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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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  • Mental stress and burnout

2000

CIS 01-431 Sluiter J.K., Frings-Dresen H.W., Meijman T.F., van der Beek A.J.
Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol: A systematic literature overview
A systematic literature search was performed on the topic of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effect variables measured in blood, urine or saliva were taken into consideration. For reactivity and recovery up to 1 hour after performing the task, half of the studies considered physical tasks and more than two thirds showed incomplete recovery compared with baseline excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. Three days after the task was performed, recovery was often incomplete for cortisol after a combination of mentally and physically demanding tasks, and less often after solely mental or physical tasks.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.298-315. 109 ref.

CIS 01-292 Simpson N.
Health and Safety Executive
The effects of new ways of working on employees' stress levels
The objective was to investigate the impact of new ways of working on employee stress. Two multinational companies provided access to experimental groups, one for the development of learning organizations and the other on the adoption of hot-desking. Corresponding control groups were formed in each case. The Stress Arousal Check List (SACL) was selected as the tool for measuring levels of stress, and a work environment questionnaire was used to explore attitudes to known stress risk factors. No significant differences were found between experimental and control groups in stress or arousal levels. The recorded stress levels were similar to the published norms for groups in similar occupations. All groups had arousal levels higher than published norms. The "learning organization group" provided more positive responses than the corresponding control group to a number of work environment questions. The research found no evidence that these new ways of working contribute directly to occupational stress.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. x, 78p. 48 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 01-295 Cox T., Griffith A., Rial-González E.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work
Research on work-related stress
This status report commissioned by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work deals with the research evidence regarding the assessment and management of stress at work. It addresses basic issues, such as a definition of stress at work, the way it affects health and well-being and the implications of existing research for the management of work-related stress. The results indicate that work-related stress is a long-term health and safety issue; it can be dealt with in the same logical and systematic way as other health and safety issues. It is proposed that the management of stress at work be based on the adaptation and application of a control cycle approach such as those in contemporary models of risk management. This approach has already been applied in several countries of the European Union.
Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2000. 167p. Illus. Approx. 600 ref. Price: EUR 11.00.
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/reports/stress/ [in English]

CIS 01-284 Mishima N., Iwata N., Shimizu T.
Creating notifications tailored for individual workers by using a database: A conceptual framework and its application
Although prevention strategies to assure good mental heath in the workplace have become important, worker notification in studies using psychometric tests has rarely been discussed. Until now, it has proven difficult to prepare a large number of notifications for individual workers. A system to create notifications that explain the results for individual workers in plain language using a relational database (RDB) is described. Firstly, scores for each test are divided into categories and the workers' data are classified. Next, explanations are written for each category. The RDB integrates all data and prints the document. This system has a high potential for use in occupational health care and other fields. An example of its application is provided.
Industrial Health, July 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.331-337. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 00-1497 Smith A., Johal S., Wadsworth E., Smith G.D., Peters T.
Health and Safety Executive
The scale of occupational stress - The Bristol stress and health at work study
Report of a study on occupational stress carried out in the region of Bristol (United Kingdom). A questionnaire on stress and conditions of work was sent to 17,000 randomly-selected persons. The results obtained were in agreement with literature publications. One year later, 4,673 persons having participated in the earlier study answered a new questionnaire and were subjected to medical examinations aimed at highlighting correlations between their state of health and stress level. Finally, a cohort study was conducted on a group of persons identified in the two previous studies as being under stress at work. Arterial hypertension, nervous disorders or depression, bronchitis and lung cancer were among the health problems linked to occupational stress. Occupational accidents were also more frequent in the high stress group.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 328p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 25.00.

CIS 00-1496 Gabriel P., Liimatainen M.R.
Mental health in the workplace
This report discusses the legislative, policy and programme aspects of mental health in the enterprise, with particular attention paid to five countries: Finland, Germany, Poland, the United Kingdom and the United States. A glossary is included.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. 46p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1495 Rantanen J., Lehtinen S.
Psychological stress at work - Proceedings of the International Symposium
Proceedings of the International Symposium on Psychological Stress at Work held at Espoo, Finland, from 7 to 9 June 1999. Main topics covered include: brain imaging methods; risk management, psychosocial hazards and work stress; psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal diseases; prevention of occupational stress; post-traumatic stress caused by harassment or unreasonable treatment at work; occupational stress; stress management; stress in the hotel and restaurant sector.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2000. 81p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-1482 Eyrolle H., Cellier J.M.
The effects of interruptions in work activity: Field and laboratory results
The effects of interruptions in work activity were investigated, first in a field study where the operators' task was to card-index data about customers' phone lines. The interruptions due to customers' calls resulted in an increase of the processing time of the current task and in the use of several management strategies. A laboratory study was then designed in order to study the effects of temporal strain, task complexity and similarity on time-sharing efficiency and to clarify the psychological mechanisms underlying the switching from one task to the other. The results showed, in particular, a significant effect of temporal strains on performance and a strong increase in mean error rate at the very beginning of the processing of the second task. Advice is given for both technical and organizational design.
Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2000, Vol.31, No.5, p.537-543. Illus. 18 ref.

