Pollution control - 464 entries found
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Esposito M.P., McArdle J.L., Crone A.H., Greber J.S., Clark R., Brown S., Hallowell J.B., Langham A., McCandlish C.D.
Decontamination techniques for buildings, structures and equipment
This handbook was developed to assist headquarters and regional personnel of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in planning the restoration of sites with contaminated buildings, structures and/or equipment in accordance with a national programme of environmental clean-up. It describes methods of decontaminating buildings and structures (mostly at hazardous waste sites) and removal equipment (such as drum grapplers or bulldozers). Types of contaminants considered include asbestos, acids, alkalis, dioxins, explosives, heavy metals, cyanides, low-level radiation, organic solvents, pesticides and PNBs. A complete decontamination strategy is presented, together with 21 specific decontamination methods. There is a chapter on worker health and safety (training, medical surveillance, personal protective equipment, site safety plan). Appendices contain surveys of specific decontamination sites in the USA, information on sampling methods (wet-wipe tests, counting asbestos fibres in air, sump sampling), cost analysis methods, and 8 case studies (one of which from Seveso, Italy).
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road, Park Ridge, NJ 07656, USA, 1987. 252p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$36.00.
United Nations Environment Programme
Employers and the environmental challenge
This publication is based on the background documents and reports of the ILO/UNEP Regional Meetings of Employers' Organisations on Environment and Development (Bangkok, March 1984 and Nairobi, Oct. 1984). Topics covered: industrialisation and its environmental impact, environmental law and the enterprise, public participation in environmental decisions (a role for employers' organisations), aims and activities of PIACT (International Programme for the Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment), occupational safety and health and productivity, welfare facilities for workers, plans of future action by employers' and international organisations. Annexes cover case studies from Japan, India and Kenya, and an extract from the Occupational Safety and Health Convention of the ILO (1981, No.155).
International Labour Office, ILO Publications, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1986. 101p. Price: SF.17.50.
Health and Safety Executive
Industrial Air Pollution: Health and Safety 1984
This report summarises the HM Industrial Air Pollution Inspectorate's activities during 1984 and it surveys the main developments and problems of the industries controlled by the Inspectorate (chemical, metal, fuel, mineral industries etc.). Some special topics receive additional attention (effectiveness of inspections, control of emission of lead, chemical incineration, nitrogen oxide emission from fuel burning, the continuous monitoring of dust emission). Data on results of inspections in 1983 and 1984 are given in the appendixes.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1985. 39p. Price: GBP 5.00.
Handbook of hazardous waste regulation - Volume II: How to protect employees during environmental incident response
This looseleaf book contains guidelines intended to provide information to complement competent professional judgement and experience. Included are: environmental incidents (consequences of exposure, safety considerations); generalities and standard operating procedures; site entry (measures and requirements, survey and reconnaissance, levels of protection); site control (work zones, decontamination); air surveillance; site safety; appendices on characteristics of the HNU Photoioniser and organic vapour analyser, the rationale for relating total atmospheric vapour gas concentrations to the selection of the level of protection, and dermal toxicity data.
Bureau of Law and Business, Inc., 64 Wall Street, Madison, CT 06443-1513, USA, 1985. 200p. Bibl. ref. Appendices. Price:US$59.95.
Val'dberg A.Ju., Icjanov L.M., Ė.Ja.Tarat
Technology of dust collection
Tehnologija pyleulavlivanija [in Russian]
This guide for the engineering staff of ventilation and design services, occupational hygiene laboratories, and environmental protection services in the machinery industry covers characteristics, methods of choosing and methods of designing dust-collecting equipment. Contents: main properties and sources of airborne particles; technical and economic criteria in dust collection (freedom of effluents from dust and determination of permissible dust levels in effluents); dust-collecting equipment; auxiliary devices for dust-collecting equipment; dust collection in thermal cutting, melting and welding of metals, casting, mechanical processing, ash removal; monitoring the effectiveness of dust collection.
Izdatel'stvo "Mašinostroenie", ul. Dzeržinskogo 10, 191065 Leningrad, USSR, 1985. 192p. Illus. 71 ref. Price: Rbl.0.75.
Poščupkin N.P., Birjukov V.A., Zabavskij A.N.
Experience with the introduction of torches for semiautomatic welding with fume aspiration in assembly plants
Opyt vnedrenija gorelok dlja poluavtomatičeskoj svarki s otsosom aėrozolja na zavodah metallokonstrukcij [in Russian]
Description of a new electric welding torch. It has a lighter supply cable than previous models, which permits the torch and its air and electric lines to be made long enough to enable continuous welding of large vats, trusses and columns. Compressed air is supplied to cool the handle. A compressed-air ejector provides suction for an aspirator channel in the torch. Exhaust air passes through a specially designed filter where welding fume is collected. Depending on conditions in the factories where the new torch has been introduced, efficiencies of fume collection range from 70 to 100%, and fume levels in the welders' breathing zones have been reduced 15-20-fold. Substantial amounts of money have been saved by the elimination of the construction costs and heat losses associated with local ventilation systems.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.43-44. Illus.
