Environmental pollution - 665 entries found
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Priante E., et al.
Exposure of traffic police to urban air pollutants
Esposizione agli inquinanti dell'aria urbana dei vigili municipali [in Italian]
Exposure to dusts and benzene was investigated in 65 non-smoking traffic policemen in the city of Padua (Italy). The mean personal exposure of the policemen to total dust was 0.44mg/m3. The atmospheric concentration of 1-nitropyrene (the principal component of diesel engine emissions) was 0.28ng/m3. The mean concentration of benzene in the breathing zone was 41µg/m3, a level similar to what the city population at large is exposed to. The mean values of urinary benzene before and after the work shift were similar. Levels of exposure of the traffic policemen to dust and 1-nitropyrene was comparable to other occupational groups with this type of risk. Traffic police exposure to benzene is much lower than that of certain other occupational categories, e.g. those engaged in the distribution of hydrocarbon fuels.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.314-322. 30 ref.
Act No.96-766 of 3 Oct. 1996 containing the Environmental Code [Côte d'Ivoire]
Loi n°96-766 du 3 oct. 1996 portant Code de l'Environnement [Côte d'Ivoire] [in French]
This Law defines the environment as the totality of all physical, chemical, biological, socio-economic, ethical and intellectual factors that may have a direct or indirect effect on the development of the environment, of living organisms and of human activities. Contents: definitions; aims and scope of the Law (principally, it applies to industrial plants, mines and storage facilities, and to all sources of potentially harmful emissions or waste); protection of the environment (natural or human); responsibilities of the state and local government for environmental protection; preventive measures (including prohibition of the discharge of harmful waste and other pollution into water or the atmosphere).
Journal officiel de la République de Côte d'Ivoire, 6 Feb. 1997, Year 39, No.6, p.114-123.
Workshop on environment, health and safety in private enterprises in Poland, September 18-19, 1995
Papers presented at this conference include: evaluation of health and safety in Poland in 1994 (accident and disease statistics, responsibilities of employers and government agencies under the Labour Code); results of an investigation by the Labour Inspectorate into health and safety in small private enterprises; institutional issues in environmental and occupational protection; history and recent development of the environmental regulatory framework in Poland; Poland's environmental problems; the U.S. environmental regulatory framework; environmental values in a changing society.
Central Institute for Labour Protection, Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1996. x, 116p. Bibl.ref.
Mikroorganismen [in German]
At this workshop organized by the BIA and the Swedish Arbetslivinstitutet in March 1995 in Germany, 10 papers were presented by experts from 8 countries of the European Union. Subjects covered: sampling and analytical methods for determining the numbers of colony forming units of microorganisms in the air on workplaces; types of microorganisms found on various workplaces such as greenhouses, pig houses, offices and waste sorting; numbers of colony forming units of microorganisms found on these workplaces. Summaries in German, English, French and Spanish.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 1996. 123p.
Ash M., Ash I.
The index of antimicrobials: An international guide to 1600 products by trade name, chemical, application and manufacturer
This reference work contains information (chemical name, CAS number, uses, use levels, toxicology, environmental effects, precautions, storage) on more than 1,600 trade name and generic chemicals that are used to impart protection against contamination and deterioration to materials from moulds, mildew, bacteria and fungi. Trade name products are cross-referenced by chemical composition, application, CAS and EINECS numbers. Generic chemicals that either function as antimicrobial agents or are part of the trade name product's composition are also included along with their manufacturers and distributors. There is an alphabetical listing of the major application areas in which these products are used: plastics, paints, foodstuffs, cosmetics, industrial cleaning, water treatment, pulp paper, etc. A directory containing detailed information for the manufacturers of the trade name products and generic chemicals is also included.
Gower Publishing Ltd., Gower House, Croft Road Aldershot, Hampshire, GU11 3HR, United Kingdom, 1996. xvii, 468p. Price: GBP 95.00.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.
Environmental chemodynamics: Movement of chemicals in air, water, and soil
Advanced-level manual on the environmental fate of chemicals. It covers: chemical and thermal equilibria at environmental interfaces; transport fundamentals (diffusion and mass transfer, turbulence in the environment); chemical exchange between air and water; chemical exchange between water and adjoining soil; chemical exchange between air and soil; intraphase chemical transport and fate. Appendices on: measurement units; physical constants; chemical data; physical properties; environmental data.
