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Mental stress and burnout - 1,105 entries found

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CIS 06-746 Gardner B., Rose J., Mason O., Tyler P., Cushway D.
Cognitive therapy and behavioural coping in the management of work-related stress: An intervention study
This research seeks to determine the effectiveness of stress management training in the treatment of the effects of work-related stress by comparing the modification of dysfunctional cognitions with appropriate behavioural coping strategies. Participants were allocated to one of two intervention groups or to a control group. Those in the intervention groups received stress management training with the focus on cognitive therapy techniques or on behavioural coping skills. Measures of general health were taken at the beginning and end of intervention and at three-month follow-up. Participants in the cognitive therapy groups who were reporting symptoms of general ill health at the start of the intervention showed a significant improvement at follow-up. Those in the behavioural group showed a smaller but still clinically effective improvement. Results are discussed in terms of methodological issues and implications for future research.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2005, Vol.19, No.2, p.137-152. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 06-742 Collins S.M., Karasek R.A., Costas K.
Job strain and autonomic indices of cardiovascular disease risk
Despite the epidemiological evidence linking job strain to cardiovascular disease, more insight is needed into the aetiologic mechanisms. In this study on the relationship between job strain and cardiovascular disease, subjects included 36 middle-aged healthy males with varying strain jobs. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire, diary reports and a standardized occupational code. Subjects wore heart monitors for a 48h period including a work and a rest day. Job strain and low decision latitude were associated with a reduction in cardiac vagal control persisting throughout the 48hr. Job strain was also associated with elevations in sympathetic control during working hours. The disturbed cardiovascular regulatory pattern associated with job strain may help explain the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases linked with occupational exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2005, Vol.48, No.3, p.182-193. Illus. 88 ref.

CIS 06-745 Hansez I., Bertrand F., De Keyser V., Pérée F.
Career end for teachers: Towards a better understanding of stress and early retirement
Fin de carrière des enseignants: vers une explication du stress et des retraites prématurées [in French]
An increasing number of teachers resign before their normal retirement age. A survey was conducted among teachers working in the city of Liège, Belgium, to investigate what led them to leave their jobs and the degree to which stress was a contributory factor in their decision. Data on the reasons why teachers resign, their motivations for staying in the job and their expectations in terms of career-end adjustments were collected by means of a questionnaire. Findings show that personal factors together with the perceived depreciation of the job and lack of recognition are the most cited reason for taking early retirement. While better working conditions are often presented as a possible solution, they are insufficient. Since recognition appears to be the main motivating factor among teachers, restoring the image of the teaching profession is essential.
Travail humain, July 2005, Vol. 68, No.3, p.193-223. 50 ref.

CIS 06-744 Trudeau R., St-Vincent M., Denis D., Imbeau D.
Serving clients in the retail industry - A source of stress
Servir les clients dans le commerce de détail: une source de stress [in French]
Warehouse stores constitute an important segment of the retail sector in North America, including Canada. Warehouse store workers responsible for selling are required both to serve customers and to carry out manual handling tasks. This article summarizes the findings of a survey on working conditions and stress factors among workers of a large chain of warehouse stores in Quebec. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, video recordings and interviews. Findings are discussed and various improvements are proposed.
Travail et santé, Sep. 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.26-31. 8 ref.

CIS 06-499 Lu J.L.
Perceived job stress of women workers in diverse manufacturing industries
An investigation of the impact of organizational factors on perceived job stress among women workers in the garment and electronics industries in the Philippines was undertaken. The sample included 23 establishments with 630 women respondents. Questionnaires, walkthrough surveys of the industries, and interviews were carried out. Workplace factors studied included job content, the nature of tasks, job autonomy, hazard exposure and management and supervisory styles. Statistical analysis highlighted the interactions among the organizational factors. It was found that workers experienced job stress when they were subjected to low job autonomy, poor work quality, close monitoring and high workload.
Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Summer 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.275-291. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 06-498 Smith D.
Psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work: A review of research evidence
Police officers are regularly exposed to a wide variety of occupational hazards including physical assault, work-related trauma, occupational stress, reduced physical health, alcohol abuse, musculoskeletal disorders and biohazards. This article provides an analysis of psychosocial occupational health issues in contemporary police work, with a particular focus on the situation in Australia. The study indicates that law enforcement is a high stress occupation when compared with other jobs, and the work tasks and job description of police work have become increasingly difficult over time.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2005, Vol.21, No.3, p.217-228. 100 ref.

