Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found
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Salah Ibrahim K., Bechir Ahmed S.
Stress markers of health status of bank employees
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic professional stress on the cellular humoral and immune systems in bank employees. On the basis of a job stress questionnaire, 100 male subjects were selected according to high or low scores of professional stress. Blood samples were taken to count white cells, CD4 and CD8 marked lymphocytes and natural killer cells and to determine the concentration of immunoglobulins (A, M and G), cortisol, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neoptrin. Chronic professional stress appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction including signs of immune activation (increased serum concentrations of IgG and IgA) and immune suppression (decreased number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells). The shifts were more pronounced in the group with higher job stress. Serum cortisol, CRP and neoptrin showed no significant differences between the groups. It is supposed that in the presence of chronic stress, distinct psychological mechanisms are associated with specific immune dysfunctions.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.23-32. 46 ref.
Haslam C., Mallon K.
A preliminary investigation of post-traumatic stress symptoms among firefighters
This preliminary study investigated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTDS) among firefighters in relation to their experience of traumatic events and the availability of social support. Thirty-one UK fire service workers completed an adapted version of the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) questionnaire. They were also individually interviewed. Rumination and sleep disturbance were the most commonly reported PTDS symptoms. Participants reported having benefited from high levels of social support from within the service and outside. The results suggest that fire service personnel are at risk of developing some symptoms of PTDS; however most had not experienced severe enough symptoms for PTDS to be diagnosed. High levels of social support may play a role in buffering firefighters from the development of PTDS.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.277-285. 25 ref.
Hansen Å.M., Kaergaard A., Andersen J.H., Netterstrøm B.
Associations between repetitive work and endocrinological indicators of stress
The impact of repetitive work on endocrinological indicators of stress was studied in a sample of 96 female sewing machine operators mainly carrying out repetitive work and a control group of 46 women mainly carrying out process monitoring in a toy factory. The degree of repetitiveness of the work was assessed on the basis of job category, job observations and self-reports of the psychosocial work environment. The sewing machine operators were found to exhibit more catabolic and less anabolic metabolism compared to members of the control group. Participants classified as having repetitive work had higher concentrations of immunoglobulin A and lower concentrations of free testosterone and urinary adrenaline compared to participants having non-repetitive work. No differences were observed between job categories in other measured endocrinological indicators. An association between self-reported adverse psychosocial work environment and low anabolic metabolism could not be demonstrated.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.264-276. 43 ref.
Snow D.L., Swan S.C., Raghavan C., Connell C.M., Klein I.
The relationship of work stressors, coping and social support to psychological symptoms among female secretarial employees
This article describes a conceptual framework based on the assumption that psychological symptoms are influenced by the interaction of individual and situational risk and protective factors over time. This framework was used to examine the impact of work stressors, coping, and work-related social support on psychological symptoms among 239 female secretarial employees in the USA, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal models. Work stressors and avoidance coping were viewed as risk factors, and active coping and social support as protective factors. In both models, work stressors and avoidance coping contributed substantially to increased symptoms while active coping was related to fewer psychological symptoms. Work-related social support served an indirect protective function by contributing to lower levels of reported work stressors and greater use of active coping. Work stressors also mediated the relationship between social support and symptoms.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.241-263. Illus. 88 ref.
Goldenhar L.M., Williams L.J., Swanson N.G.
Modelling relationships between job stressors and injury and near-miss outcomes for construction labourers
This study examines the relationships between a variety of job stressors and injury or near-miss outcomes among construction workers. Self-reported questionnaire data collected from 408 workers via telephone interview were analysed. A theoretical model was developed to evaluate whether work stressors could be related to self-reported injuries and near misses. Ten of the 12 work-related stressors were found to be directly related to either injury or near misses, namely: job demands, job control, job certainty, training, safety climate, skill under-utilization, responsibility for the safety of others, safety compliance, exposure hours, and job tenure. Other stressors were indirectly related to injuries through physical symptoms or indirectly related to near misses through psychological strain. There was no support for the modelled gender differences.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.17, No.3, p.218-240. Illus. 75 ref.
Gunnarsdottir H.K., Rafnsdottir G.L., Helgadottir B., Tomasson K.
Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care
The aim of this study was to explore the extent of the association between psychosocial work characteristics and musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care. 1518 female employees of geriatric nursing homes and geriatric hospital wards in Iceland having a staff of 10 or more responded to a questionnaire. Odds ratios of over two for one or more musculoskeletal symptoms were found for the following risk factors: finding the job mentally difficult; mental exhaustion after one's shift; dissatisfaction regarding communications with supervisors or the flow of information; insufficient influence at work; dissatisfaction with the hierarchy; intense time pressures; lack of solidarity among colleagues; dissatisfaction with the job; harassment; violence or threats at work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.44, No.6, p.679-684. 34 ref.
Pepper L., Messinger M., Weinberg J., Campbell R.