John Wiley & Sons, 605 Third Ave., New York NY 10158-0012, USA; Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 1996. 593p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 69.95 (in North America), GBP 55.00 (in Europe).
Experience from activities in the Third World to improve the knowledge and ability to determine chemical hazards
Problems associated with the expanding use of toxic chemicals in developing countries are examined, with particular reference to the need to establish chemical analysis laboratories in these countries. The use of pesticides, in particular DDT, is discussed and the need to test all new pesticides in the country in which they will be used is emphasized. Problems arising from inadequate infrastructure and lack of educated manpower in developing countries are discussed and recommendations for setting up a chemical laboratory are put forward.
Science of the Total Environment, Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl.1, p.S101-S105.
Green revolution agriculture and chemical hazards
Health and environmental problems associated with the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture are discussed, with particular reference to developing countries. Contents: extent of use of pesticides and crops treated; health and environmental effects of pesticide exposure (food contamination, pesticide poisoning, antifertility effects, neurotoxic effects); extent of use of fertilizers; health and environmental effects of exposure to nitrogen-containing fertilizers. The need for government policies to protect public health and the environment is emphasized.
Science of the Total Environment, Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl.1, p.S86-S98. 93 ref.
The current state of pesticide management in Sub-Saharan Africa
Topics covered in this review include: pesticide usage in Sub-Saharan Africa; health and environmental concerns (poisoning, wildlife contamination); pesticide regulation and legislation; the need for alternative pest control strategies (integrated pest management). Recommendations include those for the training of farmers and other users in the correct handling and use of pesticides, and strengthening of regulatory controls.
Science of the Total Environment, Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl.1, p.S30-S34. 16 ref.
Chemical safety and health in Latin America: An overview
Chemical safety and environmental pollution issues associated with the increased use of chemicals in Latin America are examined. Topics covered include: urbanization and air pollution; development of the petrochemical industry and problems of oil spills and exposure to solvents; water pollution; health effects of pesticide use; occupational and public exposure to chemical hazards and recent international agreements on the control of chemical. Recommendations are made for improvements in chemical safety at the national and local level.
Science of the Total Environment, Sep. 1996, Vol.188, Suppl. 1, p.S3-S29. Illus. 78 ref.
Parat S., Fricker-Hidalgo H., Perdrix A., Bemer D., Pelissier N., Grillot R.
Airborne fungal contamination in air-conditioning systems: Effect of filtering and humidifying devices
Air samples collected above and below filters and humidifiers in air-conditioning systems were analyzed for total culturable airborne fungi and for 4 specific moulds. Two types of filters were studied in four air-conditioning systems. Concentration levels below the high-efficiency filters were significantly lower than those above the filters; filter efficiency was dependent on the fungi. Concentration levels below the humidifier were lower than above it. The association of a high-efficiency filter with a humidifying device containing uncontaminated water reduces the risk of microbiological air contamination. The effect of particle size on filter efficiency is discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.996-1001. Illus. 34 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. It includes: updated descriptions of the analytical methods of the German Research Association; German Ministry of Labour guidelines for the accreditation of analytical laboratories; new or updated Technical Rules for Dangerous Substances (TRGS) 552 (N-nitrosamines), 554 (diesel motor emissions) and 557 (dioxins); the new German Environmental Auditing Law; rules for the certification of environmental auditors; European Standard EN 1231 for detector tube equipment. Full texts of the Technical Rules are available from the publisher.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 37. Ergänzungslieferung, May 1996. 255p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Why should I worry? - Shot in the dark
Videotape package on environmental protection for managers. The raising of workers' consciousness regarding environmental matters is emphasized, as is the relationship between such matters and workers' health and safety. A manual entitled DIY Environmental Risk Profile is included. The package was reviewed in Health & Safety at Work, July 1995, p.34.
Shot in the Dark, Freepost HF 2219, St James Clare, Huddersfield Rd, Brighouse HD6 1QY, United Kingdom. Videotape (length: 23min.) + manual (74p.). Price: GBP 198.00. ###
Reife A., Freeman H.S.
