ILO Home
Go to the home page
Site map | Contact us Français | Espańol
view in a printer-friendly format »

Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

Your search criteria are

  • Mental stress and burnout


CIS 06-1056 Working with stress
This videotape, aimed at human resources specialists, psychologists, managers and occupational health professionals, describes workplace risk factors that can create or exacerbate worker stress and suggests practical measures for reducing job-related stress through changes in work organization.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 2002. Videotape (VHS format): 17 min. [in English]

CIS 05-530 Beermann B., Henke N., Brenscheidt F., Windel A.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Well-being in the office! - Occupational safety and health in office work
Wohlbefinden im Büro! - Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Büroarbeit [in German]
This booklet provides guidance and proposes basic rules for improving well-being during office work. Details of current regulations are provided, together with a short list of suggested further reading. Topics covered include: work organization (varied work, group work, shift work); sitting posture and ergonomics; lighting (lighting intensity, reflections, visual fatigue); conditions conducive to concentration (noise levels, thermal environment, sick building syndrome); work at screens; advantages of having green plants in the office.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 30p. Illus. 19 ref.,property=pdf.pdf [in German]

CIS 05-476 Ĺkerstedt T., Knutsson A., Westerholm P., Theorell T., Alfredsson L., Kecklund G.
Work organisation and unintentional sleep: Results of the WOLF study
Falling asleep at work is receiving increasing attention as a cause of work accidents. This study investigates which variables (related to work, lifestyle, or background) are related to the tendency to fall asleep unintentionally, either during work hours, or during leisure time. 5589 individuals responded to a questionnaire, and a multiple logistic regression analysis of the cross-sectional data was used to estimate the risk of falling asleep. The prevalence for falling asleep unintentionally at least once a month was 7.0% during work hours and 23.1% during leisure time. The risk of unintentional sleep at work was related to disturbed sleep, shift work, and higher socioeconomic group. Being older, a woman and a smoker were associated with a reduced risk of unintentionally falling asleep at work. Work demands, decision latitude at work, physical load, sedentary work, solitary work, extra work, and overtime work were not related to falling asleep at work. With respect to falling asleep during leisure time, disturbed sleep, snoring, high work demands, being a smoker, not exercising, and higher age (>45 years) became risk indicators.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.59, No.9, p.595-600. 55 ref.

CIS 04-748 Gianella Cataldi M.J.
Stress at the workplace
O stress no meio ambiente de trabalho [in Portuguese]
This publication examines aspects of occupational stress from a legal perspective. Contents: work relations; ambient conditions not directly related to work; types of occupational stress; stress factors related to certain occupations; bullying at the workplace; prevention of occupational diseases and accidents at the place of work; related activities of trade unions in Brazil, Italy, Argentina and Germany; ILO conventions. Appendices include lists of international treaties and legislation on working conditions.
Editora LTr, Rua Apa 165, CEP 01201-904, Săo Paulo, SP, Brazil, 2002. 143p. 47 ref.

CIS 04-735 Van Thillo F.
Causes of stress among transport workers
Les causes du stress chez les ouvriers du transport [in French]
This article summarizes the report of a study carried out by the Belgian union of transport workers on the causes of stress in the various sub-sectors of road transport. Around 1300 persons working in 50 enterprises were surveyed and questioned on work organization, personnel policies, supervision, social aspects, working conditions during driving, personal aspects and causes of stress. A short description of the problems identified and the corresponding action plans is presented. The impact of the European Directive on working time on the road transport sector in Belgium is briefly discussed.
Travail et bien-ętre, Mar.-Apr. 2002, No.2, p.5-11. Illus.

CIS 04-500 How to tackle psychosocial issues and reduce work-related stress
Hvorledes hĺndteres psykosociale spřrgsmĺl, og hvorledes reduceres arbejdsbetinget stress [in Danish]
Über den Umgang mit psychosozialen Problemen und die Reduzierung von arbeitsbedingtem Stress [in German]
Trópoi antimetṓpisēs tōn psuhokoinōnikṓn themátōn kai meíōsēs tou ághous pou ofeíletai stēn ergasía [in Greek]
Cómo abordar los problemas psicosociales y reducir el estrés laboral [in Spanish]
Kuidas lahendada psühhosotsiaalseid küsimusi ja vähendada tööstressi [in Estonian]
Att hantera psykosociala frĺgor och minska arbetsrelaterad stress [in Swedish]
Problčmes psychosociaux et stress au travail [in French]
Combattere la pressione psicosociale e ridurre lo stress legato al lavoro [in Italian]
Aanpak van psychosociale problemen en vermindering van stress op het werk [in Dutch]
Como enfrentaros riscos psicossociais e reduzir o Stresse no Trabalho [in Portuguese]
Ako zvládnut' psychosociálne problémy a znížit pracovný stres [in Slovak]
Miten psykososiaalisia kysymyksiä olisi käsiteltävä ja työperäistä stressiä vähennettävä? [in Finnish]
This fact sheet summarizes a report covering a number of programmes, practices and experiences across the Member States of the EU aimed at addressing psychosocial issues and preventing work-related stress. Topics covered: aims of the report; legislation and national regulations; improvements of the psychosocial work environment; reduction of stress; prevention of violence; prevention of bullying; success factors of good practice in stress prevention.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in Swedish] [in English] [in Spanish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Estonian] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Finnish]

