-Berufsgenossenschaft Hannover, 1989, No.3, p.90-94. Illus.

CIS 90-2052 Paureau J.
Large safety nets - Efficiency, performance, securing rules
Filets en grandes nappes - Efficacité, performances, rčgles de pose [in French]
Using dimensional analysis, the authors have drawn up laws of behaviour for large safety nets. The study was restricted to square and rectangular nets (the latter with the size of the longer side double that of the shorter one) loaded statically in their centre; the behaviour of square nets loaded on a non-diagonal symmetry axis was also studied. Details on the calculations made and results obtained which show the vulnerability of the nets when the impact is within 1m of the edge. A specific hooking system under study by the INRS to prevent this hazard is described. It is recommended to revise French Standard NF P 93-311 concerning in particular the resistance of securing points of these nets.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th Quarter 1989, No.137, Note No.1758-137-89, p.655-675. Illus.

CIS 90-309 Abt W., Jäger W.
Roof tops unsafe to walk on - still a major cause of accidents
"Nichtbegehbare" Dachflächen - noch immer ein Schwerpunkt im Unfallgeschehen [in German]
Between 1985 and 1987 there were 485 registered accidents in Germany (Fed.Rep.) caused by falls through roof panels made of glass, plastic or corrugated asbestos cement. Suggested preventive measures include erection of broad board walks, installation of fall arresting safety nets and screens as well as the use of lifelines.
Die BG, Feb. 1989, No.2, p.66-70. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 89-1824 Bürkli M., Bucher E.
Safety harnesses
Sicherheit durch Anseilen [in German]
Cinture di sicurezza [in Italian]
La sécurité en s'encordant [in French]
This booklet, aimed at construction workers, deals with the principles of protection against falls from heights: attenuation of energy produced by the fall; fall-protection equipment and its maintenance. Relevant Swiss legislation is reviewed.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Case postale, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Mar. 1989. 20p. Illus.

1988

CIS 90-1520 Nigel Ellis J.N., Lewis H.B.
Introduction to fall protection
This training manual provides guidelines for personal security at elevated heights. Coverage includes US statistics on falls and the current status of US and other fall protection standards. The responsibilities of employers and workers are discussed, and guidelines given for building managers, contractors, and others as to how to improve worker protection. Principles of fall protection are outlined and development of an effective fall protection programme is explained (including a method for carrying out a fall hazard analysis). Various types of protection equipment are described in detail and the hazards associated with them. Each chapter is followed by review questions, with answers.
American Society of Safety Engineers, Technical Publications, 1800 East Oakton Street, Des Plaines IL 60018, USA, 1988. 141p. Bibl. Index.

CIS 89-1410 Window Cleaning - Regulation made under the Occupational Health and Safety Act [Canada - Ontario]
Contents: registration, reporting and notice requirements; safety precautions and requirements; ladders and related equipment; scaffolds; electrical hazards; miscellaneous equipment; duties of the owners of buildings, employers, supervisors and workers.
Ontario Gazette - Gazette de l'Ontario, 1988, p.1882-1891.

CIS 89-1695 Nemeskey K.
Current problems in protection against falls from heights by people in the construction industry
Személyek leesés elleni védelmének aktuális kérdései az épitési tevékenységnél [in Hungarian]
A survey of the structural, ergonomic and regulatory problems that lead to the high incidence of accidents involving falls from heights in Hungary. Suggested preventive equipment and methods are given.
Munkavédelem, munka- és üzemegészségügy, 1988, Vol.34, No.4-6. p.111-117. Illus. 15 ref.

1987

CIS 89-2048 Niskanen T., Seppänen E.
Measures for preventing falls in the construction industry
Putoamistapaturmien torjunta talonrakennuksessa [in Finnish]
Description of safe working methods and appropriate safety equipment for various circumstances. The basic principle in fall protection is that technical measures take priority over general (protection nets) and personal (safety harness and lanyard) protection measures. Fall protection measures can be assembled in a plan serving the entire duration of the construction site. When considering various fall protection measures one has to pay particular attention to the use of guard rails and nets in different phases of installation work (floors, roofing), the shielding of openings, passageway arrangements and the need for personal protection. A risk analysis should be carried out before a new working method is introduced. On-the-job training should be given to new workers, to workers moving to new jobs and to all workers confronted with new methods or equipment.
Työterveyslaitos, Julkaisumyynti, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 1987. 99p. + appendices. Illus. 91 ref. Price: FIM 35.00.

CIS 87-1070
Comité technique national des industries du bâtiment, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie
Prevention of falls from built-up scaffolds (Recommendation R279)
Prévention des chutes depuis les échafaudages de pied (Recommandation R279) [in French]
Recommendations adopted 9 July 1986. They concern the choice of materials, erection and dismantling, and inspections. An illustrated technical note gives advice on how to erect built-up scaffolds when the information given by manufacturers is insufficient: frames (examples of the erection of diagonal bracing and other components), use of platforms, access to workplaces.
Travail et sécurité, Jan. 1987, No.1, p.22-24 and 65-66. Illus.