Downsizing and health at the United States Department of Energy
Downsizing and reorganization not only affect workers who lose their jobs, but even workers who retain their jobs are affected in negative ways. The present study measured how downsizing was accomplished at five Department of Energy facilities by evaluating communication with workers, perceived fairness of the process and job characteristics, and how each of these was associated with worker health and well-being. The researchers collected quantitative data using structured surveys and captured qualitative data using interviews, focus groups, and open-ended survey responses. Employees who felt that the downsizing process was fair and that communication was open and honest reported fewer symptoms, lower survivor syndrome and more job security than their counterparts. Also, employees who were less immediately impacted by downsizing reported fewer symptoms than those who were more directly involved.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2003, Vol.44, No.5, p.481-491. 21 ref.
Hristov Z., Tomev L., Kircheva D., Daskalova N., Mihailova T., Ivanova V., Naidenova Z.
Work stress in the context of transition - A case study of three public sectors in Bulgaria
This publication examines work-related stress in three public sectors in Bulgaria (education, health care and public administration) in the context of political and economic transition. Explores work-related stress factors, symptoms and effects of stress and the strategy of trade unions in work stress prevention. It is a pilot effort of trade unions in Central and Eastern Europe to raise public awareness and to develop a trade union response to stress at the workplace. Stress at work has long been a neglected area of policy intervention in most transition countries. This study helps to broaden understanding on this important issue, and to stimulate governments and the social partners to look at the complex web of interaction between work-related stress and contributing factors stemming from the economic and political environment, and to find a coordinated policy response to it. The results presented are specific to Bulgaria and to the three sectors studied, but the methodology is applicable to other countries.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. x, 106p. Illus. 20 ref.
http://www.ilo-ceet.hu/public/english/region/eurpro/budapest/download/work_stress.pdf [in English]
Occupational stress factors - Survey among employees of inter-company services
Les facteurs de stress professionnel - Enquête auprès des salariés des services interentreprises [in French]
The objective of this study was to identify occupational stress factors and to highlight relationships between stress and absenteeism and between stress and the risk of being medically unfit to work. Data were collected by means of questionnaires administered by occupational physicians to a randomly-selected population of 839 workers. Responses were subjected to statistical analysis. Stress was found to be a widespread phenomenon among workers. The most significant risk factors for stress were not those related to personality characteristics, but to factors associated with the occupational environment such as work overload or intensity, social support at the workplace, role ambiguity and more generally the work organization and structure. These factors explain the observed variations between different occupational categories and the association between stress and sickness absenteeism. The link between stress and the risk of being medically unfit to work requires further investigation.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Sep. 2003, Vol.64, No.5, p.297-309. 19 ref.
de Carvalho Chaves M.E., Melgaço Valadares C.A., Lino M.L.M.R., Bussacos M.
Repetitive strain injuries and mental suffering in various occupations
Lesões por esforços repetitivos e sofrimento mental em diferentes profissões [in Portuguese]
The objective of this study was to examine the mental suffering of persons afflicted with musculoskeletal disorders or repetitive strain injuries. It involved 105 workers from the banking, commercial, telecommunication and other sectors of activity, who responded to a self-administered questionnaire containing 120 objective and subjective questions (SRQ-20). Results were analysed using various statistical methods. The workers' average age was 41 years, with a high proportion of women (87%). As far as work time schedules were concerned, telecommunications workers generally worked in shifts; in the other sectors, a wide majority worked overtime and many were subjected to pressures from their superiors. In all sectors however, similar levels of mental suffering were observed, vastly greater than had been observed in earlier studies. This is probably due to the fact that the totality of the study population suffered from repetitive strain injury, which no doubt increased their level of mental suffering.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2003, Vol.28, No.105/106, p.43-49. 13 ref.
Benvenides Pereira A.M.T., das Neves Alves R.
Persons providing care are also in need of care: Understanding and preventing burnout
Quem cuida também merece cuidados: Conhecendo et prevenindo o burnout [in Portuguese]
This booklet on burnout and its prevention is aimed at persons caring for seropositive patients. It describes burnout symptoms, defines stress and burnout and provides guidance for avoiding burnout or mitigating its symptoms. It also includes relaxation and stretching exercises for relieving tension and emphasizes the importance of getting help from professionals when the person providing care can no longer cope with the symptoms alone.
Universidade Estadual de Máringá, Departamento de Psicologia, Av. Colombo, 5790, Bloco118, CEP 8702-900 Máringá, Brazil, 2003. 19p. Illus. 2 ref.
Stress and occupational risk-taking
Stress et prises de risques professionnels [in French]
This review article discusses the influence of stress on high-level cognitive procedures such as judgment and decision-making in the context of risk assessment. It focuses on the impact of stress in the work environment on risk-taking when complex technical systems have to be implemented. Analysis of recent findings suggests that stress generates poor-quality data processing operations for activities designated as complex in cognitive psychology terms. Stress is a contributory cause of bias in assessment procedures, because it affects all stages involved in obtaining appropriate estimates of risk. Narrowing the perceptual field affects data selection and diminishes the range of indicators taken into account; narrowing the cognitive field modifies the optimum weighting that would normally apply to these factors. In addition, stress accelerates the adoption of simplified strategies that encourage the use of often contradictory localized rationales, to the detriment of more broad-based ones that would enable a wider view to be taken. Examination of these findings leads to the conclusion that it is the diversity and creativeness of cognitive resources that are most affected by stress. On the basis of experimental findings, a neuro-psychological hypothesis involving interconnecting networks is proposed.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2003, Vol.64, No.3, p.148-156. Illus. 47 ref.