CIS 04-499 Practical advice for workers on tackling work-related stress and its causes
Praktisk vejledning til arbejdstagere om hĺndtering af stress og ĺrsagerne hertil [in Danish]
Bewältigung von arbeitsbedingtem Stress und seinen Ursachen: einige praktische Tipps für Arbeitnehmer [in German]
Praktikés sumboulés pros tous ergazómenous gia tēn antimetṓpisē tou ergasiakoú ághous kai tōn aitíōn tou [in Greek]
Consejos prácticos para los trabajadores sobre cómo abordar el estrés relacionado con el trabajo y sus causas [in Spanish]
Praktiska rĺd till anställda om hur arbetsrelaterad stress kan bekämpas och om dess orsaker [in Swedish]
Conseils pratiques aux travailleurs pour maîtriser le stress lié au travail et ses causes [in French]
Consigli pratici destinati ai lavoratori su come affrontare lo stress legato all'attivitŕ lavorativa e le sue cause [in Italian]
Praktische oplossingen voor werknemers ter bestrijding van stress op het werk en de onderliggende oorzaken [in Dutch]
Conselhos práticos para os trabalhadores lidarem com o stresse no trabalho e as suas causas [in Portuguese]
Praktični nasveti za delavce o odpravljanju stresa v zvezi z delom in njegovih vzrokov [in Slovenian]
Käytännön neuvoja työstressistä ja sen seurauksista kärsiville [in Finnish]
This fact sheet gives information and suggestions for workers on tackling work-related stress and its causes. Topics covered: definition of work-related stress; causes of stress at work; responsibilities of employers in reducing work-related stress; check-list of problems at the workplace which can induce work-related stress; how to tackle work-related stress; what to do after a stress-related illness; how to help other people suffering from work-related stress.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. [in Swedish] [in English] [in Spanish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Portuguese] [in Slovenian] [in Finnish]

CIS 04-498 Accessing information on stress at work from
Adgang til oplysninger om stress pĺ arbejdspladsen fra [in Danish]
Zugang zu Informationen über Stress bei der Arbeit von der Website [in German]
Prósbasē stis plēroforíes gia to ergasiakó ághos mésō tēs dieúthunsēs [in Greek]
Acceso a la información sobre el estrés en el trabajo desde [in Spanish]
Information om stress pĺ arbetsplatsen pĺ [in Swedish]
Accédez ŕ une mine d'information en ligne sur le stress au travail, ŕ l'adresse: [in French]
Lo stress sul lavoro: informazioni all'indirizzo [in Italian]
Informatie over stress op het werk op [in Dutch]
Aceder a informaçőes sobre o stresse no trabalho a partir do endereço: [in Portuguese]
Tietoa työstressistä saa osoitteesta [in Finnish]
More than one in four workers are affected by work-related stress in the European Union. This fact sheet explains how to access information on work-related stress and its key causes, from the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work website.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in French] [in Swedish] [in German] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Dutch] [in Portuguese] [in Finnish] [in Danish]

CIS 04-495 Work-related stress
Arbejdsbetinget stress [in Danish]
Stres na delovnem mestu [in Slovenian]
Ághos pou ofeíletai stēn ergasía [in Greek]
El estrés relacionado con el trabajo [in Spanish]
Tööstress [in Estonian]
Työperäinen stressi [in Finnish]
Stress au travail [in French]
Stress legato all'attivitŕ lavorativa [in Italian]
Stresas darbe [in Lithuanian]
Arbeidsgebonden stress [in Dutch]
Arbetsrelaterad stress [in Swedish]
Stresse relacionado com o trabalho [in Portuguese]
Stres pri práci [in Slovak]
Arbeitsbedingter Stress [in German]
In the European Union, work-related stress (WRS) is the second most common work-related health problem, after back pain, affecting 28% of EU workers. This fact sheet sets out a risk assessment and prevention approach that can be applied to WRS and its causes. It is intended for those seeking to tackle WRS in the workplace.
European Agency for Safety and Health at Work,, 2002. 2p. Illus. 8 ref. [in Swedish] [in English] [in Spanish] [in French] [in Danish] [in German] [in Estonian] [in Greek] [in Italian] [in Lithuanian] [in Dutch] [in Portuguese] [in Slovak] [in Slovenian] [in Finnish]

CIS 03-1938 Alfredsson L., Hammar N., Fransson E., de Faire U., Hallqvist J., Knutsson A., Nilsson T., Theorell T., Westerholm P.
Job strain and major risk factors for coronary heart disease among employed males and females in a Swedish study on work, lipids and fibrinogen
The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship of job strain to hypertension, serum lipids and plasma fibrinogen. The study population consisted of employed persons between the ages of 15 and 64 years in the counties of Stockholm, Västernorrland and Jämtland, Sweden. A total of 10,382 subjects participated in a medical examination and completed a questionnaire. No strong associations were found between job strain and plasma fibrinogen. Men reporting job strain had lower levels of total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the other men. Similar tendencies were found for women. Women, but not men, with job strain had an increased prevalence of hypertension when compared with the subjects with relaxed psychosocial work characteristics. The results do not support the hypothesis that job strain has an adverse impact on serum total cholesterol and plasma fibrinogen levels. They suggest that an increased risk of coronary heart disease in association with job strain, if causal, is mediated by other factors, possibly partly by hypertension and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.238-248. 49 ref.