1999

CIS 03-1482 Schulz P., Schlotz W.
The Trier Inventory for the Assessment of Chronic Stress (TICS): Scale construction, statistical testing and validation of the scale on work overload
Trierer Inventar zur Erfassung von chronischem Streß (TICS): Skalenkonstruktion, teststatistische Überprüfung und Validierung der Skala Arbeitsüberlastung [in German]
A questionnaire for the measurement of chronic stress was designed to determine the frequency and severity of occurrence of six aspects of chronic stress: work overload, work dissatisfaction, social stress, lack of social recognition, anxiety and intrusive memories. The chronicity of stress is measured by the frequency of stress events perceived retrospectively in these areas. The answers are given on a five-point rating scale. Checks of the reliability and internal consistency yielded satisfactory results. The validity of work overload scale has been confirmed so far in various studies. A significant correlation was found between work overload and tinnitus, a more than normal reduction of the stress hormone cortisol and chronic exhaustion.
Diagnostica, 1999, Vol.45, No.1, p.8-19. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 03-980 Cárdenas S.M.
Occupational stress - Much studied but little understood
¿Muy estudiado y poco comprendido? - El estrés ocupacional [in Spanish]
Stress is the result of an imbalance between working conditions and human factors. A number of psychosocial factors are responsible for stress: the type of work and its consideration within the company, human relations, organization of working time (shift work, night work, fast work rhythm, overtime), personnel management, workers' psychological profile, sex, age, personality and psychological history as well as exogenous factors (family, cultural, socioeconomic aspects). These risk factors have to be identified and assessed in order to formulate a stress prevention strategy within the company with the objective to reduce the costs of absenteeism, to increase the sense of belonging and to raise productivity.
Protección y seguridad, Nov.-Dec. 1999, Vol.45, No.268, p.18-22. Illus.

CIS 02-494 Colquhoun R.
Burnout in mental health professionals: A personal construct approach
Burnout is characterized by depersonalization, a decreased sense of personal accomplishment and physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. This research project used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the influence of affect states (anger, depression and good feelings), differences in work-related construct systems and socio-demographic variables on burnout. The study group consisted of 60 health care professionals, who were questioned on their working environment and personal life; the replies were transcribed and rated on a number of scales. A personal construct model of burnout was developed, according to which affect states were associated with levels of burnout and differences in content of work-related construct systems were predictive of levels of burnout. However, there were no significant differences in socio-demographical factors among professionals who showed burnout. Implications of the present research are discussed and ideas for future research are suggested.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.67-78. 45 ref.

CIS 01-1860 Vollmer G.R., Ralston D.A.
Stress among German and American managers
Stress bei deutschen und amerikanischen Managern [in German]
Globalization and the constant mutation of the workplace generate a high degree of stress. This article examines stress perception and coping among German and American managers. Significant differences are highlighted. Among American managers, occupational stress appears to be higher than among German managers, although non-occupational stress appears to be comparable for the two groups. American managers have an optimistic mindset which helps them cope with both occupational and non-occupational stress. Among German managers, their role in the organization is not always clear and may be a source of stress. Job satisfaction is higher among German managers, as is burnout. The intention of changing jobs is more pronounced among American managers, which is indicative of a higher level of detachment with respect to their work.
Personalführung, 1999, Vol.32, No.12, p.64-69. Illus. 4 ref.

CIS 01-1570 de Arquer M.I.
Mental workload: Factors
Carga mental de trabajo: factores [in Spanish]
This information note defines mental workload and describes the main contributing factors, which include: job demand; conditions of work (lighting, thermal comfort, noise level, work atmosphere, unpleasant smells, social and organizational factors), personal factors and non-occupational social factors. The negative consequences of an excessive mental workload are explained, and preventive measures are proposed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 5p. 6 ref.

