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Visual display terminals (VDTs) - 595 entries found

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CIS 98-193
Health and Safety Executive
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992
Data sheet on legal requirements for display screen equipment in the health services (United Kingdom), 1993. Topics: comment on law; CRT display terminals; data sheet; health services; responsibilities of employees; responsibilities of employers; United Kingdom.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Apr. 1993. 2p. 1 ref.

CIS 96-1361 Hughes M.M.
Computer health hazards
A very comprehensive annotated bibliography of the (primarily English-language) scientific and popular literature on the health effects of visual display terminal (VDT) use. Vol.1 covers the field up to middle 1990, while Vol.2 covers it from late 1990 to 1992. Items are classified by broad subject area: emissions (radiation sources, VDTs); health hazards (cancer, cardiovascular, dermatological, immunological, gastrointestinal, neurological, reproductive, repetitive strain injury, stress, vision); legal aspects (including litigation); legislative and regulatory aspects (US federal and State, international, professional societies); workers' compensation; monitoring; noise; prevention; safety; sick building syndrome; glossary. In annex: excerpts from relevant articles and reports.
Hughes Press, 2400 Virginia Ave. NW, Box C501, Washington DC 20037, USA, 1990, 1993. 2 vols. (vii, 67 + xv, 132p.). Illus. Bibl.ref. Indexes. Price: USD 25.00 per vol.

CIS 95-614 Gallimore J.J., Brown M.E.
Effectiveness of the C-Sharp - Reducing ergonomics problems at VDTs
An ergonomic analysis was made of the 'C-Sharp' device, a system of mirrors designed to minimize the visual strain of long-term VDT use by reducing the amount of muscular work associated with accommodation and convergence to near targets. The device is also designed to eliminate glare. The C-Sharp effectively reduces glare; it is not detrimental to operator performance; it allows bifocal wearers to keep their necks in natural postures rather than tilted backwards. However, postures are somewhat constrained and there is no evidence that the device will reduce temporary myopia caused by near work.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.5, p.327-336. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 94-2131 Shima M., Nitta Y., Iwasaki A., Adachi M.
Investigation of VDT users' subjective symptoms and the factors influencing them. Analysis by log-linear models
VDT sagyō ni tomonau jikaku shōjō ni eikyō o oyobosu inshi no kento. Taisū-senkei moderu ni yoru kaiseki [in Japanese]
A questionnaire survey was conducted among 249 university clerical workers. Data on 13 visual complaints, four musculoskeletal complaints and headache were tabulated, together with data on the number of hours per day and days per week spent on work with video display terminals. In terms of use per day, there was a significant difference between the prevalence of complaints among non-users and users of VDTs, but no difference between light-use (1-3h) and heavy-use (4h or more) groups. In terms of weekly use, visual complaints increased with intensity (1-2 days, 3-4 days and 5 days or more), but an elevated prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was seen only in the 5+ day group). The relation of complaints to workload is discussed.
Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 15 Feb. 1993, Vol.47, No.6, p.1032-1040. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 94-1626 Cail F., Floru R.
Work schedule of visual display unit operators
Organisation temporelle du travail sur écran de visualisation [in French]
This literature review (which replaces article abstracted under CIS 91-1192) describes field and laboratory studies demonstrating how the length of time spent working on VDUs can affect the occurrence and deterioration of symptoms of visual, postural and psychological strains. Experimental studies on the effects of various rest periods allocation on the performance and physiological responses during VDU work are then examined. Several proposals and recommendations on work/rest schedules for VDU operators are discussed.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 1993, No.153, Note No.1944-153-93, p.551-556. 57 ref.

CIS 94-1538 The common sense guide to VDU safety
This videotape is part of the The Common Sense Guide Office Safety Kit, which also contains another videotape (on office safety in general, see CIS 94-1537) and study notes (with checklists). The main aspects of VDU safety covered are: the VDU environment (access, layout, heating, ventilation, lighting); desks and workspaces (sufficient space, ergonomics of VDU work, screen flicker, screen brightness, reflections).
John Burder Films, 7 Saltcoats Road, London W4 1AR, United Kingdom, 199?. Videotape (PAL). Length: 13min. Price: GBP 250.00 (sale), GBP 75.00 (hire) + VAT and p/p.

