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Visual display terminals (VDTs) - 595 entries found

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CIS 11-0128 Tseng F.Y., Chao C.J., Feng W.Y., Hwang S.L.
Assessment of human color discrimination based on illuminant color, ambient illumination and screen background color for visual display terminal workers
Human performance on colour discrimination in visual display terminals may be affected by illuminant colours, the level of ambient illumination and background colours of the monitor. Few studies have focused on this topic. This study investigated human colour discrimination ability in a simulated control room. Ten subjects were recruited as participants to perform a series of experimental tasks. The independent variables were three illuminant colours (red, blue, and white), two ambient illumination levels (50 lux and 300 lux) and three background colours (black, blue and brown); the three dependent variables were the colour discrimination ability (error scores), completion time and subject preference. The results showed that the illuminant colours and the screen background colours both significantly influenced human color discrimination ability.
Industrial Health, July 2010, Vol.48, No.4, p.438-446. Illus. 28 ref.
Assessment_of_human_color_discrimination.pdf [in English]


CIS 09-873 Methling D., Schönfeld D.
Recommendation for glasses for VDU work, viewed critically
Empfehlungen für Bildschirmarbeitsplatzbrillen, kritisch betrachtet [in German]
Occupational physicians often conclude that spectacles prescribed for working at screens are not satisfactory because the optometric analyses fail to take screen work into account. A protocol was developed for collecting the necessary optometric data and was tested on 44 patients wearing spectacles. Findings show that it was possible to prescribe optimal spectacles on the basis of correct optometric measurements. Other aspects are also discussed.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Feb. 2008, Vol.58, No.2, p.48-55. 13 ref.

CIS 08-892 Yoshioka E., Saijo Y., Fukui T., Kawaharada M., Kishi R.
Association between duration of daily visual display terminal work and insomnia among local government clerks in Japan
The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between the duration of daily visual display terminal work and sleep disturbances. A total of 2417 Japanese local government office workers (2030 men and 387 women) were investigated. Sleep disturbances were evaluated using the Athens Insomnia Scale. Visual display terminal work of 6h or more per day was significantly associated with insomnia (odds ratio 1.62) and in particular, caused problems with total sleep duration and sleepiness during the day, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2008, Vol.51, n°2, p.148-156. 25 ref.


CIS 08-1117 Melrose A.S., Graveling R.A., Cowie H., Ritchie P., Hutchison P., Mulholland R.M.
Health and Safety Executive
Better display screen equipment (DSE) work-related ill health data
A variety of ill-health symptoms have been associated with working at screens, including musculoskeletal disorders, mental stress and visual fatigue. The objective of this project was to collect information on the extent of such ill health through a survey of employees working at screens. It compared the data with those of scientific literature. The survey found high prevalences of self-reported symptoms including headaches (52%), eye discomfort (58%), neck (47%), back (37%) and shoulder (39%) pain. Most of the workers reporting symptoms did not take any time off work. These findings are broadly consistent with other studies in the literature.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2007. viii, 145p. Illus. 82 ref. [in English]


CIS 08-1114 Çakir A., Çakir C.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Influence of optical surface properties of IT products on users - Summary
L'influence de propriétés superficielles optiques des produits de TI sur les utilisateurs - Résumé [in French]
The optical surface properties of IT products such as visual displays and keyboards can cause visual problems through gloss and specular reflections. For this reason, regulations on the lighting of VDT workplaces and on the design of IT products include certain provisions for gloss value and reflectance of surfaces visible to the user. A literature survey was carried out to highlight current knowledge concerning the impact of these optical surface properties of IT products on computer users. Research in the areas of computer animation and multimedia design suggests that the complex relationship of gloss and reflectance for the appearance of visual objects can be quantified. It is proposed that this finding be applied to future occupational safety and health regulations, including standards and legislation. This report consists of a summary in English and French of the findings of the detailed study.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2006. 55p. Illus. 29 ref. Price: EUR 10.00.