Olejničenko K.A., Rojanov V.A., Semenov V.P.
Specific emission of aerosol components in electric-arc metal spraying
Udel'nye vydelenija komponentov aėrozolja pri dugovoj metallizacii [in Russian]
Under identical conditions, 3 different wires differed markedly in the amount of dust that they generated: averages ranged from 2.8 to 8.0g/min, or 14-40g dust/kg wire. The aerosol from low-alloy wire was largely iron oxide, with about 3% manganese oxide, whereas wire containing 23.6% chromium and 13.47% nickel gave aerosols containing similar proportions of chromium (mainly trivalent) and nickel oxides. Keeping amounts of airborne metals down to permissible levels requires exhaust ventilation at a rate of 7000m3 of air per kilogram of wire consumed, in the case of low-alloy wire, and 22,000m3/kg in the case of high-alloy wire.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Mar. 1985, No.3, p.42-43. 5 ref.
Lukašev V.A., Izraevskij A.V., Lukaševa L.L., Viničenko L.I., Kondrašev S.Ju.
Local exhaust ventilation in the welding of large assemblies
Mestnaja vytjažnaja ventiljacija pri svarke krupnogabaritnyh konstrukcij [in Russian]
A review of systems used in the USSR to control welding fumes produced during the assembly of agricultural equipment. The systems fall into 3 categories: those that are independent of the tool or workpiece; those that are incorporated into accessory equipment; and those that are incorporated into welding tools themselves. The categories are illustrated respectively by a hood with a circular slot that can pass 2000-3000m3 of air per hour; a tilting cradle that has internal air passages and slot hoods at intervals along its length; and an electric welding tool with 2 concentric tubes around the electrode. The cradle can handle objects up to 6m in length, and can exhaust 7000m3/h. The welding tool is connected to a source of carbon dioxide and to a vacuum line; the carbon dioxide flows out of the inner of the 2 concentric tubes to form a curtain around the welding arc, and is sucked up through the outer tube along with entrained welding fume.
Svaročnoe proizvodstvo, Jan. 1985, No.1, p.40-42. Illus. 7 ref.
Disposal of chemical wastes and spills
The aim of this data sheet is to familiarise both management and employees with the potential hazards of handling chemical wastes and spills and to outline the basic safety precautions which must be taken to prevent injury or impairment to health.
Canada Safety Council, Occupational Section, 1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1985. 10p. Bibl.
Air purification methods in industry. Cost comparison methods and a case study
Procédés d'assainissement de l'air des ateliers. Méthodes de comparaison des coûts et étude de cas [in French]
Plans are described for the installation of 5 different air-purifying systems in an actual factory; air exhaust with heat recovery and heating by natural gas or oil; air exhaust without heat recovery and heating by natural gas or oil; air recycling after treatment and natural gas heating. For each possibility, the calculation includes: investment costs, annual operating costs, total costs based on the previous 2 costs, on the method of financing of the installation and on price projections. The influence of weather on these evaluations is discussed. The least expensive choice for this factory would be the installation of the system with air exhaust with energy recovery and heating by natural gas. A more general method for such calculations is being looked for; such a method would permit, at the planning stage, the comparison of prices of several solutions without the need for long and expensive studies.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd quarter 1985, No.120, Note No.1539-120-85, p.331-340. Illus. 3 ref.
Council Directive of 28 June 1984 on the combating of air pollution from industrial plants [European Communities]
Directive du Conseil, du 28 juin 1984, relative à la lutte contre la pollution atmosphérique en provenance des installations industrielles [Communautés européennes] [in French]
The purpose of this directive is to provide for measures and procedures designed to prevent or reduce air pollution from industrial plants, particularly those belonging to the categories defined in annex I or due to the most important polluting substances as defined in annex II. Provisions cover: authorization for the operation of the plant, emission limit values, specially protected areas, exchange of information among states, monitoring of compliance with obligations, adaptation of the plants or installations to technological progress.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 16 July 1984, Vol.27, No.L.188, p.20-25.
McKinnery W.N., Heitbrink W.A.