Taleb A., Brahim B.M., Benrezkallah L., Benkalfat F.Z.M.
Noise exposure, psychosocial environment and arterial hypertension in occupational settings
Exposition au bruit, environnement psychosocial et hypertension artérielle en milieu de travail [in French]
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of arterial hypertension in workers of industrial companies and to establish the existence of possible correlations between high blood pressure and stress resulting from negative psychological working environments or noise. Participants consisted of all 2156 workers of twelve industrial companies, aged between 20 and 60 years. Subjects were given a questionnaire on their personal characteristics and were subjected to blood pressure measurements. This screening resulted in a study population of 121 persons with hypertension and a control group of 163 workers without hypertension chosen at random from the same source population. Participants responded to a second questionnaire on hypertension risk factors and were subjected to a job strain test based on the Karasek model, clinical examinations, biological testing and an evaluation of personal exposure to workplace noise. Statistical analysis of the findings confirmed the existence of a causal relationship between exposure to job strain factors or to noise and high blood pressure.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2003, Vol.64, No.4, p.246-252. 28 ref.
Landsbergis P.A., Schnall P.L., Pickering T.G., Warren K., Schwartz J.E.
Lower socioeconomic status among men in relation to the association between job strain and blood pressure
The associations between psychosocial job strain and ambulatory blood pressure at work, by level of education, occupational status, and income were assessed by multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, race, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, standing position, and worksite for 283 men, aged 30-60 years, working in eight enterprises in New York City. A substantial association between job strain and blood pressure was found among men with lower socio-economic status, ranging from 2.7-11.8mm Hg systolic and 1.9-6.1mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, depending on their socio-economic status. However, in the groups with high socio-economic status, the association was much smaller, the range in blood pressure being 0-5.3mm Hg (systolic) and 0.2-2.1mm Hg (diastolic). Two of the ten interactions evaluated had a P-value of <0.05. These data provide evidence that the relationship between psychosocial job strain and blood pressure is greater among men with lower socio-economic status.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2003, Vol.29, No.3, p.206-215. 73 ref.
Babisch W., Ising H., Gallacher J.E.J.
Health status as a potential effect modifier of the relation between noise annoyance and incidence of ischaemic heart disease
Traffic noise is a psychosocial stressor. Epidemiological studies suggest chronic noise stress to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. The association between annoyance and disturbances due to road traffic noise and the incidence of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was examined in 3950 middle-aged men in a prospective cohort study. Depending on the questionnaire item, non-significant odds ratios for IHD incidence ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 were found for the highly noise annoyed/disturbed subjects when compared with the less annoyed/disturbed subjects, over the six year follow up period. However, this relation was strongly modified by the prevalence of pre-existing chronic IC. In subjects free of any chronic disease at the beginning of the follow up, significant odds ratios between 1.7 and 3.0 were seen. In the subgroup with chronic diseases, no such noise effects were seen, probably because of the dilution of the true effect due to recall bias. It is concluded that annoyance and disturbance due to road traffic noise are associated with a higher incidence of IHD. Prevalence of disease can be an important effect modifier of the relation between noise annoyance and health outcomes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.739-745. 65 ref.
Mental health at work - The urgency of adopting new organizational thinking
Santé mentale et travail - L'urgence de penser autrement l'organisation [in French]
Besides causing personal suffering, work-related mental health problems are an important factor in absenteeism and represent substantial costs both to enterprises and to society in general. Aimed at providing an insight into the problem of work-related mental health problems, this publication consists of four parts. Part 1 describes the current situation in Quebec, including the magnitude of the problem and its causal factors. Par 2 discusses the possible roles of the various social partners capable of providing solutions to the problem. Part 3 presents a series of examples illustrating practices that have been adopted in various occupational settings to cope with mental health problems. Finally, Part 4 outlines preventive strategies based on management practices.
Les Presses de l'Université Laval, Distribution de livres Univers, 845 rue Marie-Victorin, Saint-Nicolas, Québec, Canada, 2003. xii, 173p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CAD 20.00.
Daniels K., Jones D., Fergusson E., Perryman S., Rick J.
Health and Safety Executive
Cognitive factors' influence on the expression and reporting of work-related stress
This study examined the extent to which individual differences in factors such as personality and attitudes are responsible for the incidence of stress-related illness and reporting of stress-related problems through questionnaires and other monitoring processes. The work involved a meta-analysis of longitudinal studies of ill-health, work conditions and individual differences, as well as an examination of representative databases of the UK population. It was concluded that cognitive factors in the experience of unpleasant emotions might play a central role in both the development and reporting of stress-related illness.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 132p. Illus. Approx 240 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr170.pdf [in English]
Fuchs T., Conrads R.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Analysis of working conditions, work-related strain and health problems among employed persons in connection with flexible forms of work
Flexible Arbeitsformen - Arbeitsbedingungen, -belastungen und Beschwerden - eine Analyse empirischer Daten [in German]
On the basis of representative surveys conducted in Germany, this research report analyses the prevalence of job stain and health problems among employees, with an emphasis on flexible forms of work (temporary work, predefined duration employment, shift work, night work, weekend work). Based on an empirical approach, the report first compares workers' physical and psychological loads during the years 1985/1986 with those of the years 1998/1999, then briefly describes trends in flexible work methods. Finally, with the help of bivariate and multivariate methods, it analyses the influence of flexible forms of work on workers' health problems.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 310p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: EUR 24.00.