CIS 06-490 Devereux J.
The link in the strain
This article summarizes the findings of a three-year study on the link between stress and musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) and describes a six-point approach that could enable organizations to limit the occurrence of both problems. The study involved a series of questionnaire surveys, interviews, video recordings and clinical examinations. Findings show that organizations need to focus on employees and have systems in place to react to the effects and causes of excessive physical and mental stressors. Recommendations aimed at helping reduce work-related stress and MSDs are presented in the form of a six-point action plan.
Safety and Health Practitioner, June 2005, Vol.23, No.6, p.41-44. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 06-496 Van Rhenen W., Blonk R.W.B., van der Klink J.J.L., van Dijk F.J.H., Schaufeli W.B.
The effect of a cognitive and a physical stress-reducing programme on psychological complaints
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two work stress management programmes. One programme was a cognition-focused programme, while the other was a newly developed intervention combining physical exercise and relaxation. It was hypothesised that the new intervention would be more effective in reducing psychological complaints than the cognitive intervention. Both programmes consisted of four sessions over a period of 10 weeks. Employees of a Dutch telecommunications company were given a questionnaire on their perceived level of stress. Among those declaring high stress, 130 were selected to participate in the present study. It was found that both interventions revealed a positive impact on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue, both at short-term and at 6-month follow-up. The interventions were equally effective on psychological complaints, burnout and fatigue.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2005, Vol.78, No.2, p.139-148. Illus. 42 ref.

CIS 06-489 Schneider S., Schmitt H., Zoller S., Schiltenwolf M.
Workplace stress, lifestyle and social factors as correlates of back pain: A representative study of the German working population
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of back pain in the German working population and to examine the relationship between back pain and workplace stresses, lifestyle and social factors. Data from a questionnaire survey and from medical examinations of a cross-section of the German working population were analysed. The prevalence of back pain in the previous week and previous year was 34% and 60% respectively. The odds ratios were significantly higher in women, persons of lower socioeconomic status, married and depressed persons and non-athletes. Carrying heavy loads or maintaining a single working posture were the most significant work-related correlates of back pain for both men and women, while environmental stress and psychological stress correlated significantly with back pain in men only.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, May 2005, Vol.78, No.4, p.253-269. 87 ref.

CIS 06-27 Mental health at work: From defining to solving the problem
La santé psychologique au travail: De la définition du problème aux solutions [in French]
This prevention kit for work-related mental health problems aims to raise awareness of the problem and provides guidance on effective measures for handling mental health issues in the workplace. It comprises three booklets: the concept of occupational stress, the scope of the problem and the consequences for individuals and organizations; sources of workplace stress and personal vulnerability; and preventive measures (risk elimination or control, mechanisms to help reduce the negative impacts of stress and treatment, return to work and follow up).
Chair in Occupational Health and Safety Management, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1K 7P4, Canada. 3 booklets. Bibl.ref. [in English] [in French]

CIS 06-238 Roelcke V.
Disease of civilization: historical and systematic review of a paradigm of stress-related disorders
Zivilisationskrankheit: Historisches und Systematisches zu einem Paradigma der Stress-Erkrankungen [in German]
Maladie de civilisation: historique et systématique d'un paradigme des affections liées au stress [in French]
This article addresses the question of whether modern societies cause ill health. Considers whether working conditions in a world subject to a globalisation process cause specific diseases and whether the consequences of stress on health therefore constitute a form of disease of civilization. Contents: disease models and the concept of disease of civilization; historical development of the concept of neurasthenia; stress as a form of disease of civilization.
Informations médicales - Medizinische Mitteilungen, 2005, No.76, p.31-42. 21 ref.

CIS 05-497 Parry J., Barnes H., Lindsey R., Taylor R.
Health and Safety Executive
Farmers, farm workers and work-related stress
This report describes a study involving interviews with 60 key informants and members of farming communities in five locations across England and Wales. The study explored the ways in which stress affects farming communities, how this has changed in recent years, and the extent to which work-related aspects of stress can be disaggregated from broader characteristics of the farming experience, in assessing the kinds of support interventions likely to be most useful. The holistic perspective taken by this research has enabled an examination of the effects of stress in relation to people's different roles on farms.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xiii, 114p. Illus. 36 ref.Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-489 Faragher E.B., Cass M., Cooper C.L.
The relationship between job satisfaction and health: A meta-analysis
A vast number of published studies have suggested a link between job satisfaction levels and health. The sizes of the relationships reported vary widely. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 485 studies with a combined sample size of 267,995 individuals was conducted to evaluate the research evidence linking self-report measures of job satisfaction to measures of physical and mental wellbeing. The overall correlation combined across all health measures (r) was 0.312. Job dissatisfaction was most strongly associated with mental/psychological problems; strongest relationships were found for burnout (r=0.478), self-esteem (r=0.429), depression (r=0.428) and anxiety (r=0.420). The correlation with subjective physical illness was more modest (r= 0.287). The relationships found suggest that job satisfaction level is an important factor influencing the health of workers. Organizations should include the development of stress management policies to identify and eradicate work practices that cause most job dissatisfaction as part of any exercise aimed at improving employee health.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2005, Vol.62, No.2, p.105-112. 31 ref.