Control of air contaminants in tire manufacturing
On the basis of 7 field studies and associated in-depth plant reports, this report recommends approaches for the control of air contaminants in tire manufacturing plants. The recommendations are preceded by descriptions of observed engineering controls, the effectiveness of those controls and specific work practices (work practices were found to have a significant effect on the performance of engineering controls). Appendixes contain: results of preliminary air quality surveys; discussion of air sampling techniques and their relation to evaluation of control measures; description of processes associated with the tire industry and the occupational health literature for this industry; hood efficiency studies using tracer gases.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Robert A. Taft Laboratories, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, May 1984. 125p. Illus. Bibl.
Nikitin V.S., Plotnikova L.V., Maksimkina N.G., Samsonov V.T.
Establishing maximum allowable emissions from low-lying industrial sources
Ustanovlenie predel'no dopustimyh vybrosov ot nizkih promyšlennyh istočnikov [in Russian]
Description of a mathematical approach to standard-setting developed by the research institute of the USSR trade union federation. The method takes account of background levels of pollutants. Specific treatment of low-lying sources of emissions (10-20m above the surface) is especially important, because 90% of the sources in industrial zones fall in this category, and the distribution pattern of the emitted pollutants is different from that of high sources.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, 1984, No.2, p.16-18. Illus. 10 ref.
Regulation on minimum requirements for hygienic and environmental conditions in workplaces [Chile]
Reglamento sobre condiciones sanitarias y ambientales mínimas en los lugares de trabajo [in Spanish]
Regulation effective 9 Feb. 1983. Coverage: provision of safe drinking water; hygienic facilities; disposal of harmful wastes; locker rooms and eating facilities; list of maximum permissible concentrations for harmful chemical substances and dust of various origin (silica, asbestos, coal, plants); limitations of exposure to physical agents (noise, vibration, microwave and ultraviolet radiation, ionising radiation).
Ministerio de Salud, Santiago, Chile, 1983. 16p.
McQuaid J., Moodie K.
The scope for reduction of the hazard of flammable or toxic gas plumes
Stress is laid on the application of water-spray barriers to enhance natural dispersion of a gas cloud by the wind. Practical aspects considered are conditions for application, location of the barrier, geometry of the barrier, equipment, and activation of the barrier, based on laboratory and full-scale experiments, and experience of the beneficial effects of water sprays in actual incidents. The engineering of the technique is described.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, June 1983, Vol.5, No.2, p.135-141. Illus. 11 ref.
McQuaid J., Fitzpatrick R.D.
Air entrainment by water sprays: strategies for application to the dispersion of gas plumes
The response of a heavy-gas plume to the action of a series of water sprays distributed across the direction of drift (water-spray barrier) was studied. A simple model of the water-spray barrier/gas plume combination is proposed and used to study the influence of adjustable parameters (spray-barrier location, spray-entrainment rate, spray disposition) on the design of the installation.
Journal of Occupational Accidents, June 1983, Vol.5, No.2, p.121-133. Illus. 8 ref.
Technical measures for reducing pollution from diesel engines
Accorgimenti tecnici per la riduzione dell'inquinamento da motori diesel [in Italian]
Composition of diesel-engine exhaust gases and origin of the various components; distinction between "white" and "black" exhaust gases and mechanisms leading to their formation; influence of engine design and operation parameters on the exhaust-gas composition (vortex generation when the fuel is injected into the combustion chamber, variables of injection, mixing velocity, chamber design). Description of ways and means designed to limit the concentration of harmful substances in the exhaust gases; supercharging; recirculation of exhaust gases; dual-fuel injection (e.g. addition of methanol or liquefied petroleum gas to the gas oil); fractional fuel injection (i.e. two-phase injection).
D.A. - difesa ambientale, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.5, No.7-8, p.40-50. Illus. 12 ref.
Cleaning of dust-laden air
Obespylivanie vozduha [in Russian]
Although primarily designed for specialists dealing with environmental pollution control, this book contains a wealth of useful information for industrial hygienists. Sections cover: scientific and technical revolution and air pollution (characteristics of pollutants, local phenomena, legislation); properties of dust (classification of aerosols, particle distribution and dynamics); theory of dust collection (particle deposition by gravity and inertia, filtration, electrostatic precipitation); filters for air cleaning and recirculation (classification, assessment of efficiency; viscous, fibrous, bag-type, and electrostatic filters); dust collectors (classification, assessment; description of settling chambers, cyclones, etc.); design and operation of dust collectors (cleaning of ventilation system exhaust air, economic aspects of air cleaning system).
Strojizdat, Kaljaevskaja 23a, 101442 Moskva, USSR, 1981. 296p. Illus. 117 ref. Price: Rbl.1.80.