CIS 03-1953 Laursen B., Jensen B.R., Garde A.H., Jřrgensen A.H.
Effect of mental and physical demands on muscular activity during the use of a computer mouse and a keyboard
Twelve female subjects performed a computer task with four combinations of two types of input device (mouse and keyboard) and two levels of mental demand (with and without a Stroop colour word test). The time available for response was limited. Performance and electromyography (EMG) were recorded for the forearm, shoulder and neck muscles. All the muscles for which recordings were made showed increased muscular activity in the mentally demanding condition. The increase in the static muscular activity level varied from 0.3% of the maximum EMG for the right trapezius muscle to 2.6% for the extensor carpi ulnaris muscle. In conclusion, mental demands during computer work increased muscular activity in all of the recorded muscles. Increased muscular activity was found in the neck during the use of the mouse in comparison with the use of the keyboard. This phenomenon may be related to higher visual demands during the use of a mouse than with a keyboard. These findings may help explain the adverse effects of psychosocial work factors on the musculoskeletal system.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.28, No.4, p.215-221. Illus. 26 ref.

CIS 03-1639 Proper K.I., Staal B.J., Hildebrandt V.H., van der Beek A.J., van Mechelen W.
Effectiveness of physical activity programs at worksites with respect to work-related outcomes
For this literature review on the effectiveness of physical activity programmes at worksites with respect to certain work-related outcomes, data were selected by means of a computerized literature search, a reference search and a manual search of the personal databases of the project team members. The outcomes studied were absenteeism, job satisfaction, job stress, productivity and employee turnover. The evidence of an effect was limited for absenteeism, inconclusive for job satisfaction, job stress and employee turnover, and nil for productivity. It is concluded that scientific evidence on the effectiveness of physical activity programmes at worksites is still limited.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2002, vol.28, No.2, p.75-84. 65 ref.

CIS 03-1956 Kurtz P., Sievers G.
Work demands and the office of the future
Die Belastungen zukünftiger Büroarbeit [in German]
Office automation and new ways of working are aimed at improving work performance; however, they can also cause the appearance of various symptoms, in particular headache, fatigue and exhaustion, as a result of the cumulative effect of several environmental and organizational factors. The main constraints of office work, whether physical (sitting posture, work at screens, use of laptop computers) or mental (concentration, attention, performance, coping with stress and motivation) are discussed, and practical guidance is provided for reducing or avoiding these constraints and improving work organization and ergonomics.
Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2002, Special issue, p.191-196. Illus. 3 ref.

CIS 03-1472 Freude G., Ullsperger P.
Infuence of stress on human fertility
Einfluss von Stress auf die Fertilität des Menschen [in German]
This article presents the findings of a literature review on the influence of stress on fertility, an aspect little considered so far in publications on stress. It is not disputed that stress is an important factor in influencing the onset of reproductive disorders, both in men and women. Among women, stress induces chronic anovulation, psychogenic amenorrhoea, false pregnancies, menstrual disorders, increased prolactin levels and miscarriages. Among men, stress induces lower sperm counts, lower sperm mobility, changes in sperm morphology, impotence, ejaculatory disorders, and lower levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2002, Vol.26, No.3, p.82-89. 38 ref.

CIS 03-1488 Escobar Pinzón L.C., Jung D., Muttray A., Letzel S.
Tools for evaluating mental workload at the workplace
Instrumentarien zur Erfassung mentaler Belastungen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Mental workload at work is an issue that is attracting increasing attention. This article briefly describes the various approaches that enable an evaluation of the effects of mental workload, with emphasis on neuropsychological methods (electroencephalograms, measurement of electrical voltage response to events, pupillometry, pulse rate analysis), parameters for evaluating how stress occurs and various psychological tests (JCQ, ERI, TICS, FIT). The quantitative evaluation of mental workload at work involves interdisciplinary collaboration between the medical, scientific and occupational psychology fields to develop models that highlight causal relationships between the various parameters so as to enable the development of analytical methods that result in reliable data.
Ergo-Med, May-June 2002, Vol.26, No.3, p.67-71. 28 ref.

CIS 03-1477 Paganon-Badinier I., Deschamps F.
Stress factors among police officers
Les facteurs de stress des fonctionnaires de police [in French]
Police work has been cited in numerous publications as being a particularly stressful occupation. Police personnel are among workers whose exposure to traumatic events, such as during help to victims of accidents or crimes, is a constant feature of their professional duty. Various studies have evaluated this stress by means of self-administrated questionnaires. It was found that stress among policemen did not differ significantly from that of other occupational groups, with several specific aspects, however. It is often the source of family conflicts. The maximum level of stress is found among policemen of intermediate rank, having 10 to 20 years of service and between 30 and 40 years of age. Perceived stress is higher for psychological and organizational stressors than for routine operational duties. An accumulating body of evidence suggests that policemen often suffer from the consequences of management errors and weak organizational systems, with resulting absenteeism.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.46-52. 16 ref.

CIS 03-1268 Moser K., Preising K., Göritz A.S., Paul K.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Increasing information load at the workplace: Strain-balanced coping with electronic media (e-mail, Internet)
Steigende Informationsflut am Arbeitsplatz: belastungsgünstiger Umgang mit elektronischen Medien (E-Mail, Internet) [in German]
Today, most office workers are equipped with personal computers connected to the Internet. The objective of this project was to examine how organizations and individuals perceive this new technology, the strain caused by information overload on employees and how they cope with this strain, as well as to evaluate supporting communication tools aimed at limiting this strain. Five studies on supporting communication tools, information organizational culture and psychological stress at the workplace due to the new media were conducted. On the basis of the findings, a training concept was developed for helping employees to cope with stress caused by this new technology.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 225p. Illus. 92 ref. Price: EUR 18.50.