CIS 05-498 Tasho W., Jordan J., Robertson I.
Health and Safety Executive
Case study: Establishing the business case for investing in stress prevention activities and evaluating their impact on sickness absence levels
This case study describes the processes and interventions introduced by a local authority in the United Kingdom (Somerset County Council) to improve the well-being and the quality of working life of their employees, in particular to reduce levels of workplace stress and sickness absence within the organisation. The approach used primarily involved conducting a series of interviews with key personnel in the human resources and other relevant departments, including social services. Through this case study, it was possible to highlight the relationship between well-being and the quality of working life on one hand, and sickness absenteeism on the other.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. xii, 57p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 15.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 05-37 Smith A., Wadsworth E., Shaw C., Stansfeld S., Bhui K., Dhillon K.
Health and Safety Executive
Ethnicity, work characteristics, stress and health
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of reported occupational stress and psychiatric disorder in Black Caribbean, South Asian and White workers and to understand the reasons for differences in occupational stress between ethnic groups. In an earlier study, 30% of the non-White group reported very high, or extremely high, levels of stress at work compared to 18% of white workers. For the present study, a household interview design was chosen in an ethnically-diverse part of London. Approximately 200 persons from each of the three ethnic groups were interviewed. A second interview was held with six men and women from each of the ethnic groups who had reported moderate to high work stress during the first interview. Results suggest that the combination of racial discrimination with gender and ethnicity is powerfully influential in work stress; Black Caribbean women who had faced racial discrimination were particularly likely to experience work stress. The implications of these findings are discussed.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2005. x, 90p. 94 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-504 The Labour Protection Council in session: Exposure to carcinogenic agents, psychosocial hazards, occupational safety in forestry work and in the road transport of dangerous substances
Obradowała Rada Ochrony Pracy przy Sejmie RP: Narażenie na czynniki rakotwórcze, zagrożenia psychospołeczne, bezpieczeństwo przy pracach w lesie i w transporcie drogowym towarów niebezpiecznych [in Polish]
The meeting held on 29 and 30 November 2004 focused - among others - on the impact of carcinogenic agents on cancer incidence, psychosocial hazards at work, occupational safety in forest and during road transport of dangerous substances. The aim of the meeting was to publicize the fact that the working conditions in Poland still depart from European standards. In this article different hazards are described, and statistical evidence concerning these hazards is presented.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Jan. 2005, Vol.402, No.1, p.8-10. Illus.

CIS 04-739 Rogoyski A.
How to combat mobbing? A challenge for employers
Jak walczyć z mobbingiem? - wyzwanie dla pracodawców [in Polish]
Discussion of mobbing in the Polish context, in light of recently introduced legislation on the matter.
Monitor Prawa Pracy, Dec. 2004, No.12, p.335-337. 3 ref.


CIS 09-750 Leka S., Griffiths A., Cox T.
Work organization and stress
Organisation du travail et stress [in French]
La organización del trabajo y el estés [in Spanish]
Work stress is thought to affect individuals' psychological and physical health, as well as organization's effectiveness, in an adverse manner. This booklet provides practical advice on how to deal with work stress. It is aimed at employers, managers and trade union representatives. Topics discussed include the nature of the stress at work and the causes and effects of stress, as well as prevention strategies and risk assessment and management methods. Also discussed are the role of the organizational culture in this process and the resources to be drawn upon for managing work stress. The advice should be interpreted in the light of the particular problems faced by different groups of workers and what is reasonably practicable by way of solutions for each individual employer. Lists of common causes and effects of stress are included for illustrative purposes.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service,1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2004. 27p. Illus. 6 ref. [in English] [in Spanish] [in Japanese] [in French]

CIS 08-1241 Rouilleault H., Brun C., Sarazin B., Vallée M., Weill M., Poupart X., Vigne-Lepage V.
Preventing occupational stress
Prévenir le stress d'origine professionnelle [in French]
Collection of articles on the prevention of occupational stress. Topics addressed: organizational approaches; point of view of workers' organizations on the prevention of occupational stress; role of employers' organizations; approaches adopted by a regional bank and an automobile manufacturer; findings of a study on stress involving thirteen enterprises in a French region; main points to consider in a strategy aimed at preventing occupational stress; further reading.
Travail & changement, Oct.-Nov. 2004, No.298, p.1-15 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. [in French]