Stadler P., Spieß E.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Psychosocial hazards at the workplace - Optimization of strain by developing design criteria regarding leadership behaviour and social support at the workplace
Psychosoziale Gefährdung am Arbeitsplatz - Optimierung der Beanspruchung durch die Entwicklung von Gestaltungskriterien [in German]
Management style and social support measures are two important psychosocial factors that influence the strain to which workers are subjected at the workplace. The objective of this study was to develop criteria and recommendations for optimizing psychosocial working conditions. A first task consisted of a literature survey on psychosocial risk factors as well as on the effects of management behaviour and social support on strain. Next, managers were questioned on their assessment of the strain to which their employees were subjected, their strategies with respect to demands and the degree of social support at work that they considered necessary. On this basis, an organizational model conducive to psychosocial health was developed, taking management style and social support into account. Finally, an information framework was defined, explaining the positive aspects of the approach based on employees' needs, together with an action plan.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 250p. Illus. 287 ref. Price: EUR 20.50.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Psychological load at work
Psychische Belastungen am Arbeitsplatz [in German]
Report on a symposium on psychological load at work organized jointly by Volkswagen and the German Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin), held on 28 and 29 November 2002. Main topics covered: physiological methods for measuring psychological load (arterial tension); ensuring psychosocial health of employees as an objective of enterprise management; coaching of managers on psychological health; psychological indicators of psychological load; occupational psychology; measuring psychological stress and strain; psychological load in call centres.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 272p. Illus. Ref.bibl. Price: EUR 21.00.
Strobel G., Lehnig U.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Field workers: Psychosocial working conditions
Beschäftigte im Außendienst: psychosoziale Arbeitsbedingungen [in German]
The objective of this project was to develop recommendations for improving the psychosocial working conditions of field workers. It involved job studies and interviews of medical representatives and service technicians of computer and telecommunications equipment. It was found that time pressures, high workloads, being positioned between customers and employers and conflicts with customers were important occupational stressors among field workers. Although a high job satisfaction and degree of control mitigate occupational stress reactions, the general working conditions in these activities may impair health. Recommendations are made with respect to the prevention and control of stress among field workers at the individual and enterprise levels.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 251p. Illus. 110 ref. Price: EUR 20.50.
Schönwälder H.G., Berndt J., Ströver F., Tiesler G.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Occupational stress and strain among teachers
Belastung und Beanspruchung von Lehrerinnen und Lehrern [in German]
This study on the occupational stress of teachers was carried out on 108 female and 70 male teachers of primary and secondary schools in the city of Bremen, Germany. Methods employed included a questionnaire on the subjective perception of stress and stress factors, medical and psychological tests to evaluate the physical and mental state of health of teachers and long-term ECGs to obtain the heart rate as an indicator of psychophysical load. School lessons were observed and recorded for one week per class. In some cases sound levels were recorded during lessons in classrooms, study rooms, gyms and during music classes. Results show significant deficits in physical and mental health among a high percentage of teachers, together with a poor recovery effect of work breaks. Noise levels frequently exceed recommended values for mental and information work.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 190p. Illus. 28 ref. Price: EUR 17.00.
van Dijk F.J.H., Swaen G.M.H.
Fatigue at work
Fatigue is a common complaint in the working population. 20% of workers report symptoms of fatigue, and acute and chronic fatigue have an adverse impact on workers' health. Main topics covered in this issue: assessment of fatigue among working persons and comparison of different scales for the measurement of fatigue; fatigue and burnout; epidemiological approach of fatigue; acute and chronic job stressors among ambulance personnel; work schedules and fatigue; need for recovery from work related fatigue; fatigue as a predictor of sickness absence; physiological factors of fatigue (blood pressure, heart rate, cortisol responses); fatigue as a risk factor of occupational accidents; fatigue in employees with diabetes.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, Suppl.I, p.i3-i106 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Giga S.I., Hoel H., Cooper C.L.
Violence and stress at work in the postal sector
Postal service providers have traditionally operated in non-competitive, monopolistic, highly unionized environments aimed at providing a social service without any obligation for long-term financial viability. Globalization, deregulation, new technology and changing customer needs have demanded major changes not only to the products and services that these organizations provide, but also more fundamentally to the way they function. These unremitting changes over the past couple of decades have strained relationships between managers, employees and employee representatives and have given rise to job insecurity, dissatisfaction and conflict among the work force. This working paper examines the issue of violence and stress at work in the postal sector. Contents: sector-specific environment as originator of violence and stress at work; scope of violence and stress in the portal sector and their impact the sector and its workforce; causes of workplace violence and stress in the sector; information collection and reporting on violence and stress; illustrative cases of violence and stress in the sector; prevention, reduction, management and coping strategies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. vii, 24p. 52 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/postelcm/wp200.pdf [in English]
Giga S.I., Hoel H.