CIS 03-990 Büssing A., Glaser J., Höge T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Screening for neuropsychic strain in stationary health care (screening of loads TAA-KH-S) - Manual for the identification and evaluation of neurospychic load among hospital staff
Screening psychischer Belastungen in der stationären Krankheitspflege (Belastungsscreening TAA-KH-S) - Handbuch zur Erfassung und Bewertung bei Beschäftigen im stationärem Pflegebereich [in German]
This document presents a tool for screening for neuropsychic strain among hospital health care workers (entitled "Screening of loads TAA-KH-S") in the form of a 79-item questionnaire (see also CIS 03-989). It enables hospital practitioners to analyze reliably and at low cost the neuropsychic load of hospital staff and to implement appropriate organizational measures. It presents the theoretical and methodological principles, the results of a study carried out in two hospitals to verify the basis, the objectivity, the validity and the reliability of this tool.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 107p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: EUR 11.50.

CIS 03-989 Büssing A., Glaser J., Höge T.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Screening for neuropsychic strain in stationary health care (screening of loads TAA-KH-S) - Guide and documentation
Screening psychischer Belastungen in der stationären Krankheitspflege (Belastungsscreening TAA-KH-S) - Manual und Materialien [in German]
This document presents a tool for screening for neuropsychic strain among hospital health care workers (entitled "Screening of strain TAA-KH-S") in the form of a 79-item questionnaire. It describes the method and its characteristics, and includes full instructions for its implementation. The questionnaire is included in an appendix. This guide is a companion to the manual analysed under CIS 03-990.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 47p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: EUR 8.00.

CIS 03-985 Troup C., Dewe P.
Exploring the nature of control and its role in the appraisal of workplace stress
Situational control should not be reduced to a simple assessment of whether or not an individual has control over a given situation. Instead it is believed that it is important to identify the factors that an individual strives to have control of, as well as the perceived degree of control over those factors. This study viewed control as a multifaceted construct (task control, predictability, self-control and general control). 134 employees from four public sector organizations completed and returned a questionnaire on stress. Responses indicated that having control over work tasks was less important than either predictability or self-control. Respondents reported higher levels of self-control than other aspects of control. However, respondents reported lower levels of actual control than what they perceived important for them to have. This research confirms the importance of a having a sense of self-control, particularly when it comes to the use of different coping strategies.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2002, Vol.16, No.4, p.335-355. 55 ref.

CIS 03-993 Nickel P.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Sensitivity and diagnostic validity of the 0.1Hz component of pulse rate variations for evaluating mental strain
Sensitivität und Diagnostizität der 0,1Hz-Komponente der Herzfrequenzvariabilität zur Erfassung psychischer Beanspruchung [in German]
Several studies show that variations in the 0.1Hz component of the pulse rate may be a good indicator of mental strain, while others cast doubt on its validity. In this thesis aimed at determining the sensitivity and diagnostic validity of the 0.1Hz component of the pulse rate for measuring mental strain, laboratory studies were conducted in which the type and level of mental stress were varied according to the perceived level of performance and difficulty of the task. Results show that this component should not be used for the evaluation of mental strain.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 222p. Illus. Approx. 400 ref. Price: EUR 18.50.

CIS 03-967 Byrns G., Agnew J., Curbow B.
Attributions, stress, and work-related low back pain
To assess the association between worker attributions of the causes of occupational low back pain (LBP) and the incidence of LBP, a cross-sectional study was carried out involving 278 women garment workers. Data were gathered by a self-administered questionnaire and through direct observation. Workers who attributed LBP to internal factors were more likely to be knowledgeable of back safety (odds ratio OR=3.7). Workers reporting high demand were more likely to report LBP (OR=2.3). Workers attributing LBP to job tasks were also more likely to report LBP (OR=3.2), and those reporting high supervisor support were less likely to report LBP (OR=0.23). Workers with annual incomes above USD 15,000 were more likely to report LBP in the test of both the Demand-Control-Support and Attribution models (OR=2.8), although superior correlation was found with the Attribution model.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.17, No.11, p.752-764. Illus. 41 ref.

CIS 03-981 Friedel H., Bonitz D., Bödeker W.
Relationships between diagnosed work incapacity and constraints related to high psychological demands accompanied by low decision latitude
Assoziationen zwischen diagnosenspezifischer Arbeitsunfähigkeit und Belastungen durch hohe psychische Anforderungen bei geringem Handlungsspielraum [in German]
Data concerning the invalidity of 43,250 persons affiliated to a Geman heath insurance fund were studied for the purpose of highlighting correlations between the evaluation by experts of psychological constraints at work and the frequency and duration of sickness absenteeism. A group of experts defined 79 job types based on the frequency of various factors relating to psychic load. These evaluations made it possible to reproduce two dimensions of the Karasek and Theorell "demand-control" model, namely the psychological demands and control on one's work. This model defines occupational strain as consisting of high psychic demands combined with low control. Putting together the data on psychic demands with those on sickness absenteeism, specific risks for the frequency and duration of sickness absenteeism were calculated. Occupational strain was found to be an important factor with respect to the frequency and duration of sickness absenteeism for all diseases analyzed.
Ergo-Med, Nov.-Dec. 2002, Vol.26, No.6, p.176-183. 20 ref.

