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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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CIS 03-2000
Health and Safety Executive
Work-related stress - A short guide
This booklet aimed at managers and owners of small enterprises defines work-related mental stress, identifies its symptoms and recommends specific actions to reduce its impact on staff. Replaces the booklet analysed as CIS 98-1550.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2001. 10p. 4 ref. [in English]

CIS 03-1496 Lee K.Y.
Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute
Work-related stress and organizational culture
Jakup kwhan ryeon stress wa jojik mun wha [in Korean]
This report presents research carried out to study the relationship between occupational stress and organizational culture, for the purpose of developing organizational culture strategies aimed at reducing stress. 1,136 workers in 217 workplaces engaged in various types of work were interviewed individually. The results highlight the different factors characterizing organizational culture and their influence on occupational stress.
Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gu-san dong, Bupyung gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, Nov. 2001. 92p. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 03-1473 Bobko N.
Effects of stress on psychophysiological parameters of electricity distribution network controllers in Ukraine
Electricity distribution controllers are responsible for balancing supply and demand for electricity under planned and unforeseen equipment shut-downs and network disruptions. To study the effects of stress on the cognitive performance and the cardiovascular system of controllers, 16 controllers working 12-hour shifts were studied. A five-point scale was used to estimate the perceived level of stress. The most pronounced changes in heart rate, circulatory minute volume and Kerdo's vegetative index were found during the first day shift and less pronounced changes appeared during the first night shift. Effects of stress on the studied parameters were not found during the second consecutive day or night shift. Increased stress causes the activation of psychophysiological functions that are indispensable for ensuring work efficiency under increased production demands. However, the necessary activation could not be maintained during the second consecutive 12-hour shifts. There was no observed effect of stress on short-term memory.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.351-355. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-1483 Nakata A., Haratani T., Takahashi M., Kawakami N., Arito H., Fujioka Y., Shimizu H., Kobayashi F., Araki S.
Job stress, social support at work and insomnia in Japanese shift workers
To study the relationship between psychological job stress and insomnia in shift workers, a self-administered questionnaire concerning job stress, sleep, depressive symptoms and lifestyle factors was submitted to a sample of 530 rotating shift workers in an electric equipment manufacturing company. Perceived job stress was assessed using the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Overall prevalence of insomnia was 37.8%. Logistic regression analyses showed that lower social support at work was significantly associated with a greater risk of insomnia than the higher social support (odds ratio (OR) 2.5). Higher job strain with lower social support at work increased the risk, compared to lower strain with higher support at work (OR 1.5). The findings suggest the low social support at work is independently associated with insomnia in shift workers.
Journal of Human Ergology, Dec. 2001, Vol.30, No.1-2, p.203-209. 27 ref.

CIS 03-689 Meyer V.P., Brehler.R., Castro W.H.M., Nentwig C.G.
Work-related stress and strain among dentists in private practice
Arbeitsbelastungen bei Zahnärzten in niedergelassener Praxis [in German]
The aim of this questionnaire study was to identify specific occupational stress and strain among dentists in private practice and to examine the prevalence of occupational dermatoses, spinal complaints and mental stressors. The questionnaire was designed to allow comparison with a previous study on stress conducted in 1984. Between 1984 and 1999, exhaustion had risen from 25% to 57%, the subjectively perceived demands on concentration from 61% to 81% and stress due to professional responsibility from 6% to 14%. Approx. 87% dentists reported having experienced neck and back pain in the past and 45% reported suffering from atopic diseases with eczema being most common, followed by atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.
Institut der Deutschen Zahnärzte, Universitätsstrasse 73, 50931 Köln, Germany, 2001. 167p. Illus. 95 ref. Price: EUR 29.95.

CIS 03-492 Van der Hulst M., Geurts S.
Associations between overtime and psychological health in high and low reward jobs
This study focused on the relationship between overtime and psychological health as a function of reward and pressure to work overtime. Data were collected for 535 full-time employees of the Dutch Postal Service. Logistic regression analyses showed that employees reporting low psychological rewards had elevated risks of burnout, negative work-home interference and slow recovery. A second analysis was conducted separately for employees who worked overtime. In this subgroup, low psychological rewards were associated with elevated risks of health complaints, emotional exhaustion and negative home-work interference. Employees who worked overtime and reported a high pressure to work overtime in combination with low psychological rewards had elevated risks of poor recovery, cynicism, and negative work-home interference. The results suggest that even a limited number of hours of involuntary overtime in low psychological reward situations is associated with adverse mental health.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.227-240. 40 ref.