1986

CIS 87-1264 The harder they fall
Högmod går före fall [in Swedish]
Videotape (Swedish with English subtitles) showing, through the example of an incident on a construction site, how a series of actions by workers and supervisors, none of them particularly risky by themselves, can lead to a potentially fatal accident.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. Videotape (VHS, PAL). 20min.

CIS 87-1085 Lehni H.
Safety nets
Auffangnetze [in German]
Reti di sicurezza [in Italian]
Filets de sécurité [in French]
Information note on the minimum requirements for safety nets: definition of terms, safety requirements for nets and cords (materials, resistance, construction), installation (fall distance, dimensions, suspension), nets for catching falling objects, maintenance, durability.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1986. Feuillet 22031. 6p. Illus.

CIS 86-1813 Moreau J.C.
Work on overhead electric lines. Protection of installers against falls from concrete pylons
Travaux sur lignes électriques aériennes. La protection des monteurs contre les chutes depuis les poteaux en béton [in French]
There is a high risk of falls during work on overhead electric lines. After reviewing the serious and fatal accidents that occurred in France in 1973-1982 and describing the way lines are installed and repaired on concrete pylons, this article presents the French regulations currently in force and the safety equipment presently available (safety belts conforming to standard NF C18-435; anchors; harnesses).
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Jan.-Feb. 1986, No.1, p.12-16. Illus.

CIS 86-2040 Safety nets to protect against falls from heights
Auffangnetze [in German]
Filets de sécurité, protection contre les chutes de hauteur [in French]
Reti di sicurezza [in Italian]
Falls from heights are still among the most prominent causes of accidents in the construction industry. This information note describes the minimum requirements for safety nets used to prevent such falls and it surveys the appropriate safety rules.
Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1986. 8p. Illus.

CIS 86-2032 Adenot A.
Prevention of falls from balconies
Prévention des chutes depuis les balcons [in French]
Examination of various ways of preventing falls from heights involving people working on balconies, in particular in cases where the railing is made of delicate materials and cannot be installed until all the dirty work is done.
Cahiers des Comités de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics, Mar.-Apr. 1986, No.2, p.8-13. Illus.

1985

CIS 89-293 Vogt M., Kirchner J.H., Erke H., Packebusch L., Wessel W., Zimolong B.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Prevention of falls at work. Part A. Safety and ergonomic measures. Part B. Development of psychological occupational training programmes
Verhinderung von Absturzunfällen - Teil A. Sicherheitliche und ergonomische Massnahmen. Teil B. Entwicklung arbeitspsychologischer Schulungsprogramme [in German]
This report contains: description of the measures taken against fall accidents; classification and description of fall arresting devices; summaries of US reports on ergonomic design of the devices and comparison with conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany; an evaluation of domestic and foreign regulations on the devices. Check lists and a directory of manufacturers are included. The 2nd part deals with the psychological aspects of the problem and gives improved methods of training of supervisors and safety representatives.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH, Postfach 10 11 10, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. Vol.1: 374p. Vol.2: 82p. Illus. Price: DEM 37.00 + 16.00.

CIS 86-822 Niskanen T., Seppänen E.
Prevention of accidents involving falling in the construction industry
Paper presented at the 12th International Colloquium on the Prevention of Risks in the Construction Industry (Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, 17-20 Sep. 1985). Analysis of the circumstances of 431 serious falling accidents (34 fatal) investigated by the Finnish National Board of Labour Protection between 1974 and 1984. The analysis shows that accidents can be prevented at the design stage by including safety features in the working plant. In addition, guard rails should be fixed according to building codes, openings in superstructures should be covered by lids, and protective devices (safety sets, safety belts, lanyards) should be used.
Institute of Occupational Health, Haartmaninkatu 1, 00290 Helsinki 29, Finland, 1985. 7p.

1984

CIS 88-42
WTK für Arbeitsschutz beim Ministerium für Bauwesen
Occupational safety and health. Protection against falls from heights. General regulations [German Democratic Republic]
Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz. Schutz vor Absturzgefährdung. Allgemeine Festlegungen [in German]
This standard (originally effective 1 Jul. 1984; effective 1 Apr. 1987 as amended) covers: definition of terms relating to falls; general requirements for safe design; characteristics of hazards causing falls from heights and determination of appropriate protective measures; tables illustrating typical hazardous situations and appropriate safety measures; technical and technological documentation; safe behaviour.
Verlag für Standardisierung und Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Jan. 1984. 4p. Illus.

