Environmental pollution - 665 entries found
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Courtois B., Le Brech A., Diebold F., Lafon D.
Diesel engines and pollution in confined spaces
Moteurs diesel et pollution en espace confiné [in French]
Exhaust fume pollution from internal combustion engines powering heavy-duty mining, materials handling and earthmoving equipment may be important, depending on the site, traffic density and operating frequency. This paper reviews current knowledge in this field and proposes suitable means for limiting the toxic effects of various pollutants. In particular, it focuses on diesel engine-powered off-road vehicles, but also provides information on spark ignition engines on certain road vehicles. Other sections cover the prevention of exposure to both heavy lorry and light vehicle exhaust fumes.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2005, No.201, p.45-62. Illus. 59 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/E9E95C260B221546412570D8004C498A/$FILE/nd2239.pdf [in French]
Exposure to pesticides and workers' health in banana production
La exposición a plaguicidas y la salud de los trabajadores en la producción bananera [in Spanish]
Published by the National Federation of Food Industry Workers, Farmers and Free Indigenous Populations of Ecuador (FENACLE), this leaflet describes the health risks resulting from pesticide exposure and the effects of environmental pollution in banana production. Pesticides used in banana production in Ecuador are listed, citing the hazard class of each substance. While the country has adopted occupational safety and health legislation, it is rarely enforced in this sector of activity.
Fenacle Nacional, Gayaquil, Rumichaca 2206 y Manabí, Edificio Monterrey, 4to piso oficina 4-5, Quito, Ecuador, ca 2005. 6p. Illus.
Concawe Review 14:1
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: development of the European Road Transport Research Advisory Council (ERTRAC); automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; impact of the European framework directive for water quality on the downstream oil industry; safety of European cross-country pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Spring 2005, Vol.14, No.1, p.1-16. Illus.
Treatment of volatile organic compounds in the graphic arts sector
Traitement des composés organiques volatils dans le secteur des industries graphiques [in French]
This article describes the various processes used in the printing and graphic arts industries, provides an overview of the economic importance of the sector and considers the problem of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions with reference to both occupational health and environmental issues. Environmental regulations are examined and methods for reducing emissions during each printing process are described.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2005, No.199, p.55-64. Illus. 17 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/INRS-PUB/inrs01.nsf/inrs01_search_view_view/6EB4A9B58D74E634C1257023004C400B/$FILE/nd2229.pdf [in French]
Lignell U., Meklin T., Putus T., Vepsäläinen A., Roponen M., Torvinen E., Reeslev M., Pennanen S., Hirvonen M.R., Kalliokoski P., Nevalainen A.
Microbial exposure, symptoms and inflammatory mediators in nasal lavage fluid of kitchen and clerical personnel in schools
Microbial investigations were conducted in six moisture-damaged schools and two reference schools. The symptoms of kitchen personnel were investigated by questionnaire and by measurement of inflammatory responses in nasal lavage (NAL) fluid. Total concentrations of airborne microbes were lower in kitchens than in other facilities of the schools. However, the occurrence of moisture damage increased the airborne microbial concentrations both in kitchens and in other facilities. Bacterial concentrations were high on surfaces in the damaged kitchens. Symptoms were prevalent both among kitchen workers and clerical personnel in the moisture-damaged work environments. Median concentrations of inflammatory mediators were slightly higher in NAL samples of kitchen workers than among clerical personnel. It is concluded that kitchen facilities differ from other facilities of the school building and represent a specific type of environment that may affect the health status of the personnel.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2005, Vol.18, No.2, p.139-150. Illus. 51 ref.
Storage of waste: Avoiding and managing accidents
Stockage des déchets: éviter et gérer les accidents [in French]
This article summarizes the findings of a study on accidents having occurred in landfills, household waste storage facilities and similar settings. It describes the various types of accident (fire, explosion, atmospheric release of toxic gases, landslides and floods, and radioactive emissions), together with the means of avoiding or controlling these accidents. Tables summarize the statistics of such accidents having occurred in France by type of event, consequence and cause. Descriptions of several accidents having occurred in France or other countries are also included.
Face au risque, Nov. 2004, No.407, p.9-12. Illus.
Flodin U., Jönsson P.