CIS 94-1258 Gratton I., Piccoli B., Pierini F., Bergamaschi A.
Medium-term variations of visual function in VDT operators - Observation of 70 cases
Variazioni a medio termine della funzionalità visiva in operatori VDT - Osservazioni di 70 casi [in Italian]
The aim of the study was to evaluate medium-term variations of visual functions in 70 VDT operators in function of their VDT exposure. Clinical records of the operators were reviewed in order to evaluate the variation of visual parameters (refraction, phorias, fusional convergence and divergence, stereopsis) after a 2yr follow-up. Subjects affected by hyperopia, large ametropias, or binocular vision disturbances were excluded from the study. The operators were divided into two subgroups: low exposures (n=20; <4h/day) and high exposures (n=50; >4h/day). Asthenopia was frequent in both groups. Variation of refraction and binocular vision parameters was absent or rather limited in both groups. This indicates that in subjects without significant ophthalmological problems the risk of permanent functional damage is very low at medium-term.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.482-486. 13 ref.

CIS 94-1385 Ziegler J.F., Zabel T.H., Curtis H.W.
Video display terminals and radon
Recent reports indicate that video display terminals (VDTs) can collect radon daughters from the air. This occurs especially when they are turned off and may have negative electric fields which attract positively charged radioactive dust. Various techniques were evaluated for removing the gettered radioactivity while the video display terminal is both off and on. An evaluation was also made of what happens when the video display terminal is switched, thereby reversing the electric field near the screen. In addition, possible inhalation effects experienced by a video display terminal operator during field reversal were studied; it was found that although some radioactivity may be released during the cycle, room air currents redistribute it into the room with no detectable levels being inhaled by users.
Health Physics, Sep. 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.252-264. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-936 VDU work and the hazards to health
Contents of this manual: visual problems associated with VDU work (workstation design, job design, eyesight testing and long-term eye damage); skin problems (effects of environmental factors, static electricity and stress); reproductive hazards (menstrual disorders, infertility, miscarriage, epidemiological studies, mechanisms for effects); repetition strain injuries (RSI) (types and causes of RSI, diagnosis and treatment, prevention, compensation, organizing for safety); general health (stress, cancer, ion effects and electrostatic fields, electrical hypersensitivity, ozone from printers); screen technology (radiation and electromagnetic and electrostatic fields); VDU work and the law; workplace ergonomics and the Display Screen Equipment Regulations (CIS 93-24).
London Hazards Centre, Headland House, 308 Gray's Inn Road, London WC1X 8DS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1993. ii, 136p. Illus. 58 ref. Index. Price: GBP 6.50.

CIS 94-934 Cail F., Floru R.
Work with visual display units and health literature review
Travail sur écran de visualisation et santé. Revue bibliographique. [in French]
The increasing use of visual display units (VDUs) calls for an examination of the health risks faced by operators. This article is the result of a review of all studies, research and surveys which have been carried out to date on the subject. The main themes covered are risks during pregnancy, skin disorders, visual disorders, musculoskeletal system disorders and stress. Findings for each of these topics are summarized. Judging by most recent data, the screen itself poses no threat to operators. However, using screens under unsatisfactory conditions does contribute to the onset of health disorders. This information sheet updates the Note No.1613-126-87 abstracted under CIS 87-1102.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.152, Note No.1938-152-93, p.461-476. 232 ref.

CIS 94-602 Pascarelli E.F., Kella J.J.
Soft-tissue injuries related to use of the computer keyboard - A clinical study of 53 severely injured persons
Both the physiology of injury and ergonomic factors were studied in detail in 53 disabled keyboard operators who complained of pain in the upper extremities. It was found that changes in the workstation (extrinsic ergonomic factors) may not be adequate treatment. Individual intrinsic ergonomic factors (i.e. inefficient typing styles) must also be recognized and corrected by a combination of physical therapy, conditioning, technique retraining and counselling. Two persons in the sample were also "mouse" users, and the ergonomics of this computer peripheral device is also discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1993, Vol.35, No.5, p.522-532. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 94-603 Approved Code of Practice for the safe use of visual display units
This Code sets minimum standards for employers and employees who install and use visual display units; the requirements of the Code also apply to manufacturers and suppliers of this equipment. Contents: technical information (definitions of technical terms, image formation and legibility of the display); specific problems associated with the use of VDUs (visual and postural fatigue, occupational overuse syndrome, photogenic epilepsy, radiation, facial dermatitis, stress, pregnancy and VDU work, remedies); provisions for design and operation of the screen, keyboard and workstation; provisions for the working environment; prevention of occupational overuse syndrome; work organization.
Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, Oct. 1993. 39p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: NZD 10.00.

