Environmental pollution - 665 entries found
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Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Processing of measurement data on the environmental occurrence of industrial chemicals
This translation of a document finalized in Feb. 1993 is a survey of environmental agencies and other institutions in Germany which was carried out to investigate measurement data on the environmental occurrence of a priority list of industrial chemicals. Detailed results are presented for benzene, nitrilotriacetic acid and chloroform.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.
Tepper J.S., Moser V.C., Costa D.L., Mason M.A., Roache N., Guo Z., Dyer R.S.
Toxicological and chemical evaluation of emissions from carpet samples
This study investigated findings that the off-gassing of certain carpets caused sensory and pulmonary irritation, changes in neurobehavioural signs and death in exposed mice. Detailed study of three treatment groups of mice, two of them exposed to preheated carpet emissions (from two different carpets) and the third exposed to preheated air samples. No toxic effects were observed in any of the test groups, though detailed chemical and microbial evaluation of the carpets and carpet emissions showed many different potentially harmful chemicals and microbiological flora. Clinical and histopathological changes were observed in all the groups of exposed mice when compared with non-exposed, unrestrained mice, suggesting that the exposure procedure itself caused significant effects unrelated to carpet emissions. Based on this assessment, no health risk can be attributed to the two carpets tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1995, Vol.56, No.2, p.158-170. Illus. 16 ref.
Dioxin contamination in Seveso: The social tragedy and the scientific challenge
Paper presented at the 10th International Symposium on Epidemiology in Occupational Health (Como, Italy, 20-24 Sep. 1994). Essentially a literature survey, it describes the Seveso accident (10 July 1976), in which the highly toxic substance 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) was released into the environment. The immediate aftermath of the accident is surveyed. The results of subsequent exposure assessment measurements are given (the most heavily contaminated area, in the immediate vicinity of the factory where the accident occurred, had mean soil levels of TCDD ranging 15.5-580µ/m2). Human exposure and dose data near the factory are also provided. The health effects of the accidents, as shown by mortality and cancer morbidity studies, are surveyed. Finally, comments are made regarding the scientific challenge provided by the aftermath of the accident. It seems that despite the serious nature of the accident, no clear-cut conclusion can be made that TCDD exposure has produced a significant increase in cancer incidence in the Seveso area.
Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1995, Vol.86, No.2, p.111-124. Illus. 53 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This instalment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-1055. It includes: a list of the analytical methods of the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), ordered according to the name of the chemical compound to which each is applicable; a statement by the German Federal government of outstanding problems in indoor air quality and approaches to their solution; the text of the Federal Exposure Control Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz) and of some derived regulations, with commentaries.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 33. Ergänzungslieferung, May 1995. 234p. Bibl.ref.
Health and Safety Executive
How to handle PCBs without harming yourself or the environment
Contents of this data sheet: properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); health effects (skin absorption, chloracne); sources of exposure (transformers, capacitors, vacuum pumps, hydraulic equipment, process heating plant); environmental and workplace legislation; advice on safe handling (identification of PCBs, risk assessment, control of exposure by means of personal protective equipment, ventilation and respirators, assessing exposure, health surveillance, staff training); control measures for specific tasks; transport of PCBs; waste disposal.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Mar. 1995. 12p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-681. It includes definitions of units and concepts in air quality determination, an overview of correction of air analysis data for temperature, pressure and humidity according to standard ISO 8756, a 120-page extract (in English) of the US Environmental Protection Agency's "Building Air Quality: a Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers", a checklist (also in English) for workplace assessment prepared by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, the full texts of European Union Directive 94/9/EC on the harmonization of legislation covering explosion-proof equipment and protection systems and Decision 93/465/EEC on technical guidelines for harmonization of the process of conformity testing and the attribution of the CE mark.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 32. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 1995. 244p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Do I work in a sick building?