Non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces and adult onset asthma
The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational exposure to non-sensitizing air pollution at workplaces increases the risk of adult onset asthma. 120 persons with asthma diagnosed by general practitioners were compared with 446 referents matched for age and gender and living in the same community as the cases. Information on occupation, exposure to specific allergens, smoking habits, dwellings and atopy was obtained from a postal questionnaire. It was found that three years or more of work in air-polluted workplaces resulted in an increased odds ratio of 1.7 for asthma. Working in buildings affected by dampness and mould brought a fourfold risk. It is concluded that occupational exposure to unspecific air pollution at workplaces is associated with an increased risk of adult-onset asthma.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan. 2004, Vol.77, No.1, p.17-22. 32 ref.
Concawe Review 13:2
Contents of this review of Concawe's activities: concepts of cost benefit analysis in the Clean Air for Europe (CAFE) programme; cost-effectiveness of NOx abatement in oil refineries; monitoring and reporting of CO2 emissions from oil refineries; implications of EU chemicals control legislation (REACH); gasoline volatility and ethanol effects; motor vehicle emissions and fuel specifications; downstream oil industry safety statistics.
CONCAWE Review, Autumn 2004, Vol.13, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.
Lavoie J., Massé D., Croteau F., Masse L.
Evaluation of the impact of liquid manure additives on workers' exposure and on odour attenuation
Evaluation de l'impact des additifs de lisier sur l'exposition des travailleurs et l'atténuation des odeurs [in French]
Various suppliers have developed additives for liquid manure claimed to be effective for reducing the level of smell and in lowering the emissions of toxic and dangerous gases such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and methane. These assertions are sometimes unfounded and may mislead users into a false sense of security. This report presents a protocol for examining the environmental impact of these liquid manure additives and for evaluating the health hazards of exposed workers. Four additives were evaluated over a period of one year in laboratory conditions simulating the collection and storage of manure in livestock farming. Gases were sampled at regular intervals and subjected to chemical and olfactometric analyses. It was found that the four additives tested had no effect on the physical and chemical properties of the gases and aerosols emitted or on their smell.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. iii, 35p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-376.pdf [in French]
Dewan A., Bhatnagar V.K., Mathur M.L., Chakma T., Kashyap R., Sadhu H.G., Sinha S.N., Saiyed H.N.
Repeated episodes of endosulfan poisoning
A number of families in a rural area of India were affected by repeated episodes of convulsive illness over a period of three weeks. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause of the illness. It included interviews of affected families, discussions with treating physicians, and examination of hospital records. Food samples were also collected and analysed with GC-ECD. 36 persons of all age groups presented convulsive illness symptoms of varying severity over a period of three weeks, including three fatalities among children. Subsequently, patients responded well to medical treatment. Infective aetiology was ruled out. Blood and food samples showed presence of endosulfan, which was confirmed by GC-MS. One of the food items prepared from wheat flour was found to contain 676ppm of α-endosulfan. This report highlights the unsafe behaviour of many illiterate villagers who use empty pesticide containers for food storage.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, June 2004, Vol.42, No.4, p.363-369. Illus. 15 ref.
Hernández Calleja A.
Biological agents: Analysis of samples
Agentes biológicos: análisis de las muestras [in Spanish]
This information note describes the main methods used for analysing and identifying biological agents, applicable to different types of sampling (workplace air, surfaces, substances in powder or liquid form). Contents: selection of the analytical method; culture of microorganisms (bacteria and fungi); counting of colonies; identification of the microorganisms contained in the sample; microscopy (optical, scanning, fluorescent, electronic); bioassays (infectiousness, immunoassays, toxicity studies); genetic tests (hybridization, nucleic acids, PCR); chemical tests (HPLC chromatography, GC-MS). Two tables present methods for sampling and analysis applicable to various types of biological agents as well as diagnosis tests applicable to bacteria.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2004. 10p. Illus. 14 ref.
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/ntp/ntp_611.htm [in Spanish]
Kondzielski I., Gworek B., Buczkowski R.
Biological methods of remediation of the environment polluted by radionuclides
Biologiczne metody remediacji środowiska zanieczyszczonego radionuklidami [in Polish]
This monograph is divided into three parts. The first lists the main characteristics of the most common sources of natural ionizing radiation and pollution by radionuclides, and provides a general description of contemporary methods used for the remediation of environments polluted by radionuclides. The second part provides detailed descriptions of microbiological methods of remediation of environments (groundwater, wastewater, soils and sediments) polluted by radionuclides, including biosorption, bioleaching and microbiological precipitation. The third part deals with the phytoremediation of soils and waters polluted by radionuclides, namely the use of green plants to absorb radioisotopes contained in soils.