CIS 03-988 Cox T., Randall R., Griffiths A.
Health and Safety Executive
Interventions to control stress at work in hospital staff
This report provides examples of how sources of work stress were identified and managed in a number of hospital settings. Over the course of two years, five case groups, containing staff involved in a variety of jobs (both direct care and non-direct care) were followed. An account of the stress management process using these case study examples is provided, including information about how a number of problems are being tackled in hospital settings, highlighting the benefits that good management practices can have in terms of working conditions and staff well-being. The evidence from these case studies demonstrates that that risk management can be a powerful tool for dealing with sources of work stress.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 160p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 03-979 Delaunois M., Malchaire J., Piette A.
Classification of methods for evaluating stress in the enterprise
Classification des méthodes d'évaluation du stress en entreprise [in French]
A review of the main methods used in Belgium for evaluating stress at the place of work was carried out. Twenty-two methods were examined and compared from the standpoint of non-specialist users. For each method evaluated, technical data sheets were prepared containing a summary of the objectives of the method, the definition adopted for stress, the model on which it rests, the detailed description of the method, the interpretation of the results, the time necessary to apply it in the field and the validation as claimed by the authors. On the basis of the various criteria defined above, the methods were classified according to whether they were primarily "quantification" or "prevention" methods, and according to their level in the SOBANE prevention strategy (screening, observation, analysis and expertise). For each level, the method best corresponding to the SOBANE strategy was retained.
Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2002, Vol.XXXIX, No.1, p.13-28. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 03-191 Chang S.J., Koh S.B., Cha B.S., Park J.K.
Job characteristics and blood coagulation factors in Korean male workers
This study examined the possible relationship between Karasek's job strain model and blood coagulation factors VII and VIII as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in male Korean workers. Four levels of strain were identified (high strain, active, passive and low strain), and 40 male workers subject to each of the strain levels were invited to participate in the study. In univariate analyses, decision latitude was negatively related to blood coagulation factors VII and VIII. Work demand was positively related to coagulation factor VIII, but not to factor VII. Multiple regression analyses showed that job strain was associated with blood coagulation factor VIII after controlling for smoking, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. These results indicate that job characteristics may be related to blood coagulation, and contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease with other classical risk factors.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2002, Vol.44, No.11, p.997-1002. 33 ref.

CIS 03-496 Sapir M., Koukoulaki T., Levi L., Perimäki-Dietrich R., Vogel L., Tudor O., Schaufeli W.B., Kompier M.A.J., D'Hertefelt H., Péters S., Kristensen T.S., Lindström K., Aptel M., Cnockaert J.C., Douillet P., Schweitzer J.M.
Stress at work
Contents of this special issue on stress at work: review of trade union activities in Europe in the area of stress prevention; European Commission's guidance on occupational stress; violence at the workplace; legal aspects of psychological harassment at work; work-related stress in the United Kingdom; managing job stress in the Netherlands; measuring psychological workload in Belgium; questionnaire on working conditions; presentation of the Copenhagen and Nordic questionnaires for assessing psychosocial factors at work; stress and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders; stress and musculoskeletal disorders in France.
Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Sep. 2002, No. 19-20, p.1-59 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 03-489 Peiró J.M., Zurriaga R., González-Romá V.
Analysis and diagnosis of situations and experiences of collective stress in workgroups and social service organizations
Análisis y diagnóstico de las situaciones y experiencias de estrés colectivo en las unidades de trabajo y en las organizaciones de servicios sociales [in Spanish]
The results of a workshop on the analysis and diagnosis of collective stress situations and experiences in workgroups and organizations are presented. The objective of the workshop was to collect information on collective stress among groups of social workers, based on a conceptual model enabling the analysis of collective stressful situations at work. Eight workgroups were analysed. The main stress factors to which workgroups are subjected were identified. The various behaviour patterns induced by stress within a group, coping strategies adopted by the group and the consequences of occupational stress on the organization, the workgroup and users of the service were determined. Preventive and corrective strategies applicable to collective stress situations are also discussed.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.20, p.11-20. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 03-488 Schaufeli W.B., Salanova M.L.
How to evaluate psychosocial risks at work
żCómo evaluar los riesgos psicosociales en el trabajo? [in Spanish]
Various instruments and methods developed in the Netherlands for evaluating psychosocial risks due to stress are presented. They include: check lists that evaluate the conditions of work and social and professional relationships at work; the WEBA approach (description of the workplace and its evaluation by an expert); self-administered questionnaires on stress factors, work organization and social relationships; psychophysiological measurements (Stressomat, a method of measuring cardiovascular and respiratory reactions induced by stress); the analysis, by the employer, of administration data (absenteeism, work incapacity, hazard evaluation, identification of psychosocial factors, identification of groups at risk) and the presentation of a report to employee representatives. A brief overview of literature and of current research on this topic in Spain is also included.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.20, p.4-9. Illus. 20 ref.