CIS 07-1490 Cox T., Mackay C.J., Cousins R., Kelly P.J., Lee S., McCraig R.H., Clarke S.D., Kelly C., Kompier M., Mustard C., Walls C., Darby F., Bond F.W.
Risk management: Work and organizational factors
Collection of articles on work-related stress, risk management and management standards. Topics addressed: policy and practical development in the field of management standards and work-related stress in the United Kingdom; New Zealand government approach to stress and fatigue; need for an approach to occupational health that takes account of both individual and organizational factors.
Work and Stress, Apr.-June 2004, Vol.18, No.2, p.89-148. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 07-992 Nandi A., Galea S., Tracy M., Ahern J., Resnick H., Gershon R., Vlahov D.
Job loss, unemployment, work stress, job satisfaction, and the persistence of posttraumatic stress disorder one year after the September 11 attacks
The influence of unemployment and adverse work conditions on the course of psychopathology after a mass disaster is unclear. In this study, a representative sample of 1939 adults living in the New York City metropolitan area six months after the September 11 attacks was surveyed, and follow-up interviews on 71 % of the baseline sample were conducted six months later. At follow-up, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) persisted in 42.7% of the 149 cases with PTSD at baseline. In multivariable models, unemployment at any time since baseline predicted PTSD persistence in the entire cohort, including among persons employed at follow-up. Among the latter, high levels of perceived work stress also predicted PTSD persistence. Persons unemployed in the aftermath of a disaster may be at risk for poor mental health in the long-term.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1057-1064. 47 ref.

CIS 07-917 Melamed S., Fried Y., Froom P.
The joint effect of noise exposure and job complexity on distress and injury risk among men and women: The cardiovascular occupational risk factors determination in Israel study
This study sought to explore the possibility that exposure to noise at work might interact with job complexity and gender to affect the incidence of occupational injury among industrial employees. A total of 4084 men and 1643 women from 21 industrial plants in Israel were examined, while controlling for a number of potential confounding variables. Logistic regression results showed that the predictor variables interacted and that the highest injury risk (odds ratio = 2.72) was observed in women with high noise exposure and high job complexity, compared with the referents scoring low on these predictors. The comparable injury risk in men was only 1.3. It is concluded that the joint exposure to noise and high job complexity is disruptive, resulting in higher distress and occupational injury risk, particularly among women.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.46, No.10, p.1023-1032. Illus. 50 ref.

CIS 07-966 Zhu J.L., Hjollund N.H., Nybo Andersen A.M., Olsen J.
Shift work, job stress, and late fetal loss: The National Birth Cohort in Denmark
Data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) were analysed to examine whether shift work or job stress correlated with late foetal loss. A total of 33,694 pregnancies of daytime workers and 8,075 pregnancies of shift workers were identified among women recruited to the DNBC between 1998 and 2001. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained from national registers. Hazard ratios of foetal loss were calculated. Fixed night work was associated with foetal loss (hazard ratio = 1.85). No high risk of foetal loss was seen for other types of shift work. Job stress, as measured in the study, was not associated with foetal loss.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2004, Vol.46, No.11, p.1144-1149. 40 ref.

CIS 07-990 Irie M., Tsutsumi A., Shioji I., Kobayashi F.
Effort-reward imbalance and physical health among Japanese workers in a recently-downsized corporation
This study investigated the relationship between effort-reward imbalance (ERI) and biological markers of disease risks in 441 workers of a recently downsized manufacturing enterprise in Japan. Findings are discussed. The ERI was positively associated with the values of red blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit, triglycerides and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and negatively correlated with the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Overcommitment was positively related to the values of haematocrit and glucose levels, but negatively associated with the total protein level. ERI seems to have an impact on the physical health of these workers, although results are mixed and differ from those of workers in Western countries.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2004, Vol.77, No.6, p.409-417. 46 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-989 Mongalvy M.
Occupational stress: An imaginary disease or a real symptom
Stress au travail: fausse maladie ou vrai symptôme [in French]
Newsletter of the French National Occupational Safety and Health Institute (INRS) exploring the issue of occupational stress. Topics addressed: trends in work organization and working conditions and their impact on stress; definition of stress and mechanisms of occupational stress; results of a study showing that occupational stress needs to be taken into account as a risk factor by management; occupational stress factors and possible interventions at the enterprise level; European framework agreement on occupational stress signed by European Union employer and worker representatives; methods for evaluating the cost of occupational stress.
Réalité Prévention, Dec. 2004, No.6, p.1-8 (whole issue). Illus.$File/print.html [in French]

CIS 07-238 Employment relations and union services: Health and safety - Workplace stress
This guide is aimed at safety representatives of health service unions in the United Kingdom. Topics addressed: definition and causes of stress at work; effects of stress on workers; effects of stress on the organization; stress among health services workers and physiotherapists; role of the Health and Safety Executive; stress research; responsibilities of employers; United Kingdom laws and regulations; jurisprudence; role of safety representatives.
The Chartered Society of Physiotherapy, 14 Bedford Row, London WC1R 4ED, United Kingdom, May 2004. 36p. 42 ref. [in English]