CIS 01-1561 Camerino D., Fattorini E., Molteni G., De Vito G.
The relationship between psycho-social factors, workload and epidemiological pathologies
Relazione tra fattori psicosociali, carico lavorativo e patologie di rilievo epidemiologico [in Italian]
In order to evaluate the effect of psychosocial factors and related stress responses on the onset of musculoskeletal disorders, a study was conducted on 1182 nurses (949 women and 233 men) in three large Milan hospitals. The main task investigated was the transfer of patients. Psychosocial aspects were researched by using four different questionnaires and rating scales. Ailments were quantified by using a questionnaire developed and validated in Italy for the collection of data on back pain. Research results confirmed that objective evaluations of the physical load and subjective evaluations are consistent, that physical load is the main risk for back ailments and that there is a significant relationship between psychosocial factors, stress and fatigue. Based on this research, it is recommended that information and training for nurses consider the potential for change in the relationship between the individual and the organization in the management of workloads.
Prevenzione oggi, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.XI, No.1, p.43-69. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 01-1264 Jarzuel Y., Simonnet-Trucy C.
Evaluating stress within the organization
L'évaluation du stress en entreprise [in French]
A method for the subjective evaluation of stress, entitled "visual analogical scale" (VAS) is presented. It includes three levels of stress evaluation, "overall stress", "stress due to occupational factors" and "stress due to personal or family factors". The assessment is made simultaneously and independently by the occupational physician and the employee. Its validity and usefulness was tested on 277 subjects over a 6-month period. Agreement between the VAS ratings of the physicians and the employees was moderate at the individual level, but excellent at the company level, making it a useful tool for evaluating stress within organizations.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 1999, Vol.39, No.3, p.307-311. Illus. 10 ref.

CIS 01-1242 Westgaard R.H.
Effects of physical and mental stressors on muscle pain
Physical and mental stressors as risk factors for pain development are discussed. Physical stressors are represented by muscle activity recorded by electromyography (EMG), while mental stress is considered synonymous with psychosocial stress in vocational studies and cognitive stress is used as a model in experimental studies. Pain in the shoulder and neck is focused and related to EMG recordings of activity in the trapezius muscle. A three-factor conceptual model is presented in which the independent dimensions physical work load, mental stress and individual sensitivity determine the risk of shoulder and neck complaints.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1999, Vol.25, Suppl.4, p.19-24. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 01-1260 Theorell T.
How to deal with stress in organizations? - A health perspective on theory and practice
This review is focused on organizational aspects of stress reduction. Theoretical models are presented. The association with a few health outcomes (cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders and functional gastrointestinal illness) is examined. A few examples of the evaluation of health consequences of improved work organization are introduced. Concepts such as psychological demands, decision latitude, social support and effort-reward balance are discussed and related to practical reorganizational efforts.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1999, Vol.25, No.6, p.616-624. 41 ref.

CIS 01-919 Guidance on work-related stress: "Spice of life - or kiss of death?"
Manuel d'orientation sur le stress lié au travail - "Piment de la vie... ou coup fatal?" [in French]
Manual de orientación sobre el estrés asociado al trabajo [in Spanish]
This guidance provides general information on the causes, manifestations and consequences of work-related stress, both for workers and employers. It also offers general advice on how work-related stress problems and their causes can be identified and proposes a practical and flexible framework for actions that social partners can adapt to suit their own situation, both at national level and in individual companies. The focus is on primary prevention of work-related stress and ill-health, rather than on treatment.
European Commission, Directorate-General V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Directorate F, Unit D.6, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1999. x, 105p. 155 ref. Index.

CIS 01-452 Greco R.M., Machado de Queiros V., da Rocha Gomes J.
Workload on technical services staff at the USP nursing school
Cargas de trabalho dos técnicos operacionais da escola de enfermagem da USP [in Portuguese]
This study was undertaken at the São Paulo University Nursing School (EEUSP), in order to identify the working hazards of general services staff at EEUSP. It is based on the perception of their actual work processes. Considering the elements of the work process, physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, and psychological loads were analysed. It is concluded that the most frequent and relevant loads are psychological and mechanical in nature, due to the way the work is organized, as well as to the equipment and instruments used by the operational technicians at EEUSP.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 1999, Vol.25, No.95/96, p.59-75. 26 ref.

CIS 01-595 De Gucht V., Fischler B., Demanet C.
Immune dysfunction associated with chronic professional stress in nurses
The relationship between chronic professional stress and immunity as well as the possible psychopathology of this relationship were examined. Sixty nurses were selected on the basis of high or low scores of professional stress and psychopathology by means of questionnaires. Chronic professional stress appears to be associated with immune dysfunction including signs of immune activation and possibly immune suppression. The increase in activation markers, CD3+CD16CD56+ cells and serum neopterin was associated with high stress/low psychopathology whereas the decrease of CD8+CD11b+ cells was more pronounced in the high stress/high psychopathology group. In the presence of chronic stress, distinct psychological mechanisms may be associated with specific immune dysfunctions.
Psychiatry Research, 1999, Vol.85, No.1, p.105-111. 20 ref.