CIS 94-10
Labour Inspectorate (Arbeidsinspectie)
Working with visual display units [Netherlands]
Werken met beeldschermen [in Dutch]
This publication gives information on the health problems related to work with visual display units (VDUs). Furthermore, a large number of requirements and recommendations are given in order to avoid problems with VDU work, based on legislation introduced as a result of the EC directive 90/270/EEC "Working with VDUs" (CIS 90-1069). Attention is given to: requirements for the organization of work and job content, requirements for workplace design, eye testing and glasses, requirements for the man-machine interaction. Also included is a checklist that allows the operator to examine his/her work situation according to the requirements and recommendations given in the publication. Replacement of the document abstracted as CIS 83-392.
SDU Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat, Afdeling Verkoop Publikaties Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 20014, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, 1993. 53p. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 93-1919 Cail F.
Data presentation on VDU screen - Review of the literature
Présentation de l'information sur écran de visualisation - Revue bibliographique [in French]
This data sheet (which cancels and replaces data sheet ND 1580-123-86, CIS 86-980) concerns the visual coding of information on visual display screens, such as page layout (density, display format, windows, etc.), light codings (inverse video, blinking, colour, etc.), typographic and graphic codings. Most of the configurations proposed on the basis of a review of the latest literature are designed to improve the presentation of information on screen in order to reduce the risk of confusion, to make relevant data stand out better and to facilitate the operator's task in processing these data. The recommendations sometimes differ, however, according to the type of operator and the type of task. Before making any changes, it is therefore important to study the operator tasks and to consult the operators themselves.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 2nd Quarter 1993, No.151, Note No.1928-151-93, p.305-312. 78 ref.


CIS 97-145 Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V.
Fecundity and the use of video display terminals
Data on waiting time to pregnancy, occupational exposures, and life-style factors were obtained for a random sample of 2252 pregnancies among commercial and clerical employees in Denmark. Overall exposure to a video display terminal indicated a slightly increased association with prolonged waiting time to pregnancy. A significant association was observed for self-reported high exposures (≥ 21h per week), but this finding was based on a small number of persons. Limitations of the study are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Oct. 1992, Vol.18, No.5, p.298-301. 19 ref.

CIS 96-1186 Work with visual display units [Sweden]
Arbete vid bildskärm [in Swedish]
This regulation came into force on 1 January 1993. It supersedes AFS 1985:12 (CIS 86-1252) with the same title. It applies to work with CRT display terminals and covers: design of display, keyboard and lighting; design of workstation in accordance with ergonomical principles; vision tests; monotonous work tasks; environmental hazards such as noise, heat, electric and magnetic fields; design of software; advice for compliance with the regulation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, Box 1300, 171 25 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 14 p. Illus.

CIS 95-2298 Hahn H.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Job rotation in office and administration work
Mischarbeit in Büro und Verwaltung [in German]
Word processing causes mental and unilateral stress and strains the eyes, neck and shoulders. Models of job enrichment and job rotation are presented for office employees such as secretaries and clerks to relieve strain caused by work solely on visual display screens. The service centre model, for example, combines word processing with all other possible secretarial duties. Three groups of duties are performed at three workplaces shared by several secretaries who switch from one to the other according to a fixed schedule.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft GmbH., Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 2850 Bremerhaven 1, Germany, 1992. 93p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: DEM 21.50.

CIS 95-364 Lee K., Swanson N., Sauter S., Wickstrom R., Waikar A., Mangum M.
A review of physical exercises recommended for VDT operators
An evaluation of 127 exercises recommended for the prevention of musculoskeletal discomfort among VDT operators is presented. In general, the prepared instructions were satisfactory and the exercises could be readily performed at the workstation. However, many were conspicuous and potentially embarrassing to perform or would significantly disrupt the work routine. A number posed potential safety hazards, exacerbated biomechanical stresses common to VDT work or were contraindicated for persons with certain health problems. Findings suggest a need for greater attention to both the practical and therapeutic aspects of such exercises.
Applied Ergonomics, Dec. 1992, Vol.23, No.6, p.387-408. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 95-97 Visual display health & safety package - The UK regulations: Strategy for safety
This video programme, aimed at managers and workers using visual display units (VDUs), explains how to implement new legislation concerning the use of VDUs in the workplace. Two manuals accompany the programme: The EC Directive - Strategy for safety and In your own interest - User manual (illustrated guide to sitting posture, proper use of arms and shoulders, screen legibility and daily checklist for VDU operators).
CCD Products Ltd., Allen House, Egham, Surrey TW20 9LB, United Kingdom, 1992. 1 video cassette + 2 manuals (iii, 13 + 35p., Illus.).

