Environmental pollution - 665 entries found
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De Berardis B., Paoletti L.
Characterization of the thoracic fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area and in an adjacent office building
Caratterizzazione della frazione toracica (PM10) del particolato aerodisperso in un sito urbano ed in un ambiente indoor limitrofo [in Italian]
Airborne particulate matter (PM10) was collected in an urban area (in Rome, Italy) and in an adjacent office building. Samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. A statistical analysis method allowed to identify seven groups of similar particles in the particulate matter and a seasonal trend was demonstrated with an increase in the aluminium-silicate particles and a minor increment in sulfate particles during summer. The results suggest that the characteristics of indoor PM10 depend mostly on the nature of outdoor particulates in the vicinity.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 19 ref.
Hazardous Substances (Classes 6,8 and 9) Controls) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]
These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes detailed control measures for the following classes of dangerous substances: 6 - Toxic substances; 8 - Corrosive substances; 9 - Ecotoxic substances.
Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.905-932.
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R117.PDF [in English]
Priha E., Ahonen I., Oksa P.
Control of chemical risks during the treatment of soil contaminated with chlorophenol, creosote and copper-chrome-arsenic-wood preservatives
Exposure to chemicals was studied during the remediation of four polluted sites: a sawmill contaminated with chlorophenols, polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), a wood impregnating plant contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), an old gas works area contaminated with PAH, and a wood impregnation plant contaminated with copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) preservative. Air monitoring showed that the exposure levels were generally well below the current occupational exposure limits. However, the recommended daily intake value for PCDD/F was exceeded. Chlorophenol exposure was generally low. Exposure to volatile PAH was 0.038-0.884mg/m3 and that to particulate PAH was 0.004-0.183mg/m3. The biomonitoring results (urinary 1-pyrenol) suggested that some exposure occurs, probably through the contamination of hands or skin absorption. Exposure limits were not exceeded at the site contaminated with CCA. More attention should be given to skin protection.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.402-409. 30 ref.
Héry M., Mouton C., Maison A., Falcy M.
Remediation of polluted sites: Prevention of occupational hazards
Réhabilitation des sites pollués: prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
During polluted site remediation, workers may be faced with many different hazards. Construction work, in particular involving earthmoving equipment, can give rise to collapse and burying accidents. The presence of chemicals can result in poisonings, fires and explosions. Machinery may emit noise and vibrations. This article describes a methodological approach for a systematic organization of polluted site remediation, based on a meticulous analysis of hazards. An appendix includes examples of preventive measures adopted for the removal of drums stored in a disused manufacturing plant, the demolition of a caustic-chlorine electrolysis plant and the remediation of solvent-polluted soil.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.291-320. 7 ref.
Impacts of globalization on working conditions and the environment - An Asian perspective
As a result of rapid globalization, many developing countries are faced with increasing demands on limited natural resources, environmental pressures, inequitable distribution of economic gains, cultural dislocation, poor management of the development process and a shortage of development funds. This article presents the integrated ergonomic workshops approach developed by the Bali Human Ecology Study Group to address these issues. These workshops are based on the SHIP (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2001, Vol.8, No.3, p.62-64. Illus. 6 ref.
New challenges and opportunities for occupational safety and health (OSH) in a globalized world
The rapid export-driven industrialization of certain developing countries gives rise to challenges and opportunities in the area of occupational safety and health (OSH) which are discussed in this article. Contents: harmonizing working conditions and product standards; OSH as a determining factor for competitiveness; OSH and the environment; new codes of conduct to be adopted by the enterprise.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.61-63. Illus. 15 ref.
Arévalo Fernández T.
Management of environmental risks: Key factor in enterprise decision-making
Gestión de los riesgos medioambientales: factor clave en las decisiones empresariales [in Spanish]
Environmental impact is increasingly taken into consideration by enterprises. Before any major decisions, environmental criteria are analysed and evaluated. Consequently, environmental management must be recognized as being an essential element of company expansion policy. In this article, a tool for managing the risks to the environment, ranking them by importance and classifying them is presented. It assists decision-making required for avoiding or eliminating environmental hazards. The economic aspects of environmental risk management with respect to the remediation of polluted sites must also be taken into consideration.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.31-37. Illus.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: addition of a new chapter on the quality of indoor air; analytical laboratories accredited under the provisions of the dangerous substances order; classification and labelling of substances, preparation and products; example of certification of the fumigation of goods holds; formaldehyde disinfection of premises; limit values for substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to the reproductive system; methods for the determination of airborne biological substances; European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No.761/2001 of 19 March 2001, enabling the participation of voluntary organizations in a community system of environmental management and audit system (EMAS).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 57. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2001. 248p. Bibl.ref.