CIS 01-282 Carretta T.R., Siem F.M.
Determinants of enlisted air traffic controller success
This paper provides a brief historical overview of air traffic controller (ATC) selection, reviews current U.S. Air Force (USAF) selection procedures for enlisted ATC trainees, and summarizes the results of three recent studies. The current selection composite demonstrated acceptable validity for predicting apprentice-level training performance. Alternative cut-score analyses revealed that raising the minimum qualifying score in order to reduce attrition by 5% would lead to an unacceptable 20% reduction in the number of eligible ATC candidates. Results of a survey of enlisted ATCs indicated they were generally satisfied and motivated. In addition, they identified several abilities required for on-the-job performance that are not measured by current USAF selection methods. These included memorization and retention of new information, spatial orientation/visualization, ability to work well in stressful environments, ability to shift between two or more sources of information, and ability to combine and organize information. Implications for ATC selection and training as well as future research directions are discussed.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1999, Vol.70, No.9, p.910-918. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 01-252 Payne D.A., Mehta S.K., Tyring S.K., Stowe R.P., Pierson D.L.
Incidence of Epstein-Barr virus in astronaut saliva during spaceflight
Astronauts experience psychological and physical stresses that may result in reactivation of latent viruses during spaceflight, potentially increasing the risk of disease among crewmembers. In order to test the hypothesis that the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the saliva of astronauts increases during spaceflight, a total of 534 saliva specimens were collected from 11 EBV-seropositive astronauts before, during, and after four space shuttle missions. The presence of EBV DNA in saliva was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The findings were that EBV DNA was detected more frequently before flight than during or after flight. No significant difference between the inflight and postflight periods was detected in the frequency of occurrence of EBV DNA. In conclusion, the increased frequency of shedding of EBV before flight suggests that stress levels may be greater before launch than during or after spaceflight.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 1999, Vol.70, No.12, p.1211-1213. Illus. 23 ref.

CIS 00-1644 Salanova M., Cifre E., Martín P.
The process of "technological stress" and strategies for its prevention (II)
El proceso de "tecnoestrés" y estrategias para su prevención (II) [in Spanish]
Technological innovation induce changes in work methods and are therefore sources of stress. Part I (see CIS 00-1643) of this article analyses the main changes due to new technologies which have an incidence on worker's psychosocial health and associated organisational and individual factors. Part II examines strategies for stress prevention by controlling stress factors and by changing the subjective perception of stress.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 1999, No.2, p.4-12. Illus. 46 ref.

CIS 00-1643 Salanova M., Cifre E., Martín P.
The process of "technological stress" and strategies for its prevention (I)
El proceso de "tecnoestrés" y estrategias para su prevención (I) [in Spanish]
Technological innovations induce changes in work methods and are therefore sources of stress. Part I of this article analyses the main changes due to new technologies which have an incidence on worker's psychosocial health and associated organisational and individual factors. Part II (see CIS 00-1644) examines strategies for stress prevention by controlling stress factors and by changing the subjective perception of stress.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 1999, No.1, p.18-28. Illus.

CIS 00-1794 Ng V., Koh D., Chan G., Ong H.Y., Chia S.E., Ong C.N.
Are salivary immunoglobulin A and lysozyme biomarkers of stress among nurses?
Salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) and lysozyme have been studied as possible biomarkers of stress. The study examined the stress levels among female nurses in various units of a hospital and the relationship between these stress levels and salivary IgA and lysozyme secretion. Stress levels were assessed with a ten-point Stress Assessment Score (SAS) and a direct question on perceived life stress. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lyso-plate methods were used to determine salivary IgA and lysozyme levels. Nurses working in various units under different conditions experienced dissimilar levels of stress. Salivaly IgA, but not lysozyme, correlated inversely with self-reported levels of stress. It may thus be a potential biomarker in future studies on stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 1999, Vol.41, No.10, p.920-927. Illus. 27 ref.

CIS 00-1489 Myrtek M., Fichtler A., Strittmatter M., Brügner G.
Stress and strain of blue and white collar workers during work and leisure time: Results of psychophysiological and behavioural monitoring
This study investigated behaviour and the level of subjective stress and objective strain during work and leisure time among blue and white collar workers. Analysis of the physiological parameters for the working hours from 8 to 16h revealed differences between the hours for physical activity, heart rate (HR) and non-metabolic HR but not for HR variability. Physical activity and HR were higher for blue than white collar workers due to the different tasks of the workers. Comparison between total working time and leisure time revealed lower physical activity and HR but higher non-metabolic HR for leisure time. In the self-reports, however, leisure time was rated less exciting and more pleasant than working time. There was no indication of greater emotional strain for either group, but mental strain at work was somewhat higher for the blue collar workers. In a questionnaire, white collar workers reported having significantly more stress at work and outside work than blue collar workers. Analysis of behaviour during leisure time showed only minor differences between the groups.
Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 1999, Vol.30, No.4, p.341-351. Illus. 43 ref.