CIS 07-1008 Working with VDUs
This brochure explains how work with visual display units may affect workers' health. It summarises the law on VDU work, outlines what employers and employees should to do comply and suggests simple adjustments that users can make to workstations and screens to make them more comfortable and easy to use. Replaces CIS 98-529.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, rev. ed. Dec. 2006. 14p. Illus. 2 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-1106 Work with screens
Travail avec écran [in French]
Beeldschermwerk [in Dutch]
The objective of the SOBANE approach (screening, observation, analysis and evaluation) is to ensure occupational safety and health by means of a systematic analysis of occupational hazards. This booklet presents the SOBANE approach applied to working at screens. Following a review of general aspects of occupational safety and health management, it explains how to proceed with the observation, analysis and evaluation, together with the qualifications required for carrying out these steps. The following topics are summarized on information sheets: desks and workplace layout; seats; office accessories; software; computer equipment; work-time organization; training; health surveillance.
Service public fédéral Emploi, Travail et Concertation sociale, rue Ernest Blerot I, 1070 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2006. 93p. Illus. 59 ref. [in Dutch] [in French]

CIS 07-1179 Bisseriex C., et al.
Electromagnetic fields - Visual display screens
Champs électromagnétiques - Les écrans de visualisation [in French]
Cathode ray tubes (CRTs) emit electromagnetic fields of very weak intensity and are themselves particularly vulnerable to fields from other emission sources, as may be observed by distortions or flicker of the display. They are giving way to flat screens, which emit less radiation and are less sensitive to external radiation. This information sheet outlines the principles of operation of CRT displays and flat screens and sets out the levels of electromagnetic radiation emitted, the interference caused by nearby electromagnetic fields and measures to improve screen performance.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2006. 4p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed4208.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-614 Fostervold K.I., Aarås A., Lie I.
Work with visual display units: Long-term health effects of high and downward line-of-sight in ordinary office environments
This study investigated the long-term effects of vertical monitor placement in office workplaces. Random assignment was used in creating a high line-of-sight (HLS) group and a downward line-of-sight (DLS) group, each including 75 subjects. The line-of-sight to the midpoint of the screen was 15° below horizontal for the HLS-group and 30° for the DLS-group. Measurements were taken at set-up and again 12 months later. Significant differences, favouring the DLS-group compared to HLS-group, were found for subjective symptoms, oculomotor capacity and self-reported sick leave. The DLS-group exhibited flexion of both the neck and back about 5° more than the HLS-group. However, no differences were found for diagnosed work-related disorders, clinical symptoms or electromyographic activity. The results correspond with previous laboratory findings and give additional empirical support from real work environments on the beneficial effects of DLS in visual display unit work.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 2006, Vol.36, No.4, p.331-343. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 07-481 Cail F., Aptel M.
Risk factors for upper extremities when working with screens: Literature review
Facteurs de risque pour le membre supérieur dans le travail sur écran: synthèse bibliographique [in French]
This literature survey reviews studies related to work with visual display units and associated risk factors for upper limb disorders. It firstly describes the analytical model and methods used and goes on to present data on work organization, stress, psychosocial factors, biomechanical demands and the spatial layout of the workplace. These data are then summarized and the occupational safety and health implications are discussed. Risk factors include: stress, psychosocial factors, static posture, certain joint positions (particularly at the wrist and shoulder), and the frequency and duration of demands.
Travail humain, July 2006, Vol. 69, No.3, p.229-268. Illus. 219 ref.

CIS 06-1443 Taylor A.
Vision on
The protection of the eyes and eyesight of persons working at visual display units (VDUs) is discussed with reference to the United Kingdom Display Screen Equipment Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-24), as amended in 2002 (see CIS 03-1011). These regulations place a responsibility on employers to attend to the eyecare of VDU users. In particular, they require employers to provide eye and eyesight tests on request for all VDU users. The article also summarizes the main steps that can be taken to prevent eyestrain, including temperature and humidity control, ergonomics, lighting and employee training.
Safety and Health Practitioner, Feb. 2006, Vol.24, No.2, p.56-58. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 06-1209 Álvarez Valdivia A.
Visual display terminals: Technologies (II)
Pantallas de visualización: tecnologías (II) [in Spanish]
This information note examines the hazards associated with visual display terminals, focusing on the effects of the angle of vision, contrast, brilliance, colour, energy consumption of the screen and electromagnetic radiation. Tables compare the characteristics of cathode ray tubes, liquid crystal displays and plasma screens.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2006. 6p. Illus. 9 ref. [in Spanish]