Tomei Fr., Ortolani B., Renzoni S., Pascalizi N., Riservato R., Marcellini L., De Sio S., Marinucci F., Tomao E., Baccolo T.P., Anzelmo V., Iosue M., Tomei F., Paolucci M., Ruffino M.G.
Pathological risks incurred by urban police forces and their prevention
Rischi patologia e prevenzione dei vigili urbani [in Italian]
In this review the hazards that urban police forces in Italy are exposed to are evaluated. Atmospheric pollution is considered first among the risk factors of this generally outdoor work, focusing on respiratory systems diseases. Other consequences mentioned include immunotoxic effects, and those depending on continuous noise, neoplasms, cardiovascular disorders and stress factors.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.12-24. Illus. 49 ref.
Jo W.K., Kim S.H.
Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores
Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref.
Risk assessment in marine environments
This report proposes a framework for marine risk assessment. Main topics covered: distribution of chemical pollutants in marine environments; degradation; determination of exposure concentrations (PEC, PNEC); bioaccumulation; ecotoxicity; risk characterization; proposed approach to extend the EU Technical guidance document to the marine environment; research recommendations.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2001. 140p. Illus. 192 ref.
Héry M., Mouton C., Falcy M.
Remediation of polluted industrial sites - Prevention of occupational hazards
Réhabilitation de sites industriels pollués - Prévention des risques professionnels [in French]
For industrial hygienists, the remediation of polluted industrial sites is a complex activity. Indeed, workers may be exposed to a wide range of hazards during earthmoving construction work, in particular due to the use of equipment that can cause accidents and the risk of being buried, the presence of chemicals (with poisoning, fire, and explosion hazards), the use of noisy and vibrating equipment, etc. A systematic organization of the work and prevention measures is therefore necessary. Among other considerations, it must be based on a detailed risk assessment.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 4p. 5 ref.
United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants [UNEP]
Convention de Stockholm sur les polluants organiques persistants [PNUE] [in French]
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are defined as organic substances with toxic properties that resist degradation, bioaccumulate and may be transported through air, water and migratory animals. This Convention, adopted at the Stockholm Conference held 22-23 May 2001, requires signatory States to prohibit, eliminate and/or restrict the production, use, import and export of POPs falling under its scope. Stockpiles and wastes containing POPs are to be managed safely and appropriately. Signatory States also have to implement a plan to carry out its obligations under the Convention, to exchange relevant information with other States, and to promote awareness and training activities among people involved with POPs, including workers, scientists and managers. Timely and appropriate technical assistance is to be provided to developing and "transition economy" countries. In annexes: list of substances to be eliminated if possible (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)); restricted substance (DDT); special provisions related to unintentional production of certain substances (PCDD/PCDF, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs); information and screening requirements; information on socio-economic considerations.
International Legal Materials, May 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.531-563 (English only).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/sc/documents/convtext/convtext_en.pdf [in English]
http://www.chem.unep.ch/sc/documents/convtext/convtext_fr.pdf [in French]
Occupational health and safety and environmental management systems
The integration of occupational safety and health aspects into environmental management systems can bring many benefits to industrial companies. Because the principles of prevention are similar in environmental protection and safety management, one can avoid duplicated measures and find optimal solutions. However, the methods currently used in environmental management and engineering such as life-cycle assessments, best available technology reports and the models of industrial production can hinder this integration, since they take into account occupational risks only to a limited extent. This article discusses how to benefit from this integration and avoid the underestimation of occupational hazards.
Environmental Science and Policy, 2000, Vol.3, p.39-45. 19 ref.
Occupational_health_and_safety.pdf [in English]
de Wit C.A.
Brominated flame retardants
Brominated flame retardants are used in electronic appliances and textiles. They are detected in the environment and in breast milk in increasing concentrations. Their persistence is a matter of concern and poses a potential problem similar to that of polychlorinated biphenlys (PCBs). This report discusses these issues and future trends. Contents: characteristics of flame retardants; brominated flame retardant chemistry; analytical methods for brominated flame retardants; toxicology; environmental concentrations; future trends.
Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket), Blekholmsterrassen 36, 10648 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. 94p. Illus. Approx. 180 ref.
Concawe Review 9:2
This review covers a wide range of topics highlighting the diversity of CONCAWE's work in the areas of environment, safety and health. Contents: emission control at marine terminals; regional ozone levels in Europe; research on automotive particulate matter; CONCAWE's position on a 10ppm sulfur limit on road fuels; disposal of used lubricating oils; downstream oil industry safety statistics; aquatic toxicity testing for petroleum substances.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2000, Vol.9, No.2, p.1-27. Illus.
Concawe Review 9:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emissions of petroleum products and their possible adverse effects on human health and the environment. Contents: the complexity of legislation on refineries; carbon, sulfur and hydrogen in oil refineries; estimating the implications of road fuel quality changes on the EU refining industry; the impact of Auto/Oil I and II on refinery costs and global CO2 emissions; trends in European air quality; personal exposure to air pollutants; global harmonized system of hazard communication for chemicals; MTBE in gasoline.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of the summary table on NIOSH analytical methods and new published analytical methods; update of the Law on Chemicals, of the Ordinance on prohibited chemicals and the Law on Dangerous Substances; updates of the following technical rules (TRGS): criteria applicable to certain specific processes and substances aimed at ensuring admissible levels in air over the long term (420) and fumigations (512); update of the Law on Protection against Immissions and corresponding Ordinances; update of Directive 67/548/EEC on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances; Directive 91/155/EEC defining and laying down the detailed arrangements for the system of specific information relating to dangerous preparations; Directive 96/56/EC on the elimination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated terphenyls (PCTs).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 54. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2000. 264p. Bibl.ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: new NIOSH analytical methods; updates of the Ordinances on chemicals, on prohibited chemicals and on biological substances; Ordinance on major hazards; Directive for writing safety data sheets for dangerous substances and preparations; update of the following technical rules (TRGS): disinfection of premises using formaldehyde (TRSG 522) and sensitizers (TRSG 540); appendices I and II of Directive 88/379/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 53. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2000. 246p. Bibl.ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of the Ordinance on dangerous substances; Directive 67/548/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances; Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations; update of the following technical rules (TRGS): list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905) and list of sensitizers (907).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 52. Ergänzungslieferung, May 2000. 256p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Marine risk assessment: Concept and criteria
This document is presented as a proposal to complement the European Union convention specified in the Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment of New and Existing Chemicals (see CIS 97-932), in particular for risk assessment in the marine environment. Two approaches are proposed, one for local assessment, the other for regional assessment. For local areas of increased exposure, risk is assessed by comparing environmental concentration and data on biological effects. For regional areas, a modified risk assessment method is proposed, based on the identification and evaluation of substances whose discharge can lead to short- or long-term marine pollution.
S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 34p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Special issue: Quantified risk assessment
Collection of 28 articles on quantified risk assessment, risk management and environmental protection in connecxtion with work with hazardous materials. Main topics covered: airports; LPG installations; hazardous materials transportation; nuclear plants; electroplating industry; offshore oil production and oil refineries; safety policies; risk analysis and modelling; emergency planning.
Journal of Hazardous Materials, Jan. 2000, Vol.71, No.1-3, p.i-xiii; p.1-526 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Accident prevention manual for business and industry: Environmental management
Fourth part of a series of textbooks on safety management in enterprises (for parts 1, 2 and 3, see CIS 01-692, CIS 01-693 and CIS 00-396). It covers environmental management from the business point of view. Contents: general framework (history and development, economic and ethical issues, legal and legislative framework in the US and internationally, basic principles of environmental science, managing environmental resources, environmental audits and site assessments); waste management (hazardous wastes, health and safety training for hazardous waste activities, pollution prevention approaches and technologies); special concerns (public health issues, risk assessment, indoor air quality, global issues, using the systems approach to avoid risks). In appendices: case studies; sources of help; glossaries.
National Safety Council, 1121 Spring Lake Drive, Itasca IL 60143-3201, USA, 2nd ed., 2000. xiv, 539p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 79.95 (members), USD 99.95 (non-members).