CIS 94-1874 In your own interest - Visual display health & safety package
This videotape is designed for the training of visual display unit (VDU) users, particularly from an ergonomic point of view. Some of the topics covered: correct sitting posture, workstation organization, work-break schedules, repetitive strain injury, work-related upper limb disorders, eye problems, backache.
CCD Products Ltd., Allen House, Egham, Surrey TW20 9LB, United Kingdom, 1992. Videocassette (18min). Price: GBP 170.00.

CIS 94-1086 Fleischer A.G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Visual information processing with visual display units
Visuelle Informationsverarbeitung bei der Bildschirmarbeit [in German]
This report presents an analysis of the behavioural patterns during the performance of different tasks when working with a word processor, in order to obtain better criteria for the description of this kind of workload. Eye and head movements were recorded in conjunction with the keys typed. This allowed the quantification of the visual and mental processes during this kind of work. The observed complex behavioural pattern points to the necessity of more legible screen characters, better break schedules and improved job design. Summaries in English, German and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. viii, 114p. Illus. 86 ref.

CIS 94-1050 Bauer D.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz
Evaluation of visual problems with colour CRT screens
Evaluierung visueller Probleme bei Farbrasterschirmen [in German]
While using colour coding of characters on VDUs vision problems arise that do not exist with monochrome screens. These problems, that include chromatic aberrations, double contours and stroke sharpness, involve both the visual transmission properties of colour perception and the technical realization of colour CRTs. There is no systematic way to make the best possible choice of colours. It is concluded that if most of these problems are to be avoided, the monitor's colour space should be significantly reduced. Summaries in German, English and French.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1992. ix, 216p. Illus.

CIS 94-601 Schleifer L.M.
Electronic performance monitoring
This special issue of Applied Ergonomics contains seven papers dealing with the important problems of electronic performance monitoring (EPM). Contents: electronic performance monitoring (Schleifer L.M.); stress, computer-based work monitoring and measurement systems - a conceptual overview (Amick III. B.C.; Smith M.J.); employee stress and health complaints in jobs with and without EPM (Smith M.J.; Carayon P.; Sanders K.J.; Lim S.Y.; LeGrande D.); operator stress and monitoring practices (DiTecco D.; Cwitco G.; Arsenault A.; André M.); two key factors that belong in a macroergonomic analysis of electronic monitoring - employee perceptions of fairnees and the climate of organization trust or distrust (Westin A.F.); a multi-level incentive model for service organizations (Shell R.L.; Allgeier R.G.); a review and reappraisal of EPM, performance standards and stress allowances (Schleifer L.M.; Shell R.L.); a review of research on EPM (Lund J.).
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1992, Vol.23, No.1, p.1-79. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-724 Windberg H.J.
Ergonomic recommendations for the placement of VDU workstations in offices
Ergonomische Empfehlung zur Aufstellung von Bildschirmarbeitsplätzen in Büroräumen [in German]
The ergonomic considerations for the placement of VDU workstations are described. Special attention is paid to offices where the ideal layout is impossible. A number of examples the lay out of workstations, some of them illustrated, are given. References to German standards are provided.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz, Prophylaxe und Ergonomie, Aug. 1992, Vol.42, No.8, p.312-315. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 94-390 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs). Part 3: Visual display requirements
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV). Partie 3: Exigences relatives aux écrans de visualisation [in French]
This part of international standard ISO 9241 applies to the ergonomic design of electronic displays for office tasks. It establishes image quality requirements for the design and evaluation of single- and multi-colour VDTs. Design requirements and recommendations are stated as performance specifications and cover viewing distance, angle of view, character size and format, luminance, glare, image stability, etc. Measurement conditions and conventions are presented for the evaluation of displays. A comparative user performance test method is presented as an informative annex.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1992. vii, 28p. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 94-389 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs). Part 2: Guidance on task requirements
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV). Partie 2: Guide général concernant les exigences des tâches [in French]
This part of international standard ISO 9241 provides guidelines to users of VDT-based information processing systems with reference to office tasks. The application of ergonomics principles in the design of tasks involving VDT-based information processing systems are described along with characteristics of well-designed tasks, specification of design requirements, implementation planning, and evaluation and maintenance of the system.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1992. iv, 3p.

CIS 94-388 Ergonomic requirements for office work with visual display terminals (VDTs). Part 1: General introduction
Exigences ergonomiques pour travail de bureau avec terminaux à écrans de visualisation (TEV) - Partie 1: Introduction générale [in French]
This part of international standard ISO 9241 provides general ergonomic requirements for the use of VDTs for office tasks. It introduces ISO 9241 as a whole, describes the basis of the user performance approach, gives an overview of the first six part of ISO 9241 and provides guidance on how to use the standard. An annex lists the planned further parts of ISO 9241 and summarizes their contents.
International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1992. iv, 6p. 2 ref.