CIS 03-487 Miled S., Nouaigui H., Rammeh H., Ben Laiba M.
Stress: A new disease of civilization?
Stress: nouveau malaise de la civilisation? [in French]
Stress is a part of everyday living. It is an expression of the way the body reacts to external solicitations, and is not necessarily pathological. It is therefore important to differentiate between normal and pathological stress so as to implement appropriate therapeutic measures. Contents of this article on occupational stress: epidemiological data; mechanisms of stress; stress as a function of personality; classification of stress factors; clinical manifestations of stress; occupational stress factors; measurement of occupational stress; prevention of occupational stress.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2002, No.21, p.2-13. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 03-485 Working on stress
Stress lass nach [in German]
Travailler sans stress [in French]
Trabajemos contra el estrés [in Spanish]
Surveys indicate that close to one worker in three in Europe is affected by work-related stress. This special issue was published as a contribution to the European Week for Safety and Health at Work of October 2002, with the theme "Working on Stress". It includes short communications on stress at work contributed by European political leaders, heads of occupational safety and health agencies and university researchers. Topics include: accessing information on work-related stress; EU guidance on work-related stress; case studies showing how work-related stress can be successfully addressed; role of an employers' organization, role of a workers' organization; effectiveness of heath promotion programmes; bullying. Also available in French, German and Spanish.
Magazine - European Agency for Safety and Health at Work / Agence européenne pour la sécurité et la santé au travail, 2002, No.5, p.1-28 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in English] [in French] [in German] [in Spanish]

CIS 03-499 Rick J., Thomson L., Briner R.B., O'Regan S., Daniels K.
Health and Safety Executive
Review of existing supporting scientific knowledge to underpin standards of good practice for work-related stressors - Phase I
This literature review was undertaken in order to identify the best available evidence on the ways in which stressors affect individuals at work. The following stressors were investigated: poorly designed or managed workload, work scheduling, work design, physical environment and procedures for eliminating damaging conflict (bullying, harassment) at individual or team level; lack of skill discretion, decision authority, appropriate proactive support and appropriate reactive support. The review was conducted in line with principles of evidence based approaches, which consist of a systematic way of pulling together and assessing the quality of evidence around a given research question and making recommendations for practice.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xxii, 226p. Illus. Approx 350 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. [in English]

CIS 02-1978 Schleifer L.M., Ley R., Spalding T.W.
A hyperventilation theory of job stress and musculoskeletal disorders
This article presents a hyperventilation theory of job stress and work-related musculoskeletal disorders based on established principles of breathing and job stress. Hyperventilation refers to a drop in arterial CO2 caused by ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands for O2. Excessive loss of CO2 that results from hyperventilation produces a rise in blood pH which triggers a chain of systemic physiological reactions that have adverse implications for musculoskeletal health, including increased muscle tension, muscle spasm, amplified response to catecholamines, and muscle ischaemia and hypoxia. Hyperventilation is also often characterized by a shift from a diaphragmatic to a thoracic breathing pattern, which imposes biomechanical stress on the neck and shoulder region. The theory provides an innovative framework for understanding how job stress contributes to increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, enabling effective work organization interventions and individual stress-management methods.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.420-432. Illus. 59 ref.

CIS 02-1977 Lundberg U.
Psychophysiology of work: Stress, gender, endocrine response, and work-related upper extremity disorders
Mental stress may induce muscle tension and has been proposed as a contributing cause of the development of work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) by driving low-threshold motor units into degenerative processes through overload. Perceived stress, catecholamines, blood pressure and heart rate are associated with stress-induced elevation of trapezius electromyographic activity. In repetitive tasks, where WRUEDs are common, psychophysiological arousal is generally high both during and after work. A possible explanation of the high prevalence of WRUEDs among women could be that women often perform repetitive tasks and are exposed to additional stress from unpaid work. It is concluded that both physical and psychosocial work conditions may contribute to WRUEDs by inducing physiological stress and muscle tension.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.383-392. Illus. 98 ref.

CIS 02-1736 Chouaničre D., Delaqučze C., Fontana J.M., Boisnard C., De Dreuzy C., Outin C., Pangaud B., Preux M.C., Wild P.
Evaluation of conditions of work in the printing and publishing industries
Evaluation des conditions de travail dans le secteur du livre et des industries graphiques [in French]
The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of stress-related problems among workers in the printing and publishing industries in order to propose remedial actions. The study population consisted of workers supervised at two medical centres affiliated to this industry, subject to certain eligibility criteria based on the type of employment contract and years of service. The objective of the study was presented by the occupational physician to the workers during their annual check-up. Workers who volunteered to participate were asked to respond to a questionnaire on their conditions of work and symptoms. 652 persons participated in the study, which enabled the highlighting of two priority areas of focus for preventive actions: reducing the quantitative requirements of the job and improving social support at work.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.147-155. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-1705 Nakata A., Tanigawa T., Fujioka Y., Kitamura F., Iso H., Shimamoto T.
Association of low job control with a decrease in memory (CD4+CD45RO+) T lymphocytes in Japanese middle-aged male workers in an electric power plant
To clarify the relationship between perceived job stress and lymphocyte sub-populations, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 231 male electric power plant workers (aged 40 to 60, mean 46 years). Job stress was assessed by means of the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Blood samples were taken from all the workers, and numbers of CD4+T lymphocyte sub-populations, total CD4+T, T(CD3+1) lymphocytes, CD16CD56+ natural killer cells, total lymphocytes and white blood cells were determined. After controlling for age, number of cigarettes smoked per day, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, job demands, and social support at work, numbers of memory (CD4+CD45RO+)T, total CD4+T, and total T(CD3+) lymphocytes were positively correlated with job control. Neither job demands nor social support at work showed significant correlation with lymphocyte subpopulations.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.142-148. Illus. 36 ref.