Off to the laundry - How to avoid hygiene problems with fermenting dough cloth
Ab in die Wäsche - Wie bei Gärgut-Tüchern Hygieneprobleme vermieden werden können [in German]
Scientists of the German Employers' Liability Insurance Association found that the concentrations of germs (bacteria and moulds) on cotton cloth that had been used for 41 days in bakeries for fermenting dough were 1000 times higher than those found on unwashed strawberries and lettuce. Sprinkling the cloth with wheat flour, rice flour or starch did not lead to any reduction. It is recommended that the cotton cloth be laundered at least once a month at a temperature of 60°C or higher, and that it be stored under dry conditions. For the hygienic storage of dough for fermentation, a plastic basket lined with cloth that can be easily removed for washing is presented.
Zeitschrift für Backbetriebe, Mar. 2000, No.1, p.4-5. Illus.
von Kempski D., Zieger H.R.
Addition of fragrances to indoor air and indoor air quality
REZ Raumluft-Essenzen-Zugabe und Raumluftqualität [in German]
Removing odours and contaminants from indoor air in order to satisfy technical standards is not enough to ensure worker satisfaction. The addition of fragrances is required for providing olfactory comfort. The main features of a fragrance addition system are outlined. Fragrance is placed in a bypass of a building's ventilation air stream. Concentrations of the fragrance between the thresholds of perception and recognition are required for the air to be perceived as fresh and pleasant. Humidity, temperature, air flow and the ratio of air intake and re-circulation are measured to control the system. An experimental test with a specific fragrance mix revealed an optimum at 1.7ppm of the mix in the air when the temperature was 19°C and the relative humidity 38%.
HLH - Heizung Lüftung/Klima Haustechnik, Feb. 2000, Vol.51, No.2, p.68, 70-74. Illus. 14 ref.
Zagury E., Le Moullec Y., Momas I.
Exposure of Paris taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants within their vehicles
In a cross-sectional study of the exposure of Parisian taxi drivers to automobile air pollutants, measurements were made in the vehicles of 29 randomly selected drivers. Carbon monoxide (CO), fine suspended particles according to the black smoke index (BS) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) were measured. Results show exposure to relatively high concentrations of pollutants: CO (3.8ppm), BS (168µ/m3), NO (625µ/m3) and NO2 (139µ/m3). For CO, the concentrations were clearly lower than the WHO-recommended threshold values. However, the situation is less satisfactory for the other pollutants, especially for the BS index. All concentrations of pollutants recorded were noticeably higher than concentrations in air recorded by the ambient Parisian air-monitoring network and were close to, or slightly exceeded, the concentrations measured at the fixed stations close to automobile traffic. Results justify a medical follow up of this occupational group.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2000, Vol.56, No.6, p.406-410. Illus. 18 ref.
Personal exposure to air pollutants
Health effects of atmospheric pollutants result from personal exposure. The air quality limits fixed by the European Commission are based on ambient air. However, personal exposure is the result of different sources of pollution in air that people actually breathe, of which ambient air is only one. One also needs to take into account indoor exposure levels to pollutants, which are often higher. Knowledge of personal exposure to atmospheric pollutants is essential for understanding the relationships between health effects and air quality. Many studies confirm the diversity of sources and factors that contribute to, or modify, personal exposure. Therefore, the health benefits achievable from the reduction of pollutants in ambient air alone are questionable, and should be balanced against the cost of implementing stringent air quality limit values.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2000, Vol.9, No.1, p.17-18. Illus.
Kalina A., Krochmal D.
Determination of air pollution by using passive dosimeters
Oznaczanie gazowych zanieczyszczeń powietrza za pomocą dozymetrów pasywnych [in Polish]
This monograph describes passive methods of sampling pollutants in air. It contains general and theoretical data concerning the processes and mechanisms involved in the propagation and the level of chemical pollution.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 1999. 181p. Illus. 261 ref.
Council Directive 1999/13/EC of 11 March 1999 on the limitation of emissions of volatile organic compounds due to the use of organic solvents in certain activities and installations [European Union]
Directive 1999/13/CE du Conseil du 11 mars 1999 relative à la réduction des émissions de composés organiques volatils dues à l'utilisation de solvants organiques dans certaines activités et installations [Union européenne] [in French]
Directiva 1999/13/CE del Consejo de 11 de marzo de 1999 relativa a la limitación de las emisiones de compuestos orgánicos volátiles debidas al uso de disolventes orgánicos en determinadas actividades e instalaciones [in Spanish]
The purpose of this Directive is to prevent or reduce the direct and indirect effects of emissions of volatile organic compounds into the environment (mainly the atmosphere) and their potential risks to human health. Contents: definitions; obligations applying to new and existing installations; requirements; definition and implementation of national plans for reducing emissions; substitution; monitoring; compliance with emission limit values; information systems and reporting. In annex: scope (activities to which the Directive applies: adhesive coating, coating activities in general, coil coating, dry cleaning, footwear manufacturing, other types of manufacturing, printing, rubber conversion, surface coating, extraction and refining of oils and fats, vehicle refinishing, winding wire coating, wood impregnation, wood and plastic lamination); threshold and emission controls in specific activities, with special consideration of the vehicle coating industry; reduction schemes; solvent management plans.
Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 29 Mar. 1999, Vol.42, No.L 85, p.1-22.
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/1999/l_085/l_08519990329en00010022.pdf [in English]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/1999/l_085/l_08519990329fr00010022.pdf [in French]
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/1999/l_085/l_08519990329es00010022.pdf [in Spanish]
Monitoring and modelling of industrial organic chemicals, with particular reference to aquatic risk assessment
Alongside fate and exposure models, monitoring and laboratory data each have their specific roles to play in comprehensive risk assessments. The general principle concerning risk assessment data is that measured data should take precedence over model results but only after they are judged to be of adequate reliability. In practice, laboratory and field result data are used to provide parameters for the models, while monitoring data are used to validate the models' predictions. Comprehensive risk assessments therefore require the integration of laboratory and monitoring data with the model predictions. This report provides guidance on the general principles that should be adopted when planning a monitoring project, with particular reference to aquatic pollution risk assessment.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 1999. 103p. Illus. 129 ref.
Martin P., Brand F., Servais M.
Correlation of the exposure to a pollutant with a task-related action or workplace: The CAPTIV¿ system
When measuring workplace pollution, the information usually obtained corresponds to the average levels of worker exposures over the sampling period. The use of specific sensors for chemicals can give complementary information, namely continuous exposure information. The CAPTIV system enables the centralization and storage of this information, and is used together with a video system which restores the images of the workplace. The stored video sequences, correlated to specified exposures, can be searched and retrieved automatically. The system allows the correlation of occupational activity with the exposure level. The analysis of collected information may lead to advice on good practice at the workplace or to proposals for modification of existing equipment and processes. An example of using CAPTIV to study a stone-cutting work station is included.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, May 1999, Vol.43, No.4, p.221-233. Illus. 8 ref.
Tuomisto J., Hagmar L.
Environmental health in the east Baltic region - Pesticides and persistent organic compounds
Exposure to, and the potential effects of, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants in the East Baltic region are reviewed. Exposure of the average population to chlorinated compounds seems lower than in most of western Europe and current pesticide use is very low. The low exposure of the general population is indicated by low concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in milk fat. However, some organic pesticides have been found at higher concentrations in Baltic countries and the St Petersburg area than in Norway. Thus the overall risk caused by pesticide residues and persistent organic compounds in the Baltic countries and northwestern Russia is low, but local sites of concern exist.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.65-71. Illus. 32 ref.
Skerfving S., Bencko V., Vahter M., Schütz A., Gerhardsson L.
Environmental health in the Baltic region - Toxic metals
Recent reports on concentrations of lead, cadmium, methylmercury, arsenic and nickel in some biological media in populations of the Baltic region are reviewed. In particular, children in parts of Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany have uptakes of lead sufficient to cause adverse effects on the central nervous system and kidneys. Cadmium exposure is also high in Poland. Methylmercury uptake is dependent upon the intake of fish in Sweden and Finland, as well as along the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. There are some indications of immunotoxic effects. However, fish also contain other immunomodulating agents. Exposure to arsenic seems to be low everywhere in the Baltic region. There is high nickel exposure in northern Russia.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.40-64. Illus. 199 ref.
Hemminki K., Veidebaum T.
Environmental pollution and human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the east Baltic region
Environmental contamination and human exposure due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were surveyed in the east Baltic region. Polluted and heavily industrialized areas are upper Silesia in Poland, northern Bohemia in the Czech Republic, and the northeast part of Estonia. In Estonia the pollution is in a defined geographic area, where lung cancer incidence is higher than elsewhere. DNA adduct levels in white blood cells are increased in groups of residents with apparently only environmental exposure. By extrapolation, some 150 annual cancer cases could be predicted due to PAH in Silesia. Air levels of benzo[a]pyrene were increased in northern Bohemia. Further studies are needed to assess health risks of PAH exposures in central and eastern Europe.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.33-39. Illus. 24 ref.