Instytut Ochrony Środowiska, ul. Krucza 5/11, 00-548 Warszawa, Poland, 2003. 55p. Illus. 158 ref.
Concawe Review 40 - 1963-2003 - Celebrating 40 years of CONCAWE
On the occasion of CONCAWE's 40th anniversary, this issue is devoted to articles on each of the major fields of its activity. Contents: contributions to air quality; specifications on fuel quality and reduction of emissions; guidance on water and waste management; health aspects; classification, labelling and risk assessment of petroleum products; supporting the oil industry's commitment to safe operations; monitoring the performance of European cross-country oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2003, Vol.12, No.2. p.1-25. (whole issue). Illus.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Optimization of local exhaust systems - Enhanced insights on the thermally- influenced spread of pollutants
Optimierung von Einrichtungen zur Stofferfassung - Erweiterung der Erkenntnisse zur Stoffausbreitung durch Thermik [in German]
This report presents a methodology for designing local exhaust ventilation systems. Experimental and numerical methods for characterizing the interactions between the captured air volume flow, the spread of contaminants and unwanted air movements are reviewed. An exhaust test rig was developed, on which the numerical calculations were verified experimentally. The parameters studied included the velocity of the cross flow, the distance and vertical misalignment between exhaust system and contaminant source, the source intensity and the dimensions of the heat source. Overall eight heat and contaminant sources were investigated using up to six exhaust designs. Based on these tests, new design approaches are proposed. A practical example showing the application of this methodology is included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 158p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: EUR 15.00.
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Risk assessment of substances in the soil
This criteria document gives an extensive overview of the testing procedures needed to perform a risk assessment of hazardous substances present in the soil. Contents: general procedures according to EU and German legislation; exposure evaluation; determination of the effective concentration; test strategy for the risk assessment of substances in the soil.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2003. xiv, 207p. Illus. 98 ref.
http://www.hirzel.de/bua-report/PDF/Summary_Report230.pdf [in English]
Aquatic hazard assessment II
This report presents an update of the ECETOC Aquatic Toxicity (EAT) database. The new database (EAT 3), which contains more than 5450 entries on almost 600 chemicals provides the most comprehensive compilation of highly reliable ecotoxicity data published in the scientific press in the period 1970-2000. Some examples of the use of the EAT 3 database are provided in the report, including comparisons between species, environments, acute and chronic exposures and different life stages. The report also examines the relative sensitivity of life stages of fish and invertebrates and gives recommendations for further work. The CD-ROM containing the EAT3 database is included.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 2003. 164p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. + CD-ROM.
Persistence of chemicals in the environment
This review considers the current definition of persistence of chemicals in the environment, the factors that influence their degradation, methods currently used to measure degradation and the extent to which current standard degradation tests can be used to infer persistence. The review highlights the fact that a single, scientifically-agreed definition of persistence does not exist and that regulatory bodies evaluate the persistence of chemical substances in an inconsistent manner. The areas where further research is required are also discussed. In particular, the need to understand the quantitative impact of the different factors governing biodegradation rates in the environment.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 2003. 195p. Illus. 244 ref.
Effectiveness of local exhaust systems
Skuteczność urządzeń wentylacji miejscowej wywiewnej [in Polish]
This article presents current standardization efforts for evaluating the parameters connected with the emission of airborne dust from machinery and devices and assessing the effectiveness of exhaust ventilation systems. It discusses methods used in Germany and Poland. The results of measurements of the emission of dust generated during machining using hand-held power tools and a bench grinder are presented, as well as results of testing the effectiveness of dust removal by local exhaust systems.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, June 2003, No.6, p.24-28. Illus. 11 ref.
The protection factor - A basis for selecting respirators
Wskaźnik ochrony - podstawowe kryterium doboru sprzętu ochrony układu oddechowego [in Polish]
This article presents the concept of the "protection factor" and discusses its application for selecting respirators. It presents the results of studies conducted in the European Union and in the United States, as well as a method for determining the protection factor for different types of respirators.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.25-27. Illus. 10 ref.
Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment
Nitrowe pochodne wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych w środowisku [in Polish]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (nitro-PAHs) are present in the environment. They are derived from products of natural origin, and are also formed as a result of thermal processes. These compounds are classified as harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic. They pollute the atmosphere, the workplace air and various other parts of the environment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.17-20. Illus. 9 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (see CIS 90-955). Contents: updates of analytical methods and several laws, ordinances and technical rules on dangerous substances, biological substances and protection against immissions; directory of European standards for the implementation of directive 94/9/CE; national emission ceilings for certain atmospheric pollutants (2001/81/CE).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 62. Ergänzungslieferung, May 2003. 236p. Bibl.ref.
Estrada Lara O., García Ramos P.S.
Evaluation of the environmental consequences of major accidents (Seveso II)
Evaluación de las consecuencias medioambientales de accidentes graves (Seveso II) [in Spanish]
This article presents an approach for evaluating the consequences of major accidents subject to the Seveso II Directive (CIS 97-1079). It is based on the UNE 150 008 EX standard, and aims to quantify various parameters (quantity of the substance, dangerousness, spread and quality) as a function of the type of environment considered (surface waters, atmosphere, water mass, water beds, shores, land and underground waters). This approach was then applied to a real-life case of an organic chemicals warehouse located in a coastal region of major ecological significance. Various accident hypotheses were taken into account. The results of the calculations for the case of an accidental spill are presented.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2003, Vol.23, No.91, p.19-31. Illus. 9 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 1 April 2002 - 31 March 2003
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2003. 215 incidents were reported; 60 complaints alleged ill health, while 155 involved other issues to do with pesticide use. Compared to 2001/2002, there is an increase of 48 incidents; there was also an increase of 9% compared to the average of the previous ten years . Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and five case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2003. 27p. Illus. 9 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fod/pir0203.pdf [in English]
Grant K.A., Garland J.G., Joachim T.C., Wallen A., Vital T.
Achieving health, safety, and performance improvements through enhanced cost visibility and workplace partnerships
Reduction in the environment, safety and occupational health (ESOH) component of operational costs requires not only a better understanding of ESOH costs and requirements, but also the formation of effective partnerships between ESOH professionals, finance personnel and shop workers to identify viable improvements to current practices. This article presents two case studies of efforts to enhance productivity and lower ESOH-related costs in corrosion control facilities at two air force bases in the United States. At each site, activity-based cost models were created to increase the visibility of ESOH-related costs and target improvement opportunities. Analysis of the aircraft strip-and-paint processes revealed that a large proportion of operating costs were tied to ESOH requirements and practices. In each case ESOH professionals teamed with shop personnel to identify potential improvements in personal protective equipment use, waste disposal, tool selection, and work methods. This approach yielded alternatives projected to reduce total shop costs by 5-7%.
AIHA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.660-667. Illus. 11 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: updates of the ordinance on the prohibition of chemical substances and the ordinance on dangerous substances; overhaul of the following technical rules (TRGS): classification and labelling of substances, preparations and dangerous products (200); fumigation (512) and list of sensitizing agents (907); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): determination of dangerous substances and analytical methods for substitution products (440), list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), biological limit values at the workplace (903) and list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905).
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 61. Ergänzungslieferung, Feb. 2003. 224p. Bibl.ref.
Piltingsrud H.V., Zimmer A.T., Rourke A.B.
The development of substitute inks and controls for reducing workplace concentrations of organic solvent vapors in a vinyl shower curtain printing plant
In order to comply with US regulations with respect to the discharge of volatile organic compounds, a PVC shower curtain printing company had installed a catalytic oxidizer. However, the low flow rates of the equipment resulted in high solvent concentrations within the workplace environment, causing worker discomfort. On investigation, solvent vapour concentrations were found to exceed NIOSH, OSHA and ACGIH acceptable exposure levels. The workers were required to wear organic vapour removing respirators full-time while printing. The company requested NIOSH assistance in finding methods to reduce solvent vapour concentrations. NIOSH recommendations included technical controls for the emissions and the use of substitute inks. The new ink system and controls allowed the removal of the requirement for the treatment of discharged air, and the substantial increases in dilution ventilation thus achievable reduced worker exposures and waived the requirements for respirator usage.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Aug. 2003, Vol.18, No.8, p.597-619. Illus. 16 ref.