CIS 02-1981 Mardarás Platas E.
Occupational stress - Understanding it to prevent it
El estrés laboral - Comprenderlo para prevenirlo [in Spanish]
Following an introduction to the social and economic factors that can influence stress, this article goes on to explain stress and how it originates. Industrial hygiene is used as an example to illustrate how stress and its modes of action can be compared to physical or chemical agents: stress is transmitted by psychological pathways; it is a function of durations of exposure; stress factors are present in the working environment; limit values can be defined for stress factors. The different types of preventive measures (primary, secondary and tertiary) are reviewed and the need for enterprises to have access to instruments for the determination of stress factors and the evaluation of the degree and type of stress is emphasized.
Prevención, Apr.-June 2002, No.160, p.8-18. Illus. 8 ref.

CIS 02-1997 Daniels K., Harris C., Briner R.B.
Health and Safety Executive
Understanding the risks of stress: A cognitive approach
The systematic assessment of psychosocial hazards in the workplace is required under health and safety legislation. In this report, mental models of psychosocial hazards are explored. It is found that people have elaborate mental models of psychosocial hazards, that these mental models predict subsequent levels of important personal and organizational phenomena such as well-being and performance, and that variation in mental models of psychosocial hazards might be explained by a limited number of dimensions. An instrument to assess mental models of psychosocial hazards was developed and validated. Finally, the implications of a cognitive approach for psychosocial risk management are discussed, and the use of the instrument is explained.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 106p. Illus. 140 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. [in English]

CIS 02-987 Burton J.
The leadership factor
Workplace stressors can cause numerous health problems including back pain, heart problems, vulnerability to infections, mental health problems and behavioural problems, such as excessive aggressiveness. These problems can also cause higher levels of risk of occupational injuries. Stress has also been linked to certain cancers. Examples of workplace stressors include work overload and time pressure, lack of control over one's work, lack of training to do the job, too little or too much responsibility, ambiguity in job responsibility, lack of status rewards, discrimination or harassment, poor communication, neglect of legal and safety obligations and the lack of understanding for the need to balance professional and personal interests. This article discusses the importance of leadership and management responsibilities with respect to minimizing psychosocial hazards caused by workplace stressors, and mentions some of the changes in organizational culture, practices and style that can reduce the exposure to these hazards.
Accident Prevention, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.49, No.1, p.22-26. Illus. 9 ref.

CIS 02-986 Dudek B., Merecz D., Makowska Z.
Theoretical assumptions and psychometric characteristics of the sense of personal control at work questionnaire
Personal control is an important determinant of stress experienced at work. This variable is taken into account in different models of stress, and its role in the relationship between stress and stress effects has been studied in many research projects. This paper presents an instrument that has been developed to assess personal control, entitled the "Sense of Personal Control at Work" (SPCW) questionnaire, and discussed the following issues: theoretical assumptions behind the SPCW questionnaire; origins of SPCW questionnaire; results of an empirical study on psychometric characteristics of the SPCW questionnaire. A group of 160 police officers participated in the study; the SPCW questionnaire was administered twice with a 2-week interval. The study provided adequate evidence to support the usefulness of the tool as a measuring instrument.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.29-36. Illus. 18 ref.

CIS 02-980 Gershon R.R.M., Lin S., Li X.
Work stress in aging police officers
To study the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, work stress, coping strategies and stress-related health outcomes were assessed and characterized in a sample of 105 police officers aged 50 years and older. The most important risk factors associated with perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviours such as excessive drinking or problem gambling (odds ratio (OR), 4.95) exposure to critical incidents such as shootings (OR 3.84), anxiety (OR 6.84), depression (OR 9.27), somatization (OR 5.74), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR 2.89), symptoms of "burnout" (OR 5.93), chronic back pain (OR 3.55), alcohol abuse (OR 3.24) and inappropriately aggressive behaviour (OR 4.00). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviours to cope with stress.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.160-167. 54 ref.

CIS 02-982 Espino C.M., Sundstrom S.M., Frick H.L., Jacobs M., Peters M.
International business travel: Impact on families and travellers
To assess the impact of international business travel on travellers and their families, a questionnaire survey was conducted among spouses and staff of the World Bank. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. The survey also allowed the gaining of further insight into how business travel affects families, and how families cope. Lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates affect many spouses and children (particularly young children) negatively and the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.59, No.5, p.309-322. 20 ref.


CIS 07-996 Study on stress: The cause of stress for teachers, its effects, and suggested approaches to reduce it
This study on stress among teachers was carried out jointly with the WHO and ETUCE (European Trade Union Committee for Education). It took the form of a survey among teachers' unions in sixteen European countries. Contents: objectives of the survey; work-related stress in Europe; nature and sources of stress experienced by teachers and education staff; case studies of current methods of combating stress; recommendations for future action.
Education International, 5 boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, 2001. 23p. 33 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-249 Pot F.D., Lourijen E., de Kleijn E., Dhondt S.
Stress prevention...Two complementary approaches of TNO Work and Employment (Netherlands)
Prévention du stress... Deux approches complémentaires de TNO Work and Employment (Pays-Bas) [in French]
This report consists of a translation of papers on stress research projects carried out at the Dutch TNO Institute. The first paper shows that stress is the most important occupational disease in Europe, resulting in high costs both for enterprises and for the society at large. It is argued that in order to reduce the level of absenteeism due to stress, prevention at source should be favoured over stress management. The second paper proposes an organizational approach to coping with strong work demands and time pressures. It involves making an inventory of the current situation, identifying problem areas, proposing measures, and implementing and evaluating the measures. An example of a survey questionnaire in included.
Agence Nationale pour l'Amélioration des Conditions de Travail, 4, quai des Etroits, 69321 Lyon Cedex 05, France, Nov. 2001. 20p. Illus. [in French]