Balonov M.I., Krisyuk E.M., Ramel C.
Environmental radioactivity, population exposure and related health risks in the east Baltic region
Radioactive contamination, population exposures and the risk of damage to human health are surveyed in the east Baltic region. Principal sources include global fallout, the Chernobyl accident, and marine transport of radionuclides. A mean annual exposure of 2-3mSv comes from environmental radioactivity. Main contributors are primarily radon and its decay products. The Chernobyl accident brought an additional dose of about 0.5mSv in southern Finland and 1.4mSv in the most contaminated districts of the Leningrad region, Russia. Both external and internal exposure via contaminated food contributed to this exposure. Radiation health risks are lung cancer among the general population from indoor exposure to radon, acute radiation syndrome from occupational exposure, thyroid cancer among children in heavily contaminated areas and mutations among offspring of exposed parents.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.17-32. Illus. 56 ref.
Ambient air pollution and respiratory health in the east Baltic region
Air pollutants of primary concern to human health in the east Baltic region include particulate matter and sulfur dioxide. Exposure to elevated levels of nitrogen dioxide and ozone is also widespread. Coal-fired power and heavy industrial plants constitute major sources of air pollution. Domestic heating with coal causes high local levels in some areas. The rapid growth of motor vehicle traffic results in increased emissions. Several epidemiologic studies performed in the east Baltic region, mainly in Poland, have documented an association between air pollution exposure and adverse health effects, primarily in the respiratory tract. The associations were mainly seen for particulates or sulfur dioxide, and thus they confirmed the findings from other parts of Europe and the United States.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.3, p.5-16. Illus. 29 ref.
Berenguer Subils M.J.
Indoor air quality: Emissions from materials used for building, interior decoration and maintenance
Calidad del aire interior: emisiones de materiales utilizados en la construcción, decoración y mantenimiento de edificios [in Spanish]
This information note examines the materials most commonly used during the construction, interior decoration and maintenance of buildings in order to assess the impact of these activities on ambient air quality. Contents include: effects of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on building occupants; various types of emissions (humid or dry products, absorbent materials, cleaning and maintenance products); various elements that could give rise to emissions (furniture, wall-coverings, curtains, walls, ceilings, floors); emissions due to products used for maintenance (cleaning products, interior fragrances, insecticides, rat poison); factors that need to be taken into consideration when carrying out an evaluation of interior air quality; tables listing the chemicals emitted by various maintenance products.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 4 ref.
Teufel D., Bauer P., Voigt S., Wagner T.
New medical findings concerning the health effects of summer smog - Computation of the number of deaths caused by summer smog in Germany
Neue medizinische Erkenntnisse über die gesundheitlichen Auswirkungen von Sommersmog - Berechnung der durch Sommersmog verursachten Todesfälle in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland [in German]
Epidemiological studies conducted in recent years in major cities of 10 countries around the world have attributed an increase in mortality rates to high ozone concentrations. Medical threshold values for ozone as an indicator of summer smog are 90 to 100mg/m3. It was estimated that for 50mg/m3 of additional ozone as a one-hour average, the mortality increases overall by 2.8%, and mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases by 2.1% and 4.0%, respectively. For the same ozone increment, but as an eight-hour average, the corresponding figures are 4.6%, 2.6% and 4.9%. Applying these estimates to the ozone levels measured at 300 stations in Germany between 1990 and 1995, 23,500 deaths were attributable to summer smog during these years. It is recommended to reinforce the current European Union limit of 120mg/m3 and revise it down to 90mg/m3. The current US limit of 240mg/m3 is considered inadequate.
UPI-Institut, Handschuhsheimer Landstr. 118a, 69121 Heidelberg, Germany, July 1999. 29p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: DEM 10.00.
Environmental exposure to benzene
This report provides a review of health risks from environmental exposure to benzene. A method is described that allows the estimation of the daily absorbed dose of benzene for a range of individuals representative of different life-styles and occupations. The current understanding of the relationship between exposure to benzene and the occurence of leukaemia is summarized.
CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Oct. 1999. iv, 34p. Illus. 52 ref.
Ewers U., Krause C., Schulz C., Wilhelm M.