Environmental chemistry of dyes and pigments
This manual addresses the environmental problems posed by synthetic colorants. Contents: principles and applications of wastewater treatment methods (carbon adsorption of dyes, sodium borohydride dye reduction, ozonation, electrochemical technology, chemical pretreatment and aerobic-anaerobic degradation of textile wastewater, the combined activated carbon-activated sludge system); waste minimization and source reduction (reduction of textile wastewater, membrane filtration techniques, chemical removal of phosphate ions from disperse dye filtrates); mass spectrometry in the analysis of dyes in wastewater; U.S. and international regulatory issues.
John Wiley and Sons Ltd, Baffins lane, Chichester, West Sussex, PO19 1UD, United Kingdom, 1996. xvi, 329p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 75.00.
Koo D., Maloney K., Tauxe R.
Epidemiology of diarrheal disease outbreaks on cruise ships, 1986 through 1993
A total of 31 outbreaks of diarrhoeal diseases on cruise ships were investigated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the period 1986 to 1993. Some of the outbreaks may have been caused by food handlers working while ill. Provision of free medical consultation to food-handling employees and a sick leave policy for ill food handlers may prevent a substantial number of such outbreaks.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 21 Feb. 1996, Vol.275, No.7, p.545-547. 7 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: ISO standards for the analysis of toxic substances; VDI guidelines with respect to air protection; reducing the exposure to environmental contaminants at the place of work; guide for compiling safety data sheets; updating of the law on the safety of equipment; environmental compatibility tests; law on protection against immissions; proposals of an European Commission working group for the evaluation of hazards at the place of work; amendments to Council Regulation 2455/92/EEC (see CIS 93-1426) concerning the export and import of certain dangerous chemicals; limitations of the emissions of VOCs during the storage of motor fuel.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 35. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1995. 208p. Bibl.ref.
Rogers A., Nevill M.
Occupational and environmental mesotheliomas due to crocidolite mining activities in Wittenoom, Western Australia
Topics: airborne dust; asbestos mining; Australia; crocidolite; dust measurement; environmental pollution; epidemiologic study; hazard evaluation; latency; mesothelioma; morbidity; neighbourhood populations; occupation disease relation; prediction; Western Australia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1995, Vol.21, No.4, p.259-264. Illus. 19 ref.
Cain W.S., Cometto-Muñiz J.E.
Irritation and odor as indicators of indoor pollution
Irritation and odour pollution are discussed in relation to health complaints associated with indoor air pollution. The use of biological assays to determine the potency of an irritant is described and investigations into odour and irritation thresholds in humans are discussed. Both animal and human data point to common physicochemical determinants of potency, especially for the weak irritants that often exist in indoor environments.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.133-145. Illus. 29 ref.
The environmental evaluation: Commercial and home
Techniques for the investigation of indoor air quality in domestic and commercial buildings are described. These include a preliminary inspection of the building, inspection and evaluation of the heating, ventilating and air conditioning system, collection and analysis of air samples, and application of indoor air quality standards.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.95-118. 92 ref.
The sources and health effects of biological indoor air contaminants are reviewed. Conditions that promote biological contamination are described (ambient conditions, nutrient and microbial sources), as are the induction of human illness by biological contaminants, the evaluation of indoor environments, the interpretation of evaluation results, and methods of decontamination and prevention.
Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-25. 32 ref.
Gilli G., et al.
Chemical and microbiological contamination in a confined environment: Evaluation of occupational exposure under conditions of fluctuating physical parameters, seasonal conditions and external flows
Contaminazione chimica e microbiologica in ambiente confinato: misure dell'esposizione professionale al variare di parametri fisici, condizioni stagionali e flussi dall'estero [in Italian]
The purpose of this research was to discover to what extent different environmental parameters affected the effects of exposure of office workers to various chemical and microbiological agents. The chemicals investigated included aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and carbonyls. The microbiological agents included bacteria and fungi. The environmental parameters considered included parts of the daily, weekly and annual work cycle, the presence of tobacco smoke and microclimate. Overall, changing environmental parameters had little effect on exposure, though the need for improved ventilation in winter months is shown by the results of the study and in areas subject to the passing through of many people there was a marked fluctuation in the concentration of certain chemical substances and microorganisms.