CIS 03-491 Van Horn J.E., Schaufeli W.B., Taris T.W.
Lack of reciprocity among Dutch teachers: Validation of reciprocity indices and their relation to stress and well-being
The validity of three indices of reciprocity in exchange relationships at work were studied. A total of 71 Dutch teachers were interviewed on their specific investments and outcomes in exchange relationships with students, colleagues and the school administration. Variance analysis revealed that they reported significantly more investments than outcomes, and that the number of reported investments and outcomes mentioned varied as a function of the type of exchange relationship. Multi-item scales were created to assess reciprocity for each of the exchange relationships, which were then validated by relating them to two global assessments of reciprocity as well as to measures of job stress and well- being. Analysis of data obtained from a further sample of 224 teachers revealed that for each type of exchange relationship, there were significant and consistent relationships among the three reciprocity indices.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.15, No.3, p.191-213. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 03-490 Taris T.W., Schreurs P.J.G., Van Iersel-Van Silfhout I.J.
Job stress, job strain and psychological withdrawal among Dutch university staff: Towards a dual-process model for the effects of occupational stress
This study examined the antecedents of job strain (emotional exhaustion, health complaints) and withdrawal behaviour (for example lowered organizational commitment) among a cross-sectional sample of 131 academic staff members of the law department of a large Dutch university. Psychological strain and withdrawal behaviour patterns were expected to be most prominent among those who reported having few resources and/or high job demands. Structural modelling revealed that this was indeed the case. As predicted, differential patterns of effects emerged for job demands and job resources. Analysis of the effects of four job-specific stressors revealed that especially the structural aspects of a staff member's teaching task (such as the number of students in their classes) contributed strongly to perceived job demands. Theoretical and practical implications of the study are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.15, No.4, p.283-296. Illus. 38 ref.

CIS 03-484 Padlina O., Aubert L., Gehring T.M., Martin-Diener E., Somaini B.
Stages of change for perceived stress in a Swiss population sample: An explorative study
This study on stress used data from a cross-sectional sample of the Swiss population. The sample was interviewed by phone, and included 575 respondents who reported having experienced stressful situations in the previous month. It was found that one third of these respondents appeared to cope successfully with these situations and one third intended to manage their stress more effectively, while one quarter had no intention of attempting to do so. The findings provide some clues for stage-specific interventions in the filed of stress. In addition, a better knowledge of the relation between readiness to change behaviour and education level, as well as on cognitive and behavioural dimensions facilitating change would be of valuable support in designing interventions helping people cope with stress.
SPM - Sozial- und Präventivmedizin - Social and Preventive Medicine - Médecine sociale et préventive, 2001, Vol.46, No.6, p.396-403. Illus. 32 ref.

CIS 03-223 Burnett C.A., Lalich N.R., MacDonald L., Alterman T.
A NIOSH look at data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics - Worker health by industry and occupation
This report presents comprehensive descriptive information on the most common occupational diseases in the United States, namely: musculoskeletal disorders of the back; upper and lower extremities; hernia; dermatitis; anxiety, stress and neurotic disorders. The data are drawn from the annual survey of occupational injuries and illnesses of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Data on the total number of cases, incidence rate per 10,000 workers and median days away from work are provided by code of activity according to the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Other results include cases by sex, race, age and length of service.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 2001. iii, 104p. Illus. 16 ref. [in English]

CIS 02-1987 Gilioli R., Adinolfi M., Bagaglio A., Boccaletti D., Cassitto M.G., Della Pietra B., Fanelli C., Fattorini E., Gilioli D., Grieco A., Guizzaro A., Labella A., Mattei O., Menegozzo M., Menegozzo S., Molinini R., Musto D., Paoletti A., Papalia F., Quagliuolo R., Vinci F.
A new risk in occupational medicine: Mobbing
Un nuovo rischio all'attenzione della medicina del lavoro: le molestie morali (mobbing) [in Italian]
In this consensus document from several Italian universities criteria are proposed for establishing the risks of bullying and mobbing in the workplace. Some definitions of the phenomenon are proposed, while potential targets and consequences for health and social situations are identified. Diagnostic criteria are listed with indications for the role of industrial physicians and human resource departments.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.61-69. 12 ref.

CIS 02-1986 Cassitto M.G.
Mobbing in the workplace: New aspects of an old phenomenon
Molestie morali nei luoghi di lavoro: nuovi aspetti di un vecchio fenomeno [in Italian]
Psychological violence or mobbing should not be confused with normal competition and conflicts encountered in the workplace. It can be due to traditional motives, such as part of an attempt to get rid of an undesired individual or to a definite corporate strategy aimed at reducing the workforce. Mobbing has been recognized as a significant source of individual discomfort and subsequent illness. Lacking specific diagnostic criteria, post-traumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder have been adopted from the international classification of mental diseases (DSM). Mobbing control is recognized not only as a target of prevention but also as a moral obligation.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.12-24. 18 ref.