Reference values and human biological monitoring values for environmental toxins - Report on the work and recommendations of the Commission on Human Biological Monitoring of the German Federal Environmental Agency
The working principles and working procedures of the Commission on Human Biological Monitoring in Germany are described. One of its main tasks is to develop scientifically based criteria for the application of human biological monitoring and for the evaluation of human monitoring data in environmental medicine. Two kinds of criteria are recommended: reference values and human biological monitoring values (HBM values). Reference values are intended to indicate the upper margin of the current background exposure of the general population to a given environmental toxin at a given time. HBM values are derived from human toxicology and epidemiology studies and are intended to be used as a basis for a health-related evaluation of human biological monitoring data. At present, reference and HBM values are available for lead in blood, for cadmium and mercury in blood and urine, and for pentachlorophenol in plasma/serum and urine. Reference values have been established for some polychlorinated biphenyls in blood and plasma as well as for hexachlorocyclohexane and hexacholorobenzene in blood as well as for some organochlorines in human milk.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 1999, Vol.72, No.4, p.255-260. 23 ref.
Baraza Peregrín A.
Ozone: A cure or a hazard?
El ozono, ¿solución o problema? [in Spanish]
Topics: air purification; atmospheric pollution; ozone; disinfection of air; health hazards; limitation of exposure; odour threshold; organic compounds; threshold limit values; water treatment.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.75, p.15-21. Illus. 12 ref.
Westerholm P., Baranski B.
European Centre for Environment and Health
Guidelines on quality management in multidiscipinary occupational health services
This document is primarily intended for purchasers and providers of occupational health services. Its purpose is to encourage the development and implementation of a quality assurance system that meet the real needs in occupational health services or in enterprises that have not yet adopted this approach. It is also intended to support international harmonization of occupational health practice to minimize inequity among health workers and to avoid social exclusion.
World Health Organization (WHO), Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. iii, 106p. Illus. 99 ref.
Microorganic emissions from composting and digestion plants
Keimemissionen aus Kompostierungs- und Vergärungsanlagen [in German]
Concentrations of moulds and bacteria were determined in air samples taken in and near 3 aerobic garbage composting plants and 2 anaerobic sewage digestion plants. In 2 of the plants composting occurred in wind rows. One of the composting plants used drums. The measured concentrations of moulds and bacteria ranged from about 100 to 10,000 colony forming units per m3. No increased concentrations of moulds and bacteria were measured at distances of 100 to 200m from covered plants equipped with a ventilation system with air purifying filters. Open-air plants were found to create higher concentrations up to 500m distance. Recommendations for studying the influence of garbage composting and anaerobic sewage digestion plants on the environment are presented.
M. & D. Gräbner, Gotenstrasse 3, 96146 Altendorf bei Bamberg, Germany, Jan. 1999. 499p. Illus. 173 ref.
Menzies D., Pasztor J., Rand T., Bourbeau J.
Germicidal ultraviolet irradiation in air conditioning systems: Effect on office worker health and well-being - A pilot study
The objectives of this study were to test whether installation and operation of gernimicidal ultraviolet (GUV) lights in central ventilation systems would be feasible, without adverse effects, undetected by building occupants, and effective in eliminating microbial contamination. 104 workers participated; their environmental satisfaction ratings were not different whether GUV lights were on or off. Headache, difficulty concentrating and eye irritation occurred less often with GUV lights on whereas skin rash or irritation was more common. Overall, the average number of work-related symptoms reported was 1.1 with GUV lights off compared with 0.9 with GUV lights on. Installation and operation of GUV lights in central heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of office buildings is feasible, cannot be detected by workers, and does not seem to result in any adverse effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1999, Vol.56, No.6, p.397-402. 34 ref.
Monitoring ambient air quality for health impact assessment
This report of a working group discusses the overall requirements for designing and operating networks for monitoring ambient air and a range of quality models used in comprehensive programmes for air quality assessment and management. It consists of four main parts: relationship between air pollution and health effects; design, operation, quality assurance and control of a monitoring system; monitoring of selected pollutants (carbon monoxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, benzene, PAH, lead, cadmium); examples for the presentation of collected air quality data. The conclusions and recommendations emerging from the working group discussion are also presented.
World Health Organization (WHO), Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1999. xvii, 196p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 62.00.
Laraqui C.H., Mounassif M.