CIS 07-480 Shuval K., Donchin M.
Prevalence of upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and ergonomic risk factors at a hi-tech company in Israel
This cross-sectional study examines the relationship between ergonomic risk factors and upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (UEMSS) in VDT workers at a software development company, while taking into account individual and organizational factors and stress. The study population of 84 workers comprised computer programmers, managers, administrators, and marketing specialists. Data on UEMSS, individual and organizational factors and stress were derived from a questionnaire, while ergonomic data were collected through two direct observations using the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) method. Results underline the need for implementing an intervention program focusing on arm/wrist posture, and for taking into account the special needs of women and of workers working 10h a day, those working 7-9h a day with a VDT and employees experiencing discomfort at workstations.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2005, Vol.35, No.6, p.569-581. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 06-875 Cail F., Aptel M.
Visual display units - Health and ergonomics
Ecrans de visualisation - Santé et ergonomie [in French]
This guide reviews the information and methods needed to implement legislative requirements for work at screens. Part 1 examines the health effects of work at screens (visual fatigue, stress and musculoskeletal diseases). Part 2 provides guidance on preventive measures (characteristics of screen displays, workspace design, the physical environment and work organization).
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2005. 104p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: EUR 8.00. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed924.pdf [in French]

CIS 06-731 Babski-Reeves K., Stanfield J., Hughes L.
Assessment of video display workstation set up on risk factors associated with the development of low back and neck discomfort
This study investigated the effect of monitor height and chair type on low back and neck muscle activity, perceived level of discomfort and posture shifts among visual display terminal operators. The ergonomic benefits of chairs in different price ranges were also examined. The findings indicate that the interaction of monitor height and chair type significantly affects musculoskeletal loads. Task demands also play an important role in the loads, posture fixity and level of discomfort reported. Therefore, the location of visual display equipment and chair selection should be based on task demands. In general, no significant differences were identified between high and low cost chairs, again supporting the recommendation that chair selection be based on task demands.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2005, Vol.35, No.7, p.593-604. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 06-483 Lindegård A., Karlberg C., Tornqvist E.W., Toomingas A., Hagberg M.
Concordance between VDU-users' ratings of comfort and perceived exertion with experts' observations of workplace layout and working postures
The aim of this study was to evaluate agreement between VDU-users' ratings of comfort and perceived exertion with ergonomists' observations of workplace layout, exertion and postures. The study population consisted of 853 symptom-free subjects. Data on perceived comfort and exertion were collected by questionnaire. Data concerning workplace layout and working postures were collected during observations by an ergonomist. Concordance between subjective ratings and job observations were reasonably good. Ratings of comfort and perceived exertion could therefore be used as a cost-efficient and user-friendly method for practitioners to identify exposures to poor workplace layout and poor working postures.
Applied Ergonomics, May 2005, Vol.36, No.3, p.319-325. 35 ref.

CIS 05-475 Miled S., Hajaij K., Fehri S., Hidri A., Nouaigui H., Ben Laïba M.
Work at screens: Ergonomic recommendations to be given priority
Le travail sur écran: priorité aux recommandations ergonomiques [in French]
Contents of this special feature on ergonomic recommendations applicable to work at screens: demands of work at screens; effects on health; risk factors; ergonomic design of workstations involving work at screens; ergonomic layout of ambient lighting; modes of work organization; work aptitude of persons working at screens.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Feb. 2005, No.32, p.2-14. Illus. 12 ref.


CIS 08-271 Improved well-being when working at your screen
Mieux vivre avec votre écran [in French]
Working at screens under poor conditions can entail visual fatigue, musculoskeletal diseases and stress. Contents of this leaflet aimed at helping operators make better use of their workstation: adjusting the screen; adjusting lighting; working in a relaxed manner; main factors responsible for health hazards related to working at screens; eyesight protection.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Mar. 2004. 8p. Illus. Price: EUR 1.50. Downloadable version free of charge.$File/ed922.pdf [in French]

CIS 07-145 Gude D.
Prospective ergonomics in occupational health protection - Potential offered by virtual reality
Prospektive Ergonomie beim Gesundheitsschutz am Arbeitsplatz - Unterstützungspotential virtuelles Realität [in German]
In occupational safety and health practice, corrective ergonomics has an important role to play because of its ability to rectify deficiencies in the design of work systems. However, this approach is costly. For this reason, prospective ergonomics is increasingly used in product design. To allow the visualisation of products in a form close to their final form, virtual reality techniques are used. This article presents the application of this approach to the field of occupational safety and health, and describes a laboratory experiment in which subjects were asked to analyse the ergonomic deficiencies of a workstation involving work on a screen, presented in virtual form. The findings are discussed and compared to those of an analysis based on a real workstation. No differences in the quality of the evaluations were found between the two methods; however, virtual reality offers significant cost advantages.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Sep. 2004, Vol.54, No.9, p.326-334. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 05-239 Cail F.
50 questions on working at screens
Le travail sur écran en 50 questions [in French]
This practical guide includes 50 frequently-asked questions by operators working at visual display screens. For each question, it proposes one or several solutions and wherever possible, provides a ranking of the ergonomic quality of the proposed solutions. Questions are grouped under the following headings: layout; display; work organization. Replaces CIS 94-501.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, July 2004. 27p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 5.10. Downloadable version free of charge.$FILE/ed923.pdf [in French]