CIS 06-235 Pickshaus K., Schmitthenner H., Urban H.J.
Endless work - New working conditions and trade union policy
Arbeiten ohne Ende - Neue Arbeitsverhältnisse und gewerkschaftliche Arbeitspolitik [in German]
In this publication, sociologists, occupational psychologists and labour union members analyse and comment on "endless work" (flexible work without limits). Articles are grouped under the following headings: reasons behind the adoption of endless work and health hazards; duration of work and performance levels required; practical experiences and action support tools; policy strategies. A CD-ROM by IG Metall containing guidance, practical help, presentations, legislation, addresses and useful links is also included.
VSA-Verlag, St. Georgs Kirchhof 6, 20099 Hamburg, Germany, 2001. 256p. Illus.Bibl.ref. Includes CD-ROM. Price: EUR 17.80.

CIS 06-234 Beermann B., Klenner C.
We need teams that are ready for the Olympics - Flexible work schedules and occupational safety and health
Olympiareife Mannschaften gesucht? Flexible Arbeitszeiten und Arbeitsschutz [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop on flexible work schedules and their effects on health held in Dortmund, Germany, 22 September 1999. Increasing work schedule flexibility generally entails longer workdays (10-hour days or 6-day weeks), and requires greater levels of performance and flexibility on the part of workers. The workshop addressed health hazards as well as the positive effects of health that may be expected from these types of work schedules. Risks and opportunities for workers were discussed and gaps in research were highlighted. Examples of flexible work schedules suited to older workers and to workers with dependants were also presented.
Hans Böckler Stiftung, Bertha-von-Suttner-Platz 1, 40227 Düsseldorf, Germany, 2001. 101p. Price: DEM 20.00.

CIS 05-750 Jackson P.R., Parker S.K.
Health and Safety Executive
Change in manufacturing: How to manage stress-related risks
This book examines the impact of four types of organizational change taking place within manufacturing industries: advanced manufacturing technology, downsizing, team working and lean production. Based on case studies, it explores how these initiatives are changing the workplace and what organizations can do to manage change effectively and prevent stress among their employees.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. iv, 197p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.

CIS 04-743 Borges L.H.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Sociability, psychological suffering and repetitive strain injury among bank tellers
Sociabilidade, sofrimento psíquico e lesőes por esforços repetitivos entre caixas bancários [in Portuguese]
This thesis explores the relationship between work organization for repetitive tasks, social relations at work, psychological suffering and repetitive strain injuries among bank tellers. Starting from the hypothesis that the type of work organization for repetitive tasks causes certain types of social relationships to develop which in turn give rise to psychological suffering and strain injuries, it was shown that strong associations exist between psychological suffering, repetitive strain injury and strenuous working conditions. Sociability is mainly characterized by the type of hierarchical organization.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, Săo Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 2001. 180p. 67 ref. Price: BRL 15.00.

CIS 04-750 Vega Martínez S.
Psychosocial risk: The demand-control-support model (II)
Riesgo psicosocial: el modelo demanda-control-apoyo social (II) [in Spanish]
The demand-control-support model consists of a psychosocial risk model developed by R. Karasek et al. to describe and analyse work situations that give rise to chronic stress. This information note discusses the effects of occupational stress on health (musculoskeletal disorders, minor psychic disorders), psychosocial evaluation instruments (Karasek's job content questionnaire and other questionnaires or checklists that derive from it) and preventive interventions with respect to the three dimensions of the model. Karasek's psychosocial risk model is discussed in note NTP 603-2001 (CIS 04-749).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 7p. 10 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 04-749 Vega Martínez S.
Psychosocial risk: the demand-control-support model (I)
Riesgo psicosocial: el modelo demanda-control-apoyo social (I) [in Spanish]
This information note discusses a psychosocial risk model based on the psychosocial characteristics of work and developed by R. Karasek et al. to describe and analyse work situations that give rise to chronic stress. Contents: description of the three dimensions of the model (psychological demand, control, social support); model predictions (risks of stress-related disorders, passive or active behaviour of the worker as a function of the degree of autonomy and the psychosocial requirements of the job); recent data on exposure to psychosocial hazards (results of a national survey of 1999 and a European survey of 2000 on working conditions, analysis of the distribution of occupations as a function of work autonomy and time pressures, predisposition to stress). The effects of occupational stress on health, instruments of psychosocial evaluation and preventive interventions with respect to the three dimensions of the model are covered in the notice NTP 604-2001 (CIS 04-750).
Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 6p. Illus. 9 ref. [in Spanish]

CIS 03-2000
Health and Safety Executive
Work-related stress - A short guide
This booklet aimed at managers and owners of small enterprises defines work-related mental stress, identifies its symptoms and recommends specific actions to reduce its impact on staff. Replaces the booklet analysed as CIS 98-1550.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 2001. 10p. 4 ref. [in English]

< previous | 1... 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ...23 | next >