CIS 00-1478 Verbeek J.H.A.M., van der Beek A.J.
Psychosocial factors at work and back pain: A prospective study in office workers
A prospective study was carried out among municipal social service employees to investigate whether psychosocial factors at work are correlated with back pain prevalence at follow-up. Participants were questioned on personal characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, physical workload, back pain experience, and general health and well-being. Back pain was assessed as twelve month prevalence and pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In a univariate analysis, high job demands, confinement to the workplace, depression, psychological complaints, and general health complaints, were positively related to back pain prevalence at follow-up. In a multivariate analysis, however, none of the odds ratios for psychosocial stressors differed significantly from one another. VAS pain intensity was the best predictor of back pain at follow-up. Initial back pain with low intensity and high intensity significantly predicted the prevalence of back pain at follow-up with significantly raised odds ratios of 3.0 and 10.3, respectively. In conclusion, the study does not provide clear evidence that psychosocial factors at work are correlated with back pain.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.12, No.1, p.29-39. 33 ref.

CIS 00-1486 Reissman D.B., Orris P., Lacey R., Hartman D.E.
Downsizing, role demands, and job stress
This is a cross-sectional study consisting of self-administered survey instruments to measure psychological distress and stress-inducing work demands after 6 months of rumours about an upcoming corporate downsizing event. The workforce consisted predominantly of white males who were married, college-educated, and nonsmokers. Higher stress levels were seen among older, more educated workers, who had longer company tenure. Role boundary problems, noxious physical environments, and company tenure were retained in the final multivariable model predicting distress level. The ongoing time delay for management to implement the threatened layoff and peer rankings for a new job performance appraisal contributed to a decline in worker solidarity because of concerns about career and job security. These uncertainties reduced worker productivity and effective teamwork.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.289-293. 24 ref.

CIS 00-1189 Strobel G., Von Krause J., Weissgerber B.
Psychic stress of construction supervisors
Psychische Belastung von Bauleitern [in German]
The mental work requirements of supervisors on construction sites were determined by observations and with the job analysis questionnaire of Frieling and Hoyos. In addition, the subjective assessments of the mental work requirements of 70 supervisors on German construction sites of different sizes were collected. The investigations led to following most common mental stress factors: coordination of a large number of different tasks, rapid change of tasks, responsibility for the safety of workers, restricted funds, numerous conversations with many different communication partners, frequent work interruptions, time pressure and long hours of work. Job experience and support from management and co-workers turned out to be helpful in coping with mental stress.
Die BG, Mar. 1999, No.3, p.140-144. Illus. 13 ref.

CIS 00-1192 Kolich M., Wong-Reiger D.
Emotional stress and information processing ability in the context of accident causation
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonwork stress on information processing ability. The research question was studied by simulating industrial tasks (using playing cards) that required varying amounts of information processing. Nonwork stress was measured using parts of a pre-existing questionnaire. Twelve persons were selected to participate in this study. Nonwork stress was found to negatively affect information processing ability, as measured by reaction time. As a consequence, stress due to nonwork factors can be considered an important factor in accident occurrence in complex person-machine systems; one that is, at the very least, worthy of further investigation. The findings of these investigations have far-reaching implications with regard to employment practices; particularly those concerned with pre-employment screening and stress management training. These implications are based on the premise that the likelihood of an accident in complex person-machine systems decreases as high risk individuals are identified and trained.
International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Oct. 1999, Vol.24, No.6, p.591-602. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 00-893 Mikkelsen A., Saksvik P.Ø, Eriksen H.R., Ursin H.
The impact of learning opportunities and decision authority on occupational health
In an investigation of 418 employees in the Norwegian Postal Service, employees with high learning opportunities and high decision authority were found to be better off on psychological functioning, health and organizational outcome variables than employees with low scores on these variables. Decision authority and learning opportunities had specific and independent impact on subjective health, psychological functioning, coping style and organizational outcome variables. There were also, however, interaction effects between demands, learning opportunities and decision authority on subjective health. Learning opportunities and decision authority were operationalized with a questionnaire, supplemented with questions on the opportunities to learn skills beyond the present job situation. It is suggested that this is a particularly important dimension for coping with the present-day rapid changes in working life, where the objective for many workers will be to broaden their repertoire and competence to increase their flexibility in the labour market.
Work and Stress, Jan.-Mar. 1999, Vol.13, No.1, p.20-31. lllus. 35 ref.