CIS 05-151 Polspoel N., Lamotte J.M.
Visual display units
Ecrans de visualisation [in French]
Based on the European Directive 90/270/EEC (see CIS 90-1069), the Royal Decree of 12 August 1993 on visual display units specifies many additional responsibilities for enterprises. Designed to help enterprises implement these new requirements, this guide covers legislation, the main hazards and the design of a workstation equipped with a visual display unit. Reference values and corresponding standards are included in an appendix.
PREVENT, rue Gachard 88, Bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2004. 24p. Illus.13 ref.

CIS 04-476 Iwakiri K., Mori I., Sotoyama M., Horiguchi K., Ochiai T., Jonai H., Saito S.
Development of action checkpoints for comfortable computer work
A manual and a checklist for undertaking measures to prevent fatigue in visual display terminals (VDT) workers are presented. Problems related to VDT work can be recognized by using the checklist which allows self-evaluation by the workers. The manual helps the workers to consider measures for improvement by themselves.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.42, No.2, p.292-301. Illus. 5 ref.


CIS 06-876 Guidelines on occupational safety and health for working with video display units (vdu's)
Guidelines on the ergonomic and other aspects of VDU use in the workplace.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health, Ministry of Human Resources, Aras 2, 3 dan 4, Blok D3, Parcel D, Pusat Pentadbiran Kerajaan Persekutuan, 62502 Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2003. v, 26p. Illus. 10 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1955 Chen Y.L.
Effectiveness of a new back belt in the maintenance of lumbar lordosis while sitting: A pilot study
With the expanding use of video display terminals, a high incidence of low back pain is reported among operators working at screens in sitting postures. This study describes a new design of back belt for use by operators working at screens in seated postures and compares the conditions of wearing this belt with those of no belt wearing. Nine subjects performed a data entry task while sitting at a desk during 60-min periods, during which the trunk and lumbosacral angles were observed. Results showed that there were significant differences in trunk angle and lumbar posture when wearing or not wearing the belt (with an average difference of -14.1° in lumbar lordosis and 16.9° in trunk angle) during the final 10-min stage of the task. The belt seemed to provide support for the back by the counter-supporting force from the knees. The results suggest that the belt may be useful in seated tasks because of its maintenance of lumbar lordosis and erect trunk.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 2003, Vol.32, No.4, p.299-303. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 03-1443 Korhonen T., Ketola R., Toivonen R., Luukkonen R., Häkkänen M., Viikari-Juntura E.
Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units
To investigate work-related and individual factors as predictors for neck pain among office employees working with video display units, 515 persons employed in the municipal administration of a medium-sized city in Finland received mailed questionnaires in 1998 and in 1999. Response rate for the first questionnaire was 81%. The follow-up questionnaire was completed by 78%. Neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months was reported by 34.4% of the participants. It was found that a poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex and smoking were important predictors of neck pain risk. There was also a relationship between mental stress and physical exercise, persons with higher mental stress and less physical exercise being at a particularly high risk.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.60, No.7, p.475-482. 55 ref.

CIS 03-722
Health and Safety Executive
The law on VDUs - An easy guide
This booklet provides guidance on the British Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 (see CIS 93-24). Contents: health problems associated with work at visual display units; identifying the workers and the workstations covered; training users and assessors; assessing workstations and reducing risks; making sure new workstations comply with the minimum requirements; planning breaks and activity changes; arranging eye and eyesight tests; keeping users informed. A checklist is included. Replaces CIS 94-1967.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed. Feb. 2003. vi, 28p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 8.50.