CIS 02-1486 Tsutsumi A., Kayaba K., Theorell T., Siegrist J.
Association between job stress and depression among Japanese employees threatened by job loss in a comparison between two complementary job-stress models
Results of a questionnaire survey of neuropsychic stress among employees threatened by job loss in a small Japanese manufacturing plant. Employees with supportive tasks were more likely to have depressive symptoms than direct assembly-line workers. Despite some limitations, the study provides evidence of significant associations between theoretically grounded measures of job stress and depression in a sample of employees facing job loss. Intensified preventive efforts should be undertaken by those who hold the responsibility for occupational health for such vulnerable groups.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.146-153. 34 ref.

CIS 02-1179
Health and Safety Executive
Tackling work-related stress - A manager's guide to improving and maintaining employee health and well-being
This guide aimed at managers provides practical advice on how to prevent work-related stress so as to comply with safety and health laws in the United Kingdom. Contents: definition of work-related-stress; identifying the hazard; defining who can be harmed and how; evaluating the risk; recording the significant findings of the assessment; review of the assessment at appropriate intervals; helping employees who suffer from work-related stress.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. vi, 42p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 7.95.

CIS 02-1485 Cheng Y., Guo Y.L., Yeh W.Y.
A national survey of psychosocial job stressors and their implications for health among working people in Taiwan
The prevalence of job stress, distributions of major job stressors, and the associations of job stress with multiple self-reported health complaints were examined in a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted in 1994 in Taiwan involving 9,746 men and 5,599 women, employed at the time and aged between 25 and 65. Overall, 7.6% of men and 6.5% of women reported often or always feeling highly stressed at work. Higher levels of perceived job stress were found among subjects who were younger, with higher education levels, working in a larger firm, working for longer hours per week, and who were administrators or managers. Problems with individual job content were ranked as the most important job stressor in men across all employment categories and in most women. Other major job stressors included problems with monetary rewards and lack of career prospects. After adjustment for age and education, employees who perceived higher levels of job stress had significantly increased risks of multiple health problems, including strained eyes, ringing ears, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, stomach problems, headache, and musculoskeletal discomfort.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2001, Vol.74, No.7, p.495-504. 39 ref.

CIS 02-949 Malchaire J.B., Roquelaure Y., Cock N.A., Piette A.G.
Wrist musculoskeletal disorders - Direct and indirect influence of psychological and organizational factors
Troubles musculosquelettiques des poignets - Influence directe ou indirecte des facteurs psychologiques et organisationnels [in French]
In order to highlight the possible role of psychological, organizational and stress factors on wrist musculoskeletal (MS) complaints, 133 women operators assigned to repetitive tasks were subjected to a general questionnaire on their medical history, to a questionnaire on the efforts, positions and repetitiveness of their work and finally to a series of questionnaires on psychological, organizational and stress factors. Results show high levels of prevalence of wrist MS complaints (47%) for jobs considered to be of high risk. Multivariate analysis reveals a positive relationship with smoking and certain types of effort, and a negative relationship with leisure activities and the length of work breaks. Positive or negative perception of psychological and organizational factors shows an important association (OR = 3.57). The study clearly demonstrates the multi-factorial aspect of MS complaints and highlights the need for a holistic approach to working conditions that includes psychosocial aspects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.23-33. 52 ref.

CIS 02-984 Chini B.
Quantitative assessment of stress within a workers' population in the regions of Haute and Basse-Normandie
Evaluation quantitative du stress dans une population de salariés des régions Haute et Basse-Normandie [in French]
A questionnaire survey was carried out in collaboration with occupational physicians to evaluate the stress level of 253 workers, using an analogical visual scale marked with qualitative indications. The objective of the study was also to highlight the symptoms showing the best correlation to stress among a list of 20 items. It was found that the occurrence of stress is frequent, around one worker in four rating their level of stress as being high or very high. Stress also influences absenteeism and consumption of psychotropic drugs. However, no significant relationship was found with age, sex or smoking.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Nov. 2001, Vol.62, No.7, p.536-545. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-224 Tomei Fr., Ortolani B., Renzoni S., Pascalizi N., Riservato R., Marcellini L., De Sio S., Marinucci F., Tomao E., Baccolo T.P., Anzelmo V., Iosue M., Tomei F., Paolucci M., Ruffino M.G.
Pathological risks incurred by urban police forces and their prevention
Rischi patologia e prevenzione dei vigili urbani [in Italian]
In this review the hazards that urban police forces in Italy are exposed to are evaluated. Atmospheric pollution is considered first among the risk factors of this generally outdoor work, focusing on respiratory systems diseases. Other consequences mentioned include immunotoxic effects, and those depending on continuous noise, neoplasms, cardiovascular disorders and stress factors.
Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.12-24. Illus. 49 ref.