Prevenzione oggi, July-Sept. 1995, Vol.7, No.3, p.77-104. Illus.
Porcella D.B., Huckabee J.W., Wheatley B.
Mercury as a global pollutant
Proceedings of the third international conference on mercury as a global pollutant held in Whistler, British Columbia, Canada, 10-14 July 1994. Papers cover: mercury and human health; mercury sources and transport; atmospheric mercury; atmospheric reactions and deposition of mercury; mercury dynamics in watersheds; lake and reservoir mercury; mercury in Arctic lakes, estuaries and oceans; mercury methylation and reduction processes; mercury in fish and wildlife; aquatic cycling of mercury in biota and sediments; mercury in soils; mercury risk assessment and management of anthropogenic sources; mercury measurement methods.
Kluwer Academic Publishers, Spuiboulevard 50, P.O. Box 17, 3300 AA Dordrecht, The Netherlands, Feb. 1995. xiv, 1336p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: DFL 495.00, USD 349.00, GBP 224.00.
Ong C.N., Kok P.W., Lee B.L., Shi C.Y, Ong H.Y., Chia K.S., Lee C.S., Luo X.W.
Evaluation of biomarkers for occupational exposure to benzene
In order to evaluate the relations between environmental benzene concentrations and various biomarkers of exposure to benzene, analyses were carried out on environmental air, unmetabolized benzene in urine, trans,trans-muconic acid (ttMA) and three major phenolic metabolites of benzene (catechol, hydroquinone and phenol) in two field studies on 64 workers exposed to benzene. Forty non-exposed subjects were also investigated. Among the five urinary biomarkers studied, ttMA correlated best with environmental benzene concentration. The results from the study showed that both ttMA and hydroquinone were able to differentiate the background level found in subjects not occupationally exposed and those exposed to less than 1ppm of benzene. This suggests that these two biomarkers are useful indices for monitoring low concentrations of benzene. The good correlations between ttMA, hydroquinone and atmospheric benzene suggest that they are sensitive and specific biomarkers for benzene exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.52, No.8, p.528-533. 26 ref.
Nishijo M., Nakagawa H., Morikawa Y., Tabata M., Senma M., Miura K., Takahara H., Kawano S., Nishi M., Mizukoshi K., Kido T., Nogawa K.
Mortality of inhabitants in an area polluted by cadmium: 15 year follow-up
Follow-up study for 15 years (from 1974-5 to 1991) carried out on 2408 inhabitants of the Kakehashi River basin in Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. The inhabitants had been the subjects of the health impact survey in 1974-5 to evaluate (by measurement of urinary retinol binding protein (RBP)) renal dysfunction induced by cadmium. Analysis of mortality was performed by dividing subjects into a urinary RBP positive group and RBP negative group. After adjustment for age, RBP positive group showed a significant relation to mortality in both sexes. When the standardized mortality ratios according to causes of deaths in the RBP positive group were compared with those of the RBP negative group or the overall Japanese population, increases of this ratio for cardiovascular diseased, especially heart failure, and renal diseases were found in both sexes. The results suggest that the prognosis of the exposed inhabitants with renal tubular dysfunction is unfavourable and the increase of mortality is due to heart failure and renal diseases.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.181-184. 22 ref.
Nordström K., Norbäck D., Akselsson R.
Influence of indoor air quality and personal factors on the sick building syndrome (SBS) in Swedish geriatric hospitals
Symptoms of sick building syndrome and personal factors were measured by means of a standardized self administered questionnaire in 225 female hospital workers of eight hospital units in the south of Sweden. The technical investigation comprised a building survey and measurements of room temperature, supply air temperature, air humidity and exhaust air flow. The prevalence of symptoms differed from one unit to another. Eye irritation was related to work stress and self reported exposure to static electricity. Nasal symptoms were related to asthma and hay fever only. Throat symptoms were more common in smokers, subjects with asthma or hay fever, new buildings, and in buildings with a high ventilation flow. Facial skin irritation was related to a lack of control of the work conditions. General symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, were related to current smoking, asthma or hay fever, work dissatisfaction and static electricity. As the prevalence of symptoms was high, there is a need to improve the indoor environment as well as the psychosocial environment in hospitals.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.52, No.3, p.170-176. 25 ref.