Evaluating the effectiveness of atmosphere control systems and measures in factory courts and built-up areas
Ocenka ėffektivnosti kompleksa i otdel'nyh meroprijatij po normalizacii sostava atmosfery na promyšlennyh ploščadkah i v selitebnyh zonah [in Russian]
The article gives mathematical procedures for evaluating the effectiveness of systems and their component parts (gas cleaners and dust collectors) used to control the atmosphere in factory courts and their surroundings.
Vodosnabženie i sanitarnaja tehnika, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.13-15.
Improvement and protection of the workplace and the environment, and health legislation - Standardised methods, standards and rules
Unapređenje i zaštita radne i životne sredine i sanitarno zakonodavstvo - Standardne metode i normativi [in Serbocroatian]
Some chapters concern the workplace and working environment: noise and vibration (technical data, noise and vibration control methods); ionising radiation (radiation protection, decontamination, protection against radioactive substances, legislation); crop protection (application of pesticides); the working environment and OSH in general (OSH in Yugoslavia; harmful factors and working conditions; occupational health and hygiene standards and rules, TLVs, etc., OSH regulations).
Institut za dokumentaciju azštite na radu, Višegradska 66, Niš, Yugoslavia, 1980. 825p. Illus. 220 ref. Price: Din.850.
The new allies
Les nouveaux alliés. [in French]
Description of a solvent vapour recovery unit in a plant producing aluminium foil. The solvents in question are used for the preparation of varnishes and for cleaning machinery. Recovery of these solvents results not only in improved working conditions, but also in savings.
Travail et sécurité, July 1980, No.7, p.372-377. Illus.
Hazardous chemicals - Spills and waterborne transportation.
Papers read at the 87th national meeting of the Institute are reproduced under the main heads: hazardous chemical spills; waterborne transportation of hazardous chemicals; synthetic and wire ropes for ocean systems.
AIChE symposium series, Vol.76, No.194. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 345 East 47 Street, New York, N.Y. 10017. USA, 1980. 147p. Illus. 133 ref.
Mertens H., Schlitt H.G.
Behaviour of exhaust gases from diesel engines when methane is mixed with the air intake
Das Abgasverhalten von Dieselmotoren bei methanhaltiger Ansaugluft [in German]
The increasing use of equipment powered by diesel engines in mines raises problems of harmful gases (CO, NO, NO2) in their exhaust, particularly if there is methane present in the atmosphere. This article gives the results of research undertaken to study the possibilities of lessening the danger from the exhaust gases emitted. The research was concentrated on the method of fuel injection (direct or indirect), the variability of injection factors (quantity of fuel, advancing the injection, injection pressure, nozzle modification), supercharging, additives, and particularly afterburning catalysers. None of these measures appears to offer an ideal solution.
Glückauf, 7 June 1979, Vol.115, No.11, p.520-525. Illus.
Gas emission during discharging of coke from the chambers and wet quenching
Emissionen beim Drücken des Kokses aus den Kammern und beim Nasslöschverfahren [in German]
Measures and installations are described for collecting gas emissions from the ovens during discharging (covering the oven battery and exhaust of polluted air, enclosure of discharging operation, with exhaust and cleaning of polluted air) and wet quenching (reduced speed of vapour emissions, advantages of plate separators). A section is devoted to sampling of dust emitted during discharging and its chemical and particle-size analysis, and to the quality of the water used for quenching. The quantity and harmfulness of the gas emissions correlated with the "maturity" of the coke and the purity of the quenching water.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, Apr. 1979, Vol.29, No.4, p.103-109. 2 ref.
Žiharev M.V., Kostrikov V.I.
Neutralisation of gaseous effluents in paint shops
Obezvreživanie ventiljacionnyh vybrosov pokrasočnyh učastkov [in Russian]
Description of some methods for the elimination of organic substances (in particular solvents) contained in these effluents: low-temperature catalytic combustion, high-temperature post-combustion and adsorption on activated carbon, followed by thermal desorption and post-combustion. An economic advantage of post-combustion lies in the fact that existing industrial furnaces can be used.
Mašinostroitel', Mar. 1979, No.3, p.29. Illus.
Industrial ventilation and atmospheric pollution control
Promyšlennaja ventiljacija i zaščita vozdušnoj sredy [in Russian]
Series of articles on: calculation of zone ventilation of workplaces; calculation of coefficient of non-isothermal conditions for studies of air heating; studies and calculation of draughts; design of rectangular air inlets; temperature distribution in multi-bay air-conditioned halls; ventilation of such halls in the event of heavy heat production; efficacy of rim-exhaust systems with provision of make-up air; efficacy of natural ventilation of an industrial complex; model study of natural ventilation of factories; pollutant concentration distribution around industrial buildings; cleaning of gas emissions; exhaust ventilation device for machine-tools; measurement and calculation of air flow in circular or rectangular ducting; influence of surface roughness of ventilation ducts.