CIS 93-1826
Schwops Production (Luton)
Safe stations; The key position
Video training programme incorporating provisions of EEC Directive 90/270 (see CIS 90-1069) and of its British implementation Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-24). The cassette Safe stations and its manual discuss the implementation of this new legislation from the employer's point of view: employers' obligations; deadlines for compliance; main risks (upper limb disorders, eye problems, fatigue and stress); other risks (epilepsy, facial dermatitis); minimum requirements for equipment and the working environment; employers' responsibilities; summarised action plan. The cassette The key position (subtitled: How to work with computers and stay in one piece) discusses the problems of computer terminal work and their solutions from the worker's point of view.
CFL Vision, P.O. Box 35, Wetherby, West Yorkshire, LS23 7EX, United Kingdom, 1993. 2 videotapes (17 + 8min; VHS all colour standards) + manuals (28p. + 24p., illus.) Price: GBP 95.00.

CIS 93-2076 Bachman W.G.
Computer-specific spectacle lens design preference of presbyopic operators
Twenty-nine presbyopic subjects who spent at least 20 hours a week at a video display terminal compared a progressive addition lens designed for this function, with another commonly prescribed task-specific lens. Each of the paired lens types was worn for four weeks and then compared directly for one week. A statistically significant (P<0.05) portion of the subjects (76%) preferred the task-specific lenses overall. It was also preferred more frequently for each feature compared, although the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05) only for utility of distance vision. Both of the task-specific designs contributed to symptomatic relief. The presence of a distance-clear zone and the absence of lens discontinuities most likely account for user preference for the task-specific lenses. That preference suggests improved performance for presbyopic computer users wearing task-specific progressive addition lenses.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1992, Vol.34, No.10, p.1023-1027. 10 ref.

CIS 93-1151 Working with VDUs
Training booklet covering the most important safety and health aspects of working with computer screen (visual display unit, VDU) equipment: vision and how VDU work affects it; associated aches and pains; stress; headaches; radiation levels; skin disorders; effects on people with specific conditions (pregnancy, epilepsy, people on certain medications); new regulations (The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992, see CIS 93-24); recommended safety measures (including a checklist of measures that can be adopted by the worker).
HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 16p. Illus. 1 ref.

CIS 93-886 Ruano Hernández A., Fernández Arias J.C.
Computer activity and occupational health
Actividad informática y salud laboral [in Spanish]
Psychological effects of the use of computers are discussed. Attention is focused on two main effects: (a) the introduction of new technologies affects the worker's qualifications; (b) the requirements that new technologies impose with respect to new qualifications. The results of a psychological survey of 147 computer personnel in the Spanish banking sector are presented. Significant variation was observed in relation to the educational background of workers. The main expectations which emerged during psychological examinations were directly related to the dynamics of change that affected the institutions, such as amalgamation, relocation of place of business, and computer systems harmonisation. A syndrome defined as "uncertainty" was observed in many workers. With regard to shift work, psychological fatigue, alterations in sleeping and eating patterns, and difficulties in family relations were observed. A model based on systems theory is presented for the proposed actions of occupational health services to improve the quality of working life in workplaces with computers. Summary in English.
Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 1992, No.48, p.27-37. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 93-885 Berg M., Arnetz B.B., Lidén S., Eneroth P., Kallner A.
Techno-stress - A psychophysiological study of employees with VDU-associated skin complaints
Little is known about the causes of health complaints associated with work with video display units (VDUs). The symptoms are to a large degree similar to those of "multiple chemical sensitivity." We observed 47 white-collar employees with and without VDU-associated skin complaints during a regular workday and a day of leisure. VDU workers with skin symptoms had higher levels of the stress-sensitive hormones thyroxin and prolactin compared with employees without symptoms. They also had lower levels of the anabolic hormone testosterone during work. VDU workers with skin complaints also reported more occupational mental strain. A model is proposed in which physiological signals act as unconditioned stimuli and the VDU environment as the conditioned stimulus.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1992, Vol.34, No.7, p.698-701. 18 ref.

CIS 93-539 Lantos G.
On workplaces with computers
A számítógépes munkahelyekről [in Hungarian]
As the use of microcomputers at work is becoming widespread in Hungary, it is essential to survey their possible harmful effects on health. This article surveys: ionising radiation (in the case of 95% of new equipment, there is no ionising radiation in excess of the background level); non-ionising radiation (principal effects noted are the result of exposure to electrostatic fields); strain on the eye and the musculoskeletal and nervous system; ergonomically faulty software; noise. The article also provides recommendations for workplace planning: installation of ergonomically satisfactory hardware and software; proper design of work areas (desks, seats, lighting, microclimate); medical surveillance of workers; periodic work breaks.
Munkavédelem és Biztonságtechnika, 1992, Vol.4, No.4, p.18-21. Illus.