This booklet describes health complaints associated with indoor air quality (IAQ) and provides guidance on common sources of IAQ problems (airborne chemicals, bacteria, dust, air temperature, humidity); the importance of ventilation, investigation of complaints, air testing and measures for reducing the likelihood of IAQ problems and for controlling indoor air contaminants are underlined.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031, USA, no date. 12p. Illus.
1995 pollution handbook: The essential guide to UK and European pollution control legislation
Survey of the legal requirements in effect in the United Kingdom concerning environmental (including workplace) pollution. Of particular interest to OSH specialists: the Environmental Protection Act 1990; European Union (EU) measures concerning air quality standards and industrial emissions; the Clean Air Act 1993; the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974, and regulations made under it concerning atmospheric emissions, major accident hazards, hazardous substances, asbestos and genetically modified organisms; the effects of air pollution on human health; measurement of air pollution; radiation (natural and artificial sources, effects, exposure limits, regulatory controls); control of process odours; future developments (air quality, sale of unauthorized fuel); noise pollution (occupational noise, low-frequency noise, noise measurement); waste pollution (EU measures, regulatory controls, radioactive waste, waste disposal, contaminated land); pesticides.
National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection (NSCA), 136 North Street, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 1RG, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., 1995. xx, 496p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 23.95.
Environmental exposure assessment
The objective of the work presented in this report was to provide more detailed information on how to perform an assessment of environmental exposure on a regional and on a local scale. It is intended to complete the information given in an earlier report (see CIS 93-942). Main topics covered: legislation and existing hazard assessment schemes; environmental exposure assessment in relation to risk assessment; generic environmental exposure models; release estimation; degradation kinetics; illustration of calculations; conclusions and recommendations.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1994. ii, 109p. Illus. 52 ref.
Royal Decree 280/1994 of 18 February establishing maximum limits for pesticide residues and their control in certain products of vegetable origin [Spain]
Real Decreto 280/1994, de 18 de febrero, por el que se establecen los límites máximos de residuos de plaguicidas y su control en determinados productos de origen vegetal [España] [in Spanish]
Annex II concerning definitions and maximum limits of pesticide residues has been modified by the Orders of 26 August 1997 (CIS 99-1082) and of 25 September 1997 (CIS 99-1083). Topics: agricultural chemicals; food contamination; law; limitation of exposure; pesticides; plant products; Spain.
Boletín Oficial del Estado, 9 Mar. 1994, No.58, p.7723-7726. + Annexes, supplement to No.58, p.1-109.
Berenguer Subils M.J.
Odours: A factor of indoor air quality and comfort
Olores: un factor de calidad y confort en ambientes interiores [in Spanish]
Topics: buildings; data sheet; determination in air; health hazards; odour pollution; odour threshold; Spain.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1994. 5p. 8 ref.
Campanella L., Benvenuti F.
Methodologies for detecting environmental chemical pollution: The formulation of biological tests
Metodologie di rilevazione dell'inquinamento chimico nell'aria ambiente: messa a punto di test biologici [in Italian]
An in vitro experimental technique for the detection of chemical pollution was investigated. The technique is based on measurement of the consumption of oxygen and/or the production of carbon dioxide by microorganisms. Tests on Saccaromyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) showed that the addition of a toxic substance produced a clear variation in respiratory response after a relatively short time. Results of tests on selected metals and organic substances are presented.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 1994, Vol.VI, No.2, p.35-43. Illus. 17 ref.
Liesivuori J., Kiviranta H., Laitinen J., Hesso A., Hämeilä M., Tornaeus J., Pfäffli P., Savolainen H.
Airborne aerosols in application of polyfluoro polymer-based ski waxes
During the heat-assisted application (160-190°C) of polyfluoro polymer-based ski waxes, the aerosol given off amounted to 4.26±2.80mg/m3 (±SD, N=5) in personal air samples and 3.97±2.09mg/m3 (±SD, N=5) in stationary samples. The major part (85%) of the aerosol was respirable. Inorganic fluoride was found only in trace amounts while the mass chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of fluorine-containing aliphatic chains. It seems that the exposure to fluoro compounds is high enough to contribute to respiratory symptoms experienced by waxers. The work should be carried out under well ventilated fume cupboards of the waxers should wear respiratory protection during the active application of the waxes.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1994, Vol.38, No.6, p.931-937. Illus. 15 ref.