Violence and stress at work in financial services
Mergers and acquisitions, globalization, technological developments and related restructuring have introduced major changes in the way work is organized and done over the last few decades. The resulting modernization has led to the development of a number of concerns for workers in financial services, such as increasing time pressures, excessive work demands, role conflict, ergonomic insufficiencies, problematic customer relations and an increase in reported cases of violence and stress. This report reviews the literature on the prevalence, causes, consequences and prevention of violence and stress from a financial sector perspective. Contents: sector-specific environment as originator of violence and stress at work; scope of violence and stress in the financial services and its impact the sector and its workforce; information collection and reporting on violence and stress; illustrative cases of violence and stress in the sector; prevention, reduction, management and coping strategies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 24p. 68 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/service/wp210.pdf [in English]
Di Martino V.
Relationship between work stress and workplace violence in the health sector
Based on an extensive literature analysis, this study tackles the issues of stress and violence at work in the health sector, highlighting the magnitude of the problem, the key factors and the way they interrelate. Contents: definition of stress and violence; stress as a source of workplace violence; workplace violence as a source of stress; cumulative effects of stress and violence; specific implications for the health sector (sector-specific environment as cause of stress and violence, impact on working conditions and employment, impact on costs); approaches to coping.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. viii, 33p. Illus. 50 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/health/stress-violence.pdf [in English]
Violence and stress at work in the transport sector
Violence and stress at work are a source of occupational risk in the transport sector that has attracted increasing attention over recent years. This working paper focuses mainly on public transport (railways and rural and urban transport systems), road freight transport and the taxi industry as well as civil aviation. Contents: violence and stress in the services sectors; character and causes of violence and stress at work in the transport sector; scope of violence and stress in the sector; information collection and reporting on violence and stress; prevention, reduction, management and coping strategies.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. v, 46p. Illus. 81 ref.
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/papers/transport/wp205.pdf [in English]
Chen W.Q., Wong T.W., Yu T.S., Lin Y.Z., Cooper C.L.
Determinants of perceived occupational stress among Chinese offshore oil workers
In this study aimed at exploring the determinants of perceived sources of occupational stress among workers in the rapidly expanding Chinese offshore oil industry, 567 workers in a state-owned oil company were surveyed by means of a questionnaire. Items covered included occupational stress and Type A behaviour, social support and socio-demographic data. Using factor analyses, nine sources of stress were identified. Better-educated workers perceived more stress from the interface between their job and family or social life and career achievement, but less stress from ergonomics. Type A workers perceived more stress from career achievement and the living environment. Social support was significantly associated with four sources of stress. Workers with different job titles perceived stress from different sources. Findings imply that different strategies and methods need to be applied to different occupational groups and to workers with different personalities and socio-demographic characteristics.
Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2003, Vol.17, No.4, p.287-305. 62 ref.
Sprigg C.A., Smith P.R., Jackson P.R.
Health and Safety Executive
Psychosocial risk factors in call centres: An evaluation of work design and well-being
This research report on call centre work presents the findings of a questionnaire-based study. Questionnaires were mailed to a sample of 2982 call centre workers at 36 call centres in the United Kingdom. The response rate was 38%. Questions concerned the level of stress, whether the stress was equally experienced by workers in different sectors and types of call centre, causes of stress and possible measures aimed at reducing the psychosocial risks associated with working at call centres.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 81p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr169.pdf [in English]
Salanova M., Llorens S., García-Renedo M.
What causes burnout among teachers?
¿Por qué se están "quemando" los profesores? [in Spanish]
The results of a survey carried out among secondary school teachers in two Spanish provinces, aimed at analysing burnout symptoms in this occupation, are summarized. Various factors were taken into consideration, including: negative aspects (technical and social obstacles, mental and emotional overload); positive aspects (autonomy, social support and work atmosphere); effects on psychological well-being; personal resources of teachers. The study shows in particular that women present more symptoms of depression and burnout than men and that the 43-47 age groups have increased depression symptoms and lower job satisfaction. It highlights the importance of preventive actions and proposes the contents of prevention and intervention programmes.
Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2003, No.28, p.16-20. Illus. 16 ref.
Sluiter J.K., van der Beek A.J., Frings-Dresen M.H.W.
Medical staff in emergency situations: Severity of patient status predicts stress hormone reactivity and recovery
Although repetitive exposure to stressful situations is thought to habituate the physical stress responses, work stress is experienced by medical personnel in emergency and intensive care units. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroendocrine reactions (reactivity during and recovery after work) among experienced emergency caregivers during emergency situations. Participants included 20 male ambulance paramedics. A stress protocol was developed in which cortisol was measured in saliva at baseline, during the emergency period and during recovery. Four scenarios were tested between subjects in which the severity of the emergency situation and the time of day were taken into account. It was found that the endocrine reactions were higher during and after the handling of patients in direct life-threatening situations and during morning hours.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2003, Vol.60, No.5, p.373-375. Illus. 2 ref.
Thomson L., Neathey F., Rick J.
Health and Safety Executive
Best practice in rehabilitating employees following absence due to work-related stress
This survey identifies 12 specific examples of best rehabilitation practices following the absence due to stress-related illness, and highlights the various factors which influence their effectiveness. It discusses costs and benefits of the various rehabilitation practices. It considers the historical development of the rehabilitation practices within the case study organizations, and describes the key factors that lead to the development of procedures. It concludes that this type of information will encourage other employers to develop their own rehabilitation practices.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 147p. 57 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr138.pdf [in English]
Jordan J., Gurr E., Tinline G., Giga S., Faragher B., Cooper C.