CIS 03-941 Nevala-Puranen N., Pakarinen K., Louhevaara V.
Ergonomic intervention on neck, shoulder and arm symptoms of newspaper employees in work with visual display units
Shoulder and arm symptoms are typical in work with visual display units (VDUs) among newspaper employees. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of various ergonomic intervention models on neck, shoulder and arm symptoms among these exposed workers. In total, 20 newspaper employees participated in the study. Work posture, modes of monitor viewing, muscular activity, and subjective assessments of musculoskeletal pain were recorded before and after the seven-month intervention. Difference was statistically significant between the groups for the change in shoulder flexion and the muscular activity of right trapezius and right extensor carpi radials in the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The reduction of pain symptoms in the neck, shoulders and elbows was greater in the group where redesign measures involved both the work environment and work techniques than in the group where they involved only the environment.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2003, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 03-721
Health and Safety Executive
Work with display screen equipment - Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 as amended by the Health and Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2002 - Guidance on Regulations
This booklet provides guidance on the Health and Safety (Display Screen) Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-24), which came into force on 1 January 1993, and which implement Directive 90/270/EEC of 29 May 1990 (CIS 90-1069). Contents: type of equipment and categories of workers covered by the Regulations; analysis of workstations to assess and reduce risks associated with postural and visual problems, fatigue and stress; requirements for workstations (equipment, environment, interface between computer and user); daily work routine of users; eyes and eyesight (eyesight and vision screening tests and provision of corrective appliances); provision of training; provision of information; exemption certificates. Appendices include guidance on workstation minimum requirements; possible health effects of display screen equipment, guidance to reduce risks with portable display screen equipment, mouse, trackball and other pointing device and a checklist for VDU workstation risk assessment. Replaces CIS 01-484.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 2003. iv, 72p. Illus. 35 ref. Price: GBP 8.95.


CIS 03-1730 Ketola R., Toivonen R., Häkkänen M., Luukkonen R., Takala E.P., Viikari-Juntura E.
Effects of ergonomic intervention in work with video display units
This study evaluated the effect of an intensive ergonomic approach and education on workstation changes and musculoskeletal disorders among workers who used a video display unit (VDU). The 124 subjects were allocated into three groups (intensive ergonomics, ergonomic education, reference) using stratified random sampling. The evaluation involved questionnaires, a diary of discomfort, measurements of workload and an ergonomic rating of the workstations. The intensive and training groups showed less musculoskeletal discomfort than the reference group after two months of follow-up. Positive effects were seen primarily for the shoulder, neck and upper back areas. Both the intensive ergonomics approach and education in ergonomics help reduce discomfort in VDU work. In attempts to improve the physical ergonomics of VDU workstations, the best result will be achieved with cooperative planning in which both workers and practitioners are actively involved.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2002, Vol.28, No.1, p.18-24. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 03-1731 Nakazawa T., Okubo Y., Suwazono Y., Kobayashi E., Komine S., Kato N., Nogawa K.
Association between duration of daily VDT use and subjective symptoms
Although visual display unit (VDU) work has become a common task among office workers, surveys which would help to determine the allowable duration of daily VDU use are limited. In this study, more than 25,000 workers were investigated three times over a three-year period using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical symptoms score increased with increasing duration of daily VDU use without a threshold effect. Mental and sleep-related symptom scores of the workers using VDUs for more than five hours per day were significantly higher than those of the groups using VDUs for shorter periods. In this case, the relationship was non-linear with a threshold effect at five hours per day.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.42, No.5, p.421-426. 25 ref.

CIS 03-98 Computerized workplaces - 10 proposals for your health and well-being
Postes de travail informatisés - 10 conseils pour votre santé et votre bien-être [in French]
Arbeiten am Bildschirm - 10 Tipps für Ihre Gesundheit und Ihr Wohlbefinden [in German]
Lavoro al videoterminale - 10 consigli utili per tutelare la salute e il benessere dei lavoratori [in Italian]
This leaflet contains ten ergonomic proposals for the health and well-being persons working at screens: avoid reflections and glare; place the screen directly facing the user; ensure that there is enough space for the legs under the table; take advantage of the various layout possibilities; ensure that the forearms are in a horizontal position; select a chair allowing dynamic seating; observe a proper distance between the eyes and the screen; adjust the screen so that the upper limit is 5-10cm below eye level; make use of auxiliary equipment foot rests, arm rests, document holders); move around regularly.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2002. 12p. Illus. 3 ref. [in French] [in German] [in Italian]