CIS 00-892 Netterstrøm B., Nielsen F.E., Kristensen T.S., Bach E., Møller L.
Relation between job strain and myocardial infraction: A case-control study
A case-control study of 76 male wage earners who had been admitted to hospital with myocardial infarction (MI) was conducted in Denmark. As a control group, 176 male wage earners not admitted to hospital who were residents of the same county were used. Both groups were interviewed with an extensive questionnaire on job-related conditions. The most significant findings were consistent with Karasek's job strain model in that men with a high degree of demand combined with a low degree of control at work had a significantly increased odds ratio (OR) for MI after adjustment for age compared with men with a low degree of demand and a high degree of control at work. Further adjustment for smoking, socioeconomic status, employment sector, job category and social network did not affect the OR substantially. Other factors significantly associated to MI were job category and employment sector. Thus, the study confirmed the job strain model as well as the well known association between socioeconomic status and risk of MI, whereas the finding of an increased risk among employees in the private sector has not previously been described.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 1999, Vol.56, No.5, p.339-342. 23 ref.

CIS 00-583 Carayon P., Smith M.J., Haims M.C.
Work organization, job stress and work-related musculoskeletal disorders
Recent studies indicate potential links between work organization, job stress and work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs). Several pathways for a theoretical relationship between job stress and WRMDS are proposed, which highlight the physiological, psychological and behavioural reactions to stress that may be related to WRMDs directly or indirectly. One model stipulates that psychosocial work factors which can cause stress might also influence ergonomic factors such as force, repetition and posture that have been identified as risk factors for WRMDs. In order to fully understand the aetiology of WRMDs, it is important to examine physical, ergonomic and psychosocial work factors simultaneously. Smith and Carayon-Sainfort (1989) have proposed a model of the work system for stress management that provides a useful framework for conceptualizing the work-related factors that contribute to WRMDs.
Human Factors, Dec. 1999, Vol.41, No.4, p.644-663. Illus. 152 ref.

CIS 00-598 The mental workload of work is increasing
La pénibilité mentale du travail augmente [in French]
According to a survey conducted in 1998 by the French Ministry of Employment, occupational mental workload has increased when compared to the results of a similar survey conducted in 1991. One employee in four claims not to have enough time to do their work. Topics covered: perceived risk of penalty in the case of errors; work rhythms; noise exposure; indicators of occupational mental workload; frequency of task interruptions in favour of more urgent tasks; bullying at work; conflicts with superiors or co-workers.
Travail et sécurité, Oct. 1999, No.589, p.8-10. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 00-597 Striker J., Luippold R.S., Nagy L., Liese B., Bigelow C., Mundt K.A.
Risk factors for psychological stress among international business travellers
This study investigated sources of self-reported psychological stress among international business travellers at the World Bank. Hypotheses were that work pressures, personal and family concerns, health behaviours and attitudes, and travel across time zones contribute to travel stress. A travel survey was developed from focus groups and consisted of questions about these potential sources of travel stress. Surveys were sent to a random sample of staff, stratified by number of travel missions, age range and sex. Canonical correlation analyses estimated the association between key survey items on sources of stress and two measures of travel stress. A total of 498 staff members completed the survey. More than a third reported high to very high travel stress. Correlations between predictors and travel stress showed that social and emotional concerns (such as impact of travel on family and sense of isolation) contributed the most to such stress, followed by health concerns and workload upon return from travel. Surprisingly, time zone travel did not contribute to the self-reported stress of these travellers. There were few modifiers of stress, although respondents suggested that a day of rest after travel and reduced workloads would help.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 1999, Vol.56, No.4, p.245-252. 30 ref.

CIS 00-596 Occupational stress, with many factors involved
Stress professionnel, une multiplicité de facteurs en cause [in French]
Topics: compensation of occupational diseases; determination in saliva; emergency organization; fire services; France; hormones; human behaviour; job dissatisfaction; mental health; mental stress; motivation; neuropsychic stress; psychology of absenteeism; social aspects; stress factors; work involving responsibility; work organization.
Travail et sécurité, Mar. 1999, No.582, p.26-37. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 00-591 Jones M.C., Johnston D.W.
The derivation of a brief Student Nurse Stress Index
A number of items from the Beck and Srivastava Stress Inventory and some new additional items were analysed in answers from 235 first-year student nurses. Four factors - academic load, clinical concerns, personal problems and interface worries - produced a psychometric solution validated in an additional sample of 188 subjects.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.13, No.2, p.162-181. Illus. 47 ref.

CIS 00-590 Leonard R., Alison L.
Critical incident stress debriefing and its effects on coping strategies and anger in a sample of Australian police officers involved in shooting incidents
Situation appraisals and coping behaviours, symptom outcomes and expectations of police officers involved in shooting incidents were analysed in two groups of 30 police officers each, one of which received and the other did not receive a Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD). The CISD appeared to lead to reduction in anger levels and greater use of some specific adaptive coping strategies, but closer analysis revealed that factors such as prior negative life experiences could be more important. The opportunity for a CISD was found to be important; the non-debriefed felt overlooked and more angry. The quality of debriefings was sometimes regarded as insufficient.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.13, No.2, p.144-161. 40 ref.