Pesticide-induced immunotoxicity: Are Great Lakes residents at risk?
In this literature review several organophosphate and organochlorine compounds are considered, including pesticides commonly found in the Great Lakes basin of North America. These substances have a high immunotoxic potential. Residents and workers in the area may inadvertently be exposed to these compounds through food chain biomagnification. Evidence is quoted from laboratory animal data and occupational exposure studies suggesting immunotoxicity. A significant threat to the human immune system that is sufficient to predispose residents of the Great Lakes basin to increased disease cannot be ruled out when making risk assessment decisions.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1995, Vol.103, Supplement 9, p.55-61. 78 ref.
Hoffman D.J., Rattner B.A., Burton G.A., Cairns J.
Handbook of ecotoxicology
This book provides comprehensive information about the relatively new but rapidly expanding field of ecotoxicology, which may be defined as the science of predicting effects of potentially toxic agents on natural ecosystems and not target species. It contains 34 chapters written by more than 50 international experts. Divided into four major sections (Quantifying and measuring ecotoxicological effects; Contaminant sources and effects; Case histories and ecosystem surveys; Methods for making estimates and predictability in ecotoxicology), the book provides new concepts and methodology for many aquatic and terrestrial ecotoxicity test protocols. Other topics covered includes sediment and soil ecotoxicity, landscape indicators, biomonitoring and bioindicators. The role of deforestation and global warming, pathogens and disease in ecotoxicology, abiotic factors, urban runoff, predictive ecotoxicology, population modelling and restoration ecology is also discussed.
Lewis Publishers, CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Boulevard, N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA, 1995. x, 755p., Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 85.00.
Immunotoxicity of PCBs (Aroclors) in relation to Great Lakes
This study reviews polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Great Lakes basin of North America. Due to their resistance to biodegradation and their lipophilic properties, PCBs bioaccumulate in fish tissues and in fish-eating humans. PCBs are also known to cross the placenta and to be excreted into the mother's milk. Data on PCB-induced immunotoxic effects in humans are scarce, whether exposure is occupational or through the ingestion of contaminated fish. Nevertheless, information derived from the use of experimental animals, including nonhuman primates, indicates that the immune system is a potential target for the toxicity of PCBs. Such studies have used only commercially available PCB mixtures. However, PCBs have the potential of partially antagonizing the effects of other structurally related compounds including the highly toxic dioxins, which are also present in small amounts in the Great Lakes. More research is required on these interactions.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Dec. 1995, Vol.103, Suppl. 9, p.35-46. 97 ref.
Accident prevention manual for business and industry - Environmental management
Part 1 of this manual examines the historical, ethical and economic aspects of global environmental developments along with U.S. and international legislation, basic principles of environmental science, management of environmental resources, and environmental audits and site assessments. Part 2 covers the management of hazardous wastes (storage, disposal, transportation, air and water quality, health and safety training for hazardous waste activities, pollution prevention approaches and technologies). Part 3 covers public health issues, health risk assessment, indoor air quality and global issues. Includes case studies of environmental management activities in different industries.
National Safety Council, P.O. Box 558, Itasca, IL 60143-0558, USA, 1995. xv, 536p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 99.95.
Deschamps F., Perrin M.L.
Harmful effects of odours in the workplace
Les nuisances olfactives en entreprise [in French]
Unpleasant odours are frequently present in workplaces. They are often ignored if not associated with health hazards. Air sampling, analytical methods, and - more generally - chemical investigations are often complex. This is why this kind of problem is frequently neglected. Olfactometry, which relies on the olfactive mucous membranes of a team of trained observers, permits the detection of odour origins, components and strength. It is a sensitive and effective method. Results obtained enable managers to look for the best solutions to cope with these undesirable effects.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.467-470. 7 ref.
Landis W.G., Yu M.H.
Introduction to environmental toxicology - Impacts of chemicals upon ecological systems
Contents of this manual: a framework for environmental toxicology; introduction to toxicity testing; survey and review of typical toxicity test methods; routes of exposure and modes of action; factors modifying the activity of toxicants; inorganic gaseous pollutants; biotransformation, detoxification and biodegradation; measurement and evaluation of the ecological effects of toxicants; ecological risk assessment and environmental toxicology; text of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Ecological Risk Assessment Framework.