CIS 02-481 Kageyama T., Matsuzaki I., Morita N., Sasahara S., Satoh S., Nakamura H.
Mental health of scientific researchers I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan
To study job stress among scientific researchers, data from a self-administered questionnaire survey of workers aged 20-59 years at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan, were analysed. The data, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799 technicians and 1,849 clerks. The researchers perceived higher quantitative and qualitative workload, greater job control, and greater reward from work, than did the other two job groups. Young male researchers received a large amount of support from their co-workers, while middle-aged male researchers perceived difficulty in personal relationships with their co-workers. For researchers, particularly men, the large amount of effort required for their work seemed to be balanced by greater reward from work. Compared with male researchers, female researchers perceived lesser job demand, lesser job control and lesser reward from work.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.199-205. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 01-1868 Oncins de Frutos M., Nogareda Cuixart C, Pérez Bilbao J., Fidalgo Vega M.
Control of work, a stress-moderating factor
El control de trabajo, factor moderador del estrés [in Spanish]
This booklet addresses the issue of autonomy and decision latitude of workers as stress-moderating factors, based on the principle according to which it is easier to adapt and reach a balanced relationship with one's environment if one has control. Following a presentation of several control models, it defines objective factors (control on demands or on the task) and subjective factors (personal perception of degree of control), as well as the concept of social support. Finally, various methods for evaluating the degree of autonomy of a job, as well as intervention possibilities are discussed.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 77p. Illus. 51 ref.

CIS 01-1850 Wedderburn K., Rankin D.
Health and Safety Executive
An intervention using a self-help guide to improve the coping behaviour of nightshift workers and its evaluation
Disruption to sleeping, eating and social habits through shift work can lead to chronic impairments of mental and physical health. This study examines the effects of a self-help booklet for shift workers that aims to improve health and adaptation to working shifts. The evaluation was conducted using self-report questionnaires from a sample of 85 shift-working police officers. Measures were taken of agreement and behavioural endorsement of coping strategies. Barriers to implementing strategies were also examined. The results indicate that changes in attitude and behaviour were negligible, suggesting that it is very difficult to change health-related behaviours. The study indicates that self-help booklets provide "information" rather than "education" for shift workers, and that it may be necessary to adopt more intensive educational programmes to effect change in health behaviour.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. viii, 86p. 49 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-1267 Pilkington A., Mulholland R.E., Cowie H.A., Graham M.K., Hutchinson P.A.
Health and Safety Executive
Baseline measurements for the evaluation of the work-related stress campaign
To evaluate employers' attitudes towards work-related stress and to establish whether they are taking action to reduce the risk of its occurrence, 1,600 organizations of all sizes across a range of industry sectors were interviewed by phone, using a structured computer-based questionnaire. One hundred follow-up interviews were conducted with organizations that had implemented programmes to address work-related stress. Almost 90% of the respondents agreed that stress could cause occupational diseases, and 80% felt that stress should be controlled in the same way as other occupational safety and health issues. Larger organizations are more likely to be taking active steps to reduce occupational stress. However, in most cases, there are no clear frameworks and the benefits and associated costs are not evaluated.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 83p. 19 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. [in English]

CIS 01-1266 Martínez Plaza C.A.
Stress - Medical aspects
Estrés - Aspectos médicos [in Spanish]
This manual consisting of 5 parts and 35 chapters provides an in-depth coverage of the medical aspects of stress. Part I describes stress, stress factors and situations which lead to stress. Part II is devoted to neurological and endocrinal structures, the limbic system, the central nervous system and the immune system, as well as their interactions with stress. Part III covers physiological responses to stress and the relationship between the nervous and immune systems. Part IV describes diseases caused by stress (cardiovascular, digestive, respiratory, neurological, endocrinal and metabolical disorders, skin diseases, infection, inflammations, auto-immune diseases, rheumatism, urinary, sexual, menstrual and reproduction disorders, sleep disorders, alcoholism and mental disorders). Part V deals with various methods of stress evaluation therapy (psychological and pharmacological), as well as the effects of stress at the individual, family, social and occupational levels.
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 988p. Illus. Approx. 2000 ref. Price: EUR 36.06.

CIS 01-746 Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
SOLVE - Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence: Managing emerging health-related problems at work
Folder with five leaflets on common psychosocial issues that may affect safety and health in the workplace.
International Labour Office, InFocus Safework, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 5 brochures. Illus.

CIS 01-797 Bourbonnais R., Mondor M.
Job strain and sickness absence among nurses in the Province of Quebec
The objective of this longitudinal study was to determine whether nurses exposed to occupational stress had a higher incidence of sick leave. Data on short-term sick and certified sick leaves were collected for 1,793 nurses for a 20-month period. A job content questionnaire was used to measure psychological demands, job decision latitude, and social support at work. Short-term sick leaves were associated with job strain (incidence density ratio (IDR) = 1.20) and with low social support at work (IDR = 1.26). Certified sick leaves were also significantly associated with low social support at work (IDR = 1.27 for all diagnoses and IDR = 1.78 for mental health diagnoses). Results support the association between stress and short-term sick leaves. The association with certified sick leaves is also significant for subgroups of nurses with specific job characteristics.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.194-202. 40 ref.