Health and Safety Executive
Beacons of excellence in stress prevention
This report presents the results of work carried out to identify good practice in stress prevention among organizations within the United Kingdom. It summarizes conclusions from scientific studies on stress prevention published over the last decade, and uses this information, as well as advice from a panel of international experts, to develop a comprehensive stress prevention model. This model is then used to describe examples of stress prevention practices within a wide range of organizations. Finally, the report presents case studies for each aspect of the good practice model, together with examples of practice in various organizations.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 194p. Illus. 128 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr133.pdf [in English]
Brun J.P., Biron C., Martel J., Ivers H.
Evaluation of mental health at the workplace: Analysis of human resource management practices
Evaluation de la santé mentale au travail: une analyse des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines [in French]
As part of a systematic and strategic approach to the prevention of problems caused by occupational stress, the objective of this study was to measure the extent of mental health problems at the workplace and to highlight organizational factors perceived by employees as being detrimental to their mental health. It was also aimed at evaluating prevention and human resource management efforts with respect to organizational risk factors. 3142 workers of four organizations (higher learning institution, metalworking enterprise, hospital, tree nursery) responded to a questionnaire, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analyses. 56 participants were also interviewed. Findings are worrying. Indeed, 43.4% of the respondents declared to be suffering from high levels of psychological distress, with the highest rates among hospital staff. Societal consequences are discussed, and a number of proposals are made for improving working conditions through a more humane approach to work organization.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec), H3A 3C2, Canada, Aug. 2003. ix, 88p. Illus. 135 ref. Price: CAD 7.49.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-342.pdf [in French]
Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
Managing emerging health-related problems at work - SOLVE: Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence
Gérer les problèmes émergents liés à la santé dans le monde du travail - SOLVE : Stress, violence, alcool et drogue, VIH/sida, tabagisme [in French]
SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policy and action to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, disease and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This training package (folder and CD-ROM) provides the foundation for a five-day interactive training course with a goal to give participants the knowledge and skills to formulate a comprehensive policy and strategies to address these issues in the workplace. (See also CIS 01-746).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. Loose-leaf folder. Approx.120p. Illus. Bibl.ref. + CD-ROM.
Health and Safety Executive
Real solutions, real people - A managers' guide to tackling work-related stress
This tutorial kit contains practical advice on finding ways to tackle the causes of stress at work. It builds on the familiar risk assessment approach. It includes case studies which deal with specific aspects of work-design of various occupations identified as organizational risk factors for work-related stress (demands, control, support, relationships, role and change). The kit comprises a folder containing a guidance booklet, a guide aimed at managers, a guide for employees, 25 cards containing possible solutions, ideas or case studies, and a poster where the steps of the action plan are summarized.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. Folder contaning: Booklet (v, 65p., Illus.); Managers' guide (v, 42p. 21 ref.); Guide for employees (4p., 1 ref.; 25 solution cards; poster). Price: GBP 25.00.
Piirainen H., Räsänen K., Kivimäki M.
Organizational climate, perceived work-related symptoms and sickness absence: A population-based survey
The aim of this study was to determine how the perceived organizational climate of a workplace is related with work-related symptoms and sickness absence and how these factors vary according to socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Data were collected in computer-assisted telephone interviews of a random sample of 4209 currently employed people drawn from the Finnish population register. A tense and prejudiced climate was associated with a higher risk of work-related symptoms than a relaxed and supportive climate (odds ratio [OR] 3.0). The corresponding ORs were 4.3 for psychological symptoms, 1.6 for musculoskeletal symptoms, and 1.6 for more than the average number of sick-leave days. Thus, organizational climate appears related not only to organizational practices and leadership but also to occupational health. Organizational climate could be used as a research tool in attempts to reduce work-related ill health and sickness absenteeism.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.45, No.2, p.175-184. Illus. 40 ref.
Mohren D.C.L., Swaen G.M.H., van Amelsvoort L.G.P.M., Borm P.J.A., Galama J.M.D.
Job insecurity as a risk factor for common infections and health complaints
The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal impact of job insecurity on common infections and health complaints. Self-administered questionnaire data were used from the Maastricht Cohort Study comprised of 12,140 subjects. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals. A cross-sectional relationship between job insecurity and common infections or health complaints was found. For the longitudinal relationship, the largest effect was found for flu-like illness (OR 1.39) and health complaints (OR 1.51). Corrections were additionally made for health behaviour, the presence of a long-standing illness, and work-related demands, resulting in lower ORs. Increases in common infections or health complaints have a substantial impact on employee well-being and may result in economic consequences for the company.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2003, Vol.45, No.2, p.123-129. 30 ref.
MacDonald L.A., Deddens J.A., Grajewski B.A., Whelan E.A., Hurrell J.J.