CRC Press Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA, 1995. xiv, 328p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 24.95.
Clean-up of workplace air
Assainissement des atmosphères des locaux de travail [in French]
Summary of 18 regulatory texts (articles of the Labour Code, orders, decrees) intended to ensure that the air of premises where work is carried out be renewed so as to remain pure enough to maintain the health of the workers and to prevent undue elevations of temperature, disagreeable odours and condensation. The regulations distinguish premises with non-specific pollution from those where certain specific harmful substances or organisms may be emitted. Some texts cover the contractors responsible for construction and maintenance of premises rather than their operators.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1995, No.64, p.277-293. Illus. 17 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR)
HazDat: ATSDR's Hazardous Substance Release / Health Effects Database
This US database on the Internet is a scientific and administrative database developed to provide access to information on the release of hazardous substances from Superfund sites or from emergency events and on the effects of hazardous substances on human populations. The following information is included for each site (approx. 1300 in 1996): site characteristics; activities and site events; contaminants found; contaminant media and maximum concentration levels; impact on the population; community health concerns; ATSDR public health threat categorization; ATSDR recommendations; environmental fate of hazardous substances; exposure groups; physical hazards at the site/event. Substance-specific information (approx. 150 substances in 1996) is provided on: ATSDR Priority List of Hazardous Substances; health effects by route and duration of exposure; metabolites; substance interactions; susceptible populations; exposure and effect biomarkers. There are also data from the database Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) maintained by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sophisticated relational database search techniques may be used to access information in HazDat.
Internet WWW pages, home-page address: http://atsdr1.atsdr.cdc.gov:8080/hazdat.html#A3.1 ###
Danse I.H.R., Garb L.G., Moore R.H.
Blood lead surveys of communities in proximity to lead-containing mill tailings
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1995, Vol.56, No.4, p.384-393. 124 ref. ###
Brooks S., Gochfeld M., Herzstein J., Schenker M., Jackson R.
Contents of this manual: principles and basic science of environmental medicine (environmental hazards, risk and exposure assessment, toxicology, carcinogenesis); clinical environmental medicine (diagnosis, vision, hearing, dermatoses, respiratory disorders, liver and kidney toxicity, nervous system, immunologic disorders); susceptible populations (susceptibility, multiple chemical sensitivity, exposure of children); specific environmental exposure sources (air, water and soil pollution, asbestos, man-made mineral fibres, fire and pyrolysis products, radiation, vibration, heat stress, high-altitude and space medicine, chemical and biological agents, hazardous waste); preventive approaches (health surveillance, biomarkers, chemical disaster preparedness, health risk communication).
Mosby-Year Book Inc., 11830 Westline Industrial Drive, St.Louis, Missouri 63146, USA, 1995. xix, 780p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 69.00.
Biofouling and biocorrosion - Effects of undesired biofilms
Biofouling und Biokorrosion - die Folgen unerwünschter Biofilme [in German]
Microorganisms are capable of growing on the surface of various kinds of equipment and materials. For example, microbial layers called biofilms have been found on heat exchanger surfaces, in dental equipment, on electronic controls and in water conduits. They may interfere with processes such as heat exchange and filtering processes and be the cause of infections such as legionellosis. They can contribute to corrosion. About 20% of all corrosion damage to metals and building materials is attributed to biofilms. The mechanism of microbial corrosion is explained.
Chemie-Ingenieur-Technik, Nov. 1995, Vol.67, No.11, p.1425-1430. Illus. 12 ref.
Environmental Management Act, 1995 [Trinidad and Tobago]
This Act was assented to on 7 Mar. 1995. It provides for the management of the environment through the establishment and operation of an Environmental Management Authority, an Environmental Trust Fund and an Environmental Commission. It also deals with the following topics: the National Environmental Policy; environmental incentive programmes; environmental impact assessments; protection of natural resources; pollution and hazardous substances (recordkeeping, monitoring, permits); air and noise pollution (permits, prohibitions); water pollution; waste management and identification; hazardous substances and spills (management, prohibitions, releases and other incidents); compliance and enforcement issues; the Environmental Trust Fund.