CIS 93-477 Watten R.G., Lie I.
Time factors in VDT-induced myopia and visual fatigue - An experimental study
In an experimental design with two matched groups (n=13 and n=17) working for 2h and 4h respectively, followed by a 15min restitution time, the study examined the effect of continuous VDT work on: (1) visual acuity, refraction and oculomotor functions (ZCSV: zone of clear, single vision) and (2) the effect of 15min restitution time on the oculomotor functions (ZCSV). In both groups there was a significant reduction in visual acuity, refraction changes in myopic direction and reduced ciliar and vergence muscle capacity. The ZCSV changes were temporary and a 15min restitution period restored approximately half of the ZCSV changes. There were no significant differences between 2h or 4h of VDT work on any of the variables examined.
Journal of Human Ergology, June 1992, Vol.21, No.1, p.13-20. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 93-543
Health and Safety Executive
Display screen equipment work. Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992. Guidance on Regulations
This booklet gives guidance on the Health and Safety (Display Screen) Regulations 1992 and implement Directive 90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (CIS 90-1069) which came into force on 1 January 1993 (CIS 93-24). Contents: type of equipment and categories of workers covered by the Regulations; analysis of workstations to assess and reduce risks associated with postural and visual problems, fatigue and stress; requirements for workstations (equipment, environment, interface between computer and user); daily work routine of users; eyes and eyesight (eyesight and vision screening tests and provision of corrective appliances); provision of training and information. Annexes include guidance on workstation minimum requirements and possible health effects of display screen equipment.
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 45p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 5.00.

CIS 93-24 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]
With certain exceptions, these Regulations give effect in Great Britain to the provisions of Council Directive 90/270/EEC (see CIS 90-1069). The Regulations concern: safety and health analysis of workstations; requirements of workstations; daily work routine of users; eye and eyesight examinations; provision of training and information. In annex: minimum safety and health requirements for workstations with display screen equipment (display screen, keyboard, work desk/surface, work chair, work environment, interface between computer and operator/user).
HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 7p. Price: GBP 1.90.

CIS 93-81 Sandown Training - Safety manager; Right before your eyes; Without strain
These resource packs are training aids helping workers and their employers the implementation in Britain of EC directives 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401) and 91/383/EEC (CIS 92-6) (on the improvement of working conditions for permanent and temporary workers), 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069, on visual display terminals) and 90/269/EEC (CIS 90-1101, on manual handling).
Sandown Training, Parkwood House, Painswick Road, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HA, United Kingdom, 1992. 1p. 3 training resource packs (20min videos + trainer's manuals). Price: GBP 365.00 (Safety manager); GBP 345.00 (Right before your eyes); GBP 325.00 (Without strain). Rental prices: GBP 75-80.00, depending on the pack. Preview possibilities for health and safety professionals.

CIS 93-189 Stanton N.A., Baber C.
Human-computer interaction - The implications of EC Directive 90/270/EEC
This paper examines the implications for workers, employers and ergonomists of EC Directive 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069) on display screen equipment. The directive manages to combine aspects of health, safety and human performance within a single framework that can be used to address problems with the human use of computers. The main issues are the design and use of computer workstations, the protection of workers' eyes, the training of workers and the organisation of daily routine. The section on the design of the user/computer interface presents the greatest challenge to human factors research, and the paper focuses on each of the topics in this section. In conclusion, there are some important topics not covered by the directive that need to be addressed in future.
Journal of Health and Safety, June 1992, No.8, p.29-38. Bibl.ref.

CIS 92-1942 Gómez-Cano Hernández M.
Regulation and normalisation of safety and health at VDU work stations
Regulación y normalización en materia de seguridad y salud en puestos de trabajo con P.V.D. [in Spanish]
Spanish legislation on safety and health concerning video display terminals (VDU) work is reviewed. Two Royal Decrees on the technical specifications that VDUs should comply with have been approved in Spain. It should be noted, however, that the main objective of these decrees is not safety and health. Secondly, a review of the EEC legislation on the subject is presented. In 1990, the EEC Council approved a Directive on health and safety conditions related to equipment including VDUs (90/270/EEC, see CIS 90-1069). In addition, European and ISO Standards, in particular ISO 9241, concerning VDUs are discussed. Along these lines, AENOR (Spanish Association for Standards) is also working on the adaptation of international standards within Spain.
Salud y trabajo, 1992, No.91, p.16-21. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 92-1199
National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia)
Technical report of the study group on eyesight testing of users of screen-based equipment
Contents of this technical report and recommendation: need and justification for eyesight testing of screen-based equipment (VDU) operators and users; nature, reliability and frequency of tests; economic and efficiency considerations; categories of employees to be tested.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1992. v, 8p.