CIS 07-245
Labour Research Department
Tackling workplace stress - A guide for safety reps
This guide for safety representatives describes the extent of stress in the workplace using official statistics and surveys by unions and professional organisations. It includes practical guidance on tackling stress in the workplace. Contents: introduction; scale of the problem (causes, symptoms and consequences of stress); legal framework; responsibilities of employers, role of trade unions (risk assessment checklist; carrying out a workplace survey; negotiating a stress prevention policy).
LRD Publications Ltd., 78 Blackfriars Road, London SE1 8HF, United Kingdom, Oct. 2000. 40p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 3.50. GBP 10.00 for employers and commercial organizations.

CIS 06-1287 Rüegsegger R.
Under stress? We have something that will help you!
Stressé? Voilà qui pourra vous aider! [in French]
Stress? Da haben wir etwas für Sie! [in German]
Stressato? Allora abbiamo qualcosa per Lei! [in Italian]
This booklet identifies the causes and consequences of stress and provides advice for workers on eliminating and coping with stress. Topics addressed: definition, causes and effects of stress; checklist for the self-evaluation of the risk of stress; means of eliminating sources of stress and coping with stress.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 4th ed., May 2000. 15p. Illus. [in German] [in Italian] [in French]

CIS 04-494 Research on work-related stress - Summary of an Agency report
Stress au travail - Résumé d'un rapport de l'Agence [in French]
Estrés en el trabajo - Resumen de un informe de la Agencia [in Spanish]
This fact sheet summarizes a report of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work on the consequences of stress at work for the health of employees and their organizations (see CIS 01-295). The causes of work-related stress are identified and a problem-solving approach is proposed to prevent and manage work-related stress. Research priorities in this field are also highlighted. This fact sheet is also available in Danish, Greek, Finnish, German, Italian, Dutch, Portuguese and Swedish (see
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2000. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French]

CIS 03-997 Żołnierczyk-Zreda D.
Anti-stress relaxation
Relaksacja antystresowa - uważność, ultradialna reakcja uzdrawiająca [in Polish]
This booklet presents two methods of relaxation for preventing the negative effects of stress: meditation-based relaxation and Ultradian Healing Response. Both methods improve the resistance of the human body to stress and are effective in the prevention of occupational stress.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2000. 62p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 02-1763 Bertini M., Fattorini E.
The effects of monotonous tasks on ultradian and circadian changes in alertness and mood and EEG levels of drowsiness for VDT work activities
Effetti della monotonia del compito sulle variazioni ultradiane e circadiane della vigilanza e dell'umore e sui livelli di sonnolenza EEG nelle attività lavorative ai videoterminali [in Italian]
The vigilance and wakefulness of six male workers on computer terminals were evaluated by examining electroencephalographic changes in their sleep patterns. The changes can be attributed to relaxed vigilance subsequent to the performance of monotonous work. This kind of work may result in unforeseeable periods of sleep during the performance of the task.
Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 02-1497 Nogareda Cuixart S.
Stress among teachers: Assessment methodology
Estrés en el colectivo docente: metodología para su evaluación [in Spanish]
Contents of this information note on the assessment of occupational stress among teachers: stress factors and stress factor scale specifically adapted to the teaching environment; coping strategies and their subjective assessment by means of the coping strategy questionnaire; physiological assessment of the effects of stress (liberation of adrenalin and noradrenalin, are early indicators of the effects of stress, following the stimulation of the vegetative nervous system); the Langner-Amiel "Total Health Test".
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 6 ref.

CIS 02-1495 Kindenberg U., Wallin G., Reimers E.
The profitable balance - About alternatives to the consuming stress of work
Den lönsamma balansen - Om alternativ till arbetets förtärande stress [in Swedish]
This publication provides a historical and scientific overview of occupational stress, which is becoming one of the most important occupational diseases in Sweden. Persons affected by stress describe their experiences. Alternative approaches adopted by enterprises to prevent the risk of stress at the workplace are presented. The importance of a balanced life between work, rest and leisure is emphasized.
Arbetslivinsitutet, National Institute for Working life, Eklundsvägen 16, 11279 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. 140p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: SEK 240.00 (plus 25% VAT).

CIS 02-1489 Kawakami N., Akachi K., Shimizu H., Haratani T., Kobayashi F., Ishizaki M., Hayashi T., Fujita O., Aizawa Y., Miyazaki S., Hiro H., Hashimoto S., Araki S.
Job strain, social support in the workplace, and haemoglobin A1c in Japanese men
A job study was conducted involving 268 male day workers in a manufacturing firm in Japan, in order to examine the association between neuropsychic stress at the workplace and levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Workers with a history of diabetes mellitus were excluded. Average concentrations of HbA1c were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of job strain and the lowest quartile group of social support at the workplace. Increased blood glucose, inducing an alteration of HbA1c levels, may be a mediator between job strain or social support at the workplace and coronary heart disease.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.805-809. 38 ref.