Job stress among female flight attendants
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between job stressors and psychological distress and job dissatisfaction among female flight attendants. 73 flight attendants employed at two commercial airlines completed a detailed questionnaire. Standard questions and scale measures were used to assess job stressors, psychological distress and job dissatisfaction. The association between job stressors and these outcomes was evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Except for fatigue, overall levels of distress and job dissatisfaction indicators were moderate to low. However, certain specific job stressors were found to have a substantive effect on these outcomes, following adjustment for individual factors. Despite moderate-to-low levels of distress and dissatisfaction, targeted efforts to reduce these job stressors and to enhance social support should be important steps toward improving the well-being and satisfaction of flight attendants.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.45, No.7, p.703-714. 34 ref.
Wager N., Fieldman G., Hussey T.
The effect on ambulatory blood pressure of working under favourably and unfavourably perceived supervisors
To investigate the role played by employees' perceptions of their supervisors' interactional styles in causing workplace stress, a field study was carried out among female healthcare workers. Allocation to the experimental and control groups was based on participants' responses to a questionnaire on their supervisors' interactional style. The 13 subjects reported working under two very divergently perceived supervisors on different days while the 15 controls worked either under one supervisor, or two similarly-perceived supervisors. Blood pressure was recorded every 30min over a 12-hour period during three days. The control group showed a 3mm Hg difference in systolic pressure (SBP) and a non-significant difference in diastolic pressure (DBP) between the two supervisor conditions. The experimental group showed significantly higher SBP (15mm Hg) and DBP (7mm Hg) when working under a less favoured compared to a favoured supervisor. In conclusion, an unfavourably perceived supervisor is a potent workplace stressor, which might have a significant impact on supervisees' cardiovascular functioning.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2003, Vol.60, No.7, p.468-474. Illus. 61 ref.
Lindström K., Froneberg B., Kortum E., Ertel M., Baguma P., Lehtinen S., Muchiri F.K., Clark E.E.K., Kiama Mwaniki N.K.
Psychological stress and well being
Collection of articles primarily devoted to the theme of stress and well-being at work. Contents: psychological stress and well-being during work; overview of occupational stress and well-being at work; stress, job satisfaction and well-being among policewomen in Uganda. Other topics: brief review of the African session of the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) Congress held in February 2003 at Iguassu Falls, Brazil; challenges in occupational health and development in Africa; contributions of occupational health and safety factors to the brain drain in the health sector; occupational lung diseases and HIV/AIDS at workplaces in Africa, with the specific case of Botswana.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2003, Vol.13, No.2, p.31-51 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Moreau M., Valente F., Mak R., Pelfrene E., De Smet P., De Backer G., Kornitzer M.
Occupational stress and incidence of sick leave in three sectors of activity of the Belgian workforce: The Belstress Study
The Karasek-Johnson "Demands-Control-Social support" model is one of the most widely used job stress models. This study was carried out to test the power of the model to predict sickness absenteeism. A cohort of 15,557 men and 4906 women were followed during one year. The relation between psychological job demands, job control social support and sickness absenteeism was tested by logistic regression models. Low job control was associated with both short and long spells of sickness absence. An association was also found between high strained jobs with low social support and long spells of sickness absence with odds ratios of 1.22 in men and 1.35 in women. The study provides evidence that job stress is an independent risk factor of sick leave whatever the sex, occupational class and sector of activity. Moreover, it was possible to identify job control and social support at work as being the characteristics that play a major role in the relation between job stress and sickness absenteeism within the Karasek-Johnson model.
Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale - Belgisch Archief van Sociale Geneeskunde, Hygiëne, Arbeidsgeneeskunde en Gerechtelijke Geneeskunde, 2003, Vol.61, No.1-2, p.101-125. 43 ref.
Leynen F., Moreau M., Pelfrene E., Clays E., De Backer G., Konrnitzer M.
Job stress and the prevalence of diabetes: Results from the Belstress Study
As part of a broader search for pathways linking job stress to cardiovascular disease, this study assessed the relationship between job stress and diabetes, one of the main coronary risk factors. The study population consisted of a large Belgian cohort of 16,335 men and 5084 women, aged 35-59 years, working in a wide range of occupations. The participants completed a job content questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination. The prevalence of type II diabetes was 2.6% and 2.1% among men and women, respectively. Results also indicated the existence of an inverse relationship between job control and diabetes, and a positive association between job strain and diabetes in women. These results support the idea that there is an association between job stress, defined as either a combination of high psychological job demands and low job control or a lack of job control alone, and the prevalence of diabetes.
Archives belges de médecine sociale, hygiène, médecine du travail et médecine légale - Belgisch Archief van Sociale Geneeskunde, Hygiëne, Arbeidsgeneeskunde en Gerechtelijke Geneeskunde, 2003, Vol.61, No.1-2, p.75-90. 33 ref.
Chouanière D., François M., Guillemy N., Langevin V., Pentecôte A., Ven de Weerdt C., Weibel L., Dornier G.
Le stress au travail [in French]
28% of European workers complain to be suffering from health problems caused by occupational stress. This information sheet on occupational stress addresses the following topics: definition of stress; importance and cost of occupational stress; sources of stress at work; physiological mechanisms involved at the onset of stress; health effects; primary, secondary and tertiary prevention; occupational stress research programmes undertaken by the INRS. See also CIS 10-0300.
Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2003. 4p. 12 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/le_stress_au_travail.html [in French]
Salminen S., Kivimäki M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J.