Cherrie J.W., Lynch G., Bord B.S., Heathfield P., Cowie H., Robertson A.
Does the wearing of sampling pumps affect exposure?
Paper describing a controlled pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that the wearing of personal sampling pumps may affect workers' exposure. Comparisons were made using pump-based systems and diffusive samplers to measure organic vapours. Diffusive samplers were chosen as controls due to the fact that they are less bulky and therefore less likely to affect behaviour. A carefully constructed sampling strategy, involving measurements on 13 to 20 workers on six working days, was used at five sites. On alternative days both sampling methods were used, side-by-side, on the workers and on the remaining days only diffusive samplers were worn. The sites chosen had minimal day-to-day variation in environmental conditions. Results showed that at one site the concentrations were approximately 50% higher on the days when pumps were worn compared with other days. At the remaining sites no significant differences were found. From the characteristics of the work at the site where differences were observed it is suggested that pumps may affect measured concentrations when people have flexible work patterns and spend part of their time seated and/or the work is in quiet areas.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1994, Vol.38, No.6, p.827-838. Illus. 6 ref.
Guidance document on collection and preparation of sediments for physicochemical characterization and biological testing
Methods recommended in Canada for the selection of sampling stations for eco-toxicological studies are described together with those for the collection, storage, transportation and manipulation of whole sediment samples from marine, estuarine and freshwater environments. Procedures are outlined for monitoring and assessment purposes and for permit requirements for open-water disposal of dredged materials. This publication is also available in French.
Environmental Protection Publications, Technology Transfer Office, Environmental Technology Advancement Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0H3, Canada, Dec. 1994. xxix, 132+12p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 34.95.
Department of the Environment, Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
This report discusses the main sources of ozone in the atmosphere, methods of measuring its concentration in the troposphere, and its known health effects (irritation of the eyes and nose, airway inflammation leading to short term respiratory symptoms, decrements in lung function). The Panel's recommendation for an air quality standard for ozone in the United Kingdom is 50ppb as a running 8-hour average.
HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. 23p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.
Department of the Environment, Expert Panel on Air Quality Standards
This booklet briefly discusses the sources of exposure to benzene, methods of monitoring atmospheric concentrations, and evidence for its harmful effects on health, with particular attention paid to leukaemia. The recommended Air Quality Standard for benzene in the United Kingdom is 5ppb as a running annual average.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. vii, 20p. 17 ref. Price: GBP 5.95.
Toxic air pollution handbook
Contents of this manual: introduction to sources of air pollutants and legal requirements for their control; health assessment (evaluation of toxicological data, risk assessment and management of inhaled toxic air pollutants, cancer risk assessment); exposure assessment (source sampling and analysis, emissions estimation, air dispersion and deposition models, atmospheric transformation and removal of air toxics, human intake, population and activity analysis, ecological risk assessment); regulatory strategies (legal considerations, ambient concentration limits, technology standards, risk assessment and management, cost-benefit approaches); control methods; special sources of toxic air pollutants; risk communication.
Van Nostrand Reinhold, 115 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10003, USA, 1994. xx, 588p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.
Environmental science and technology handbook
Contents of this manual: environmental processes; human health risk assessment; ecological risk assessment; environmental chemistry and analysis of regulated compounds; air quality; air pollution control technologies; solid and hazardous waste treatment and disposal; underground and aboveground storage tank technology; geology and groundwater hydrology; groundwater pollution control technologies; pollution prevention through total quality management.
Government Institutes Inc., 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA, 1994. xxiii, 389p. Bibl.ref. Index.
Nordhagen H.P., Ellingsen D.G., Kjuus H.