Société marocaine d'hygiène, de sécurité et de santé au travail
Safety and health at work, environment, prevention and methods for analysing occupational accidents
Sécurité-santé au travail et environnement et prévention et méthodes d'analyses des accidents du travail [in French]
Proceedings of the 2nd National Convention on occupational hygiene, safety and health held at Rabat, Morocco, from 13 to 14 November 1999. The first part was devoted to occupational safety and health, and the environment. Topics of papers presented: environmental pollution regulations; ambient air surveillance; industrial waste; risks in the tanning industry. The second part dealt with prevention and methods for analysing occupational accidents. Topics of papers presented: statistical study of occupational accidents; ergonomic analysis of accidents and the causal tree method. Several other papers were presented, covering in particular the interpretation of safety posters and shift work.
Laboratoire public d'essais et d'études, 25 Rue d'Azilal, Casablanca, Morocco, 1999. 139p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Dutkiewicz T., Kończalik J
Background on the system of integral evaluation of human exposure to toxic substances in the work and municipal environments
The means of evaluation of combined exposures to toxic chemicals in the work, natural and home environments is described. A system of integrated evaluation of human exposure should take account of all toxic substances occurring in all environmental media (air, water, soil and food), and all routes through which they enter the human body. An integrated evaluation means that it is necessary to develop different exposure scenarios based on dose intake or derived values. Based on toxicological criteria (irritants, short-term and non-cumulative; systemic effets; long-term, carcinogenic, genotoxic, etc.), calculated exposure indicators can be standardized and aggregated, and converted into combined exposure indices. The index value will reflect the level of combined exposure.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.263-271. Illus. 42 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update (49th) to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. This issue includes an updated overview of the analytical methods of the German Research Association (DFG) and the German Association of Engineers (VDI) as well as updates of the Technical Rules (TRGS) 200 (Classification and labelling of substances, preparations and products), 400 (Determination and evaluation of risks due to hazardous substances in the workplace: requirements) 440 (Determination and evaluation of risks due to hazardous substances in the workplace: procedures), 520 (Establishment and operation of collection points and associated temporary storage areas for small quantities of hazardous waste), 554 (Diesel motor emissions), 900 (Exposure limits) and 905 (List of substances that are carcinogenic, genotoxic or pose reproductive hazards). The Federal Notification of 1 Feb 1999 on occupational health and safety management systems and the Biosafety Ordinance (Biostoffverordnung) of 27 Jan. 1999 are reproduced.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 49. Ergänzungslieferung, May 1999. 240p. Bibl.ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update (48th) to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases, abstracted under CIS 90-955. This issue includes: a new discussion of the concept of "breathing zone"; the text of a World Health Organization publication on airborne fibre number concentrations and their determination; updates to the Chemicals Prohibition Ordinance (Chemikalien-Verbotsverordnung), Hazardous Substances Ordinance (Gefahrstoffverordnung), the Federal Exposure Control Law (Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetz) and the unified federal guideline on emission monitoring; the texts of European Directive 98/24/EC on the protection of the health and safety of workers from the risks related to chemical agents at work and of the US detector tube standard (ANSI/ISEA 102-1990); an overview of European standard DIN EN 838 on performance requirements for diffusion samplers. Topics: approval; atmospheric pollution; chemical safety; compendium; dangerous substances; determination in air; directive; European Communities; fibre counts; Germany; law; legislation; manuals; neighbourhood protection.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 48. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb. 1999. 252p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Borak J., Silverstein B.D.
Emergency response plans: The benefits of integration
Topics: nitric acid; dangerous substances; emergency organization; emergency-treatment organization; enforcement; environmental pollution; inspection; legislation; personal protective equipment; plant safety organization; role of government; toxic substances; USA.
Occupational Hazards, Sep. 1999, Vol.61, No.9, p.44-48. Illus. 8 ref.
Building air quality - Action plan
Designed to be used in conjunction with the publication entitled "Building air quality - A guide for building owners and facility managers" (see CIS 92-423), this manual enables building owners and facility managers to develop an action plan for improving indoor air quality (IAQ). The eight-step process involves: designating an IAQ manager; developing the IAQ profile of the building; addressing existing and potential IAQ problems; educating building staff about IAQ; developing a plan for facility operations and maintenance; managing processes with potentially-significant pollution sources; communicating with occupants on the importance of their role in maintaining good IAQ; establishing procedures for responding to IAQ complaints. A check-list for assisting building management in verifying the implementation of the action plan is included.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, June 1998. 31p.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/98-123a.html [in English]
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