CIS 00-588 Smulders P.G.W., Nijhuis F.J.N.
The Job Demands-Job Control Model and absence behaviour: Results of a 3-year longitudinal study
Job demands, job control, physical working conditions, and employees' age, education, and health were evaluated in a given year in 1,755 male employees of a technical maintenance firm in the public sector, and correlated with absence behaviour in that year and three subsequent years. Age, health and prior absence were found to be the best predictors of future absences. Job control was found to be significantly associated with a low number of simultaneous and subsequent absence days. The same findings were made for the effect of job demands. Job control and job demand did not predict later absence frequency. The authors suggest that job demands (such as work under time pressure) could be perceived as "a pressure to attend".
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.13, No.2, p.115-131. 64 ref.

CIS 00-587 van der Doef M., Maes S.
The Job Demand-Control(-Support) Model and psychological well-being: A review of 20 years of empirical research
Research on psychological well-being under occupational stress published between 1979 and 1997 is reviewed and compared in terms of the Job Demand-Control and Job Demand-Control-Support models. Two hypotheses are tested: the strain hypothesis (high demands and low control should produce the lowest well-being) and the buffer hypothesis (control can moderate the negative effects of high demands on well-being). Low social support (isolation) should reinforce these negative effects (iso-strain hypothesis) while high social support should moderate them. It was found that only the aspects of job control that correspond to the specific demands of a given job moderate the impact of high demands on well-being.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 1999, Vol.13, No.2, p.87-114. Illus. 98 ref.

CIS 00-585 Taris T.W., Schreurs P.J.G., Schaufeli W.B.
Construct validity of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey: A two-sample examination of its factor structure and correlates
The Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, an instrument for the measurement of burnout in professions not involving contacts with persons, was validated in a study involving 179 software engineers and 284 university staff members. With respect to internal validity, the distinction of three burnout subscales is retained. With respect to external validity, the meaning of the subscales in terms of selected work characteristics is quite different. For practical purposes, burnout scores can readily be obtained in a one-dimensional concept; for scientific purposes, burnout should be scored in three different dimensions.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.13, No.3, p.223-237. Illus. 48 ref.

CIS 00-584 Hanse J.J., Engström T.
Sense of coherence and ill health among the unemployed and re-employed after closure of an assembly plant
Sense of coherence (SOC) is a dispositional orientation of perceiving and controlling the environment for meaningful and appropriate action. Subjects of this cross-sectional study were 344 former employees of an assembly plant closed down two years earlier, of whom 92 were still unemployed at the time of the study. Ill-health symptoms and poor SOC were significantly more frequent among those still unemployed, but in the presence of a strong SOC being unemployed had a rather low impact on health symptoms. SOC appeared to have a greater impact on psychological symptoms among unemployed as compared to re-employed workers. A high education level and white-collar work were related to strong SOC. Re-employed workers reported a significantly stronger SOC.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.13, No.3, p.204-222. Illus. 56 ref.

CIS 00-295 Kalimo R., Lim V.K.G., Hian T.T.S., Chappell D., Di Martino V., Obhasi B., Rhee K.Y., Estrella-Gust D.P., Shimomitsu T., Tomaszunas S.
Psychological stress in work life
Topics: conditions of work; health care personnel; hours of work; human behaviour; Japan; job dissatisfaction; Korea Rep. of; mental stress; migrant workers; neuropsychic stress; overstrain; Philippines; Singapore; social aspects; stress factors; Thailand; violence; voluntary workers.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Apr. 1999, Vol.6, No.1, p.1-23 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 00-290 Rotger Llinás D.
Psychological training of firefighters and other members of rescue groups. Coping with stress and first line psychological support to victims
La preparación psicológica del bombero y otros miembros de grupos de rescate. Su aceptación al estrés y los primeros auxilios psicológicos a las víctimas [in Spanish]
Topics: escape and rescue; fire services; neuropsychic stress; occupational psychology; physical training; stress factors.
Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1999, Vol.19, No.74, p.23-33. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 00-294 Merecz D., Makowska Z., Makowiec-Dąbrowska T.
The assessment of big five personality factors and temperament domains as modifiers of cardiovascular response to occupational stress
The role of the Big Five Personality Factors (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness) and Temperament Domains as factors influencing cardiovascular response to work, and their moderating effect on the relationship between occupational stress and cardiovascular reactivity was investigated in 97 bank clerks. Conscientiousness was found to be the only modifier of cardiovascular response to occupational stress, as reflected by systolic blood pressure. Several effects, independent of stress, associated with personality and temperament domains were also found: the ratio of heart rate at work to heart rate during sleep was associated with the strength of excitatory process, the percentage of maximum heart rate index with Conscientiousness, and systolic blood pressure at work was influenced by the strength of inhibitory process. However, physiological indicators of cardiovascular system function were not very sensitive to changes in values of personality and temperament variables at the level of occupational stress.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1999, Vol.12, No.3, p.273-284. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 99-1916 Zimber A., Weyerer S.
Workload of personnel caring for the elderly
Arbeitsbelastung in der Altenpflege [in German]
Subjects covered by this collection of articles on gerontological nursing: conditions of work in nursing homes for the elderly; types of care required by the elderly; adequacy of training of health care personnel; methods of work and job studies in the caring professions; methods of determining physiological responses to stress and selected results; burdens faced by personnel in nursing homes for the elderly such as lifting and carrying of heavy loads, conflicts with doctors, patients and relatives, shift work, night work, contact with senile patients; exposure to infectious body fluids and harmful pharmaceutical products; influence of work organization on physiological responses; recommendations for the improvement of the conditions of work in nursing homes for the elderly; rising senile dementia. Topics: biological hazards; conditions of work; health care personnel; health hazards; mental workload; physical workload; psychological effects; stress factors; toxic substances; vocational training; work organization; work study.
Hogrefe-Verlag, Rohnsweg 25, 37085 Göttingen, Germany, 1999. 315p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: DEM 69.00.