Production and surveillance of mercury exposure over 40 years at a chloralkali plant
Mercury vapour exposure was studied for 40 years in 419 chloralkali workers. The concentration of mercury was measured in the workroom from 1953 and in urine from 1948. During the study period, the mean urinary mercury concentration, uncorrected for urinary dilution, for all subjects varied between 30 and 250µg/L. For workers in the cell-room the correlation (r) between urinary mercury and mercury in the workroom was r=0.74 (p<0.001), and for repair men/mechanics it was r=0.70 (p<0.001). The introduction of new cells and stabilizing the volume of production may have been important for the reduction of air-Hg and U-Hg, whereas other changes in the production process, or actions to reduce the release of mercury to the work environment, had no detectable effect. The urinary mercury concentration among all workers was related to the relative energy consumption (r=0.l83, p<0.001).
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Oct. 1994, Vol.38, No.5, p.777-788. Illus. 24 ref.
The textile industry and the environment
This report provides guidance on measures to prevent pollution and save raw materials in the textile industry through a cleaner production approach. Contents: overview of textile wet processing operations; environmental impact of the textile industry (air and water pollution); cleaner production techniques and processes (optimization of chemical usage, modification of processes and equipment); end-of-pipe treatment (liquid effluent treatment, control of air emissions); policy, management and legal framework. Glossary.
United Nations Environment Programme, Industry and Environment, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 quai André-Citroën, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, 1994. 120p. 66 ref. Price: FRF 175.00, USD 35.00.
Lavoie J., Lazure L.
Guide to the prevention of microbial proliferation in ventilation systems
Guide de prévention contre la prolifération microbienne dans les systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this safety guide aimed at designers of ventilation systems and at all those potentially affected by the biological contamination of such systems: microorganisms in general (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, antigens); air treatment systems (air conditioning system components and processes); biological contaminants of system components; inspection procedures (visual methods and biological sampling); maintenance and cleaning; preventive measures and legislation applicable to various components of ventilation systems. In annex: diagrammatic presentation of biological contamination of heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems; sample estimate form for the cleaning of ventilation ducts; sample check-list for the inspection of ventilation systems.
IRSST - Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail au Québec, Direction des communications, 505, Blvd. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montréal, Québec H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 1994. 1 loose-leaf binder. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 25.00.
Indoor air quality: A proactive approach
Textbook for a course offered in conjunction with an Industrial Safety and Health Conference in Spokane, Washington, on 16 Nov. 1994.
Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, SC-34 Seattle Washington 98195, USA, 1994. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. ###
Yost M.G., Gadgil A.J., Drescher A.C., Zhou Y., Simonds M.A., Levine S.P., Nazaroff W.W., Saisan P.A.
Imaging indoor tracer-gas concentrations with computed tomography: Experimental results with a remote sensing FTIR system
To show that computer tomography (CT) is a useful tool for investigating pollutant concentration in a real room setting, a remote-sensing Fourier transform infrared spectrometer was mounted on a moving base and a passive tracer was released from a point source into the room under constant ventilation conditions. The experiments produced two data sets, one consisting of 36 beam-path-averaged values and the other consisting of 44 point values from the FID array. Good qualitative agreement between reconstruction and point sample data was obtained. Problems of temporal resolution, size and geometry can be overcome with better instrumentation.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.395-402. Illus. 29 ref.
Simonds M., Xiao H., Levine S.P.
Optical remote sensing for air pollutants - Review
Advantages and disadvantages of specific optical remote sensing techniques are discussed in this review, which focuses on the techniques most useful to industrial hygienists. The review attempts to provide an understanding of the development of remote sensing techniques, and briefly explains typical applications.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1994, Vol.55, No.10, p.953-965. Illus. 122 ref.
Peltier A., Elcabache J.M., Guillemin C., Aguillon J.P., Le Quang X.