CIS 03-459 Fogleman M., Lewis R.J.
Factors associated with self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in video display terminal (VDT) users
The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors based on self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort in a population of video display terminal operators. 292 responses to a questionnaire were analysed. Questions included symptoms for several body regions, job requirements, demographic information and hobbies. The following body regions were studied: head and eyes, neck and upper back, lower back, shoulders, elbows and forearms, hands and wrists. Results indicated a statistically significant increased risk of discomfort on each of the body regions as the number of hours of keyboard use increased. Improper monitor and keyboard position was also significantly associated with head and eye, and shoulder and back discomfort, respectively. These results emphasize the importance of workstation ergonomics and the need to limit the number of uninterrupted hours at the keyboard to reduce musculoskeletal symptoms.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, June 2002, Vol.29, No.6, p.311-318. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 02-1762 Cail F.
Work on screens and dryness of the eyes
Travail sur écran et sécheresse oculaire [in French]
The risk factors of visual fatigue during work on screens and the corresponding preventive measures are well understood. However, the preventive measures are not always implemented, no doubt because of the diversity of risk factors. Visual fatigue can appear in the form of physiological changes such as lengthening of the near point of accommodation at the end of the working day, or as complaints of ocular dryness. The objective of this review article is to highlight current understanding of the topic, based on a literature survey. Contents: description of the lachrymal system; methods for evaluating lachrymal secretion; work on screens and ocular dryness; causes of ocular dryness; preventive measures.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.131-135. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-1579 Sanz Merino J.A.
Basic guide for workers using visual display units for data
Instrucción básica para el trabajador usuario de pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
This guide is aimed at persons working at screens and presents the main hazards related to this type of work together with the corresponding ergonomic preventive measures. Topics covered: vision problems and visual fatigue; musculoskeletal disorders; mental fatigue; radiation emitted by screens; screen filters; regulations applicable to work at screens; legal provisions applicable to users of screens; questionnaire aimed at checking the ergonomics of workplaces involving work at screens; test for evaluating the knowledge acquired from reading the guide.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 39p. Illus. Price: EUR 3.31.

CIS 02-516 Occupational Safety and Health (Display Screen Equipment) Regulation [Hong Kong]
Zhiye anquan ji jiankang (Xianshi pingmu shebei) guili [in Chinese]
This Regulation is made under the 1997 Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance (see CIS 99-1756). Contents: definitions; scope of application (all workplaces where visual display screen equipment is used for or in connection with work, except for some highly specific exceptions); risk assessment; risk reduction; provision of information; requirements of workstations; provision of safety and health training.
Government of the Hong Kong SAR Gazette, Legal Supplement No.2, 26 Apr. 2002, p.B367-375.

CIS 02-968 Szeto G.P.Y., Straker L., Raine S.
A field comparison of neck and shoulder postures in symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the head, neck and shoulder postures of female office workers with and without symptoms in these regions. The two groups reported significantly different discomfort scores across five trials repeated during a working day. Results of video capture and two-dimensional motion analysis showed increased head tilt and neck flexion postures in the symptomatic subjects compared to the asymptomatic subjects. Symptomatic subjects also tended to have more protracted acromions. All subjects demonstrated an approximately 10% increase in forward head posture from their relaxed sitting postures when working with the computer display, but there were no significant changes in posture as a result of time-at-work.
Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.75-84. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-966 Lewis R.J., Krawiec M., Confer E., Agopsowicz D., Crandall E.
Musculoskeletal disorder worker compensation costs and injuries before and after an office ergonomics program
To study the effectiveness of an office ergonomics training programme for video display terminal (VDT) users, workers' compensation costs and injury rates for VDT-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were examined before and after implementation of training at two company locations. A greater number of claims were filed in the post-intervention (n=18) versus the pre-intervention period (n=12), but the average cost per claim was considerably reduced (USD 1553 and USD 15,141 respectively). This reduced cost per claim is consistent with the programme's emphasis on seeking early treatment for MSD-related symptoms. The average injury rate also was reduced in the post-intervention versus pre-intervention period (6.94 versus 16.8 per 1000 employees respectively). These results suggest that office ergonomic interventions may be effective in reducing the MSD-related workers' compensation costs and injury rates.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2002, Vol.29, No.2, p.95-99. Illus. 7 ref.


CIS 04-732 Fidalgo Vega M., Nogareda Cuixart C.
Ergonomic design of visual display workstations: Work equipment
El diseño ergonómico del puesto de trabajo con pantallas de visualización: el equipo de trabajo [in Spanish]
This information note discusses the main ergonomic aspects to be taken into account when designing the layout of workplaces involving work with visual display screens, given current technical and scientific knowledge and legal requirements with respect to occupational safety and health. Contents: general considerations concerning applicable legislation; definition of the basic elements of work at screens (visual display screens, users, workstations); factors that need to be taken into account when designing workstations (equipment, work environment, worker, work organization); requirements with respect to work equipment (spatial layout of equipment, screen, filters, screen support, keyboard, wrist rest, desk, document holder, work documents, seat, electrical wires and cables); working on laptop computers.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 7p. Illus. 12 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-1727 Aliende García P., Idoate García V.M.
Working on VDU screens and ocular pathologies
El trabajo con ordenador (PDV) y la patología ocular [in Spanish]
This survey was carried out for highlighting the possible relationship between working on visual display unit (VDU) screens and ocular pathologies. A 27-item questionnaire administered to 97 persons working on screens was analysed. Results show that the relationship between work on screens and ocular symptoms is not statistically significant. However, two dominant symptoms were highlighted: visual fatigue and irritation of the conjunctiva.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.191, p.27-36. 17 ref.