CIS 92-803 Lips W.
Work at video terminals - Information to users
Bildschirmarbeit. Informationen für Benützerinnen und Benützer [in German]
L'uso del videoterminale. Informazioni utili per i video-terminalisti [in Italian]
Travail à l'écran de visualisation. Informations pour les utilisatrices et utilisateurs [in French]
This illustrated booklet, which can be used for training purposes, provides advices on how to avoid potential health effects due to working with VDUs. Aspects covered: how to avoid health effects; the VDU device, how to install the equipment; layout of office furniture; lighting; radiation and thermal environment; software; visual accuracy; vision and glasses; working pace and pauses; recommendations; checklist.
Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Jan. 1992. 15p. Illus.


CIS 97-1561 Koh D., et al.
Dermatologic complaints among visual display unit operators and office workers
This brief communication is in reply to a previous report which found no support for the hypothesis that visual display units cause skin diseases. Results of surveys of skin complaints among office workers and school staff are summarized and suggest that there is no over-representation of dermatologic symptoms among the office employees compared with school staff. The influence of the choice of control group on the interpretation of results is stressed.
American Journal of Contact Dermatitis, 1991, Vol.2, p.136-137. 2 ref.

CIS 94-729 Green R.A., Briggs C.A., Wrigley T.V.
Factors related to working posture and its assessment among keyboard operators
Video analysis of 15 keyboard operators was conducted over two four-hour periods to determine the effects of symptoms of over-use injury, the adjustability of the workstation, the type of keyboard, time of day and sex on working posture. The only factor which significantly affected posture was the type of keyboard, with operators at typewriters adopting a more extended shoulder position, reduced elbow flexion and increased wrist flexion, than those working at a VDU terminal. Analysis of the components of variance associated with repeated observations revealed that to minimise the variance associated with recording the posture of these subjects, and therefore obtain a representative mean posture, required at least nine observations for wrist angle, four for elbow angle, six for shoulder angle and three for trunk incline. The mean posture adopted by this group of operators was similar to the 'right angles' posture, with the trunk reclined 4°, shoulder extended 1°, elbow 92° and wrist extended 7°.
Applied Ergonomics, Feb. 1991, Vol.22, No.1, p.29-35. 34 ref.

CIS 93-1584 Zucchetti R.
Hazards and danger in office work: Workplaces, lighting, microclimate, noise, installations, fire protection, VDU work
Nocività e pericolosità negli uffici: locali di lavoro, illuminazione, microclima, rumorosità, impiantistica, antincendio, lavoro ai videoterminali [in Italian]
This manual, written by a labour inspector and taking into account recent development within the EEC, covers all the major aspects of safety and health in the office environment. Contents: basic requirements of workplaces (microclimate, lighting, layout, underground and windowless rooms, hygienic and welfare facilities, new workplaces); electrical safety (including newly installed equipment and earthing); lightning protection of buildings; machine safety; fire prevention and protection; noise (measurement and control); safety of VDU work (introduction to the use of VDUs, VDU work in detail, the psychology of VDU work, check lists for the choice of equipment, EEC standards); portable ladders; first aid; personal protection; warning signs; accident notification. In appendix: international instruments (Directive for the Efficient Functioning of a Safety Department, Resolution 1976-1 of the Council of Europe; ILO Convention 120 concerning occupational hygiene in commercial establishments and offices; EEC Council Directive concerning safety and health in VDU operations (CIS 90-1069).
Buffetti Editore, Via Sud Africa 29, 00144 Roma, Italy, 1991. xv, 267p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: ITL 33,000.

CIS 93-1250 Pierini F., Piccoli B., Moroni P.
Dermatitis in VDT operators - A literature review
Dermatiti in operatori a VDT - Rassegna della letteratura [in Italian]
This paper reports on studies on the relationship between work with VDTs and dermatitis in operators. From the first observation in 1979, numerous studies have been carried out to try and explain the reason why some forms of dermatitis like rosacea, eczema seborrhoeica and erythema appeared more frequently in VDT operators than in the general population. Various authors think that low indoor air humidity associated with a strong electrostatic field may be essential factors in the occurrence of dermatitis. Laboratory experiments have shown that the presence of a strong electrostatic field does not seem to be important in itself. Similarly, it is agreed that X, UV-A or UV-B radiations do not play any causative role in dermatitis. Further investigations are required to assess the influence of indoor climatic factors and the presence of irritant substances in the air of the working environment.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1991, Vol.82, No.5, p.451-457. 19 ref.