Pollution in jewellery manufacturing workshops
Pollution dans les ateliers de fabrication de bijoux [in French]
This survey, which was carried out in twelve workshops making precious and fancy jewellery, revealed that the same hazards are present in both industrial-scale and artisanal workshops. There appeared to be no cases of average risk levels: the concentrations measured were either extremely low in comparison with exposure limit values, or well in excess of such values on rare occasions. The metals that gave most cause for concern were cadmium, lead and beryllium. The use of asbestos seems to be disappearing from this activity. On the other hand, polishing or coating materials containing high concentrations of crystalline silica of which the user has not been informed are in constant use. Safety data sheets and proper labelling are essential in these workshops, especially for products containing crystalline silica. Such a requirement could be introduced in the context of future regulations to prevent silicosis.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1994, No.157, Note No.1971-157-94, p.411-422. Illus. 33 ref.
Maina G., Sonnino A., Cerina G., Moretto N., Rubino G.F.
Study of indoor air quality in offices
Etude de la qualité de l'air sur une population de personnes travaillant dans des bureaux [in French]
Evaluation of microclimate, chemical and biological agents as well as parameters such as work organization and psychological factors contribute to the assessment of the air quality in offices. This study, carried out on 1,900 clerks working in 445 offices, investigated the reliability of the personal assessment of air quality by means of a specifically graduated ruler. The quality of interpersonal relationships, the tasks performed and psychological aspects exert a relevant influence on the personal assessment of both the working environment and the subjective symptoms of discomfort reported.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 9 ref.
State of the environment in Austria
This report describes the current state of the environment in Austria and measures taken to protect it. Topics covered: air quality; water resources and water quality control; soil; forests; nature and landscape; chemicals (provision of information on hazardous chemicals, bans and restrictions); pesticides; waste; noise; energy; radioactivity control; gene technology and biotechnology. Obligations arising from international agreements are also outlined.
Federal Environmental Agency, Spittelauer Lände 5, 1090 Wien, Austria, 1994. xvii, 168p. Illus. 8 ref.
Hedge A., Erickson W.A., Rubin G.
The effects of alternative smoking policies on indoor air quality in 27 office buildings
The effect of alternative smoking policies, which prohibited or restricted smoking, on indoor air quality was studied in 27 air-conditioned office buildings. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, respirable particulates, formaldehyde, ultraviolet particulate matter, nicotine, air temperature, relative humidity and illumination were measured at eight sample sites in each building. Smoking policy had no effect on carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, relative humidity, formaldehyde, air temperature or illumination for open office areas. It did have an effect on levels of respirable suspended particulates, ultraviolet particulate matter and nicotine.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 1994, Vol.38, No.3, p.265-278. 21 ref.
Harmonization of Environmental Measurement (HEM)
A survey of environmental monitoring and information management programmes
This survey provides details of 130 programmes concerned with environmental monitoring and assessment. There are three parts: environmental monitoring and research programmes; data and information system programmes; and harmonization and standardization activities. Data provided for each entry includes name and address of organization, contact name, details of the activities undertaken and data and information management.
GSF Research Centre for Environment and Health, Neuherberg, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Oberschleissheim, Germany, 3rd ed., Aug. 1994. iv, 360p. 17 ref. Index.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 94-2020. It includes the full text of new or amended versions of the Chemicals Law (Chemikaliengesetz), Ordinance on Prohibition of Chemicals (Chemikalien-Verbotsverordnung), Ordinance on Dangerous Substances (Gefahrstoff-Verordnung) and the Ordinances on Exposure Control (Verordnungen zum Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz). Also included are a Decision of the European Union (93/C 138/01) on a common environmental policy and a Directive (92/72/EEC) on air pollution by ozone.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 31. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1994. 270p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 3. Measurement of suspended particulate matter in ambient air
Contents of this handbook: definitions of suspended particulate matter (SPM) (basic concepts, ISO particle size conventions); SPM phenomenology (size partitioning, chemical composition, pollution episodes); SPM measurement methods (monitoring objectives, sampling systems, analysis systems, ISO standards); quality assurance; additional recommendations for particulate measurement.