Stress factors predicting injuries of hospital personnel
Stress at work has long been recognized as a factor in increasing risk for mental and physical health problems. The extent to which work stressors and stress predicted injuries occur was studied in a population of 5,111 workers (624 men, 4,487 women) of 10 Finnish hospitals. Their psychological distress was measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and overload and job control by the Harris scale and the Job Content Questionnaire, respectively. Injuries certified by a physician were followed up for three years: the 213 injuries in 1997 were used as a measure of baseline and the 443 injuries in 1998-1999 were the dependent variables. Psychological distress was not significantly related to injuries. However, low decision latitude (risk ratio = 1.27), low skill discretion only for men (risk ratio = 2.76), and highly monotonous work (risk ratio = 1.26) were stressors predicting injuries. In addition, workers with numerous interpersonal problems or many conflicts in collaboration at work were more often involved in injuries. This study showed that stressors related to autonomy of work and interpersonal relationships at the workplace are predictors of injuries in hospital settings. These factors are potentially amenable to organizational interventions.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2003, Vol.44, No.1, p.32-36. 32 ref.
van der Klink J.J.L., Blonk R.W.B., Schene A.H., van Dijk F.J.H.
Reducing long term sickness absence by an activating intervention in adjustment disorders: A cluster randomised controlled design
The aim of this study was to compare an innovative activating intervention with "care as usual" (control group) for the guidance of employees on sickness leave because of an adjustment disorder. It was hypothesized that the intervention would be more effective in lowering the intensity of symptoms, increasing psychological resources and decreasing sickness leave duration. A prospective, cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out with 192 patients on first sickness leave for an adjustment disorder. Symptom intensity, sickness duration and return to work rates were measured at three months and 12 months. At three months, significantly more patients in the intervention group had returned to work compared with the control group. At 12 months, all patients had returned to work, but sickness leave was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group. The recurrence rate was lower in the intervention group. There were no differences between the two study groups with regard to the decrease of symptoms.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.429-437. Illus. 33 ref.
Lindström K., Froneberg B., Aziz M., Cecilia E.O., Estrella-Gust D.P., Park J.S., Zalk D.M., Lehtinen S., Zou C., Juengprasert W ., Nguyen T.H.T., Hannak J.
Psychological stress and well-being
Collection of articles on psychological stress and well-being of relevance to countries in the Asian-Pacific region. Main topics covered: psychological stress and well-being at work; stress among information technology professionals in India; management of burnout and stress in the workplace; mental health at the workplace; occupational stress research in Korea. Other topics: joint declaration of the International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA) and the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) on cooperation for the prevention of occupational diseases; brief review of the 2003 Asian session of ICOH held in Singapore; occupational health services in China; occupational health in Thailand; occupational health in Vietnam; occupational safety and health in small and medium-scale tanneries in India.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, July 2003, Vol.10, No.2, p.27-63 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
Coping with critical incident stress at work
Workers who witness critical incidents such as an armed robbery, a serious accident or a near miss that could have had disastrous consequences may suffer extreme emotional upsets, grouped under the term of "critical incident stress". Designed in a question-and-answer format, this booklet explains critical incidents and how employers can help workers suffering from critical incident stress. It also outlines a follow-up procedure and lists resources available for coping with critical incident stress.
Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, 2002. 9p. Illus. 1 ref.
http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/health_and_safety/by_topic/assets/pdf/critical_incident_stress.pdf [in English]
Staatssekretariat für Wirtschaft (seco)
Practical examples of the promotion of safety and health within the enterprise and psychosocial problems at the place of work, with emphasis on stress
Praxisbeispiele der betrieblichen Gesundheitsförderung und psychosoziale Probleme am Arbeitsplatz, insbesondere Stress [in German]
Exemples pratiques de la promotion de la santé dans l'entreprise et problèmes psychosociaux au poste de travail, en particulier le stress [in French]
Folder containing documents distributed to the participants of a conference on psychosocial problems at work held in Berne, Switzerland, on 21 and 22 October 2002. Papers presented are included either in the form of full articles, PowerPoint presentations or abstracts. Other information includes information sheets on stress published by the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, the conference programme, list of participants, biographical summaries of the speakers and details of an ILO training programme on psychosocial problems at work.
Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2002. Folder containing conference materials.
Stress at work - A guide for safety reps
This booklet is aimed at the safety representatives of a large public service trade union in the United Kingdom. It contains guidance for preventing stress among workers. Contents: definition of stress; causes of stress; cost of stress to employers; legal aspects; cases of workers having received compensation for occupational stress or bullying at the place of work; stress prevention policy; hazard evaluation; support for stressed workers; post-traumatic stress disorder; rights of safety representatives. An appendix includes a sample questionnaire for a workplace stress survey.
UNISON, 1 Mabledon Place, London WC1H 9AJ, United Kingdom, Oct. 2002. 25p. 5 ref.
http://www.unison.org.uk/acrobat/12879.pdf [in English]
Working with stress
This videotape, aimed at human resources specialists, psychologists, managers and occupational health professionals, describes workplace risk factors that can create or exacerbate worker stress and suggests practical measures for reducing job-related stress through changes in work organization.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Nov. 2002. Videotape (VHS format): 17 min.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/video/stressdvd1002.html [in English]
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