El-Fadel M., El-Hougeiri N.
Indoor air quality and occupational exposures at a bus terminal
Assessment of indoor air quality was inestigated at a bus terminal. For this purpose, field surveys were conducted, and air samples were collected and analysed for the presence of selected indoor air quality indicators. Mathematical modelling was performed to simulate bus emission rates, occupational exposure and ventilation requirements to maintain acceptable indoor air quality. A sensitivity analysis based on literature-derived emission rate estimates was conducted to evaluate the effect of seasonal temperature changes within the terminal. It was found that carbon monoxide and suspended particulate concentrations generally exceeded recommended levels. Modelling results showed that the natural ventilation rate should be at least doubled for acceptable indoor air quality.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2003, Vol.18, No.7, p.513-522. Illus. 32 ref.
Concawe Review 12:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to the limitation of CO2 emissions. Contents: the "well-to-wheels" study, aimed at establishing the energy and greenhouse-gas balances for a number of fuel and power train combinations; new technologies for sulfur-free fuels; emissions from modern gasoline-engine vehicles; update of the model of the European refining industry; establishing air quality limit values; oil in water analysis; exposure of asphalt workers to bitumen fumes; trends in the reduction of occupational exposure to gasoline vapours.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2003, Vol.12, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG)
Kontaminierte Bereiche [in German]
This update of the guidelines of the German Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association of April 1997 concerning work in contaminated sites applies to work such as repair, demolition or renovation work, the treatment of contaminated wastewater, soil or concentrates of harmful substances, the treatment or displacement of substances in landfills as well as the rehabilitation of buildings or premises after fires. It defines the responsibilities of principals and contractors, limitations of employment (young persons, women, solitary work), requirements which apply to specific types of activities and hazards (biological hazards, explosive atmospheres), requirements with respect to documentation on dangerous substances, surveying and sampling, supervision of work, fire protection, first aid, rescue, emergency cards that workers have to carry at all times, work instructions, medical examinations, personal protective equipment and skin protection. Appendices include: examples of various documents (reporting of work, emergency cards, work plans and safety plans, work instructions); required qualifications for experts; related directives, rules and standards. Previous edition: ZH 1/183 (see CIS 93-470). Replaced by a new edition in 2006.
Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 2002. 62p.
Abdel-Shafy H.I., Hegemann W., Schenk H., Wilke A.
Decreasing the level of heavy metals by aerobic treatment of tannery wastewater
In this study, the efficiency of an aerobic process for the treatment of tannery wastewater as well as the level of heavy metals throughout this process were investigated. The level of chromium in the produced sludge and the treated wastewater was evaluated. The adsorption isotherm of the "free metal sludge" for chromium was also studied. The study was carried out in a continuously controlled pilot plant system. Results show that the aerobic treatment reduced the chemical oxygen demands (COD) of the wastewater. Heavy metals were concentrated mostly in the sludge. Chromium was eliminated in the wastewater by 46.3%. The levels of the other metals were also reduced with a range of elimination from 19% for zinc to 58.3% for manganese. Nevertheless, the concentrations of chromium both in treated wastewater and sludge exceeded the permissible level. It is recommended that further treatment be applied to decrease chromium to the permissible level.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2002, Vol.8, No.4, p.298-309. Illus. 20 ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: overhaul of the law on chemical substances; new technical instruction (TA) on air protection; introduction of Directive 1999/45/EC on the classification, labelling and packaging of dangerous preparations.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 60. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2002. 276p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of directive 67/548/EEC on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances and of directive 91/155/EEC on safety data sheets; update of four ordinances implementing the Federal Law on the control of atmospheric pollution (BImSchV); overhaul of the technical rules (TRGS) on safety data sheets (220); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): identification and evaluation of hazards due to dangerous substances at the workplace (420), list of maximum permissible concentrations at the place of work (900), biological limit values at the workplace (903) and list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances having reproductive toxicity (905); introduction of COM/2002/0118, a new community on health and safety and health at work 2002-2006.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 59. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2002. 270p. Bibl.ref.
Berkowitz Z., Orr M.F., Kaye W.E., Haugh G.S.