World Health Organization (WHO), Urban Environmental Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. vi, 52p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 2: Primary standard calibration methods and network intercalibrations for air quality monitoring
Part 1 of this handbook covers primary standard calibration methods: techniques for the preparation of primary standards; establishment of national gas standards laboratories; quality control. Part 2 covers air monitoring network intercalibrations: network intercalibration techniques; operational implications of performing network intercalibrations and site audits; applicability of intercalibration techniques to sampler-based monitoring networks.
World Health Organization (WHO), Prevention of Environmental Pollution (PEP), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. iii, 40p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
Earthwatch Global Environment Monitoring System
GEMS/AIR Methodology Review Handbook Series - Volume 1. Quality assurance in urban air quality monitoring
This handbook describes the main elements of a quality assurance programme for air quality monitoring. Contents: setting monitoring objectives; the role of quality assurance in data harmonization; priority urban air pollutants; air monitoring methodologies; quality assurance/control (QA/QC) methodologies (objectives and organization of QA/QC programmes, network design and management, site and equipment selection, site infrastructure and routine operation, maintenance and calibration of equipment, data review and validation); data use and exchange.
World Health Organization (WHO), Urban Environmental Health, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1994. iii, 40p. Bibl.ref.
James J.T., Limero T.F., Leano H.J., Boyd J.F., Covington P.A.
Volatile organic contaminants found in the habitable environment of the space shuttle: STS-26 to STS-55
Analysis of spacecraft respirable air during 28 space shuttle missions indicated that the major contaminants were relatively nontoxic alcohols, ketones, alkanes, halocarbons and siloxanes. Occasionally more toxic contaminants such as methanol, acetaldehyde and tetrachloroethene were present at low concentrations. Toxicity assessments showed that air quality was consistently in line with current guidelines. While the usual airborne load of volatile organic contaminants poses little risk to crew health, accidental contamination of the air, especially through pyrolysis of polymeric material, is a recurring problem.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.65, No.9, Section I, p.851-857. Illus. 20 ref.
Smoragiewicz W., Bouchard G., Cossette B., Boutard A.
Inhibition of mould growth by the application of propionic acid and sodium propionate
Contrôle des moisissures par l'action de l'acide propionique et du propionate de sodium [in French]
The efficiency of propionic acid and sodium propionate was tested on various species of pathogenic moulds originating in dust samples taken in buildings where cases of "office building syndrome" had been reported. A 3% solution of propionic acid was sufficient to prevent mould growth (from spores) for 60% of the species and to inhibit mould growth for 70% of the species (spores and mycelium). In the case of propionate, at the same concentration, 60% of the species were inhibited but only if the pH of the solution was adjusted to 3; 7% of solutions are 100% efficient. The effects of propionic acid were tested on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium sp., Stachybotrys atra and Trichoderma viride. The action of sodium propionate with adjusted pH was tested only on Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. and Trichoderma viride. These moulds were shown to offer the most resistance to the action of the two fungicides.
Travail et santé, Dec.1994, Vol.10, No.4, p.S25-S27. Illus. 11 ref.
Coking to death?
This brief commentary considers the possible influence of awareness bias in the debate about the health hazards of living near coke ovens. In a dispute involving residents living near a coking works in the north east of England in the 1980s, while there was no hard evidence for an environmental impact on health, replies to questionnaires showed a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms near the coke works. Epidemiological methods need to be devised to study subtle health effects that remove any uncertainty about awareness bias.
Lancet, 3 Sep. 1994, Vol.344, No.8923. p.632. 4 ref.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Environmental aspects of industrial wood preservation. A technical guide
This guide provides practical guidelines for safer practices in industrial wood preservation. Contents: the need for wood preservation; wood preservatives and industrial methods of treatment; chemical toxicity and potential impacts (human health and environmental hazards, sources of exposure, risk assessment); site design and operation for environmental and health protection; environmental management; safe use of treated timber; regulatory framework.
UNEP Industry and Environment Programme Activity Centre, Tour Mirabeau, 39-43 quai André Citroën, 75739 Paris Cedex 15, France, 1994. v, 105p. Illus. 62 ref.