CIS 07-234 Metz A.M., Degener M., Pitack J.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Assessing mental constraints in relation to location and time
Erfassung psychischer Fehlbelastung unter den Aspekten Ort und Zeit [in German]
German legislation requires that workplace hazard evaluations also take into account an evaluation of occupational mental stress. This study examines whether one of the methods of screening for occupational mental stress risk factors, namely the SPA method, also enables the assessment of mental stress factors for jobs with variable working hours or workplace locations. Findings indicate that the SPA method allows the determination of occupational stress risk factors with sufficient precision and reliability. As far as flexible work is concerned, the outcome is that the risk of mental stress depends more on the content of work than on working hours or workplace location.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 118p. 91 ref. Price: EUR 12.50.,xv=vt.pdf [in German]

CIS 06-1057
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Stress and mental health at work
Revista do trabalhador: Estresse e saúde mental no trabalho [in Portuguese]
This videotape examines the effects of stress at work on mental health.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Videotape (VHS format), 11min.

CIS 06-1055 Di Martino V., Gold D., Schaap A.
Managing emerging health-related problems at work - SOLVE: Stress, Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs, HIV/AIDS, Violence
Cómo abordar los problemas emergentes relacionados con la salud en el trabajo - SOLVE: estrés, tabaco, alcohol y drogas, VIH/SIDA, violencia [in Spanish]
Spanish translation of a training package abstracted under CIS 03-1118. SOLVE is an interactive educational programme designed to assist in the development of policy and action to address psychosocial issues at the workplace. Stress, alcohol and drugs, violence (both physical and psychological), HIV/AIDS and tobacco all lead to health-related problems for the worker and lower productivity for the enterprise or organization. Taken together, they represent a major cause of accidents, fatal injuries, disease and absenteeism at work in both industrialized and developing countries. SOLVE focuses on prevention in translating concepts into policies and policies into action at the national and enterprise levels. This training package (folder and CD-ROM) provides the foundation for a five-day interactive training course with a goal to give participants the knowledge and skills to formulate a comprehensive policy and strategies to address these issues in the workplace. (See also CIS 01-746).
Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Subdirección General de Información, Administrativa, y Publicaciones, Agustín de Bethencourt, 11, 28003 Madrid, Spain, 2004. Loose-leaf folder. Approx 211p. Illus. Bibl. ref. + CD-ROM.

CIS 06-488 Macdonald W.
Workload, stress and psychosocial factors as hazards for musculoskeletal disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) resulting from work-related cumulative trauma continue to constitute a substantial problem in many workplaces. It is argued that current countermeasures address only one part of the problem because they usually fail to take adequate account of the important role of psychosocial and psychological stress factors as MSD risk factors. The nature and role of these risk factors are described in terms of an ergonomics model of work-related MSD risk. Key elements of the model are job demands, psychosocial factors, mental workload and stress. The empirical basis for this model is outlined, and the findings of studies on physiological mechanisms by which stress can increase the risk of MSDs are discussed. Based on this model, more effective management strategies to control non-physical MSD risk factors are identified.
Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2004, Vol.20, No.1, p.37-47. Illus. 53 ref.

CIS 06-246 Fujiwara K., Tsukishima E., Kasai S., Masuchi A., Tsutsumi A., Kawakami N., Miyake H., Kishi R.
Urinary catecholamines and salivary cortisol on workdays and days off in relation to job strain among female health care providers
This study examined the effects of psychosocial job strain on the excretion of neuroendocrine stress hormones (adrenaline, noradrenaline, and cortisol) on workdays and days off. 16 Japanese female health care providers filled out Karasek's job content questionnaire and had their neuroendocrine excretions (ie, urinary catecholamines and salivary cortisol) measured on a day off and on two workdays (one day shift and one night shift). Noradrenaline excretion was significantly greater over time in the high-strain group than in the low-strain group, and that of the high-demand group was significantly greater over time than that of the low-demand group. Adrenaline excretion did not significantly differ as a function of strain or demand, but was significantly higher in the group with high supervisory support than the group with low supervisory support. The concentration of salivary cortisol on a dayshift was significantly lower in the high-strain group than in the low-strain group. The implications of these findings are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.30, No.2, p.129-138. Illus. 45 ref.

CIS 06-245 Belkic K.L., Landsbergis P.A., Schnall P.L., Baker D.
Is job strain a major source of cardiovascular risk?
Empirical studies on job strain and cardiovascular disease (CVD), their internal validity, and the likely direction of biases were examined. The 17 longitudinal studies had the highest validity ratings. In all but two, biases towards the null dominated. Eight, including several of the largest, showed significant positive results; three had positive, nonsignificant findings. Six of nine case-control studies had significant positive findings; recall bias leading to overestimation appears to be fairly minimal. Four of eight cross-sectional studies had significant positive results. Men showed strong, consistent evidence of an association between exposure to job strain and CVD. The data for women were more sparse and less consistent, but, as for the men, most of the studies probably underestimated existing effects. Other elements of causal inference, particularly biological plausibility, corroborated that job strain is a major CVD risk factor.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2004, Vol.30, No.2, p.85-128. 181 ref.