Hazardous substances emergency events in the agriculture industry and related services in four mid-western states
Analysis of surveillance data reported from 14 states between 1993 and 1998 found that acute releases of hazardous substances are seasonal. This seasonality was more prevalent in four Midwestern states during April-June and coincided with their planting season, suggesting an association of these releases with the agricultural industry. A more detailed analysis found that ammonia was the chemical most frequently released, and ammonia-related events resulted in a significantly higher number of evacuations than all other events (Odds Ratio (OR) = 10.7). For incidents resulting in victims, a logistic regression model found an increased risk for events with ammonia during April-June (adjusted OR=3.57), events in fixed facilities during April-June (OR=3.74) and events with multiple substances (OR=2.33). The most common causes for the events were equipment failure and human error. Resulting injuries were mainly respiratory, ocular and traumatic, and included six deaths.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.44, No.8, p.714-723. Illus. 19 ref.
Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC)
Global mercury assessment
This report contains extensive information on a number of topics relevant to the adverse impacts of mercury on human health and the environment, together with options to reduce these impacts. Contents: scope an purpose of the report; chemistry of mercury; toxicology; current mercury exposures and risk evaluation for humans; impact of mercury on the environment; sources and cycling of mercury to the global environment; current production and use of mercury; prevention and control technologies and practices; initiatives for controlling releases and limiting use and exposure; data and information gaps; options for addressing any significant global adverse impacts. The appendix gives an overview of existing and future national actions relevant to mercury, including legislation.
UNEP Chemicals International Environmental House, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 2002. viii, 258p. Illus. 427 ref. (report); 71p. (appendix).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/mercury/Report/GMA-report-TOC.htm [in English]
Concawe Review 11:2
Contents of this review of CONCAWE's activities: report on progress on key issues in which CONCAWE is currently involved; research on road transport and alternative fuels; aromatics in automotive fuel specifications; AIRNET, a network of researchers and organizations working towards the improvement of air quality in Europe; trends in refinery sulfur emission in Europe; report on the 6th CONCAWE pipeline seminar.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2002, Vol.11, No.2, p.1-21. Illus.
Concawe Review 11:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to emission reduction. Contents: economic aspects of biofuel production; SO2 emissions from ships in Europe; the refinery best available technique (BAT) reference document; emissions from modern diesel engines; specifications for non-road diesel fuel use; 30 years of spillage performance monitoring in Western European oil pipelines.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2002, Vol.11, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.
Fernández Sánchez C., Jiménez Jado N.E.
Electrochemical recycling of acid solutions of aromatic nitro compounds
Reciclado electroquímico de compuestos nitroaromáticos disueltos en medios ácidos [in Spanish]
Aromatic nitro compounds are among the most common industrial pollutants. They are used in inks and dyes, in the pharmaceutical industry and cosmetics, and in explosives. In this article, an experimental electrochemical method for the recycling of effluents contaminated with aromatic nitro compounds is proposed, and the influence of various parameters (temperature, current density, electrolyte concentration) and their interactions on the decomposition of these compounds are studied. A comparative study indicated that these parameters do not influence their degradation in sulfuric acid, while the best results are obtained in sulfuric acid concentrations of 96%. Electrochemical methods represent a viable alternative to biodegradation.
Mapfre seguridad, 3rd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.87, p.9-15. Illus. 6 ref.
Seillan H., Vasseron P., Dupuis M.C.
Les risques industriels [in French]
Topics addressed in this collection of articles on major hazards: comment by the Director of the French Department of Pollution and Hazard Prevention; study by the French Ministry of Ecology and Sustainable Development presenting the list of technological accidents which occurred in 2002 (overall data, sources of information, types of occurrences, sectors of the economy affected, main classes of chemicals involved, consequences, trends in fatal accidents in France); interview with a responsible person from the French service concerned with the industrial environment; field report in a locality having experienced an important industrial fire close to a "Seveso"-classified facility; consultation and communication using geographic information systems (GISs).
Préventique-Sécurité, Sep.-Oct. 2002, No.65, p.4-39. Illus.
Health and Safety Executive
Pesticide incidents - Report 2001/2002
This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the UK Health and Safety Executive between April 2001 and March 2002. 167 incidents were reported; 63 of these alleged ill health, while 104 environmental and other complaints did not allege ill health. Trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and seven case studies of specific incidents are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 27p. Illus. 7 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/fod/pir0102.pdf [in English]
Kleinerman R.A., Wang Z., Wang L., Metayer C., Zhang S.Z., Brenner A.V., Zhang S.R., Xia Y., Shang B., Lubin J.H.