CIS 93-537 Cisnal Gredilla J.M., Maldonado González J.
Specific medical surveillance of visual display unit workers
Vigilancia médica específica en los trabajadores de pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
The combination of health disorders which can be influenced by the use of visual display units (VDUs) is described as a specific pathology named "computer fatigue". These disorders are grouped into: psychosomatic and psychological, musculoskeletal and ophthalmological categories. A methodology to detect psychosomatic and psychological disorders associated with the use of VDUs is presented. It consists of questionnaires and medical examinations. The results of the application of this methodology to the study of 96 computer operators are also presented.
Salud y trabajo, 1991, No.84, p.9-16. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 93-538 Walsh M.L., Harvey S.M., Facey R.A., Mallette R.R.
Hazard assessment of video display units
This report describes the results of a study of potential health hazards of video display units (VDUs). The specific elements of the study included characterising the emissions of ionising and non-ionising radiation and exposures to electromagnetic fields. There was no evidence that operators are exposed to electric, magnetic, or ionising radiation fields significantly above ambient levels. Significant X-ray leakage cannot occur under any credible conditions. In addition to the ergonomic aspects of VDU work, reports on the health aspects of VDU operators were investigated. The results of the study, based on the specific hazards evaluated, do not support allegations that VDU operation is hazardous beyond the identified transient discomforts associated with characteristics of the work performed. A high-profile employee education programme was initiated to minimise discomforts and unwarranted concerns.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1991, Vol.52, No.8, p.324-331. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 92-2088 Guidelines for work with visual display units
These guidelines contain measures for the prevention or minimisation of health effects associated with the use of visual display units. Contents: ergonomic design of workstations adaptable to the individual operator; keyboard and screen design; work environment (lighting, temperature, noise); work practice (rest periods, training, job rotation); medical examinations; cleaning and maintenance of machines; permissible exposure limits for electromagnetic fields and radiation.
Ministry of Labour, 18 Havelock Road, Singapore 0105, 1991. 16p. Illus.

CIS 92-1567 Yoshikawa H., Yoshida M., Hara I.
Change of visual acuity observed in VDT workers in a printing company
Insatsu gaisha no 'VDT' sagyōsha ni mitome rareta shiryoku henka [in Japanese]
A yearly ophthalmological examination was performed for two VDT worker groups (workers routinely engaged in both VDT work and key-punch work at a printing company and office people handling VDTs irregularly at a chemical company) and two control groups (typesetters at a printing company and office workers at a chemical company) for three years. All the groups showed lower subjective refractive power in the last than in the first examination; the greatest decrease was found in the routine VDT workers followed by typesetters. Information on naked visual acuities of the routine VDT workers three years before VDT introduction showed that the reduction in visual acuity occurred after VDT introduction. Accommodative powers of workers at the printing company were lower than those of workers at the chemical company, irrespective of VDT work, and the most subjective ophthalmological symptoms were observed in the routine VDT workers. However, no changes of accommodation symptoms were observed between the first and the last examination in any group. VDT work may be associated with the decline in visual acuity of the routine VDT workers, while the key-punch or typesetting work involved more visual burden than the irregular VDT work.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 Nov. 1991, Vol.33, No.6, p.519-526. 18 ref.

CIS 92-1338 Juutilainen J.
Effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on embryonic development and pregnancy
Experimental and epidemiologic studies on the effects of low-frequency magnetic fields on pregnancy are reviewed. Most of the epidemiologic studies have concerned operators of a video display terminal (VDT). The results do not provide evidence for an association between adverse pregnancy outcome and use of a VDT. Other (stronger) sources of low-frequency magnetic fields have been addressed in only a few studies. It is not yet possible to conclude whether occupational or residential exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields affects human prenatal development. There is an apparent need for further investigation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1991, Vol.17, No.3, p.149-158. 77 ref.

CIS 92-833 Abenhaim L., Lert F.
Methodological issues for the assessment of clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the workplace: The case of video display terminal users
The paper reviews the consecutive methodological steps to follow when assessing clusters of adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO) in the workplace and the decisions to be taken at each step. The example of clusters of APO reported in VDT users in 1979 to 1982 is taken to illustrate each point. It appears that the number of "expected-unexpected" clusters of APO in VDT users has been largely overestimated when checked against observations and that this might be due to inadequate choices in the models used.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.33, No.10, p.1091-1096. 14 ref.

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