Legal Supplement Part A to the Trinidad and Tobago Gazette, 7 Mar. 1995, Vol.34, No.49, p.i-iv, 16-80.
DeVaull G.E., King J.A., Lantzy R.J., Fontaine D.J.
Center for Chemical Process Safety
Understanding atmospheric dispersion of accidental releases
Contents of this manual: introduction to the processes involved in accidental releases and the resulting downwind transport and dilution of gases, vapours and aerosols; meteorology and turbulence; estimates of release rates from leaks and ruptures; liquid pool evaporation; buoyant and dense-gas jet releases; low-velocity dense-gas releases; passive dispersion; complex flow considerations; toxic vapour hazard evaluations; computer models.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 345 East 47th Street, New York, NY 10017-2395, USA, 1995. xii, 44p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: USD 50.00 (USA and Canada); USD 70.00 (elsewhere).
Sierra P., Loranger S., Kennedy G., Zayed J.
Occupational and environmental exposure of automobile mechanics and nonautomotive workers to airborne manganese arising from the combustion of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT)
Air sampling studies showed that the average workplace manganese concentration for a group of garage mechanics (0.45µgm-3) was 10 times higher than that of a nearby control group of nonautomotive workers (0.04µgm-3). Workplace concentrations of aluminium, iron and zinc were also higher for the mechanics. The nonautomotive workers had similar manganese concentrations at work and at home; both groups had significantly higher concentrations of the other three metals at the workplace than at home. Particle size investigation suggests that at least 90% of the manganese in garage air was from a source other than methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.713-716. Illus. 20 ref.
The sensitive individual and the indoor environment: Case study
An environmental investigation was carried out in an office building following occupant reports of health problems suspected of being associated with the indoor environment. No conditions likely to cause the reported health problems were indicated. One occupant was experiencing a fairly severe reaction only upon entering the building but no specific explanation was identified; a possible allergic reaction to materials within the building was suggested. The case highlights the role of the occupational physician in environmental investigations and the need to consider the possible presence of sensitive individuals.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1121-1126. Illus. 16 ref.
Batterman S.A., Luoma M.
Characterization of emission sources in buildings and HVAC systems: Quantification and uncertainty
The use of in situ mass balance techniques to characterize emission sources in buildings and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems is described. The techniques use flow and concentration measurements taken in the building or HVAC system from which contaminant fluxes and emissions are computed. Uncertainties in results caused by measurement errors and variability in observed concentrations and flows are discussed, and the accuracy of emission estimates derived in this way is evaluated. Results show the required measurement accuracies for various source and building conditions.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1995, Vol.56, No.11, p.1083-1089. Illus. 19 ref.
Ullmann's encyclopedia of industrial chemistry. Vol.B7. Environmental protection and industrial safety I
Continuation of the collection abstracted under CIS 93-953, 95-265 and 95-693. The two volumes devoted to environmental protection and industrial safety examine the relationship between chemical technology and the environment and workplace. Contents: ethics and industrial chemistry; ecology and ecotoxicology; human toxicology (metabolic processes of toxic substances, mechanisms of toxicity and chemical carcinogenesis, toxicological methods, evaluation of toxic effects); legal aspects (European, US and Japanese legislation); environmental management; noise and vibration (sources, measurement, effects on humans); causes, effects and control of air and soil pollution. Industrial safety issues are addressed in several articles.
VCH Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, P.O. Box 10 11 61, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, rev.ed., 1995. xvii, 728p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 625.00.
A global ban on lead mining and primary smelting
This editorial considers lead exposure to be a worldwide environmental problem and urges a global ban on lead mining and smelting. While regulations have resulted in reduced lead exposure in the United States, much of the reduction is matched by increased exposure in developing countries to which lead is exported. Although the short-term economic impact of a global ban on mining would probably be severe, the health consequences of lead exposure justify source reduction. Such a ban would stimulate efforts to find substitute products.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.1, No.1, p.70-71. 3 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
The control of fire-water run-off from CIMAH sites to prevent environmental damage
This guidance note provides advice to operators of sites subject to the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1984 (CIMAH) (see CIS 89-1436). It concerns measures for the control of fire-water which may have been contaminated with chemicals stored at the site. Fire precautions are outlined along with emergency planning and environmental hazard identification, containment of fire-water run-off (lagoons and lakes, bunded areas, temporary containment), and alternatives to containment (controlled burning). An appendix summarizes legal requirements.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1995. 8p. 14 ref. Price: GBP 4.00.