CIS 03-1728 Ursunáriz Sala P., Santos Jiménez I., Vallejo San Juan A., García Feijoo J., Castillo Gómez A.
Ergonomic conditions and VDU eye syndrome in relation to the use of computer screens
Condiciones ergonómicas y síndrome ocular de las pantallas de visualización de datos [in Spanish]
With the increasing use of computers, a condition called VDU eye syndrome is becoming more frequent. In this study, a survey was conducted among 150 employees working in the administration department of a hospital without prior ocular pathologies. Ocular symptoms were evaluated by means of a questionnaire. An ergonomic study of the workstations of employees with ocular symptoms was then carried out. 91.1% were women. A large majority worked at screens placed at a distance of over 60cm. The ergonomics of workstations are consequently of key importance for avoiding ocular problems. A series of organizational and technical measures are proposed for improving workstation ergonomics.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.190, p.61-70. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 03-723 Guidelines on office ergonomics
With the rapid pace of development of office computerization, the use of visual display units (VDUs) has become widespread in modern offices. However, VDUs have often been placed without sufficient attention to ergonomic principles. This, combined with poor environmental conditions and work stress may contribute to a variety of health problems, sickness absenteeism and productivity loss. This CD-ROM provides guidelines on good occupational health practices in offices. Contents: health aspects of office work; workstation design (work surface, chair, screen, other office equipment); work posture (correct working postures, preventing poor working postures, manual handling); work environment (lighting, ambient noise, indoor air quality); work practices (task design and planning, task variation, training, rest breaks). Appendices include: office ergonomics checklist; medical examinations for persons working at screens; acceptable limits for indoor air quality parameters.
Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 2001. CD-ROM containing report in PDF format (33p. Illus. 9 ref.). [in English]

CIS 03-271 Zeller M.
Working at screens in a reclined position?
Bildschirmarbeit - im Liegen!? [in German]
Postures adopted during work at computer screens while seated at a desk induce a tensing of muscles, which in turn gives rise to poor blood irrigation and pulmonary ventilation. This article discusses the ergonomics of various unusual attitudes for working at screens, in particular the reclined or semi-reclined postures which have the quality of reducing muscular tension. The screen and keyboard positions are discussed, as well as those of document holders when present. Various types of keyboards are presented, including some at the prototype stage such as split keyboards, vertical split keyboard and mobile keyboards with a reduced number of keys, where some letters require the simultaneous depression of several keys.
Computer-Fachwissen, July 2001, No7, p.8-11. Illus.

CIS 03-30 Minimum Requirements for Safety and Health at Work with Visual Display Screen Equipment Regulations of 2001 [Cyprus]
Oi perí Eláhistōn Prodiagrafṓn Asfáleias kai Ugeías katá tēn Ergasía se Exoplismó me Othónē Optikḗs Apeikónisēs Kanonismoí tou 2001 [in Greek]
These regulations were issued under the authority of the 1996 Act concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-5). They prescribe the minimum OSH requirements of visual display equipment (computer screens) and of the working environment where such equipment is present.
Episêmos Efêmeris tês Dêmokratias, 7 Dec. 2001, No.3556, p.4757-4764. [in Greek]

CIS 02-1421 Skulberg K.R., Skyberg K., Eduard W., Goffeng L.O., Vistnes A.I., Levy F., Kjuus H.
Effects of electric field reduction in visual display units on skin symptoms
120 office workers in 11 companies with reported facial skin complaints were randomly selected for this double blind study. Static electric fields surrounding visual display unit were reduced in the intervention group but not in the control group. The intervention group reported significantly fewer facial skin complaints than did the control group. The specified intervention can probably help reduce facial skin complaints in workers in offices with high dust concentrations.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.140-145. 21 ref.