CIS 06-240 Leka S.
Psychosocial hazards and seafarer health: Priorities for research and practice
This article explores the changing nature of work and the emergence and prevalence of psychosocial hazards. Effects on worker health are examined, focusing on the issue of work-related stress, and the effects of these hazards on seafarer health are investigated in the light of current working conditions in the maritime sector. Recommendations are made for future research and practice.
International Maritime Health, 2004, Vol.55, No.1/4, p.137-153. 73 ref.

CIS 05-495 Béjean S., Sultan-Taïeb
Modeling the economic burden of diseases imputable to stress at work
This study evaluated the costs of work-related stress in France. Three illnesses that may result from exposure to stress were identified (cardiovascular diseases, depression, musculoskeletal diseases/back pain) and the proportions of cases attributable to this risk factor were calculated from epidemiological studies. For the year 2000 the model shows that in a working population of 23.53 million in France some 310,000-393,400 persons (1.3 - 1.7%) were affected by illnesses attributable to work-related stress, and that 2,300 - 3,600 persons died as a result of their illness. Work-related stress costs society between EUR 1,167 million and EUR 1,975 million in France, or 14.4 - 24.2% of the total spending of the social security occupational illnesses and work injuries branch.
European Journal of Health Economics, Mar. 2005, Vol.6, No.1, p.16-23. 37 ref.

CIS 05-493 Parslow R.A., Jorm A.F., Christensen H., Rodgers B., Strazdins L., D'Souza R.M.
The associations between work stress and mental health: A comparison of organizationally employed and self-employed workers
This study examined the associations between work stressors and mental health in organizationally-employed and self-employed workers. It also investigated associations between stress and the use of general practitioner (GP) services by these two groups. 2275 employed men and women aged from 40 to 44 years participated in a community survey. Participants entered responses to a questionnaire into a hand-held computer under the supervision of an interviewer. 14.2% of the group identified themselves as self-employed. Respondents also provided details of their occupation and the extent to which they experienced work stressors. 72.6% gave consent for information on their use of GP services over a 12-month period to be obtained from national insurance records. It was found that self-employed men and women reported more decision authority than the organizationally employed, while self-employed women also had more manageable job demands. However, self-employment was found to be associated with relatively few mental health benefits.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.18, No.3, p.231-244. 27 ref.

CIS 05-492 Terluin B., Ven Rhenen W., Schaufeli W.B., De Haan M.
The four-dimensional symptom questionnaire (4DSQ): Measuring distress and other mental health problems in a working population
In working populations, it is important to differentiate between general distress, on one hand, and the psychiatric symptoms of depression, anxiety and somatization on the other hand. The Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) is a new instrument that measures these four symptoms. This study investigated the psychometric properties of the 4DSQ in a working population. A questionnaire was addressed to all employees of a Dutch telecom company, 3852 (51%) of whom responded. The questionnaire included the 4DSQ together with a set of questions on job stress, coping style and indicators of strain. The validity of the 4DSQ was assessed using correlations with job stress, coping, and strain. As expected, the distress scale showed the strongest correlations with the indicators of strain, as well as with job stress and coping. In conclusion, the 4DSQ is a reliable and valid instrument that can be used in a working population to distinguish between stress-related symptoms and psychiatric illness.
Work and Stress, July-Sep. 2004, Vol.18, No.3, p.187-207. Illus. 55 ref.

CIS 05-491 Wang L., Wang X., Wang W., Chen C., Ronnennberg A.G., Guang W., Huang A., Fang Z, Zang T., Xu X.
Stress and dysmenorrhoea: A population based prospective study
Using a population based cohort of Chinese women, the independent effect of women's perceived stress in the preceding menstrual cycle on the incidence of dysmenorrhoea in the subsequent cycle was investigated. The analysis included 1160 prospectively observed menstrual cycles from 388 healthy, nulliparous, newly married women who intended to conceive. The perception of stress and the occurrence of dysmenorrhoea in each menstrual cycle were determined from daily diaries recorded by the women. After adjustment for important covariates, the risk of dysmenorrhoea was more than twice as great among women with high stress compared to those with low stress in the preceding cycle (OR=2.4). The risk of dysmenorrhoea was greatest among women with both high stress and a history of dysmenorrhoea compared to women with low stress and no history of dysmenorrhoea (OR=10.4). Stress in the follicular phase of the preceding cycles had a stronger association with dysmenorrhoea than stress in the luteal phase of the preceding cycles.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2004, Vol.61, No.12, p.1021-1026. 34 ref.