Use of ozone generating devices to improve indoor air quality
A literature survey was carried out on the use of ozone to remove organic contaminants from the air and the health effects of overexposure to ozone. Health effects of ozone exposure are outlined along with its occurrence, olfactory detection and gaseous-state chemistry. Reports on the use of indoor ozone generators evaluate their potential for excess exposure and their effectiveness in removing air pollutants. It is concluded that ozone is not a practical or effective means of improving indoor air quality, especially in the light of its potentially serious risk to health.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.590-598. Illus. 69 ref.
Rodes C.E., Kamens R.M., Wiener R.W.
Experimental considerations for the study of contaminant dispersion near the body
Studies of contaminant dispersion near a body were carried out using a mannequin in a modified wind tunnel capable of simulating a range of indoor velocities and turbulence characteristics; sulfur hexafluoride was used to simulate gaseous contaminants. The results of validation testing for selected experimental components are reported: velocity of flow, mannequin blockage, turbulence intensity, turbulence spectra and measurements of scale, and contaminant profiles. A deceleration zone was noted that extended 50cm upstream from the mannequin, with freestream velocities reduced 50 to 60%, 2.5cm from the chest.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1995, Vol.56, No.6, p.535-545. Illus. 29 ref.
West G.A., Michaud R.W.
Principles of environmental health and safety management
This manual provides advice on developing an environmental management programme within an enterprise. Contents: understanding the company that the environmental health and safety (EH&S) programme is to serve; advantages of an EH&S programme; establishing the scope of corporate policies and programmes; organization of an EH&S management programme; environmental education and training; information management; cost accounting; effective workplace communications; strategic planning; process safety; pollution prevention and waste minimization; environmental concerns in business transactions; role of auditing and benchmarking. In appendix: comparative discussion of ISO standards 9000 (total quality management) and draft 14000 (environmental management).
Government Institutes Inc., 4 Research Place, Suite 200, Rockville, MD 20850, USA, 1995. xix, 359p. Bibl.ref. Index.
Maroni M., Axelrad R., Bacaloni A.
NATO's efforts to set indoor air quality guidelines and standards
Report on a multinational cooperative programme (200 experts from 15 countries during 1989-1993) conducted by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society. The programme examined policy strategies related to indoor air quality (IAQ) and various health conditions related to buildings (building-related symptoms/health complaints (BRC)/illness (BRI), sick building syndrome). The achievement of health and comfort in the indoor environment combined with energy efficiency can be obtained by a proper control of human exposure to indoor air contaminants. Recommendations for this purpose were made by the Committee concerning: building design and internal HVAC pollution; source control; development of guidelines and standards; definitions; health effects by indoor environment to be considered in epidemiological investigations; use of a questionnaire for epidemiological investigations of indoor-related health problems; diagnosis and medical management; ascertainment of IAQ factors possibly responsible for BRI/BRC; medical activities and advice for the treatment and prevention of BRI/BRC; technical measures to eliminate BRI/BRC.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, May 1995, Vol.56, No.5, p.499-508. 7 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 95-1442. It includes: descriptions of European Standards DIN EN 689 on determination of exposure and DIN EN 482 on the performance of methods for determining concentrations in air; definitions of "to be exposed" (ausgesetzt sein) and "action level" (Auslöseschwelle); updated lists of exposure levels (TRK, MAK, BAT) and of recognized carcinogens; new or updated Technical Rules for Dangerous Substances (TRGS) 300 (safety techniques), 513 and 522 (fumigation with ethylene oxide and/or formaldehyde), 519 (demolition, cleanup or maintenance involving asbestos) and 520 (hazardous waste dumps).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 34. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 1995. 280p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Processing of measurement data on the environmental occurrence of industrial chemicals
This translation of a document finalized in Feb. 1993 is a survey of environmental agencies and other institutions in Germany which was carried out to investigate measurement data on the environmental occurrence of a priority list of industrial chemicals. Detailed results are presented for benzene, nitrilotriacetic acid and chloroform.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1995. 116p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 72.00.
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