Pests and pestilence: The unrecognised hazards of pests
Problems associated with pest infestations are discussed in terms of bites and stings, allergic reactions, infections, distress and physical dangers. Control measures include: prevention of access through external doors or walls; installation of bird deterrent systems and electric fly killers; maintenance of high standards of cleanliness around the exterior of buildings; regular inspection by pest control contractors.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Sep. 1994, Vol.12, No.9, p.32-34. Illus.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Updates to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. These installments follow those abstracted under CIS 94-651. Supplement 28 includes a model air quality report, the fifth ordinance implementing the Federal Exposure Control Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz), updates of a number of directives on dangerous substances (TRGS) and ILO Convention 148 (1977), incorporated into German law on 12 January 1993. Supplement 29 includes the Ordinance on Prohibition of Chemicals, directives on safety engineering (TRGS 300) and hazardous waste collection (TRGS 520), amendments of other directives, updates of the list of analytical methods recognized by the Federation of Mutual Accident Insurance Associations and a recommendation on quality in occupational safety. Supplement 30 includes the June 1994 issue of the official exposure limit (MAK, BAT and TRK) lists and updates on analysis of air pollutants.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 27.-30. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb., May, Sep. 1994. 260, 248, 246p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Tough acts to follow
Videocassette on the establishment of an Environmental Management System (EMS) in businesses, in order for them to satisfy current legislative requirements and to keep in step with increasing environmental awareness. The development of EMS is presented as a set of 8 major components: policy, planning, action, audit, report, register, record and review. Principal environmental topics covered include: land, air and water contamination; traffic fumes; energy conservation; waste minimization. A free action guide entitled Earth Ltd. accompanies the video.
Shot in the Dark, Freepost HF2219, St. James Centre, Huddersfield Rd., Brighthouse HD6 1QY, United Kingdom, 1994. Videotape (15min) + Booklet (150p.). Price: GBP 98.00 + VAT (no rental).
Hunt D., Lambton S.
Environmental management systems
Audiovisual training package on how to set up an environmental management system (EMS) within enterprises. The diskette associated with the package is to be sent to trainees some time before the course starts. After an introduction to the subject, a questionnaire is administered on computer screen to the trainees, the results of which are returned to the course organizers on the diskette, so that the course may be tailored to the trainees' needs. The course material itself includes ten case studies on the following aspects of EMSs: policy statement; organization and personnel; effects evaluation; register of effects; management manual; auditing for sustainability; audit programmes; preparatory reviews; the supply chain; reporting. Full copies of the standards BS 7750: 1994 Environmental Management Systems and the EMA Regulation are included. Relevant British legislation is reviewed. Slides and overhead projections provide ample illustration.
Safety, Health and Environment Department, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1994. Manuals + computer diskette + slide set (172 slides) + 10 overhead (O/H) projections. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 785.00 (all except O/H), GBP 100.00 (O/H) + VAT + delivery charges.
Institute of Environmental Assessment
Environmental impact assessment
Audiovisual training package on how to prepare an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for various industrial projects. The manual includes 9 case studies of EIA preparation (covering, among others, a food processing plant, a sewage treatment plant, a pipeline proposal, an oil refinery and a power station), information on relevant United Kingdom legislation, and technical guidance on new EIA preparations. Slides and overhead projector sets provide ample illustration.
Safety, Health and Environment Department, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1994. Manual + Slide set (200+ slides) + Overhead (O/H) projector sets. Price: GBP 320.00 (manual + slide sets), GBP 100.00 (O/H) + VAT + delivery charges.
Butterworths Environmental Law Handbook [United Kingdom]
Commented full-text compilation of environmental legislation applicable in the United Kingdom, including statutes, statutory instruments and European Community (EC) directives. Of particular OSH interest are: Control of Pollution Act 1974; Environmental Protection Act 1990; Water Industry Act 1991; Water Resources Act 1991; Clean Air Act 1993; Radioactive Substances Act 1993; various regulations issued under these Acts; Directives 75/442/EEC (waste), 84/360/EEC (air pollution from industrial plants), 91/689/EEC (hazardous waste); EEC Council Regulation 259/93 (waste shipments). There is also a list of relevant regulatory materials not reproduced in full.