CIS 05-488 Freydt C., Légeron P., Paolillo A.G.
Special feature on occupational stress
Dossier stress au travail [in French]
This special feature on occupational stress aimed at general practitioners describes the causes of stress at work and explains how to help patients to protect themselves. Contents: changes in working conditions; stress factors at the place of work; diagnosis (evaluation of the causes of stress, estimation of the stress reaction, identification of the patient's coping factors); teaching patients to increase their resistance to stress; helping patients that are victims of suspected bullying; role of general practitioners.
Le Généraliste, 16 Apr. 2004, No.2286, p.I-X. Illus. 6 ref.

CIS 05-248 Protocol for establishing the origin of stress-induced pathologies
Protocolo para la determinación del origen de las patologías derivadas del estrés [in Spanish]
According to Colombian Decree 1832 of 1994 (CIS 98-376), pathologies induced by occupational stress, in particular cardiovascular, digestive system and mental disorders are considered occupational diseases. This guide presents the seven-step protocol to be followed in order to establish the occupational nature of a stress-induced disease. Appendices present tables and matrices aimed at helping the evaluation and decision-making process.
Ministerio de la Protección Social, Bogotá, Colombia, 2004. 69 p. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 04-738 Merecz D., Mościcka A., Drabek M., Koniarek J.
Predictors of mental health status and work ability of blue-collar workers
Predyktory zdrowia psychicznego i zdolności do pracy pracowników zatrudnionych na stanowiskach wykonawczych [in Polish]
The aim of this study was to identify features and conditions of work that determine the work ability and health of employees. It was found that the strongest predictors of work ability are age, stress arising out of a lack of incentives at work and mental condition. Mental health is influenced by factors such as stress relating to lack of confidence at work, negative emotions and the quantity of alcohol consumed.
Medycyna pracy, 2004, Vol.55, No.5, p.425-433. 18 ref.

CIS 04-517 Zawieska W.M.
Assessment of occupational risk: Methodology basics
Ocena ryzyka zawodowego: 1.Podstawy metodyczne [in Polish]
This monograph surveys the rules and methodologies of risk analysis with reference to the most important risk factors present in the working environment. Recent relevant changes in Polish and EU legislation are highlighted.
Centralny Instytut Ochrony Pracy - Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, ul. Czerniakowska 16, 00-701 Warszawa, Poland, 2004. 397p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 04-489 Fernández Rodríguez J.L., Álvarez de Cienfuegos Gálvez I., Doménech Muñiz G.
An occupational health problem: Occupational stress and burnout
Un problema de salud laboral: "estrés" laboral - burnout [in Spanish]
Approximately one third of workers within the European Union report being subject to stress at work. Occupational stress is one of the main causes of health problems. It accounts for over a quarter of the cases of sickness absenteeism lasting more than two weeks. This article reviews the current situation with respect to occupational stress and burnout. Contents: epidemiology and costs; definition of stress and its various forms; triggering factors; consequences for workers and the enterprise; prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary); treatment (personal, group and organizational strategies); legal aspects.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Dec. 2004, Vol.L, No.197, p.65-78. 79 ref.

CIS 04-492 Devereux J., Rydstedt L., Kelly V., Weston P., Buckle P.
Health and Safety Executive
The role of work stress and psychological factors in the development of musculoskeletal disorders
This study was conducted to establish the role of stress and other psychological factors on the incidence of musculoskeletal disorders. A prospective epidemiological cohort study design was chosen. This comprised a baseline cross-sectional study of 8000 workers drawn from 20 enterprises across 11 industrial sectors in the United Kingdom, 3139 of whom were then followed for 15 months. Baseline and follow-up data were collected by means of questionnaires. Work effort, unclear role definition and verbal abuse with clients or the public were the most important factors of perceived job stress. High perceived job stress was found to be an intermediate factor between high exposure to both physical and psychosocial work risk factors and self-reported low back, upper back and hand-wrist complaints.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2004. x, 139p. Illus. 79 ref. Price: GBP 20.00. Downloadable version free of charge. [in English]

CIS 04-392
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Mental stress in the service sector - Example of the retail sector
Psychische Belastung in der Dienstleistungsbranche - am Beispiel Einzelhandel [in German]
Proceedings of a workshop on mental stress in the retail trade held in Dresden, Germany, on 1st October 2003. Topics covered: mental stress and "sentimental work" in selling activities; conditions of work of employees in the food retail sector; new demands in sales jobs; occupational health hazards and exposure assessment methods; development of an instrument for analysing, evaluating and deriving organizational measures.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2004. 97p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 11.00. [in German]