Lung cancer and indoor exposure to coal and biomass in rural China
Incomplete combustion of coal in homes has been linked with lung cancer in China. This article reports on a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where many residents live in underground dwellings and burn coal and unprocessed biomass (crop residues, wood, sticks and twigs) for heating and cooking. 846 patients with lung cancer (626 men and 220 women, aged 30 to 75) diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and 1740 population-based controls were interviewed. The odds ratio for lung cancer associated with coal use compared with that for biomass in the house of longest residence was 1.29, adjusted for smoking and socioeconomic status. The risk for lung cancer increased relative to the percentage of time that coal was used over the past 30 years. The findings suggest that coal may contribute to the risk of lung cancer in this rural area of China.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.338-344. 28 ref.
Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Lee E., Khan J.
Improving the use of mixing factors for dilution ventilation design
A safety factor is often used when specifying the dilution ventilation flow rate to compensate for uncertainties and health impact severity. The component of the safety factor accounting for imperfect mixing, Km, was studied for the purpose of developing more effective design procedures. Air flow and contaminant distribution were simulated for steady, isothermal conditions using computational fluid dynamics. A series of ten simulations explored factorial combinations of air exchange rate and inlet types. This work suggests that air quality data can be used to calculate dilution flow rate requirements. Also, dilution flow rate requirements may be reduced by enhancing room mixing with fans or altering air inlet configuration. However, mixing should not be increased if the altered room air currents could transport contaminants to an occupant's breathing zone or interfere with other control methods that depend on segregation of incoming air and contaminant.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.333-343. Illus. 19 ref.
Martins L.C., do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre M., do Nascimento Saldiva P.H., Ferreira Braga A.L.
Air pollution and emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory diseases in the elderly: An ecological time-series study in São Paulo, Brazil
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of daily air pollution levels (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic profile <10µm) on morbidity by using the daily number of emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) in people older than 64 years of age in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1996 to 1998. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, adjusted for long-time trends and weather, day of the week, and daily number of non-respiratory admissions. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were the pollutants statistically associated with CLRD visits. Increases in the 6-day moving average of sulfur dioxide (17.82µg/m3) and in the 4-day moving average of ozone (35.87µg/m3) increased CLRD emergency room visits in 18% and 14%, respectively. These results reinforce the idea that air pollution may promote adverse health effects in the elderly.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.622-627. Illus. 29 ref.
Wafta N., Awan S., Goodson R.
Safety in the use of chemicals for secondary school education
Al-salāma fī isti(māl al-mawāddal-kīmīyā'iya - dalīl muraja(ī ta@lhīmī [in Arabic]
Although chemicals play a crucial role in food production, the fight against diseases and the promotion of new advances in modern technology, they have the potential to cause serious harm to workers, the public and the environment if improperly handled. A safety culture aimed at the promotion of safety, health and well-being at work has therefore to be established, and school education is paramount for meeting this objective. Contents of this publication aimed at secondary education: ways of exposure of the human body to chemicals; health and safety problems caused by chemicals; environmental impact of chemicals; safety in the use of chemicals; monitoring exposure to chemicals; managing exposure to chemicals; control of major industrial accidents; legislation of chemical safety.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 109p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/papers/schoolch/ [in English]
Aquatic toxicity of mixtures
The inherent toxicity of a substance to aquatic organisms is typically determined via single-species laboratory tests. Results from these tests are used to determine a Predicted No Effect Concentration (PNEC) for ecosystems for each substance. Since organisms in the environment are exposed simultaneously to a wide range of substances, it is important to understand the potential effects of mixtures to aquatic organisms. The effects of mixtures can be generally categorized as additive (corresponding to the addition of toxicities for each mixture component are considered additive), greater than additive (synergism) and less than additive (antagonism). This document examines acute and chronic toxicity of mixtures of metals, pesticides, surfactants and general chemicals in laboratory tests and describes different approaches for assessing the toxic effects of mixtures of substances in the environment.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, July 2001. 64p. Illus. 159 ref.