CIS 99-2094 Dollard M., Walsh C.
Illusory correlation: Is work stress really worse in the public sector?
South Australian statistics reveal higher numbers of stress claims for public sector workers compared with those for private sector workers, yet time lost and average cost per claim in the private sector exceed that in the public sector. Factors which may be contributing to these significant differences in leave patterns between the sectors are investigated. Specifically, the culture and philosophy of the sector, the intrinsic stressfulness of the sector, the role of the media, unions, management and legislation, and techniques for the collection and management of data are all canvassed for their possible contribution in areas such as early identification, reporting and return-to-work processes. Topics: Australia; economic aspects; government services; legal aspects; neuropsychic stress; notification of accidents and diseases; psychology of absenteeism; questionnaire survey; role of workers organizations; social aspects; stress factors.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 1999, Vol.15, No.3, p.219-229. 50 ref.

CIS 99-2084 McPherson G.
Too tired to stay alert
The offshore environment is a dangerous home to workers who may, for half their lives, work 12-hour shifts for up to 14 consecutive days. Their particular job and lifestyle is designed to be repetitive but this habitual life can lead to fatigue which has been cited as a cause of a significant number of accidents offshore. Research into fatigue within this specific occupational community indicates the extent to which alertness is affected by fatigue. The results have implications for those working in a wider field. Topics: conditions of work; fatigue; offshore oil extraction; relaxed vigilance; shift work; work time schedules.
Safety and Health Practitioner, May 1999, Vol.17, No.5, p.16-18. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 99-2092 Sudo A., Saito S., Haratani T.
Special issue: Occupational stress
Topics: comment on standard; ergonomics; fatigue assessment; man-computer interfaces; mental health; mental stress; mental workload; nervous fatigue; neuropsychic stress; nursing personnel; occupational psychology; psychosomatic disorders; shift work; sickness absenteeism; social aspects; stress factors; stress studies; urine monitoring; women; work design.
Industrial Health, Apr. 1999, Vol.37, No.2, p.121-270. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 99-1382 Mino Y., Shigemi J., Tsuda T., Yasuda N., Bebbington P.
Perceived job stress and mental health in precision machine workers in Japan: A two year cohort study
A survey including a general heath questionnaire and a questionnaire about perceived job stress was carried out. The two year risks of developing mental ill health were assessed relative to perceived job stress. To control for potential confounding factors, multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. Workers who reported aspects of perceived job stress showed a greater two year risk than those without stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that some components of perceived job stress were associated with a higher two year risk, among which "not allowed to make mistakes" showed the largest adjusted odds ratio. "Poor relationship with superior" had a significant effect on mental health only in women, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.79. Certain specific items of perceived job stress seem to be associated with mental ill heath in workers. These could broadly be described as job strain or job demands items. Topics: cohort study; human relations; job dissatisfaction; mental health; neuropsychic stress; precision workers in metal etc.; sex-linked differences; stress factors; subjective assessment.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1999, Vol.56, No.1, p.41-45. 24 ref.

CIS 99-1396 Stress at work
Topics: cardiovascular disorders; conditions of work; health hazards; human relations; mental health; musculoskeletal diseases; neuropsychic stress; role of management; stress factors; work design; work organization.
Publications Dissemination, EID, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 1999. 26p. Illus. 12 ref.

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