Vsesojuznyj central'nyj naučno-issledovatel'skij institut ohrany truda VCSPS, Obolenskij per. 10, Moskva, USSR, 1978. 204p. Illus. 131 ref. Price: Rbl.1.00.
VDI - Environmental protection
VDI Umweltschutz [in German]
List of directives and technical and scientific reports drawn up and published by the Association of German Engineers (VDI) on the question of environmental protection measures. The list is subdivided into sections devoted to: buildings, energy, motor vehicles, design and construction, plastics, noise control, production, atmospheric pollution control (especially measurement and analysis of pollutants), and technical equipment of buildings.
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Graf-Recke-Strasse 84, 4000 Düsseldorf 1, Germany (Fed.Rep.), 1978. 28p.
Handbook of environmental data on organic chemicals.
This compilation of data on more than 1,000 substances with relatively low toxicity lists the chemicals by common name, with cross references. The entry contains the name, formula, physical properties, air pollution factors (conversion factors (ppm - mg/m3), threshold limit values in various countries, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany (Dem.Rep.), Germany (Fed.Rep.), Hungary, Israel, Poland, Romania, Sweden, Switzerland, USA, USSR, Yugoslavia, protection measures, odour, reactions, sources, maximum immission concentrations (ambient air quality standards), emission limits, control methods, sampling and analysis); water pollution factors; biological effects (plants, animals, mammals, man). Chemical and mathematical equations, criteria, standards and regulations in various countries and sampling and analysis methods are discussed and the terms and abbreviations are defined.
Published by Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Molly Millars Lane, Wokingham, Berkshire, United Kingdom, 1977. 659p. Illus. 347 ref. Price: £30.40.
Policies and poisons - The containment of long-term hazards to human health in the environment and in the workplace.
L'ambiance et ses contaminants - Une politique de lutte contre les agents toxiques à retardement de l'ambiance professionnelle et de l'environnement. [in French]
On the basis of conclusions of in-depth studies of lead, asbestos, radiation, vinyl chloride, mercury, and nitrogen oxides, taken as representative of wider classes of hazards, this report examines the decision-making process in Canada in the field of occupational and environmental hazards and makes recommendations with a view to diminishing them. The administrative organisation and procedures; the hazard assessment process (information exchange, research base); the establishment of a medical record system; regulation, enforcement and compliance; and occupational health policies are reviewed, and recommendations made to ensure more appropriate action and better information of the public.
Report No.28, Science Council of Canada, 150 Kent Street, 7th Floor, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5P4, Canada, Oct. 1977. 76p. 19 ref. Price: Can.-$2.40.
How to remove pollutants and toxic materials from air and water.
This handbook, based on data in US patents, provides practical information on methods and means of controlling pollutants from industrial processes. Pollutants are covered in 292 sections arranged in alphabetical order; each section presents the processes available to remove and occasionally recover the substances from air, water and waste materials. Examples of some applications are given.
Noyes Data Corporation, Noyes Building, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1977. 621p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$48.00.
Technological solutions for noise control and purification of waste water and exhaust air
Technologische Lösungen für Lärmschutz sowie Abwasser- und Abluftreinigung [in German]
The first part of this book contains the main papers read at the 8th Congress of the Association internationale contre le bruit, held in Basel (Swtizerland), in 1974. Papers dealing with noise at the workplace are: limit values for noise (Schirmer W., Hartig H.); noise research projects (Klosterkötter W.); temporary threshold shift and maximum permissible noise levels (Kubik S.). The papers in the 2nd part deal with noise near industries and airports, and control of water and air pollution.
Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, German Democratic Republic, 1976. 210p. Illus. Price: M.9.90.
Faxvall S., Jansson A., Olander L.
Leakage measurement and tightness testing with tracer gas
Läckagemätning och täthetskontroll med hjälp av spårgas [in Swedish]
This report describes methods for determining the air tightness and air leakage of rooms by means of mathematical models. The model used for evaluating the air tightness is a standard model for dilution. Since no applicable method exists for measuring leakage, the probable amount of leakage, the lay-out of the ventilation system and the rooms and the desired information must be considered. Results should be presented as the fraction of the contamination that is transferred or as the air flow between the rooms.
Undersökningsrapport AMTV 105/76, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 38p. 5 ref.
Handbook of ventilation for contaminant control (including OSHA requirements).