CIS 85-1722 Coenen W., Gerten T., Kloss G.
Research into the impact resistance of working and protective scaffolds
Untersuchungen zur Stossbelastung von Arbeits- und Fanggerüsten [in German]
The force of impact produced by a person falling onto the platform of a scaffold can exceed the expected static load. The aim of this study was the determination of the resistance of scaffold platforms to the dynamic load produced under such circumstances. The report describes the problem, the calculation, the comparative test between dynamic and static loads, the experimental testing of the calculation results and the testing of dynamic resistance of the platform. The model proposed allows the calculation of permissible dimensions of protective scaffolds.
Berufsgenossenschaftliches Institut für Arbeitssicherheit, Lindenstrasse 80, Postfach 2034, 5205 Sankt Augustin 2, Federal Republic of Germany, BIA-Report 5/84, 1984. 77p. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 85-821
(WTZ für Arbeitsschutz beim Ministerium für Bauwesen)
Protection against the risk of falls from heights [German Democratic Republic]
Schutz vor Absturzgefährdung [in German]
The first part of this standard (effective: June 1984) defines the terms used and specifies preventive measures. The 2nd part concerns collective protection against falls (railings, covers for openings in floors). The 3rd part covers the use of safety scaffolds and nets, as well as personal protective equipment. Specifications for the equipment, instructions for its safe use and inspection requirements are also given.
Verlag für Standardisierung, Standardversand, Postfach 1068, 7010 Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, Jan. 1984. 10p. Illus.

1983

CIS 88-2066 Axelsson P.O.
Arbetsolycksfallsgruppen
Development of a safety device for roof work
Utveckling av skydd vid takarbete [in Swedish]
In Sweden, 241 accidents resulting from falls from roofs occurred in 1980. This report is the first result of a project aimed at examining this problem and at generating solutions that prevent or lessen the consequences of falls from roofs. A survey of the problem area was made by means of interviews and observations on building sites. The results of the survey were compiled in the form of a list of requirements concerning better safety devices. A literature survey was also made and a workshop was arranged in which people from various occupational groups within the building industry took part. The resulting solutions were varied. Two of these, chosen at an evaluation seminar, will be developed and tested. They both utilise permanent holders which are fixed to the building during construction.
Tekniska Högskolan, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Mar. 1983. 48p. Illus. 13 ref.

1982

CIS 83-1415 Jung K.
Reduction of heel-bone injuries by sensible construction of the heel area of safety footwear
Minderung der Fersenbein-Verletzungen durch sinnvolle Gestaltung des Fersenbereiches von Sicherheitsschuhwerk [in German]
The problem of heel-bone fractures in falls from heights and statistics on the problem are reviewed. The forces acting on the heel during walking and in jumps or falls are described. Medical engineering experiments on the ability of 146 types of footwear to absorb energy (using human foot-bone preparations in flesh-like rubber matrices) revealed a wide variation in that ability and suggested future design improvements, especially in the heels of the shoes and boots. Besides the ability to absorb energy, it is important that shoes have the proper weight, fit and flexibility of sole and height of upper.
Die BG, Apr. 1982, No.4, p.226-236. Illus. 8 ref.

1981

CIS 81-1730 Carlsson J.
Hazards on roofs - Accidents due to work on roofs
Fara pĺ taket - Olycksfall vid takarbete [in Swedish]
Report of a study of these accidents in Sweden: importance of accidents occurring during roofing and work on roofs, especially falls from height, in statistics; types of data evaluated, and evaluation criteria; types, causes and sequelae of accidents studied; preventive measures (laying down antislip surfaces, removal of snow from roofs before commencing work, information and training for new workers). Appended: detailed table of accident causes and agencies, and other factors involved in the accidents studied (lack of experience, accident agencies, trade or occupation and age of persons sustaining injury).
Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Arbetsolycksfallsgruppen, Stockholm, Sweden, apr. 1981. 26p. Illus.

1978

CIS 95-520
Health and Safety Executive
One step away
Videotape on the dangers of construction and repair workers falling from roofs.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1978. Videotape. Length: 15min. Price: GBP 28.68 (hire), GBP 85.10 (sale). ###

1975

CIS 76-2017 Fuhrmann N., Wichmann J.
From fall to fall
Von Fall zu Fall [in German]
Statistics of accidents due to falling, with breakdown according to job performed and its inherent hazards. Safety regulations adopt as a criterion the height at which work has to be done when determining whether a workpost should be equipped with protective devices against falls. Details concerning guard rails, fall arresters, lifelines, nets, and protective scaffolds and screens.
Sicher ist Sicher, Dec. 1975, Vol.26, No.12, p.630-638. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 75-2051 Ribeiro B.F.
Occupational hazards in window cleaning.
Accidental falls involving 20 window cleaners treated in hospital are analysed (types of injury, disability). Failure to use safety belts and lack of suitable anchorage points contributed in all cases. Protective equipment is reviewed (regulations, types) and the use of ladders is briefly discussed. A relevant extract from the Factories Act 1961 regarding compensation is examined and illustrated.
British Medical Journal, 30 Aug. 1975, Vol.3, No.5982, p.530-532. Illus. 6 ref.

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