CIS 02-1484 Ishikawa H., Yamazaki Y.
The effects of job and family conditions on cumulative fatigue of working mothers in double income family
The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and domestic factors which affect cumulative fatigue. It was hypothesized that the higher level of job-related stress and family related stress were both associated with a greater extent of cumulative fatigue, and that even if job related stress was high, the high quality of family life moderates the increase of cumulative fatigue. In the study sample consisting of 1018 working mothers with young children in double-income families who responded to a questionnaire, both hypotheses were largely supported. Higher scores of negative support, lower feeling of reward at workplace, work addiction, and higher family life stress were directly related to greater cumulative fatigue, although overtime working hours, husband's sharing of housework and childcare, and wife's sex-role orientation showed only indirect association with cumulative fatigue. Also, lower levels of family-life stress were found to moderate the increase of cumulative fatigue.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2000, Vol.76, No.3, p.1-15. Illus. 33 ref.

CIS 02-978 Royfe M.H., Tichadou P.
Stress and depressive state among sales representatives - Job-health relationship - Cross-sectional survey (1998)
Stress et état dépressif chez les professionnels de la vente - Relations santé - travail - Enquête transversale (1998) [in French]
This cross-sectional study on stress levels and depressive symptoms involved 220 sales representatives and 220 controls in non-sales occupations. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire enabling the quantification of the levels of anxiety and depression, a questionnaire on occupational activities and a medical examination. Results showed that 35% of the sales representatives suffered from anxiety, and 8% exhibited occasionally severe depressive symptoms. Among controls, the level of anxiety was lower by 15 points and no serious depressive symptoms were observed. However, the study did not enable the identification of specific causal factors.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.89-91. 18 ref.

CIS 02-479 Haufler A.J., Feuerstein M., Huang G.D.
Job stress, upper extremity pain and functional limitations in symptomatic computer users
To study upper extremity pain and function, 124 symptomatic female office workers completed a questionnaire measuring demographics, medical history, work demands, perception of the work environment, work style, pain intensity, functional impact and time lost from work. Heightened job stress and the tendency to continue to work in a way that contributes to pain to ensure high quality were related to pain intensity at work and decreased function. These variables, in addition to hours worked per year, were related to increased pain experienced across the work week. The model tested did not predict the occurrence of lost time. These findings provide support for the association between job stress, work style, upper extremity pain and function impairment. Results are consistent with prior research indicating the potential significance of job stress and work style on symptom exacerbation and functional limitations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.507-515. 57 ref.

CIS 02-492 Widerszal-Bazyl M., Cieślak R.
Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: Development of the psychosocial working conditions questionnaire
Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor for workers' health and should be constantly monitored as are other work hazards. The paper presents a newly-developed approach for stress monitoring, the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). It consists of 3 main scales, Job Demands, Job Control and Social Support, and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire, Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, public administration workers, computer scientists, public transport drivers and teachers) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometric parameters.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.59-70. Illus. 21 ref.

CIS 02-489 Martin R., Leach D.J., Norman P., Silvester J.
The role of attributions in psychological reactions to job relocation
Job relocation refers to the process of simultaneously moving to a new job and place of residence. This can cause considerable stress for the persons relocating and their families. It was predicted that negative psychological reactions would be a function of the number of relocation problems, and the tendency of making pessimistic attributions for relocation problems (that is to attribute negative events to internal, stable and global causes). Furthermore, these factors should interact, such that individuals with many relocation problems who also make pessimistic attributions are expected to experience the worst psychological reactions. The results from a cross-sectional survey of 93 relocating persons supported these predictions. Those with many relocation problems and who made pessimistic attributions reported the worst mental health and relocation-specific stress. Furthermore, the relocators predicted to be most at risk (many problems, low control) reported the worst changes in mental health during the course of the move.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.347-361. Illus. 54 ref.

CIS 02-488 Mak A.S., Mueller J.
Job insecurity, coping resources and personality dispositions in occupational strain
The relationships between the work-related stressor of perceived job insecurity and various indicators of occupational strain are presented, taking into account employees' personality dispositions and coping resources. 222 Australian public servants were surveyed during an organizational restructuring that involved downsizing and threats to job certainty. Findings from hierarchical regression analyses indicate consistent significant independent effects of personality dispositions, coping resources and perceived job insecurity on various indicators of strain. There was also support for the moderating roles of negative affectivity and self-care in the relation between perceived job insecurity and physical strain. Implications for the role of dispositional factors, especially negative affectivity, and the utility of various coping resources in accounting for occupational strain in times of threatened job security are discussed.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.312-328. 51 ref.