CIS 04-93 Delisle A., Durand M.J., Imbeau D., Larivière C.
Follow-up of two interventions to prevent upper limb musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace
Suivi de deux interventions visant la prévention des troubles musculo-squelettiques aux membres supérieurs en milieu de travail [in French]
Sign language interpreters frequently suffer from musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), particularly in the regions of the forearm, the hand-wrist and the neck-shoulder. Several risk factors can explain the incidence of MSDs among this population, such as the amplitude and frequency of the movements, coupled with the cognitive processes which are causes of stress. The objective of this study was to generate quantitative data on the exposure of interpreters to MSD risk factors, to evaluate the impact of two interventions aimed at reducing musculoskeletal pain, to comment on the feasibility of applying an experimental protocol and to document the state of health of sign-language interpreters in Quebec.
Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2004. viii, 61p. Illus. 85 ref. Price: CAD 7.49. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge. [in French]

CIS 04-244 Länsisalmi H.
Innovation in organizations - The role of communication, expertise and occupational stress
Innovation is the key to economic survival in the highly competitive, global market place. Not surprisingly, interest in the determinants of innovation is extensive both in the academic literature and among practitioners in the field. This study examined the role of communication, utilization of expertise, individually experienced occupational stress and collective stress and coping in organizational innovation. The 50 organizations surveyed included small and medium-sized firms and large organizations from both the private and public sectors in Finland. Findings confirm the importance of open communications and low chronic stress in ensuring a favourable climate for innovation.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, FIOH-Bookstore, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2004. 65p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 18.00.


CIS 09-997 Shaping the future
Proceedings of a conference on business and mental energy at work, held in Geneva, Switzerland, 6-7 October 2003. The objective of the conference was to address key issues affecting the psychosocial work environment worldwide. A white paper was issued at the end of the conference, serving as a recommendation aimed at international agencies, governments, employers and employees to implement mental wellbeing health management policies and to develop sustainable programs in workplaces worldwide.
Club Geneva, 1001 Bridgeway Avenue #607, Sausalito, CA 94965, USA; 2003. Approx. 200p. Illus.

CIS 07-51
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
New work quality torn between productivity and workload
Neue Qualität der Arbeit im Spannungsfeld von Produktivität und Arbeitsbelastung [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium on planning productivity increases without causing physical and psychological stress among workers, held in Berlin, Germany on 27 February 2003. Main topics addressed: new work quality or how to reconcile productivity increases with decreases in physical and psychological stress among workers; overall concept of work that integrates occupational safety and health in the design phase; health and ergonomics; INQA (initiative concerning new work quality).
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 187p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 06-500 Caborn J., Gold D.
An overview of selected references related to SOLVE
This literature survey reviews selected studies on psychosocial issues in the workplace. The five main issues considered are stress, violence, alcohol and drug use, HIV/AIDS and tobacco consumption. The impact of these issues on the workplace is outlined and their interrelationships are discussed in detail. The review supports the integrated approach adopted in the SOLVE methodology for the management of psychosocial issues in the workplace.
InFocus Programme on Safety and Health at Work and the Environment (SafeWork), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2003. 67 ref. [in English]

CIS 06-40 Landsbergis P.A.
The changing organization of work and the safety and health of working people: A commentary
Recent trends in the organization of work may affect worker health through a variety of pathways: by increasing the risk of stress-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, and psychological disorders, by increasing exposure to hazardous substances and violence on the job, or by affecting occupational health services and training programs. Much remains to be learned about the nature of changes in work organization, and how they affect worker health and safety. While available evidence is limited, such evidence suggests that recent trends in work organization may be increasing the risk of occupational illnesses. This article summarizes a publication on the subject by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (see CIS 03-583) and provides commentary and additional reviews of the literature.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.61-72. Illus. 128 ref.

CIS 06-242 Salah Ibrahim K., Bechir Ahmed S.
Stress markers of health status of bank employees
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chronic professional stress on the cellular humoral and immune systems in bank employees. On the basis of a job stress questionnaire, 100 male subjects were selected according to high or low scores of professional stress. Blood samples were taken to count white cells, CD4 and CD8 marked lymphocytes and natural killer cells and to determine the concentration of immunoglobulins (A, M and G), cortisol, C-reactive protein (CRP), and neoptrin. Chronic professional stress appeared to be associated with immune dysfunction including signs of immune activation (increased serum concentrations of IgG and IgA) and immune suppression (decreased number of CD4+ and CD8+ cells). The shifts were more pronounced in the group with higher job stress. Serum cortisol, CRP and neoptrin showed no significant differences between the groups. It is supposed that in the presence of chronic stress, distinct psychological mechanisms are associated with specific immune dysfunctions.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003, Vol.9, No.1, p.23-32. 46 ref.

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