Butterworths Law Publishers Ltd., Borough Green, Sevenoaks, Kent TN15 8PH, United Kingdom, 1994. xxxiii, 859p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 49.50.
Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Priority Substances List Assessment Report - Waste crankcase oils
This report reviews the literature on the composition of waste crankcase oils (WCOs), the means by which they enter the environment, their fate and concentration and their effects on the environment. Seven sources of WCOs are investigated: re-refining; burning as fuel; road oiling as a dust suppressant; landfilling; land disposal; sewer disposal; spills to the environment. There is insufficient information to determine whether WCOs are entering the environment in a quantity or under conditions that have a harmful effect on the environment.
Environmental Health Centre, Health and Welfare Canada, Room 104, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada, 1994. viii, 39p. 115 ref.
Turmo Sierra E., Cuscó Vidal J.M.
Dispersion models for gases and/or vapours in the atmosphere: Continuous point sources
Modelos de dispersión de gases y/o vapores en la atmósfera: fuentes puntuales continuas [in Spanish]
For information note on dispersion models for gases and vapours in the atmosphere from instantaneous point sources, see CIS 00-201. Topics: atmospheric pollution; data sheet; gases; mathematical models; Spain; toxic gases; vapour clouds.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1993. 6p. 3 ref. Illus.
Practical guide - List of keywords found in occupational safety and health legislation
Guide pratique - Liste des mots-clés de la réglementation en matière de sécurité et d'hygiène du travail [in French]
Keyword index to Belgian occupational safety and health and environmental legislation, covering laws, regulations and standards. A chronological index of the relevant legislation is also included.
ANPAT (Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents du travail), rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 10th ed., 1993. 293p.
Ministérios da Indústria e Energia, da Saúde e do Ambiente e Recursos Naturais
Order No.1049/93 of 19 October on the prevention of water pollution by asbestos [Portugal]
Portaria n°1049/93 de 19 de Outubro: prevenção da poluição das águas residuais provenientes do sector de actividade de amianto [in Portuguese]
Subject: prevention of water pollution by asbestos. Contents: scope; waste disposal; pollution control. Annex: analytical methods. Reference to Decree-Law No.74/90 of 7 March; Directive 87/217/EEC.
Diário da República, 19 Oct. 1993, Series I-B, No.245, p.5865-5867.
Microbiological decontamination of ventilation systems
La décontamination microbienne des systèmes de ventilation [in French]
Contents of this article: origin of bioaerosols in indoor air; contribution of bioaerosols to indoor air quality; effects on health; decontamination techniques; case study of an industrial-scale laundry serving about 30 Quebec hospitals.
Objectif prévention, Winter 1993, Vol.16, No.4, p.30-32. 15 ref.
Food preservation - An executive guide
Contents of this guide: the need for food preservation; pathogenic and food spoilage organisms; general principles of microbiological control; methods of food preservation; legislation for food preservation; hygiene in food processing plants; management commitment to food quality and safety.
Technical Publications (Publishing) Ltd., P.O. Box 6, Hitchin SG5 2DB, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, 1993. iii, 42p. 24 ref.
Smoragiewicz W., Cossette B., Boutard A., Krzystyniak K.
Trichothecene mycotoxins in the dust of ventilation systems in office buildings
The presence of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust samples from the air conditioning systems of four office buildings in Montreal, Canada, was determined. The buildings were known to cause sick building syndrome among their occupants. Analyses of the dust samples by thin-layer chromatography yielded four kinds of trichothecene mycotoxins. The results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography. This method appeared to be more sensitive while positive colour reaction on thin-layer chromatography plates using 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine proved less costly and less time-consuming. It was found suitable for qualitative detection of trichothecene mycotoxins in dust extracts.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.113-117. 25 ref.
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