CIS 02-487 Jolibois S., Mouzé-Amady M., Chouanière D., Grandjean F., Nauer E., Ducloy J.
WebStress: A web interface to explore a multidatabase bibliographic corpus on occupational stress
In this literature study on occupational stress, eight databases belonging to different fields (medicine, psychology, etc.) from different countries were searched. More than 26,000 references on occupational stress were gathered. A system called WebStress was developed for reformatting the data, removing duplicates, and searching the corpus with advanced features (using clustering, a specialized thesaurus on stress and Boolean queries). In addition to the usual bibliographic queries on a specific database such as Medline, WebStress provides bibliometric analysis of the corpus, which might contribute to a detailed analysis on occupational stress in order to highlight the networks of researchers and to find the main topics studied in this area. WebStress is being further developed and is not yet commercially available.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.283-296. Illus. 31 ref.

CIS 02-486 Bertucat-Dufourt I.
Neuropsychic reactions following exposure to traumatic incidents at the place of work
Réactions psychiques après événements traumatiques survenus en milieu de travail [in French]
Cases of work-related post-traumatic neurosis are increasing. They can occur after an accident or tragic incident in which the worker was either a direct victim or a close witness; they can also follow incidents of physical or verbal violence. Unfortunately, they are not always recognized by employers or by occupational accident legislation. Contents of this review article: summary of regulations; description of post-traumatic neurosis symptoms; short case descriptions; approaches implemented by a public transport authority and a bank; role of employers; role of health insurance institutions; role of occupational physicians.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.155-164. 4ref.

CIS 01-1865 Menchón Sánchez E., Manzano Sanz F.
Evaluation of psychosocial risk factors: Occupational stress
Evaluación de riesgos psicosociales: el estrés laboral [in Spanish]
A study of stress factors perceived by the 42 employees of a pensioners' home was carried out by questionnaire and through interviews. A second questionnaire on the means of surveillance of stress factors was limited to the management and team leaders of the institution (7 persons). The results differ somewhat according to the levels of the staff. Stress factors perceived by all employees include the workload, the fast pace of work, the physical workload, the mental workload, the lack of decision latitude and the lack of information. The results of the questionnaire on the means of surveillance show that the establishment is capable of identifying stress factors, and therefore capable of implementing corrective measures to improve working conditions.
Editorial Aranzadi SA, Ctra. de Aoiz, Km 3,5, 31486 Elcano, Navarra, Spain, 2000. No.3, 27p.

CIS 01-1866 Smith V., Brice C., Collins A., Matthews V., McNamara R.
Health and Safety Executive
The scale of occupational stress: A further analysis of the impact of demographic factors and type of job
A recent survey of a population sample showed that approximately 20% of workers in the United Kingdom reported very high or extremely high levels of stress at work. Preliminary analyses of the data reported in HSE Contract Research Report 265/2000 (see CIS 00-1497) suggested that the scale of stress may vary considerably. The present report describes further analyses to identify factors associated with perceptions of stress at work. Reported stress was found to be higher for middle aged workers (30-50 year olds), workers educated to degree level, widowed, divorced or separated persons and in non-white ethnic groups. Gender had little overall effect. Reported stress was greater in full-time employment than part-time employment, and increased with salary and social level. Reported stress was found to be highest in teachers, health care workers and managers.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. viii, 61p. 7 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 01-1856 Scherrer K.
Stress and strain in the call centre
Belastung und Beanspruchung im Call-Center [in German]
The results of interviews and questionnaire surveys conducted in call centres in Germany are summarized. Employees in call centres spend long hours at visual display units while answering customer queries on the phone. Noise levels above 55dB(A), low humidity and inadequate furniture were observed at these workplaces. In interviews, managers of these units reported the following stress factors: simultaneous communication with many clients, uncertainty with regard to the callers' needs and handling complaints. The employees mainly reported constant time pressures, lack of recognition and frequently having to cope with new software. Evaluations of the results of questionnaire surveys on the neuropsychic stress among workers in call centres yielded lower stress scores for varied and demanding work than for monotonous work with low decision latitude.
Computer Fachwissen für Betriebs- und Personalräte, May 2000, Vol.9, No.5, p.4-11. Illus. 2 ref.

CIS 01-1689 Chen D., Cho S.I., Chen C., Wang X., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X.
Exposure to benzene, occupational stress and reduced birth weight
The association between birth weight and exposure to benzene, work stress, and other occupational and environmental hazards was investigated among petrochemical industry workers. 792 pregnant workers were followed up through delivery between May 1996 and December 1998. Exposure to benzene and other solvents was assessed based on job titles and workplace information. Other occupational and environmental exposures and personal information were obtained by interview. Regression models were used to examine the individual and combined associations of occupational and environmental exposures with birth weight. Birth weight was negatively associated with exposure to benzene (-58g) and with work stress (-84g). There was a significant interaction between exposure to benzene and work stress relative to reduced birth weight. Adjusted mean birth weight was 3,445g among those with neither exposure, 3,430g for those with exposure to benzene only, 3,426g for those with work stress only, and 3,262g for those with both exposures.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2000, Vol.57, No.10, p.661-667. 40 ref.