This profusely illustrated book, intended for industrial hygiene seminars for safety engineers, plant engineers and managers, industrial hygienists and other safety professionals, explains what those responsible for implementing and meeting standards laid down by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) have to know in connection with exhaust ventilation. It gives detailed instructions for designing and installing practical, economical ventilation systems that satisfy OSHA requirements. Topics covered include: how to design an installation that reduces operating costs to a minimum; how to solve problems; troubleshooting and inspecting existing systems; careful ventilation instructions for handling toxic materials; how to design ducts and fans; analysis of current obligations imposed by OSHA ventilation requirements; hazard assessment; how local exhaust systems work; hood selection and design; ventilation systems design; fans; testing. Appendices: symbols and abbreviations; glossary; U.S. threshold limit values, etc. Index.
Published by Ann Arbor Science, P.O. Box 1425, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106, USA, 1976. 376p. Illus. 147 ref. Price: US-$29.50.
Preventing emissions from manufacturing processes by suitable process design.
Principles of design for the prevention of emissions in the working environment are dscussed, with consideration of material form, process type, emergency venting, process control and maintenance and cleaning. Unit operations (transport and storage, reactions, separations) are considered. The best method of emission control is containment. If this is not possible the design should allow effective extraction systems to be used. An "acute toxicity index" is proposed as a general guide for assessing the emission potential of processes at the design stage, and its application explained.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1976, Vol.19, No.3-4, p.301-308. 7 ref.
Sansone E.B., Slein M.W.
Application of the microbiological safety experience to work with chemical carcinogens.
Review of the microbiological safety literature: requirements for laboratory design to protect against aerosol contamination (floor plans, primary barriers, secondary barriers, ventilation and fail-safe systems); hoods; hazards of laboratory operations (lyophilisation, ampoules, mixing and shaking, caps and stoppers, pipetting, syringes and needles, animal handling and maintenance, centrifugation, weighing, housekeeping). The information gathered may be usefully applied to work with chemical carcinogens.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1976, Vol.37, No.12, p.711-720. 58 ref.
Toxic metals - Pollution control and workers protection.
A definition of toxic metals and general methods for their removal from air and water are discussed in the introduction. Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, copper, indium, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, tin, vanadium and zinc are presented. A table in the introduction gives for each metal the use level in tons/year, the nutrition value, estimated airborne emissions in tons/year, the TLV in air in mg/m3, and the special toxic effects. Each chapter contains: toxicity of the metal, extent of exposure, detection, environmental standards (TLVs in air and water, OSHA standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Food and Drug Administration recommendations, and in certain cases foreign TLVs), safety and health measures, removal from air and water, solid waste disposal, economic impact of controls.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Avenue, Park Ridge, New Jersey 07656, USA, 1976. 350p. 768 ref. Price: US-$39.00.
Anticipating the effects of chemicals - An evolving concept.
The measures taken by 8 countries to control chemical substances before they are introduced and so anticipate possible undesirable effects are discussed. The regulations include: Switzerland - classification according to lethal dose 50 value, declaration of the substance to the authorities; Japan - declaration of name, physical-chemical properties, use and amounts, biological properties; Canada - declaration of health hazards to authorities; Sweden - no declaration, proof of harmlessness necessary, waste disposal procedures; Norway - most far-reaching of laws, all substances, goods and equipment testing necessary; United Kingdom - control at workplace first, distributors must ensure safety; USA - authorities determine safety after information is given by industry; France - authorities classify after notification by industry. A stepwise approach to determine which chemicals need to be studied is described.
Ambio, 1976, Vol.5, No.4, p.175-179. Illus. 13 ref.
Trahtenberg I.M., Kucenok B.I., Koršun M.N., Gil'man C.I.
Evaluation of the absorbency and permeability of chemically stable lining materials with respect to vapours of mercury and organomercury compounds
Gigieničeskaja ocenka sorbcionnyh svojstv i pronicaemosti himičeski stojkih materialov (pokrytij) k param rtuti i ee organičeskim soedinenijam [in Russian]
Results of tests showed that mercury-proof plastics are not all suitable to protect the surfaces of industrial buildings against pollution by organomercury compounds. Application of epoxy- and furane-resin-based plastic linings provides the best protection for the concrete floors of premises in which organomercury compounds are produced, processed or stored. For protection of the vertical surfaces of such premises application of 5 coats of a paint based on chlorinated polyvinyl chloride and epoxides to the rough casting is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.8-12. 6 ref.
Air cleaning - Facts, data and processes for industries
Luftreinhaltung - Fakten, Daten und Verfahren für die Industrie [in German]
The main facts on the collection and separation of air pollutants in various branches of industry (metallurgy, foundries, chemicals, ceramics, mining, energy, construction, agriculture) are summarised and assessed. Comprehensive numerical data are given on the toxic and non-toxic air pollutants (dust, gases and vapours) emitted in technological processes, with a view to design of efficient ventilation, collection and air-cleaning installations. Dust-collection and gas-cleaning processes are described, and the determination of pollutant concentrations is briefly dealt with.