CIS 02-1417 Newsham G.R., Veitch J.A.
Lighting quality recommendations for VDT offices: A new method of derivation
In an experiment in a mock-up office space, occupants were given control over dimmable lighting circuits after a day working under pseudo-random lighting conditions. Data analysis indicated that the lighting experienced during the day influenced the changes in lighting made at the end of the day. Occupants chose to reduce screen glare if any existed. Even after allowing for the effect of glare, desktop illuminance at day's end varied with the illuminance experienced during the day. Regression of these end-of-day choices relative to the illuminance experienced during the day can yield a preferred illuminance, equivalent to the daytime illuminance at which no change was preferred at day's end. Using this method, preferred illuminance in the range 200-500 lux and luminance ratio were derived. The deviation between participants' lighting preferences and the lighting they experienced during the day was a significant predictor of participant mood and satisfaction. The article is followed by comments by other experts in the field (D.J. Carter and P.Boyce), together with reactions to these comments by the authors.
Lighting Research and Technology, 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.97-116. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 02-765 Lewis R.J., Fogleman M., Deeb J., Crandall E., Agopsowicz D.
Effectiveness of a VDT ergonomics training program
An evaluation of changes introduced in work posture adjustment at visual display terminal (VDT) work stations, due to an ergonomics training course. There were significant reductions in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms, but no such reductions were detected for the presence of symptoms. A long-term study is suggested to detect statistically significant changes.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.119-131. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 02-763 Fostervold K.I., Buckmann E., Lie I.
VDU-screen filters: Remedy or the ubiquitous Hawthorne effect?
Health hazards attributed in office work to exposure to electrical fields surrounding CRT displays units were investigated without confirming the assumed protection given by screen filters. The results appear to be explained by other facts influencing employees e.g. subject reactivity, known also as the Hawthorne effect (improvement is due to psychological factors related to the subject's awareness that he/she is participating in an experiment).
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.107-118. Illus. 34 ref.

CIS 02-761 Mocci F., Serra A., Corrias G.A.
Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals
To examine the importance of psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs), a group of 212 subjects without organic vision disturbances were selected among a population of 385 bank workers. They were administered three questionnaires, the NIOSH job stress questionnaire, a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace, and a questionnaire on the existence of vision disturbances. Social support, group conflict, self-esteem, work satisfaction, and under-use of skills were found to be predictors of vision complaints. Social support also played a part as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model, which accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. In conclusion, some of the complaints concerning visual health reported by VDT workers are likely to be indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.267-271. 36 ref.

CIS 02-465 Lintula M., Nevala-Puranen N., Louhevaara V.
Effects of Ergorest arm supports on muscle strain and wrist positions during the use of the mouse and keyboard in work with visual display units: A work site intervention
The effects of Ergorest arm supports on wrist angles and musculoskeletal strain in the neck-shoulder-arm region and electrical activity in the shoulder and arm muscles were studied during typing or the use of the mouse in work with a visual display unit (VDU). 21 women were divided into three groups (one arm support, two arm supports, and control). Measurements were carried out before and after the six-week intervention. The wrist extension of the mouse hand, the muscle activity of the trapezius muscle, and the subjective discomfort ratings indicated that two arm supports were better than one during work with a mouse. The Ergorest arm support alleviates muscle and joint strain in VDU work when used for both arms.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.103-116. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 02-464 Dowler E., Kappes B., Fenaughty A., Pemberton G.
Effects of neutral posture on muscle tension during computer use
The objective of this study was to develop a new approach for evaluating seated work positions. 67 office workers who use a Visual Display Terminal (VDT) during a major portion of their working day were evaluated. Muscle tension was measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) while participants were asked to adopt four selected working postures. Pain was measured before and after ergonomic intervention on the Nordic scale, which was modified for this study. Adjustable workstations were used to place participants in desired positions during the testing sessions and the extended intervention period. Results indicate that this ergonomic intervention may have positive effects on muscle tension and pain, significant enough to encourage employers to implement training and workstation modifications following these guidelines.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.61-78. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-261 McLean L., Tingley M., Scott R.N., Rickards J.
Computer terminal work and the benefit of microbreaks
Microbreaks are scheduled rest breaks taken to prevent the onset or progression of cumulative trauma disorders in the computerized workstation environment. The benefit of microbreaks by investigating myoelectric signal (MES) behaviour, perceived discomfort, and worker productivity while individuals performed their usual keying work were examined. Participants (all women) provided data from working sessions where they took no breaks, and from working sessions where they took microbreaks at their own discretion (control), microbreaks at 20min intervals, and microbreaks at 40min intervals. Four main muscle areas were studied: the cervical extensors, the lumbar erector spinae, the upper trapezius/supraspinatus, and the wrist and finger extensors. It was determined that microbreaks had a positive effect on reducing discomfort in all areas studied during computer terminal work, particularly when breaks were taken at 20min intervals. Microbreaks showed no evidence of a detrimental effect on worker productivity.
Applied Ergonomics, June 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.225-237. Illus. 35 ref.

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