CIS 01-1851 Weibel L.
Stress and immunity: From clinical to research understanding
Stress et immunité: de la clinique à la recherche [in French]
This article consists of the summaries of papers presented at a seminar on stress and immunity held in Paris on 4-5 October 1999. Topics covered include: the immune system; physiological mechanisms involved when responding to stress; diseases linked to stress (depression, Creuzfeldt-Jakob's disease, diseases of the white matter, infections); current medicinal drug therapies.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2000, No.81, p.57-60. Illus.

CIS 01-1859 Jarzuel Y., Simonnet-Trucy C.
Comparative study of occupational stress in the enterprise
Etude comparée du stress en entreprise [in French]
Over a period of six months, two occupational physicians studied the stress affecting 277 randomly-selected employees in the greater Paris region. Combined, occupational and non-occupational stress levels were rated simultaneously and independently by the physician and the employee on a visual analogical scale (VAS) during start-of-employment or regular medical examinations. The questionnaires were matched and the ratings compared. Results show that average stress levels experienced by workers are generally low, in particular with respect to their personal lives. Work location, the sex of the worker and the type of medical examination had an influence on the level of stress. However, no significant differences were found as a function of age, nationality or level of education. Evaluations made by the physicians and the employees agree moderately at the individual level but very well on average, for all three types of stress. These results suggest that occupational physicians are capable of making precise assessments of stress and that VAS is an appropriate measuring tool.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.3, p.277-284. Illus. 15 ref.

CIS 01-1566 Basso A., Urbano M.L., Soleo L., Serio G., Trerotoli P., Scianaro S., Di Candia O., Ambrosi L.
Fatiguing work, ageing and health: A cross-sectional study of a group of anaesthesiologists
Lavoro usurante, invecchiamento e salute: studio trasversale in un gruppo di anestesisti [in Italian]
A general discussion of the fatigue concept, based on criteria retrieved from Italian laws, is presented. The results are then reported of a questionnaire survey in which 1438 Italian anaesthesiologists and resuscitators (mean age: 45.5 years) were asked if they considered their occupation as fatiguing. A high incidence of stress-related conditions and joint diseases was found, with a positive correlation with age. Other organic diseases did not appear to occur earlier than expected. Overall, the principal risk in this occupational group was that of neuropsychic disease due to physical and mental stress. This paper was presented at an International Seminar on Ageing and Work, held in Verona (Italy) on 7 Apr. 2000.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.91, No.4, p.354-365. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 01-1560 Koufane N., Négroni P., Vion M.
Health of staff at the counter - Effects of new work organization
La santé des agents d'accueil - Les effets de la nouvelle organisation du travail [in French]
In 1997, a study was carried out in Paris on the effects of changes in work organization on the health of staff at employment agencies. The study allowed on one hand to highlight the dominant nature of psychic disorders over more physical ailments and, on the other, to identify several strategies developed by agents to cope with "emotionally difficult" persons among those entitled to unemployment benefits. The ergonomic actions derived from the conclusions of the study relate to staff training and to the creation of a unit aimed at improving their health and conditions of work.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.179, p.75-81. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 01-1258 Melhado V.E.R., Tavares A., Kohlmann O., Zanella M.T., Ribeiro A.B.
Blood pressure and sympathetic activity in normotensive aviators during short-haul fixed-wings flights
To evaluate the impact of in-flight stress on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic activity during a short fixed-wing flight, 18 healthy and normotensive commercial captain aviators were studied during a 120-min flight period, divided into segments of pre-flight, take off, mid-cruise, approach and landing, and a 120-min control period. All subjects underwent BP monitoring, heart rate recording and urine collection for catecholamines. Systolic and diastolic BP (SBP/DBP) were higher during the flight, as a whole, when compared with the control period. During the flight period, SBP increased in the pre-flight, take-off, approach and landing segments, whereas DBP increased in the take-off, mid-cruise, approach and landing segments. Heart rate did not change in any flight segment. Urinary catecholamines increased during the flight period in comparison to control period. It is concluded that inflight stress increases BP of the normotensive aviators by sympathetic activation during short-haul flights.
Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.71, No.5, p.531-535. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 01-431 Sluiter J.K., Frings-Dresen H.W., Meijman T.F., van der Beek A.J.
Reactivity and recovery from different types of work measured by catecholamines and cortisol: A systematic literature overview
A systematic literature search was performed on the topic of neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from mental, combined mental and physical, or physical tasks. Studies with catecholamines or cortisol as effect variables measured in blood, urine or saliva were taken into consideration. For reactivity and recovery up to 1 hour after performing the task, half of the studies considered physical tasks and more than two thirds showed incomplete recovery compared with baseline excretion of catecholamines and cortisol. Three days after the task was performed, recovery was often incomplete for cortisol after a combination of mentally and physically demanding tasks, and less often after solely mental or physical tasks.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2000, Vol.57, No.5, p.298-315. 109 ref.

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