Verlag Technik, Oranienburger Strasse 13-14, x 102 , 1975. 140p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: M.12.00.
Ashby E., Wood J.C., Kirov N.Y., Derban L.K.A., Bavandi M., Ramalingaswami V., Phoon W.O., Sakabe H., El Batawi M.A., Illich I., Papanek V., Challis E.J., Jones W.T., Mars G.
Ciba Foundation, London, United Kingdom.
Health and industrial growth.
Papers presented at an international symposium on second-order effects of industrial growth on human health, held in London, United Kingdom, 11-13 Sep. 1974. Topics covered include: pollution control in Great Britain; legislative protection of health at work; aid to developing countries; health problems associated with industrialisation in Ghana, India, South-East Asia, Japan; nutrition; health of workers in industrialising societies; industrialisation of medicine; socio-environmental consequences of design; social problems; individual and public responses in public health matters; and an anthropological approach to health problems in developing countries. The discussions are appended.
Symposium 32 (new series), Associated Scientific Publishers, P.O. Box 211, Amsterdam, Netherlands, Aug. 1975. 267p. Illus. 154 ref.
Evaluation of and measures against emission of noxious gases from diesel engines
Bewertung und Beeinflussung der Schadstoffemission von Dieselmotoren [in German]
Emission of nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, CO, SO2, carcinogenic hydrocarbons, lead compounds, and soot are considered from the point of view of environmental hygiene. Emission of harmful substances depends essentially on operating conditions, design, maintenance and the fuel employed. The effect of the motor load on such emission and the factors underlying soot production are presented graphically. Environmental hygiene measures are directed firstly towards reduction of nitrogen oxides (until now 78% of total noxious emissions), and this can be achieved without loss of efficiency by a combination of different measures. The most effective single measure is recycling of exhaust gases. Efforts to standardise threshold limit values are reported.
Maschinenbautechnik, Mar. 1975, Vol.24, No.3, p.108-111 and 116. Illus.
Experiments with chlorine
Experimenten met chloor [in Dutch]
Report on open-air experiments undertaken to study: propagation of a cloud of heavy gas violently discharged from a tank; penetration of the gas into a building; effect of a single exposure to chlorine on the efficiency of a fire truck; effect of foam on evaporation of liquid chlorine; effect of water curtains on propagation of a chlorine cloud; control of a chlorine cloud by a curtain of sodium carbonate in aqueous solution. All the experiments are described in detail with results and conclusions. An English version of the booklet is in preparation.
Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 69, Voorburg, Netherlands, Apr. 1975. 31p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: Glds.3.00.
Air quality control in painting shops
Luftreinhaltung in der Lackiertechnik [in German]
After an introduction on the efficient use of energy and materials in painting metallic surfaces, the author reproduces extracts of the German (Fed.Rep.) Act on pollution control (Immissionsschutzgesetz) and gives examples of measures to reduce the concentration of harmful substances in painting shops: air cleaning by filtration or water scrubbing, absorption, adsorption or solvent combustion. Advice is given principally on air cleaning in dipping and spraying shops and in drying ovens. Brief review of some painting techniques requiring less material, and thus better suited to the demands of air pollution control.
WT - Werkstattstechnik, May 1974, Vol.64, No.5, p.282-287. Illus.
Dust control and air cleaning.
This book covers the whole field indicated by its title, including the hazards of industrial dusts, the dynamics and sampling of airborne particles, and a large chapter on the methods employed in industry for their removal. Contents: airborne particles and health (Walton W.H.); dynamics of particles; sampling; control at source and flow in ducts; settlement, impaction, and simple centrifuges; removal of particles by wet scrubbing; cyclone dust separators (Walton W.H.); electrostatic precipitators (Brown E.L.); filtration theory and experiment; filter materials and practical filters; filter testing; air cleaning in the atomic energy industry (Dyment J.); clean rooms (Dyment J.); dust control in the mining industry (Hamilton R.J.); air pollution; choice and economics of air cleaners; appendices (acoustic coagulation, removal of gaseous pollution, conversion table); author index; subject index.
International Series of Monographs in Heating, Ventilation and Refrigeration, Vol.9, Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford, United Kingdom, 1974. 634p. Illus. 569 ref. Price: £18.00.
Resistivity problems in electrostatic precipitation.
Comprehensive and up-to-date description of the problems encountered in the collection of high-resistivity particles by electrostatic precipitation. Subjects dealt with include: measurement of resistivity, resistivity data (chemical powders, industrial dusts and fumes), electrical conduction mechanisms, effects of high resistivity on precipitation performance, and methods of overcoming high resistivity (wet methods, etc.).
Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Apr. 1974, Vol.24, No.4, p.313-338. Illus. 51 ref.
Wanner H.U., Wirz M.
Health aspects of air humidification in air-conditioning systems
Hygienische Aspekte der Luftbefeuchtung in Klimaanlagen [in German]
Water was taken over a period of several weeks from 4 air washers, and analysed to determine increase in microbial contamination. Regular adjunction of disinfectants (based on chlorine, aldehydes and surfactants) merely slowed up the proliferation of micro-organisms. The odour of the disinfectants invaded the premises, causing annoyance and discomfort. Far the best results were obtained by installing quartz lamps for UV irradiation of the water between the circulation pump and the air washers. Even using this method, periodic cleaning of the washer chamber (repeated at least every 2-3 weeks) is indispensable. The most effective means of preventing room air contamination by micro-organisms is to install filters at the air outlets.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, Sep.-Dec. 1974, Vol.19, No.5-6, p.351-356. Illus. 15 ref.
Handbook of dangerous goods
Handbuch der gefährlichen Güter [in German]
First part of a loose-leaf register containing explanatory notes on the data sheets, a list of gas detector tubes, lists of German and other poison control centres and German and Swiss hospitals for severe burn injuries, an alphabetical index of substance names and data sheets on 212 hazardous substances. Data provided include: physical properties, flammability and explosibility characteristics, reactions with air and water, health hazards, olfactory threshold and TLV, measures to be taken in the event of an accident, first aid, notes for the doctor. A graphic symbol, the danger diamond, gives immediate information on the degree of hazard. The 1st and 2nd parts cover a total of 414 hazardous substances.
Springer Verlag, Heidelberger Platz 3, 1 Berlin 33 (Westsektoren), 2nd revised and enlarged edition, 1974. 504p. (not paginated). Price: DM.64.00.
Air pollution and industry - Harmful effects, analysis and control of industrial effluents, technology of pollution control
La pollution atmosphérique et l'industrie - Nuisance, analyse et contrôle des émissions, technologie anti-pollution. [in French]
French translation of "Air Pollution and Industry", published in the USA in 1972. Sections are devoted to: definition of the problem; effects of air pollution on the environment; air pollutants; analytic techniques in the field of air pollution; improving existing systems; types of equipment for the removal of particulate matter; choice of substances for the treatment of residual gases; atmospheric pollution during the treatment of liquid and solid waste. Summaries of various legal provisions (France, Belgium, Switzerland) and a list of specialised French organisations are appended.
Technique et documentation, 11, rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 1974. 406p. Illus. 344 ref. Price: FF.198.00.
Regulations concerning the control of atmospheric pollution
Réglementation anti-pollution atmosphérique. [in French]
Part 1 is devoted to: basic French legislation on the subject; classification of establishments; penalties and taxation; organisation of the Ministry for the Protection of Nature and the Environment; French organisations concerned with atmospheric pollution; other compilations of legislative texts; bibliography. Part 2 contains a compilation of French legislative texts from 1917 to 1973, followed by an extract from the nomenclature of classified establishments.
Technique et documentation, 11 rue Lavoisier, 75008 Paris, France, 1974. 85p. Price: FF.20.00.
Ministry of the Environment (Ministère chargé de la protection de la nature et de l'environnement), Paris, France.
Circular of 8 March 1973 concerning iron foundries (classified establishments)
Ciculaire du 8 mars 1973 relative aux fonderies de fonte (Etablissements classés). [in French]
This circular deals in particular with the following points: maximum amount of dust (by ton of cast iron) permitted in the gases emanating from cupola furnaces and emitted during other operations (cast iron tapping, cleaning of casting moulds, etc.), characteristics of the chimney, condition of the scrap metal placed in the cupola, degree of cleanliness of the plant, inspection of air-cleaning plant, other inspections, settling of waste water.
Promotion de la prévention, 3rd quarter 1973, No.27, p.52-55.
Ministry of the Environment (Ministère chargé de la protection de la nature et de l'environnement), Paris, France.
Circular of 8 March 1973 concerning top-blown oxygen-converter steel plants (classified establishments)
Circulaire du 8 mars 1973 relative aux aciéries à l'oxygène à lance (Etablissements classés). [in French]
This circular makes provisions to control the environmental pollution from these plants and deals in particular with the following points: dust levels in gases emitted, incidents arising in the course of dust removal, related operations (teeming), height of chimneys, gas emission velocity, carbon monoxide combustion, dust control and analysis, determination of dust concentrations in the environment, recording of dust data in a log book.
Promotion de la prévention, 3rd quarter 1973, No.27, p.48-52.
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