Exposure factors sourcebook for European populations (with focus on UK data)
This document summarizes the available exposure factor data for European populations for use in risk-based decision making, with a particular focus on UK data. The factors selected are those most relevant used in risk-based decision making for contaminated land sites. The information includes physiological parameters (adult and child body weight, total skin surface area, surface area of specific body parts, life expectancy), time-activity parameters (weekly work hours, day hours at home/away, time indoors/outdoors, daily school hours, school time indoors, outdoor recreation, shower duration, and employer, residential and school tenure) and receptor contact rates (soil ingestion rates, adherence to skin, inhalation short/long term rates, food consumption rates, home grown vegetable and fruit consumption rate, fish and shellfish consumption rate, drinking water consumption rate, breast milk consumption rate). The information presented in this document can be applied across sites to develop estimates of exposure to various environmental media.
European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2001. 119p. Illus. 120 ref.
Pollution control on work premises
Ograniczanie emisji zanieczyszczeń w pomieszczeniach pracy [in Polish]
This publication describes the various types of ventilation and dust-removal systems. It is aimed at helping to select means of controlling internal air pollution in the work environment.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2001. 71p. Illus. 30 ref.
Concawe Review 10:2
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to improvements of air quality. Contents: future EU air legislation; implications of the revised large combustion plant directive for the EU refining industry; automotive particulate emissions; impact of the use of hydrogen on CO2 emissions; comment on the "whole effluent assessment" concept; downstream industry safety statistics; CONCAWE's role in the reorganization of the European Union.
CONCAWE Review, Oct. 2001, Vol.10, No.2, p.1-24. Illus.
Concawe Review 10:1
Topics covered in this review of CONCAWE's activities relate mainly to air quality. Contents: validity of model predictions for air quality confirmed by measurements in London; update of a report on motor vehicle emission regulations and fuel specifications; automotive emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; effect of tougher specifications on diesel supply; health issues of oil industry and products; hearing trends in noise-exposed oil refinery workers; dangerous preparations directive; integrity of pipelines in Western Europe.
CONCAWE Review, Apr. 2001, Vol.10, No.1, p.1-24. Illus.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: update of appendices I and II of the Law on Chemicals (BPL); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): determination and evaluation of hazards from dangerous substances at the place of work (440), general requirements for laboratories (526), maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900), values of tolerable concentrations of industrial substances in the body (903) and list of substances classified as being carcinogenic, mutagenic or having reproductive toxicity (905); update of the Law on the Safety of Equipment, the Law on the Protection from Emissions and the Law on Occupational Safety and Health; Directive 2000/69/EC which sets health-based limit values for carbon monoxide and benzene in breathing air; Directive 2000/54/EC on the protection of workers from risks related to exposure to biological agents at work.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 56. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.
Analysis of dangerous substances
Gefahrstoff-Analytik [in German]
Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Contents: list of ISO standards on controlling the quality of workplace air and workplaces; directory of European "air quality" standards CEN/TC 264; European directives concerning the accreditation for quality assurance; technical rules applicable to formaldehyde or ethylene oxide fumigations in sterilization or disinfection installations (TRGS 513); update of the following technical rules (TRGS): pollution clean-up and work in contaminated areas (524), handling of substances, preparations and products containing dibenzo-p-dioxines and polyhalogenated dibenzofuranes (557) and maximum admissible concentrations at the place of work (900); aerosols directive 75/324/EEC; Directive 89/655/EEC concerning the minimum safety and health requirements for the use of work equipment by workers at work; Directive 2000/39/EC establishing a first list of indicative occupational exposure limit values; Directive 1999/92/EC on minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers potentially at risk from explosive atmospheres.
Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 55. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 2001. 238p. Bibl.ref.
De Berardis B., Paoletti L.
Characterization of the thoracic fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area and in an adjacent office building
Caratterizzazione della frazione toracica (PM10) del particolato aerodisperso in un sito urbano ed in un ambiente indoor limitrofo [in Italian]
Airborne particulate matter (PM10) was collected in an urban area (in Rome, Italy) and in an adjacent office building. Samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. A statistical analysis method allowed to identify seven groups of similar particles in the particulate matter and a seasonal trend was demonstrated with an increase in the aluminium-silicate particles and a minor increment in sulfate particles during summer. The results suggest that the characteristics of indoor PM10 depend mostly on the nature of outdoor particulates in the vicinity.
Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 19 ref.
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